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Laboratory Manual

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PHYSICS
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Class XI
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FOREWORD

The National Council of Educational Research and Training (NCERT) is the apex
body concerning all aspects of refinement of School Education. It has recently
developed textual material in Physics for Higher Secondary stage which is based
on the National Curriculum Framework (NCF)–2005. NCF recommends that

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children’s experience in school education must be linked to the life outside school
so that learning experience is joyful and fills the gap between the experience at

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home and in community. It recommends to diffuse the sharp boundaries between
different subjects and discourages rote learning. The recent development of syllabi
and textual material is an attempt to implement this basic idea. The present

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Laboratory Manual will be complementary to the textbook of Physics for Class
XI. It is in continuation to the NCERT’s efforts to improve upon comprehension
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of concepts and practical skills among students. The purpose of this manual is

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not only to convey the approach and philosophy of the practical course to students
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and teachers but to provide them appropriate guidance for carrying out
experiments in the laboratory. The manual is supposed to encourage children to
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reflect on their own learning and to pursue further activities and questions. Of
course, the success of this effort also depends on the initiatives to be taken by
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the principals and teachers to encourage children to carry out experiments in


the laboratory and develop their thinking and nurture creativity.
The methods adopted for performing the practicals and their evaluation will
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determine how effective this practical book will prove to make the children’s life
at school a happy experience, rather than a source of stress and boredom. The
practical book attempts to provide space to opportunities for contemplation and
wondering, discussion in small groups, and activities requiring hands-on
experience. It is hoped that the material provided in this manual will help students
in carrying out laboratory work effectively and will encourage teachers to
introduce some open-ended experiments at the school level.
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P ROFESSOR YASH PAL


Chairperson
National Steering Committee
National Council of Educational
Research and Training
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PREFACE

The development of the present laboratory manual is in continuation to the


NCERT’s efforts to support comprehension of concepts of science and also
facilitate inculcation of process skills of science. This manual is complementary
to the Physics Textbook for Class XI published by NCER T in 2006 following the

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guidelines enumerated in National Curriculum Framework (NCF)-2005. One of the
basic criteria for validating a science curriculum recommended in NCF–2005, is

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that ‘it should engage the learner in acquiring the methods and processes that
lead to the generation and validation of scientific knowledge and nurture the
natural curiosity and creativity of the child in science’. The broad objective of

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this laboratory manual is to help the students in performing laboratory based
exercises in an appropriate manner so as to develop a spirit of enquiry in them.
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It is envisaged that students would be given all possible opportunities to raise
questions and seek their answers from various sources.
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The physics practical work in this manual has been presented under four
sections (i) experiments (ii) activities (iii) projects and (iv) demonstrations. A
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write-up on major skills to be developed through practical work in physics has


been given in the beginning which includes discussion on objectives of practical
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work, experimental errors, logarithm, plotting of graphs and general instructions


for recording experiments.
Experiments and activities prescribed in the NCERT syllabus (covering CBSE
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syllabus also) of Class XI are discussed in detail. Guidelines for conducting


each experiment has been presented under the headings (i) apparatus and
material required (ii) principle (iii) procedure (iv) observations (v) calculations
(vi) result (vii) precautions (viii) sources of error. Some important experimental
aspects that may lead to better understanding of result are also highlighted in
the discussion. Some questions related to the concepts involved have been raised
so as to help the learners in self assessment. Additional experiments/activities
related to a given experiment are put forth under suggested additional
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experiments/activities at the end.


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A number of project ideas, including guidelines are suggested so as to cover all


types of topics that may interest young learners at higher secondary level.
A large number of demonstration experiments have also been suggested for the
teachers to help them in classroom transaction. Teachers should encourage
participation of the students in setting up and improvising apparatus, in
discussions and give them opportunity to analyse the experimental data to arrive
at conclusions.
Appendices have been included with a view to try some innovative experiments
using improvised apparatus. Data section at the end of the book enlists a number
of useful Tables of physical constants.
Each experiment, activity, project and demonstration suggested in this manual
have been tried out by the experts and teachers before incorporating them. We
sincerely hope that students and teachers will get motivated to perform these
experiments supporting various concepts of physics thereby enriching teaching
learning process and experiences.

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It may be recalled that NCER T brought out laboratory manual in physics for
senior secondary classes earlier in 1989. The write-ups on activities, projects,

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demonstrations and appendices included in physics manual published by
NCERT in 1989 have been extensively used in the development of the present
manual.

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We are grateful to the teachers and subject experts who participated in the
workshops organised for the review and refinement of the manuscript of this
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laboratory manual.
I acknowledge the valuable contributions of Prof. B.K. Sharma and other team
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members who contributed and helped in finalising this manuscript. I also
acknowledge with thanks the dedicated efforts of Sri R. Joshi who looked after
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the coordinatorship after superannuation of Professor B.K. Sharma in June,


2008.
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We warmly welcome comments and suggestions from our valued readers for
further improvement of this manual.
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HUKUM SINGH
Professor and Head
Department of Education in
Science and Mathematics
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DEVELOPMENT TEAM
MEMBERS
B.K. Sharma, Professor, DESM, NCERT, New Delhi
Gagan Gupta, Reader, DESM, NCER T, New Delhi
R. Joshi, Lecturer (S.G.), DESM, NCERT, New Delhi

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S.K. Dash, Reader, DESM, NCERT, New Delhi

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Shashi Prabha, Senior Lecturer, DESM, NCERT, New Delhi
V.P. Srivastava, Reader, DESM, NCERT, New Delhi

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MEMBER-COORDINATORS
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B.K. Sharma, Professor, DESM, NCERT, New Delhi
R. Joshi, Lecturer (S.G.), DESM, NCERT, New Delhi
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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
The National Council of Educational Research and Training (NCERT)
acknowledges the valuable contributions of the individuals and the
organisations involved in the development of Laboratory Manual of Physics
for Class XI. The Council also acknowledges the valuable contributions of the
following academics for the reviewing, refining and editing the manuscript of
this manual : A.K. Das, PGT, St. Xavier’s Senior Secondary School, Raj Niwas

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Marg, Delhi; A.K. Ghatak, Professor (Retired), IIT, New Delhi; A.W. Joshi,
Hon. Visiting Scientist, NCRA, Pune; Anil Kumar, Principal, R.P.V.V., BT -

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Block, Shalimar Bagh, New Delhi; Anuradha Mathur, PGT, Modern School
Vasant Vihar, New Delhi; Bharthi Kukkal, PGT, Kendriya Vidyalaya, Pushp

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Vihar, New Delhi; C.B. Verma, Principal (Retired), D.C. Arya Senior Secondary

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School, Lodhi Road, New Delhi; Chitra Goel, PGT, R.P.V.V., Tyagraj Nagar, New
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Delhi; Daljeet Kaur Bhandari, Vice Principal, G.H.P.S., Vasant Vihar, New

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Delhi; Girija Shankar, PGT, R.P.V.V., Surajmal Vihar, New Delhi; H.C. Jain,
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Principal (Retired), Regional Institute of Education (NCERT), Ajmer; K.S.
Upadhyay, Principal, Jawahar Navodaya Vidyalaya, Farrukhabad, U.P.; M.N.
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Bapat, Reader, Regional Institute of Education (NCERT), Bhopal; Maneesha


Pachori, Maharaja Agrasen College, University of Delhi, New Delhi; P.C. Agarwal,
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Reader, Regional Institute of Education (NCERT), Ajmer; P.C. Jain, Professor


(Retired), University of Delhi, Delhi; P.K. Chadha, Principal, St. Soldier Public
School, Paschim Vihar, New Delhi; Pragya Nopany, PGT, Birla Vidya Niketan,
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Pushp Vihar-IV, New Delhi; Pushpa Tyagi, PGT, Sanskriti School,


Chanakyapuri, New Delhi; R.P. Sharma, Education Officer (Science),
CBSE, New Delhi; R.S. Dass, Vice Principal (Retired), Balwant Ray Mehta
Vidya Bhawan, Lajpat Nagar, New Delhi; Rabinder Nath Kakarya, PGT, Darbari
Lal, DAVMS, Pitampura, New Delhi; Rachna Garg, Lecturer (Senior Scale),
CIET, NCERT; Rajesh Kumar, Principal, District Institute of Educational
Research and Training, Pitampura, New Delhi; Rajeshwari Prasad Mathur,
Professor, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh; Rakesh Bhardwaj, PGT, Maharaja
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Agrasen Model School, CD-Block, Pitampura, New Delhi; Ramneek Kapoor,


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PGT, Jaspal Kaur Public School, Shalimar Bagh, New Delhi; Rashmi Bargoti,
PGT, S.L.S. D.A.V. Public School, Mausam Vihar, New Delhi; S.N. Prabhakara,
PGT, Demonstration Multipurpose School, Mysore; S.R. Choudhury, Raja
Ramanna Fellow, Centre for Theoretical Physics, Jamia Millia Islamia, New
Delhi; S.S. Islam, Professor, Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi; Sher Singh, PGT,
Navyug School, Lodhi Road, New Delhi; Shirish R. Pathare, Scientific Officer;
Homi Bhabha Centre for Science Education (TIFR), Mumbai; Subhash
Chandra Samanta, Reader (Retired), Midnapur College, Midnapur (W.B.);
Sucharita Basu Kasturi, PGT, Sardar Patel Vidyalaya, New Delhi; Surajit
Chakrabarti, Reader, Maharaja Manindra Chandra College, Kolkata; Suresh
Kumar, PGT, Delhi Public School, Dwarka, New Delhi; V.K. Gautam, Education
Officer (Science), Kendriya Vidyalaya Sangathan, Shaheed Jeet Singh Marg,
New Delhi; Ved Ratna, Professor (Retired), DESM, NCERT, New Delhi; Vijay
H. Raybagkar, Reader, N. Wadia College, Pune; Vishwajeet D. Kulkarni,

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Smt. Parvatibai Chowgule College, Margo, Goa; Y.K. Vijay, CDPE University

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of Rajasthan, Jaipur, Rajasthan; Yashu Kumar, PGT, Kulachi Hansraj Model
School, New Delhi. We are thankful to all of them. Special thanks are due to
Hukum Singh, Professor and Head, DESM, NCERT for providing all academic

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and administrative support.

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The Council also acknowledges the support provided by the APC Office and
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administrative staff of DESM, Deepak Kapoor, Incharge, Computer Station;

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Bipin Srivastva, Rohit Verma and Mohammad Jabir Hussain, DTP Operators
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for typing the manuscript, preparing CRC and refining and drawing some of
the illustrations; Dr. K. T. Chitralekha, Copy Editor; Abhimanu Mohanty,
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Proof Reader. The efforts of the Publication Department are also highly
appreciated.
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CONTENTS

FOREWORD iii
PREFACE v

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Major Skills in Physics Practical Work
I 1.1 Introduction 1

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I 1.2 Objectives of practical work 2
I 1.3 Specific objectives of laboratory work 4
I 1.4 Experimental errors 5

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I 1.5 Logarithms 10
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I 1.6 Natural sine/cosine table 14
I 1.7

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Plotting of graphs 14
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I 1.8 General instructions for performing experiments 19
I 1.9 General instructions for recording experiments 20
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EXPERIMENTS
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E1 Use of Vernier Callipers to 23


(i) measure diameter of a small spherical/cylindrical body,
(ii) measure the dimensions of a given regular body of known mass
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and hence to determine its density and


(iii) measure the internal diameter and depth of a given cylindrical object
like beaker/glass/calorimeter and hence to calculate its volume
E2 Use of screw gauge to 33
(a) measure diameter of a given wire,
(b) measure thickness of a given sheet and
(c) determine volume of an irregular lamina
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E3 To determine the radius of curvature of a given spherical surface by 42


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a spherometer
E4 To determine mass of two different objects using a beam balance 48
E5 Measurement of the weight of a given body (a wooden block) using 55
the parallelogram law of vector addition
E6 Using a simple pendulum plot L – T and L – T2 graphs, hence find 60
the effective length of second's pendulum using appropriate graph
E7 To study the relation between force of limiting friction and normal 68
reaction and to find the coefficient of friction between surface of a
moving block and that of a horizontal surface xi
E8 To find the downward force, along an inclined plane, acting on a 74
roller due to gravity and study its relationship with the angle of
inclination by plotting graph between force and sin θ
E9 To determine Young's modulus of the material of a given wire by 78
using Searle's apparatus
E10 To find the force constant and effective mass of a helical spring by 83
plotting T 2 - m graph using method of oscillation
E11 To study the variation in volume (V ) with pressure (P ) for a sample 89
of air at constant temperature by plotting graphs between P and V,

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and between P and

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E12 To determine the surface tension of water by capillary rise method 95
E13 To determine the coefficient of viscosity of a given liquid by measuring 99

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the terminal velocity of a spherical body
E14 To study the relationship between the temperature of a hot body 104
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and time by plotting a cooling curve
E15 (i) To study the relation between frequency and length of a given 109
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wire under constant tension using a sonometer
(ii) To study the relation between the length of a given wire and tension
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for constant frequency using a sonometer

E16 To determine the velocity of sound in air at room temperature using 114
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a resonance tube
E17 To determine the specific heat capacity of a given (i) solid and (ii) a liquid 119
by the method of mixtures
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ACTIVITIES
A1 To make a paper scale of given least count: (a) 0.2 cm and (b) 0.5 cm 125
A2 To determine the mass of a given body using a metre scale by the 128
principle of moments
A3 To plot a graph for a given set of data choosing proper scale and 132
show error bars due to the precision of the instruments
A4 To measure the force of limiting rolling friction for a roller (wooden 137
block) on a horizontal plane
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A5 To study the variation in the range of a jet of water with the change 140
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in the angle of projection


A6 To study the conservation of energy of a ball rolling down an inclined 144
plane (using a double inclined plane)
A7 To study dissipation of energy of a simple pendulum with time 148
A8 To observe the change of state and plot a cooling curve for molten wax 152
A9 To observe and explain the effect of heating on a bi-metallic strip 155

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A10 To study the effect of heating on the level of a liquid in a container 158
and to interpret the observations
A11 To study the effect of detergent on surface tension of water by 160
observing capillary rise
A12 To study the factors affecting the rate of loss of heat of a liquid 163
A13 To study the effect of load on depression of a suitably clamped 167
metre scale loaded (i) at its end and (ii) in the middle
PROJECTS

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P1 To investigate whether the energy of a simple pendulum is conserved 173

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P2 To determine the radius of gyration about the centre of mass of a 181
metre scale used as a bar pendulum
P3 To investigate changes in the velocity of a body under the action 186

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of a constant force and to determine its acceleration

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P4 To compare the effectiveness of different materials as 190
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insulator of heat
P5

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To compare the effectiveness of different materials as absorbers 193
of sound
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P6 To compare the Young’s modules of elasticity of different 197
specimen of rubber and compare them by drawing their elastic
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hysteresis curve
P7 To study the collision of two balls in two-dimensions 200
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P8 To study Fortin’s Barometer and use it to measure the 204


atmospheric pressure
P9 To study of the spring constant of a helical spring from its 208
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load-extension graph
P10 To study the effect of nature of surface on emission and absorption 213
of radiation
P11 To study the conservation of energy with a 0.2 pendulum 216
DEMONSTRATIONS
D1 To demonstrate uniform motion in a straight line 219
D2 To demonstrate the nature of motion of a ball on an 223
inclined track
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D3 To demonstrate that a centripetal force is necessary for moving a 224


body with a uniform speed along a circle, and that magnitude of
this force increases with angular speed
D4 To demonstrate the principle of centrifuge 226
D5 To demonstrate interconversion of potential and kinetic energy 227
D6 To demonstrate conservation of momentum 228
D7 To demonstrate the effect of angle of launch on range of a projectile 229

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D8 To demonstrate that the moment of inertia of a rod changes with the 230
change of position of a pair of equal weights attached to the rod
D9 To demonstrate the shape of capillary rise in a wedge-shaped gap 232
between two glass sheets
D10 To demonstrate affect of atmospheric pressure by making partial 233
vacuum by condensing steam
D11 To study variation of volume of a gas with its pressure at constant 235
temperature with a doctors’ syringe

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D12 To demonstrate Bernoulli’s theorem with simple illustrations 237
D13 To demonstrate the expansion of a metal wire on heating 240

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D14 To demonstrate that heat capacities of equal masses of aluminium, 241
iron, copper and lead are different
D15 To demonstrate free oscillations of different vibrating systems 243

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D16 To demonstrate resonance with a set of coupled pendulums 247
D17 To demonstrate damping of a pendulum due to resistance of 248
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the medium
D18 To demonstrate longitudinal and transverse waves 249
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D19 To demonstrate reflection and transmission of waves at the 251
boundary of two media
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D20 To demonstrate the phenomenon of beats due to superposition 253


of waves produced by two tuning forks of slightly different
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frequencies
D21 To demonstrate standing waves with a spring 254
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Appendices (A-1 to A-14) 256–263

Bibliography 264–265

Data Section 266–275


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I: MAJOR SKILLS IN
PHYSICS PRACTICAL
WORK

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I 1.1 INTRODUCTION
The higher secondary stage is the most crucial and challenging stage

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of school education because at this stage the general undifferentiated
curriculum changes into a discipline-based, content area-oriented
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course. At this stage, students take up physics as a discipline, with

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the aim of pursuing their future careers either in basic sciences or in
science-based professional courses like engineering, medicine,
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information technology etc.
Physics deals with the study of matter and energy associated with the
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inanimate as well as the animate world. Although all branches of


science require experimentation, controlled laboratory experiments
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are of central importance in physics. The basic purpose of laboratory


experiments in physics, in general, is to verify and validate the concepts,
principles and hypotheses related to the physical phenomena. Only
doing this does not help the learners become independent thinkers or
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investigate on their own. In view of this, laboratory work is very much


required and encouraged in different ways.These may include not
only doing experiments but investigate different facets involved in doing
experiments. Many activities as well as project work will therefore
ensure that the learners are able to construct and reconstruct their
ideas on the basis of first hand experiences through investigation in the
laboratory. Besides, learners will be able to integrate experimental work
with theory which they are studying at higher secondary stage through
their environment.
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The history of science reveals that many significant discoveries have been
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made while carrying out experiments. In the growth of physics,


experimental work is as important as the theoretical understanding of a
phenomenon. Performing experiments by one’s own hands in a laboratory
is important as it generates a feeling of direct involvement in the process
of generating knowledge. Carrying out experiments in a laboratory
personally and analysis of the data obtained also help in inculcating
scientific temper, logical thinking, rational outlook, sense of self-confidence,
ability to take initiative, objectivity, cooperative attitude, patience, self-
reliance, perseverance, etc. Carrying out experiments also develop
manipulative, observational and reporting skills.
LABORATORY MANUAL
LABORATORY MANUAL

The ‘National Curriculum Framework’ (NCF-2005) and the Syllabus


for Secondary and Higher Secondary stages (NCERT, 2006) have
therefore, laid considerable emphasis on laboratory work as an integral
part of the teaching-learning process.
NCERT has already published Physics Textbook for Classes XII,
based on the new syllabus. In order to supplement the conceptual
understanding and to integrate the laboratory work in physics and
contents of the physics course, this laboratory manual has been
developed. The basic purpose of a laboratory manual in physics is to

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motivate the students towards practical work by involving them in
“process-oriented performance” learning (as opposed to ‘product-or

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result-oriented performance’) and to infuse life into the sagging practical
work in schools. In view of the alarming situation with regard to the
conduct of laboratory work in schools, it is hoped that this laboratory
manual will prove to be of considerable help and value.

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I 1.2 OBJECTIVES OF PRACTICAL WORK
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Physics deals with the understanding of natural phenomena and
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applying this understanding to use the phenomena for
development of technology and for the betterment of society.
Physics practical work involves ‘learning by doing’. It clarifies
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concepts and lays the seed for enquiry.


Careful and stepwise observation of sequences during an experiment
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or activity facilitate personal investigation as well as small group or


team learning.
A practical physics course should enable students to do experiments
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on the fundamental laws and principles, and gain experience of using


a variety of measuring instruments. Practical work enhances basic
learning skills. Main skills developed by practical work in physics are
discussed below.

I 1.2.1 MANIPULATIVE SKILLS


The learner develops manipulative skills in practical work if she/he
is able to
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(i) comprehend the theory and objectives of the experiment,


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(ii) conceive the procedure to perform the experiment,


(iii) set-up the apparatus in proper order,
(iv) check the suitability of the equipment, apparatus, tool
regarding their working and functioning,
(v) know the limitations of measuring device and find its least
count, error etc.,
(vi) handle the apparatus carefully and cautiously to avoid any
damage to the instrument as well as any personal harm,
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MAJOR SKILLS...
UNIT NAME

(vii) perform the experiment systematically.


(viii) make precise observations,
(ix) make proper substitution of data in formula, keeping proper
units (SI) in mind,
(x) calculate the result accurately and express the same with
appropriate significant figures, justified by the degree of
accuracy of the instrument,
(xi) interpret the results, verify principles and draw conclusions; and

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(xii) improvise simple apparatus for further investigations by

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selecting appropriate equipment, apparatus, tools, materials.

I 1.2.2 OBSERVATIONAL SKILLS


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The learner develops observational skills in practical work if she/he
is able to
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(i) read about instruments and measure physical quantities,
keeping least count in mind,
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(ii) follow the correct sequence while making observations,
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(iii) take observations carefully in a systematic manner; and


(iv) minimise some errors in measurement by repeating every
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observation independently a number of times.

I 1.2.3 DRAWING SKILLS


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The learner develops drawing skills for recording observed data if


she/he is able to
(i) make schematic diagram of the apparatus,
(ii) draw ray diagrams, circuit diagrams correctly and label them,

(iii) depict the direction of force, tension, current, ray of light etc,
by suitable lines and arrows; and

(iv) plot the graphs correctly and neatly by choosing appropriate


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scale and using appropriate scale.


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I 1.2.4 REPORTING SKILLS


The learner develops reporting skills for presentation of observation
data in practical work if she/he is able to
(i) make a proper presentation of aim, apparatus, formula used,
principle, observation table, calculations and result for the
experiment,
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LABORATORY MANUAL
LABORATORY MANUAL

(ii) support the presentation with labelled diagram using


appropriate symbols for components,
(iii) record observations systematically and with appropriate units
in a tabular form wherever desirable,
(iv) follow sign conventions while recording measurements in
experiments on ray optics,
(v) present the calculations/results for a given experiment

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alongwith proper significant figures, using appropriate symbols,
units, degree of accuracy,

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(vi) calculate error in the result,
(vii) state limitations of the apparatus/devices,

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(viii) summarise the findings to reject or accept a hypothesis,

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(ix) interpret recorded data, observations or graphs to draw
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conclusion; and

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(x) explore the scope of further investigation in the work performed.
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However, the most valued skills perhaps are those that pertain to the
realm of creativity and investigation.
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I 1.3 SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES OF LABORATORY WORK


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Specific objectives of laboratory may be classified as process-oriented


performance skills and product-oriented performance skills.

I 1.3.1 PROCESS - ORIENTED PERFORMANCE SKILLS


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The learner develops process-oriented performance skills in practical


work if she/he is able to

(i) select appropriate tools, instruments, materials, apparatus and


chemicals and handle them appropriately,

(ii) check for the working of apparatus beforehand,


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(iii) detect and rectify instrumental errors and their limitations,


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(iv) state the principle/formula used in the experiment,

(v) prepare a systematic plan for taking observations,

(vi) draw neat and labelled diagram of given apparatus/ray


diagram/circuit diagram wherever needed,

(vii) set up apparatus for performing the experiment,

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MAJOR SKILLS...
UNIT NAME

(viii) handle the instruments, chemicals and materials carefully,

(ix) identify the factors that will influence the observations and
take appropriate measures to minimise their effects,

(x) perform experiment within stipulated time with reasonable


speed, accuracy and precision,

(xi) represent the collected data graphically and neatly by choosing


appropriate scale and neatly, using proper scale,

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(xii) interpret recorded data, observations, calculation or graphs

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to draw conclusion,

(xiii) report the principle involved, procedure and precautions


followed in performing the experiment,

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(xiv) dismantle and reassemble the apparatus; and
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(xv) follow the standard guidelines of working in a laboratory.

I 1.3.2 PRODUCT - ORIENTED PERFORMANCE SKILLS


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The learner develops product-oriented performance skills in practical
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work if she/he is able to


(i) identify various parts of the apparatus and materials used in
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the experiment,
(ii) set-up the apparatus according to the plan of the experiment,
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(iii) take observations and record data systematically so as to


facilitate graphical or numerical analysis,
(iv) present the observations systematically using graphs,
calculations etc. and draw inferences from recorded
observations,
(v) analyse and interpret the recorded observations to finalise the
results; and
(vi) accept or reject a hypothesis based on the experimental
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findings.
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I 1.4 EXPERIMENTAL ERRORS


The ultimate aim of every experiment is to measure directly or
indirectly the value of some physical quantity. The very process of
measurement brings in some uncertainties in the measured value.
THERE IS NO MEASUREMENT WITHOUT ERRORS. As such the value
of a physical quantity obtained from some experiments may be
different from its standard or true value. Let ‘a’ be the experimentally
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LABORATORY MANUAL
LABORATORY MANUAL

observed value of some physical quantity, the ‘true’ value of which is


‘a0’. The difference (a – a0) = e is called the error in the measurement.
Since a0, the true value, is mostly not known and hence it is not
possible to determine the error e in absolute terms. However, it is
possible to estimate the likely magnitude of e. The estimated value of
error is termed as experimental error. The error can be due to least
count of the measuring instrument or a mathematical relation involving
least count as well as the variable. The quality of an experiment is
determined from the experimental uncertainty of the result. Smaller
the magnitude of uncertainty, closer is the experimentally measured

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value to the true value. Accuracy is a measure of closeness of the
measured value to the true value. On the other hand, if a physical

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quantity is measured repeatedly during the same experiment again
and again, the values so obtained may be different from each other.
This dispersion or spread of the experimental data is a measure of the

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precision of the experiment/instrument. A smaller spread in the

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experimental value means a more precise experiment. Thus, accuracy
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and precision are two different concepts. Accuracy is a measure

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of the nearness to truth, while precision is a measure of the
dispersion in experimental data. It is quite possible that a high
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precision experimental data may be quite inaccurate (if there are large
systematic errors present). A rough estimate of the maximum spread
be C

is related to the least count of the measuring instrument.


Experimental errors may be categorised into two types:
to N

(a) systematic, and (b) random. Systematic errors may arise because
of (i) faulty instruments (like zero error in vernier callipers),
(ii) incorrect method of doing the experiment, and (iii) due to the
individual who is conducting the experiment. Systematic errors are
©

those errors for which corrections can be applied and in principle


they can be removed. Some common systematic errors: (i) Zero error
in micrometer screw and vernier callipers readings. (ii) The ‘backlash’
error. When the readings on a scale of microscope are taken by rotating
the screw first in one direction and then in the reverse direction, the
reading is less than the actual distance through which the screw is
moved. To avoid this error all the readings must be taken while rotating
the screw in the same direction. (iii) The ‘bench error’ or ‘index
correction’. When distances measured on the scale of an optical bench
t

do not correspond to the actual distances between the optical devices,


no

addition or substraction of the difference is necessary to obtain correct


values. (iv) If the relation is linear, and if the systematic error is constant,
the straight-line graph will get shifted keeping the slope unchanged,
but the intercept will include the systematic error.
In order to find out if the result of some experiments contains
systematic errors or not, the same quantity should be measured by a
different method. If the values of the same physical quantity obtained
by two different methods differ from each other by a large amount,
then there is a possibility of systematic error. The experimental value,
6
MAJOR SKILLS...
UNIT NAME

after corrections for systematic errors still contain errors. All such
residual errors whose origin cannot be traced are called random errors.
Random errors cannot be avoided and there is no way to find the
exact value of random errors. However, their magnitude may be
reduced by measuring the same physical quantity again and again
by the same method and then taking the mean of the measured values
(For details, see Physics Textbook for Class XI, Part I, Chapter 2;
NCERT, 2006).
While doing an experiment in the laboratory, we measure different

d
quantities using different instruments having different values of their
least counts. It is reasonable to assume that the maximum error in

he
the measured value is not more than the least count of the instrument
with which the measurement has been made. As such in the case of
simple quantities measured directly by an instrument, the least count
of the instrument is generally taken as the maximum error in the

pu T
is
measured value. If a quantity having a true value A0 is measured as A
with the instrument of least count a, then
re R
A = ( A0 ± a )

bl
E
= A0 (1 ± a / A0 )
be C

= A0 (1 ± f a )
to N

where fa is called the maximum fractional error of A. Similarly, for

another measured quantity B, we have


©

B = B0 (1 ± f b )

Now some quantity, say Z, is calculated from the measured value of A


and B, using the formula
Z = A.B
We now wish to calculate the expected total uncertainty (or the likely
maximum error) in the calculated value of Z. We may write

Z = A.B
t
no

= A 0 (1 ± f a ) .B 0 (1 ± f b )

= A0 B0 (1 ± f a ± f b ± f a f b )

A0 B 0 ⎡⎣1 ± ( f a + f b ) ⎤⎦ , [If f a and fb are very small quantities, their

product f a fb can be neglected]

or Z ≈ Z 0 [1 ± f z ]
7
LABORATORY MANUAL
LABORATORY MANUAL

where the fractional error f z in the value of Z may have the largest

value of fa + f b .

On the other hand, if the quantity Y to be calculated is given as

Y = A/B = A0 (1 ± f a ) / B0 (1 ± f b )

⎡ A0 ⎤
= Y0 (1 ± fa )(1 ± f b ) ;
–1
⎢ Y0 = B ⎥

d
⎣ 0⎦

he
(
= Y0 (1 ± fa ) 1 ± fb + f b2 )
= Y0 (1 ± f a ) (1 ± f b )

pu T
is
~ Y0 ⎡⎣1 ± ( f a + f b ) ⎤⎦
re R
bl ( )
or Y = Y0 1 ± f y , with fy = fa + fb , where the maximum fractional
E
uncertainty fy in the calculated value of Y is again f a + f b . Note that
be C

the maximum fractional uncertainty is always additive.

Taking a more general case, where a quantity P is calculated from


to N

several measured quantities x, y, z etc., using the formula P = xa yb zc,


it may be shown that the maximum fractional error fp in the calculated
value of P is given as
©

f p = a fx + b fy + c fz

It may be observed that the value of the overall fractional error f p in


the quantity P depends on the fractional errors fx , fy, fz etc. of each
measured quantity, as well as on the power a, b, c etc., of these
quantities which appear in the formula. As such, the quantity which
has the highest power in the formula, should be measured with the
least possible fractional error, so that the contribution of
a f x + b f y + c f z to the overall fraction error f p are of the same order
t
no

of magnitude.
Let us calculate the expected uncertainty (or experimental error) in a
quantity that has been determined using a formula which involves
several measured physical parameters.
A quantity Y, Young’s Modulus of elasticity is calculated using the formula

MgL3
Y=
4bd 3δ

8
MAJOR SKILLS...
UNIT NAME

where M is the mass, g is the acceleration due to gravity, L is the


length of a metallic bar of rectangular cross-section, with breadth b,
and thickness d, and δ is the depression (or sagging) from the horizontal
in the bar when a mass M is suspended from the middle point of the
bar, supported at its two ends (Fig. I 1.1).
Now in an actual experiment, mass M may be taken as 1 kg. Normally
the uncertainty in mass is not more than 1 g. It means that the least
count of the ordinary balance used for measuring mass is 1 g. As
such, the fractional error f M is 1g/1kg or fM = 1 × 10–3.

d
Let us assume that the value of acceleration due to gravity g is 9.8 m/
s 2 and it does not contain any significant error. Hence there will be no

he
fractional error in g, i.e., fg = 0. Further the length L of the bar is, say,
1 m and is measured by an ordinary metre scale of least count of 1
mm = 0.001 m. The fractional error fL in the length L is therefore,

pu T
is
f L = 0.001 m / 1m = 1 × 10 –3.
re R
Next the breadth b of the bar which is, say, 5 cm is measured by a

bl
vernier callipers of least count 0.01 cm. The fractional error fb is then,
E
f b = 0.01 cm / 5 cm = 0.002 = 2 × 10 –3 .
Similarly, for the thickness d of the bar, a screw gauge of least count
be C

0.001 cm is used. If, a bar of thickness, say, 0.2 cm is taken so that


f d = 0.001 cm / 0.2 cm = 0.005 = 5 × 10–3.
to N

Finally, the depression δ which is measured by a spherometer of least


count 0.001 cm, is about 5 mm, so that
f δ = 0.001 cm / 0.5 cm = 0.002 = 2 × 10–3.
©

Having calculated the fractional errors in each quantity, let us


calculate the fractional error in Y as
f Y = (1) fM + (1) f g + (3) f L + (1) fb + (3) fd + (1) f δ
= 1 × (1 × 10–3 ) + 1 × 0 + 3 × (1 × 10–3) + 1 × (2 × 10–3) + 3 × (5 × 10 –3) + 1 × (2 × 10–3)
= 1 × 10 –3 + 3 × 10–3 + 2 × 10–3 + 15 × 10–3 + 2 × 10–3
or, fY = 22 × 10–3 = 0.022.
t

Hence the possible fractional error (or uncertainty) is fy × 100 = 0.022


no

× 100 = 2.2%. It may be noted that, for a good experiment, the


contribution to the maximum fractional error f y in the calculated value
of Y contributed by various terms, i.e., fM, 3f L, fb , 3f d, and f δ should be
of the same order of magnitude. It should not happen that one of
these quantities becomes so large that the value of fy is determined by
that factor only. If this happens, then the measurement of other
quantities will become insignificant. It is for this reason that the length
L is measured by a metre scale which has a large least count (0.1 cm)
while smaller quantities d and δ are measured by screw gauge and
9
LABORATORY MANUAL
LABORATORY MANUAL

spherometer, respectively, which have smaller least


count (0.001 cm). Also those quantities which have
higher power in the formula, like d and L should be
measured more carefully with an instrument of
smaller least count.
The end product of most of the experiments is the
measured value of some physical quantity. This
measured value is generally called the result of the
experiment. In order to report the result, three main

d
things are required. These are – the measured value,
the expected uncertainty in the result (or

he
experimental error) and the unit in which the
quantity is expressed. Thus the measured value is
Fig. 1.1: A mass M is suspended from the
expressed alongwith the error and proper unit as the
metallic bar supported at its two
value ± error (units).
ends

pu T
is
Suppose a result is quoted as A ± a (unit).
re R
bl
This implies that the value of A is estimated to an accuracy of 1 part
in A/a, both A and a being numbers. It is a general practice to include
E
all digits in these numbers that are reliably known plus the first digit
that is uncertain. Thus, all reliable digits plus the first uncertain digit
together are called SIGNIFICANT FIGURES. The significant figures of
be C

the measured value should match with that of the errors. In the present
example assuming Young Modulus of elasticity, Y = 18.2 × 1010 N/
to N

m2; (please check this value by calculating Y from the given data) and
ΔY
error, = fy
Y
©

ΔY = fy .Y
= 0.022 × 18.2 × 1010 N/m2
= 0.39 × 1010 N/m2, where ΔY is experimental error.

So the quoted value of Y should be (18.2 ± 0.4) × 10 10 N/m2.

I 1.5 LOGARITHMS
t
no

The logarithm of a number to a given base is the index of the power to


which the base must be raised to equal that number.
If a x = N then x is called logarithm of N to the base a, and is denoted by
loga N [read as log N to the base a]. For example, 2 4 = 16. The log of
16 to the base 2 is equal to 4 or, log2 16 = 4.
In general, for a number we use logarithm to the base 10. Here log 10
= 1, log 100 = log 102 and so on. Logarithm to base 10 is usually
written as log.
10
MAJOR SKILLS...
UNIT NAME

(i) COMMON LOGARITHM


Logarithm of a number consists of two parts:
(i) Characteristic — It is the integral part [whole of natural
number]
(ii) Mantissa — It is the fractional part, generally expressed in
decimal form (mantissa is always positive).

d
(ii) HOW TO FIND THE CHARACTERISTIC OF A NUMBER?

he
The characteristic depends on the magnitude of the number and is
determined by the position of the decimal point. For a number greater
than 1, the characteristic is positive and is less than the number of

pu T
is
digits to the left of the decimal point.
re R
For a number smaller than one (i.e., decimal fraction), the characteristic

bl
is negative and one more than the number of zeros between the decimal
point and the first digit. For example, characteristic of the number
E
430700 is 5; 4307 is 3; 43.07 is 1;
be C

4.307 is 0; 0.4307 is –1; 0.04307 is –2;


0.0004307 is –4 0.00004307 is –5.
to N

The negative characteristic is usually written as 1,2, 4,5 etc and read
as bar 1, bar 2, etc.
©

I 1.5.1 HOW TO FIND THE MANTISSA OF A NUMBER?


The value of mantissa depends on the digits and their order and is
independent of the position of the decimal point. As long as the digits
and their order is the same, the mantissa is the same, whatever be the
position of the decimal point.

The logarithm Tables 1 and 2, on pages 266–269, give the mantissa


only. They are usually meant for numbers containing four digits, and
t

if a number consists of more than four figures, it is rounded off to four


no

figures after determining the characteristic. To find mantissa, the tables


are used in the following manner :

(i) The first two significant figures of the number are found at the
extreme left vertical column of the table wherein the number
lying between 10 and 99 are given. The mantissa of the figures
which are less than 10 can be determined by multiplying the
figures by 10.

(ii) Along the horizontal line in the topmost column the figures
11
LABORATORY MANUAL
LABORATORY MANUAL

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

are given. These correspond to the third significant figure of


the given number.

(iii) Further right column under the figures (digits) corresponds to


the fourth significant figures.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

d
Example 1 : Find the logarithm of 278.6.

he
Answer : The number has 3 figures to the left of the decimal point.
Hence, its characteristic is 2. To find the mantissa, ignore the
decimal point and look for 27 in the first vertical column. For 8,

pu T
look in the central topmost column. Proceed from 27 along a

is
horizontal line towards the right and from 8 vertically downwards.
The two lines meet at a point where the number 4440 is written.
re R
bl
This is the mantissa of 278. Proceed further along the horizontal
line and look vertically below the figure 6 in difference column.
E
You will find the figure 9. Therefore, the mantissa of 2786 is 4440
+ 9 = 4449.
be C

Hence, the logarithm of 278.6 is 2.4449 ( or log 278.6 = 2.4449).


Example 2 : Find the logarithm of 278600.
to N

Answer : The characteristic of this number is 5 and the mantissa is


the same as in Example 1, above. We can find the mantissa of only
four significant figures. Hence, we neglect the last 2 zero.
©

∴ log 278600 = 5.4449


Example 3 : Find the logarithm of 0.00278633.

Answer : The characteristic of this number is 3 , as there are two


zeros following the decimal point. We can find the mantissa of only
four significant figures. Hence, we neglect the last 2 figures (33) and
find the mantissa of 2786 which is 4449.

∴ log 0.00278633 = 3 .4449


t
no

When the last figure of a number consisting of more than 4 significant


figures is equal to or more than 5, the figure next to the left of it is
raised by one and so on till we have only four significant figures and if
the last figure is less than 5, it is neglected as in the above example.
If we have the number 2786.58, the last figure is 8. Therefore, we
shall raise the next in left figure to 6 and since 6 is greater than 5, we
shall raise the next figure 6 to 7 and find the logarithm
of 2787.
12
MAJOR SKILLS...
UNIT NAME

I 1.5.2 ANTILOGARITHMS
The number whose logarithm is x is called antilogarithm and is denoted
by antilog x.

Thus, since log 2 = 0.3010, then antilog 0.3010 = 2.

Example 1 : Find the number whose logarithm is 1.8088.


Answer : For this purpose, we use antilogarithms table which is used

d
for fractional part.

he
(i) In Example 1, fractional part is 0.8088. The first two figures
from the left are 0.80, the third figure is 8 and the fourth figure
is also 8.

pu T
(ii) In the table of the antilogarithms, first look in the vertical

is
column for 0.80. In this horizontal row under the column
re R
headed by 8, we find the number 6427 at the intersection. It

bl
means the number for mantissa 0.808 is 6427.
E
(iii) In continuation of this horizontal row and under the mean
difference column on the right under 8, we find the number
12 at the intersection. Adding 12 to 6427 we get 6439. Now
be C

6439 is the figure of which .8088 is the mantissa.


(iv) The characteristic is 1. This is one more than the number of
to N

digits in the integral part of the required number. Hence, the


number of digits in the integral part of the required
number = 1 + 1 =2. The required number is 64.39 i.e., antilog
©

1.8088 = 64.39.

Example 2 : Find the antilog of 2 .8088.

Answer : As the characteristic is 2 , there should be one zero on the

right of decimal in the number, hence antilog 2 .8088 = 0.06439.


Properties of logarithms:
t

(i) loga mn = logam + logan


no

(ii) loga m/n = logam – logan


(iii) loga mn = n logam
The definition of logarithm:
loga 1 = 0 [since a0 = 1]
The log of 1 to any base is zero,
and loga a = 1 [since the logarithm of the base to itself is 1,
a 1 = a]
13
LABORATORY MANUAL
LABORATORY MANUAL

I 1.6 NATURAL SINE / COSINE TABLE


To find the sine or cosine of some angles we need to refer to Tables of
trignometric functions. Natural sine and cosine tables are given in the
DATA SECTION (Tables 3 and 4, Pages 270–273). Angles are given
usually in degrees and minutes, for example : 35°6′ or 35.1°.

I 1.6.1 READING OF NATURAL SINE TABLE

d
Suppose we wish to know the value of sin 35°10′. You may proceed as follows:

he
(i) Open the Table of natural sines.
(ii) Look in the first column and locate 35°. Scan horizontally,
move from value 0.5736 rightward and stop under the column

pu T where 6′ is marked. You will stop at 0.5750.

is
(iii) But it is required to find for 10′.
re R
bl
The difference between 10′ and 6′ is 4′. So we look into the column of
mean difference under 4′ and the corresponding value is 10. Add 10
E
to the last digits of 0.5750 and we get 0.5760.
Thus, sin (35°10′) is 0.5760.
be C

I 1.6.2 READING OF NATURAL COSINE TABLE


to N

Natural cosine tables are read in the same manner. However, because
of the fact that value of cos θ decrease as θ increases, the mean
difference is to be subtracted. For example, cos 25° = 0.9063. To read
©

the value of cosine angle 25°40′, i.e., cos 25°40′, we read for cos 25°36′
= 0.9018. Mean difference for 4′ is 5 which is to be subtracted from
the last digits of 0.9018 to get 0.9013. Thus, cos 25°40′ = 0.9013.

I 1.6.3 READING OF NATURAL TANGENTS TABLE


Natural Tangents table are read the same way as the natural sine
table.

I 1.7 PLOTTING OF GRAPHS


t
no

A graph pictorially represents the relation between two variable


quantities. It also helps us to visualise experimental data at a glance
and shows the relation between the two quantities. If two physical
quantities a and b are such that a change made by us in a results in
a change in b, then a is called independent variable and b is called
dependent variable. For example, when you change the length of the
pendulum, its time period changes. Here length is independent variable
while time period is dependent variable.
14
MAJOR SKILLS...
UNIT NAME

A graph not only shows the relation between two variable quantities
in pictorial form, it also enables verification of certain laws (such as
Boyle’s law) to find the mean value from a large number of
observations, to extrapolate/interpolate the value of certain quantities
beyond the limit of observation of the experiment, to calibrate or
graduate a given instrument for measurement and to find the
maximum and minimum values of the dependent variable.

Graphs are usually plotted on a graph paper sheet ruled in


millimetre/centimetre squares. For plotting a graph, the following steps

d
are observed:

he
(i) Identify the independent variable and dependent variable.
Represent the independent variable along the x-axis and the
dependent variable along the y-axis.
(ii)

pu T
Determine the range of each of the variables and count the

is
number of big squares available to represent each, along the
re R
respective axis.
(iii)

bl
Choice of scale is critical for plotting of a graph. Ideally, the
E
smallest division on the graph paper should be equal to the
least count of measurement or the accuracy to which the
particular parameter is known. Many times, for clarity of the
be C

graph, a suitable fraction of the least count is taken as equal


to the smallest division on the graph paper.
to N

(iv) Choice of origin is another point which has to be done


judiciously. Generally, taking (0,0) as the origin serves the
purpose. But such a choice is to be adopted generally when
©

the relation between variables begins from zero or it is desired


to find the zero position of one of the variables, if its actual
determination is not possible. However, in all other cases the
origin need not correspond to zero value of the variable. It is,
however, convenient to represent a round number nearest to
but less than the smallest value of the corresponding variable.
On each axis mark only the values of the variable in round
numbers.
(v) The scale markings on x-and y-axis should not be crowded.
t

Write the numbers at every fifth cm of the axis. Write also the
no

units of the quantity plotted. Use scientific representations of


the numbers, i.e., write the number with decimal point following
the first digit and multiply the number by appropriate power
of ten. The scale conversion may also be written at the right or
left corner at the top of the graph paper.
(vi) Write a suitable caption below the plotted graph mentioning
the names or symbols of the physical quantities involved.
Also indicate the scales taken along both the axes on the
graph paper.
15
LABORATORY MANUAL
LABORATORY MANUAL

(vii) When the graph is expected to be a straight line, generally 6 to


7 readings are enough. Time should not be wasted in taking a
very large number of observations. The observations must be
covering all available range evenly.
(viii) If the graph is a curve, first explore the range by covering the
entire range of the independent variable in 6 to 7 steps. Then
try to guess where there will be sharp changes in the curvature
of the curve. Take more readings in those regions. For example,
when there is either a maximum or minimum, more readings

d
are needed to locate the exact point of extremum, as in the
determination of angle of minimum deviation (δ m) you may

he
need to take more observations near about δm.
(ix) Representation of “data” points also has a meaning. The size
of the spread of plotted point must be in accordance with the

pu T accuracy of the data. Let us take an example in which the

is
plotted point is represented as , a point with a circle around
re R
it. The central dot is the value of measured data. The radius of

bl
circle of ‘x’ or ‘y’ side gives the size of uncertainty. If the circle
radius is large, it will mean as if uncertainty in data is more.
E
Further such a representation tells that accuracy along x- and
y-axis are the same. Some other representations used which
be C

give the same meaning as above are , , , , ×, etc.


In case, uncertainty along the x-axis and y-axis are different,
to N

some of the notations used are (accuracy along x-axis is


more than that on y-axis); (accuracy along x-axis is less
than that on y-axis). , , , , are some of such other
©

symbols. You can design many more on your own.


(x) After all the data points are plotted, it is customary to fit a
smooth curve judiciously by hand so that the maximum
number of points lie on or near it and the rest are evenly
distributed on either side of it. Now a days computers are also
used for plotting graphs of a given data.

I 1.7.1 SLOPE OF A STRAIGHT LINE


The slope m of a straight line graph AB is defined as
t

Δy
no

m=
Δx
where Δy is the change in the value of the quantity plotted on the
y-axis, corresponding to the change Δx in the value of the quantity
plotted on the x-axis. It may be noted that the sign of m will be positive
when both Δx and Δy are of the same sign, as shown in Fig. I 1.2. On
the other hand, if Δy is of opposite sign (i.e., y decreases when x
increases) than that of Δx, the value of the slope will be negative. This
is indicated in Fig. I 1.3.
16
MAJOR SKILLS...
UNIT NAME

d
he
pu T
Fig. 1.2 Value of slope is positive Fig. 1.3 Value of slope is negative

is
Further, the slope of a given straight line has the same value, for all
re R
bl
points on the line. It is because the value of y changes by the same
amount for a given change in the value of x, at every point of the
E
straight line, as shown in Fig. I 1.4. Thus, for a given straight line, the
slope is fixed.
be C
to N

no

Fig. 1.4: Slope is fixed for a given straight line

While calculating the slope, always choose the x-segment of sufficient


length and see that it represents a round number of the variable. The
corresponding interval of the variable on y-segment is then measured
and the slope is calculated. Generally, the slope should not have more
than two significant digits. The values of the slope and the intercepts,
if there are any, should be written on the graph paper.
17
LABORATORY MANUAL
LABORATORY MANUAL

Do not show slope as tanθ . Only when scales along both the axes are
identical slope is equal to tanθ. Also keep in mind that slope of a graph
has physical significance, not geometrical.
Often straight-line graphs expected to pass through the origin are
found to give some intercepts. Hence, whenever a linear relationship
is expected, the slope should be used in the formula instead of the
mean of the ratios of the two quantities.

I 1.7.2 SLOPE OF A CURVE AT A GIVEN POINT ON IT

d
As has been indicated, the slope of a straight line has the same value

he
at each point. However, it is not true for a curve. As shown in Fig. I 1.5, the
slope of the curve CD may have different values of slope at points A′,
A, A′′, etc.

pu T
is
re R
bl
E
be C
to N
©

Fig. I 1.5: Tangent at a point A

Therefore, in case of a non-straight line curve, we talk of the slope at


a particular point. The slope of the curve at a particular point, say
point A in Fig. I 1.5, is the value of the slope of the line EF which is the
tangent to the curve at point A. As such, in order to find the slope of a
t

curve at a given point, one must draw a tangent to the curve at the
no

desired point.

In order to draw the tangent to a given curve at a given point, one may
use a plane mirror strip attached to a wooden block, so that it stands
perpendicular to the paper on which the curve is to be drawn. This is
illustrated in Fig. I 1.6 (a) and Fig. I 1.6 (b). The plane mirror strip
MM′ is placed at the desired point A such that the image D′A of the
part DA of the curve appears in the mirror strip as continuation of
18
MAJOR SKILLS...
UNIT NAME

d
he
pu T
is
(a), (b)
re R
bl
Fig. 1.6 (a), (b): Drawing tangent at point A using a plane mirror
E
DA. In general, the image D′ A will not appear to be smoothly
joined with the part of the curve DA as shown in Fig. I 1.6 (a).
be C

Next rotate the mirror strip MM′, keeping its position at point A fixed.
to N

The image D′Α in the mirror will also rotate. Now adjust the position
of MM′ such that DAD′ appears as a continuous, smooth curve as
shown in Fig. I 1.6 (b). Draw the line MAM′ along the edge of the mirror
©

for this setting. Next using a protractor, draw a perpendicular GH to


the line MAM′ at point A.

GAH is the line, which is the required tangent to the curve DAC at
point A. The slope of the tangent GAH (i.e., Δy /Δ x) is the slope of the
curve CAD at point A. The above procedure may be followed for finding
the slope of any curve at any given point.

I 1.8 GENERAL INSTRUCTIONS FOR PERFORMING EXPERIMENTS


t
no

1. The students should thoroughly understand the principle of the


experiment. The objective of the experiment and procedure to be
followed should be clear before actually performing the experiment.
2. The apparatus should be arranged in proper order. To avoid
any damage, all apparatus should be handled carefully and
cautiously. Any accidental damage or breakage of the
apparatus should be immediately brought to the notice of the
concerned teacher.
19
LABORATORY MANUAL
LABORATORY MANUAL

3. Precautions meant for each experiment should be observed strictly


while performing it.
4. Repeat every observation, a number of times, even if measured
value is found to be the same. The student must bear in mind the
proper plan for recording the observations. Recording in tabular
form is essential in most of the experiments.

5. Calculations should be neatly shown (using log tables wherever


desired). The degree of accuracy of the measurement of each

d
quantity should always be kept in mind, so that final result does
not reflect any fictitious accuracy. The result obtained should be

he
suitably rounded off.

6. Wherever possible, the observations should be represented with


the help of a graph.

pu T
is
7. Always mention the result in proper SI unit, if any, along with
experimental error.
re R
bl
I1.9 GENERAL INSTRUCTIONS FOR RECORDING EXPERIMENTS
E
A neat and systematic recording of the experiment in the practical file
be C

is very important for proper communication of the outcome of the


experimental investigations. The following heads may usually be
to N

followed for preparing the report:


DATE:-------- EXPERIMENT NO:---------- PAGE NO.-------

AIM
©

State clearly and precisely the objective(s) of the experiment to be


performed.

APPARATUS AND MATERIAL REQUIRED


Mention the apparatus and material used for performing the experiment.
t

DESCRIPTION OF APPARATUS INCLUDING MEASURING DEVICES (OPTIONAL)


no

Describe the apparatus and various measuring devices used in


the experiment.

TERMS AND DEFINITIONS OR CONCEPTS (OPTIONAL)


Various important terms and definitions or concepts used in the
experiment are stated clearly.
20
MAJOR SKILLS...
UNIT NAME

PRINCIPLE / THEORY
Mention the principle underlying the experiment. Also, write the
formula used, explaining clearly the symbols involved (derivation not
required). Draw a circuit diagram neatly for experiments/activities
related to electricity and ray diagrams for light.

PROCEDURE (WITH IN-BUILT PRECAUTIONS)

d
Mention various steps followed with in-built precautions actually

he
observed in setting the apparatus and taking measurements in a
sequential manner.

OBSERVATIONS
pu T
is
re R
Record the observations in tabular form as far as possible, neatly

bl
and without any overwriting. Mention clearly, on the top of the
observation table, the least counts and the range of each measuring
E
instrument used.
be C

However, if the result of the experiment depends upon certain


conditions like temperature, pressure etc., then mention the values
of these factors.
to N

CALCULATIONS AND PLOTTING GRAPH


©

Substitute the observed values of various quantities in the formula


and do the computations systematically and neatly with the help of
logarithm tables. Calculate experimental error.
Wherever possible, use the graphical method for obtaining
the result.

RESULT
State the conclusions drawn from the experimental observations.
t
no

[Express the result of the physical quality in proper significant figures


of numerical value along with appropriate SI units and probable error].
Also mention the physical conditions like temperature, pressure etc.,
if the result happens to depend upon them.

PRECAUTIONS
Mention the precautions actually observed during the course of the
experiment/activity.
21
LABORATORY MANUAL
LABORATORY MANUAL

SOURCES OF ERROR
Mention the possible sources of error that are beyond the control of
the individual while performing the experiment and are liable to affect
the result.

DISCUSSION

d
The special reasons for the set up etc., of the experiment are to be
mentioned under this heading. Also mention any special inferences

he
which you can draw from your observations or special difficulties faced
during the experimentation. These may also include points for making
the experiment more accurate for observing precautions and, in
general, for critically relating theory to the experiment for better

pu T
is
understanding of the basic principle involved.
re R
bl
E
be C
t to N
©
no

22
EXPERIMENTS

EXPERIMENT 1
AIM

d
Use of Vernier Callipers to

he
(i) measure diameter of a small spherical/cylindrical body,
(ii) measure the dimensions of a given regular body of known mass
and hence to determine its density; and

pu T
is
(iii) measure the internal diameter and depth of a given cylindrical object
like beaker/glass/calorimeter and hence to calculate its volume.
re R
APPARATUS AND MATERIAL REQUIRED
bl
E
Vernier Callipers, Spherical body, such as a pendulum bob or a glass
marble, rectangular block of known mass and cylindrical object like
be C

a beaker/glass/calorimeter

D ESCRIPTION OF THE MEASURING DEVICE


to N

1. A Vernier Calliper has two scales–one main scale and a Vernier


scale, which slides along the main scale. The main scale and Vernier
©

scale are divided into small divisions though of different


magnitudes.
The main scale is graduated in cm and mm. It has two fixed jaws, A
and C, projected at right angles to the scale. The sliding Vernier scale
has jaws (B, D) projecting at right angles to it and also the main scale
and a metallic strip (N). The zero of
main scale and Vernier scale coincide
when the jaws are made to touch each
other. The jaws and metallic strip are
t

designed to measure the distance/


no

diameter of objects. Knob P is used to


slide the vernier scale on the main
scale. Screw S is used to fix the vernier
scale at a desired position.

2. The least count of a common scale


is 1mm. It is difficult to further Fig. E 1.1 Vernier Calliper
subdivide it to improve the least
count of the scale. A vernier scale
enables this to be achieved.
LABORATORY MANUAL
LABORATORY MANUAL

P
RINCIPLE
The difference in the magnitude of one main scale division (M.S.D.)
and one vernier scale division (V.S.D.) is called the least count of the
instrument, as it is the smallest distance that can be measured using
the instrument.
n V.S.D. = (n – 1) M.S.D.
Formulas Used

d
(a) Least count of vernier callipers

he
the magnitude of the smallest division on the main scale
=
the total number of small divisions on the vernier scale

pu T
is
m ass m m
(b) Density of a rectangular body = = = where m is
re R
volume V l.b.h

bl
its mass, l its length, b its breadth and h the height.
E
π D ′2
(c) The volume of a cylindrical (hollow) object V = πr2h' = . h'
4
be C

where h' is its internal depth, D' is its internal diameter and r is
its internal radius.

P
to N

ROCEDURE
(a) Measuring the diameter of a small spherical or cylindrical
©

body.
1. Keep the jaws of Vernier Callipers closed. Observe the zero mark of
the main scale. It must perfectly coincide with that of the vernier
scale. If this is not so, account for the zero error for all observations to
be made while using the instrument as explained on pages 26-27.
2. Look for the division on the vernier scale that coincides with a
division of main scale. Use a magnifying glass, if available and
note the number of division on the Vernier scale that coincides
t

with the one on the main scale. Position your eye directly over the
no

division mark so as to avoid any parallax error.


3. Gently loosen the screw to release the movable jaw. Slide it enough
to hold the sphere/cylindrical body gently (without any undue
pressure) in between the lower jaws AB. The jaws should be perfectly
perpendicular to the diameter of the body. Now, gently tighten the
screw so as to clamp the instrument in this position to the body.

4. Carefully note the position of the zero mark of the vernier scale
against the main scale. Usually, it will not perfectly coincide with
24
EXPERIMENT 1
UNIT NAME

any of the small divisions on the main scale. Record the main scale
division just to the left of the zero mark of the vernier scale.
5. Start looking for exact coincidence of a vernier scale division with
that of a main scale division in the vernier window from left end
(zero) to the right. Note its number (say) N, carefully.

6. Multiply 'N' by least count of the instrument and add the product
to the main scale reading noted in step 4. Ensure that the product
is converted into proper units (usually cm) for addition to be valid.

d
7. Repeat steps 3-6 to obtain the diameter of the body at different
positions on its curved surface. Take three sets of reading in

he
each case.

8. Record the observations in the tabular form [Table E 1.1(a)] with


proper units. Apply zero correction, if need be.

pu T
is
9. Find the arithmetic mean of the corrected readings of the diameter
re R
of the body. Express the results in suitable units with appropriate

bl
number of significant figures.
E
(b) Measuring the dimensions of a regular rectangular body to
determine its density.
be C

1. Measure the length of the rectangular block (if beyond the limits
of the extended jaws of Vernier Callipers) using a suitable ruler.
Otherwise repeat steps 3-6 described in (a) after holding the block
to N

lengthwise between the jaws of the Vernier Callipers.


2. Repeat steps 3-6 stated in (a) to determine the other dimensions
©

(breadth b and height h) by holding the rectangular block in proper


positions.

3. Record the observations for length, breadth and height of the


rectangular block in tabular form [Table E 1.1 (b)] with proper
units and significant figures. Apply zero corrections wherever
necessary.
4. Find out the arithmetic mean of readings taken for length, breadth
and height separately.
t

[c] Measuring the internal diameter and depth of the given beaker
no

(or similar cylindrical object) to find its internal volume.


1. Adjust the upper jaws CD of the Vernier Callipers so as to touch
the wall of the beaker from inside without exerting undue pressure
on it. Tighten the screw gently to keep the Vernier Callipers in this
position.
2. Repeat the steps 3-6 as in (a) to obtain the value of internal diameter
of the beaker/calorimeter. Do this for two different (angular)
positions of the beaker.
25
LABORATORY MANUAL
LABORATORY MANUAL

3. Keep the edge of the main scale of Vernier Callipers, to determine


the depth of the beaker, on its peripheral edge. This should be
done in such a way that the tip of the strip is able to go freely
inside the beaker along its depth.
4. Keep sliding the moving jaw of the Vernier Callipers until the strip
just touches the bottom of the beaker. Take care that it does so
while being perfectly perpendicular to the bottom surface. Now
tighten the screw of the Vernier Callipers.

d
5. Repeat steps 4 to 6 of part (a) of the experiment to obtain depth of
the given beaker. Take the readings for depth at different positions

he
of the breaker.
6. Record the observations in tabular form [Table E 1.1 (c)] with
proper units and significant figures. Apply zero corrections, if

pu T
required.

is
7. Find out the mean of the corrected readings of the internal diameter
re R
and depth of the given beaker. Express the result in suitable units

O bl
and proper significant figures.
E
BSERVATIONS
be C

(i) Least count of Vernier Callipers (Vernier Constant)


1 main scale division (MSD) = 1 mm = 0.1 cm
to N

Number of vernier scale divisions, N = 10


10 vernier scale divisions = 9 main scale divisions
©

1 vernier scale division = 0.9 main scale division


Vernier constant = 1 main scale division – 1 vernier scale division

= (1– 0.9) main scale divisions


= 0.1 main scale division
Vernier constant (VC) = 0.1 mm = 0.01 cm

Alternatively,
t
no

1MSD 1 mm
Vernier constant = =
N 10

Vernier constant (V C) = 0.1 mm = 0.01 cm

(ii) Zero error and its correction


When the jaws A and B touch each other, the zero of the Vernier
should coincide with the zero of the main scale. If it is not so, the
instrument is said to possess zero error (e). Zero error may be
26
EXPERIMENT 1
UNIT NAME

Fig. E 1.2: Zero error (i) no zero error (ii) positive zero error
(iii) negative zero error

d
positive or negative, depending upon whether the zero of vernier
scale lies to the right or to the left of the zero of the main scale. This

he
is shown by the Fig. E1.2 (ii) and (iii). In this situation, a correction
is required to the observed readings.
(iii) Positive zero error

pu T
is
Fig E 1.2 (ii) shows an example of positive zero error. From the
figure, one can see that when both jaws are touching each other,
re R
zero of the vernier scale is shifted to the right of zero of the main

bl
scale (This might have happened due to manufacturing defect or
E
due to rough handling). This situation makes it obvious that while
taking measurements, the reading taken will be more than the
actual reading. Hence, a correction needs to be applied which is
be C

proportional to the right shift of zero of vernier scale.


In ideal case, zero of vernier scale should coincide with zero of
to N

main scale. But in Fig. E 1.2 (ii), 5th vernier division is coinciding
with a main scale reading.
∴ Zero Error = + 5 × Least Count = + 0.05 cm
©

Hence, the zero error is positive in this case. For any measurements
done, the zero error (+ 0.05 cm in this example) should be
‘subtracted’ from the observed reading.
∴ True Reading = Observed reading – (+ Zero error)
(iv) Negative zero error
Fig. E 1.2 (iii) shows an example of negative zero error. From this
figure, one can see that when both the jaws are touching each
t

other, zero of the vernier scale is shifted to the left of zero of the
no

main scale. This situation makes it obvious that while taking


measurements, the reading taken will be less than the actual
reading. Hence, a correction needs to be applied which is
proportional to the left shift of zero of vernier scale.
In Fig. E 1.2 (iii), 5th vernier scale division is coinciding with a
main scale reading.
∴ Zero Error = – 5 × Least Count
= – 0.05 cm
27
LABORATORY MANUAL
LABORATORY MANUAL

Note that the zero error in this case is considered to be negative.


For any measurements done, the negative zero error, ( –0.05 cm in
this example) is also substracted ‘from the observed reading’,
though it gets added to the observed value.
∴ True Reading = Observed Reading – (– Zero error)
Table E 1.1 (a): Measuring the diameter of a small spherical/
cylindrical body

d
S. Main Scale Number of Vernier scale Measured
No. reading, M coinciding reading, V = N × V C diameter, M + V
(cm/mm) vernier (cm/mm)

he
(cm/mm)
division, N
1
2

pu T
is
3
re R
4

bl Zero error, e = ± ... cm


E
Mean observed diameter = ... cm
be C

Corrected diameter = Mean observed diameter – Zero Error


Table E 1.1 (b) : Measuring dimensions of a given regular body
to N

(rectangular block)

Dimension S. Main Scale Number of Ver nier scale reading, Measured


No. reading, M coinciding V = N × VC (cm/mm) dimension
©

(cm/mm) vernier M + V (cm/mm)


division, N

1
Length (l) 2
3
1
Breadth (b) 2
3
t

1
2
no

Height ( h)
3

Zero error = ± ... mm/cm


Mean observed length = ... cm, Mean observed breadth = ... cm
Mean observed height = ... cm
Corrected length = ... cm; Corrected breath = ... cm;
Corrected height = ...cm
28
EXPERIMENT 1
UNIT NAME

Table E 1.1 (c) : Measuring internal diameter and depth of a


given beaker/ calorimeter/ cylindrical glass

Dimension S. Main Scale Number of Ver nier scale reading, Measured


No. reading, M coinciding V = N × VC (cm/mm) diameter depth,
(cm/mm) vernier M + V (cm/mm)
division, N

Internal 1
diameter 2

d
(D′) 3

he
1
Depth (h′) 2
3

pu T
is
Mean diameter = ... cm
re R
bl
Mean depth= ... cm
Corrected diameter = ... cm
E
Corrected depth = ... cm
be C

C ALCULATION
to N

(a) Measurement of diameter of the sphere/ cylindrical body

D1 + D2 + ... + D6
Mean measured diameter, Do = cm
©

6
Do = ... cm = ... × 10–2 m
Corrected diameter of the given body, D = Do – ( ± e ) = ... × 10–2 m
(b) Measurement of length, breadth and height of the rectangular
block
l1 + l2 + l 3
Mean measured length, l o = cm
3
t

lo = ... cm = ... × 10–2 m


no

Corrected length of the block, l = lo – ( ± e ) = ... cm

b1 + b 2 + b 3
Mean observed breadth, b o =
3
Mean measured breadth of the block, b0 = ... cm = ... × 10–2 m
Corrected breadth of the block,
b = bO – ( ± e ) cm = ... × 10–2 m
29
LABORATORY MANUAL
LABORATORY MANUAL

h1 + h 2 + h 3
Mean measured height of block h o =
3

Corrected height of block h = ho – ( ± e ) = ... cm

Volume of the rectangular block,


V = lbh = ... cm3 = ... × 10–6 m3
Density ρ of the block,

d
m
ρ= =... kgm –3

he
V

(c) Measurement of internal diameter of the beaker/glass

pu T D1 + D2 + D3

is
Mean measured internal diameter, Do =
3
re R
bl
Do = ... cm = ... × 10–2 m
E
Corrected internal diameter,
D = Do – ( ± e ) = ... cm = ... × 10–2 m
be C

h1 + h2 + h3
Mean measured depth of the beaker, ho =
to N

= ... cm = ... × 10–2 m


©

Corrected measured depth of the beaker


h = h o – ( ± e ) ... cm = ... × 10–2 m
Internal volume of the beaker

π D2 h
V= =...×10 –6 m 3
4

R
ESULT
t
no

(a) Diameter of the spherical/ cylindrical body,


D = ... × 10 –2m
(b) Density of the given rectangular block,
ρ = ... kgm–3
(c) Internal volume of the given beaker
V'= ... m3
30
EXPERIMENT 1
UNIT NAME

P RECAUTIONS
1. If the vernier scale is not sliding smoothly over the main scale,
apply machine oil/grease.
2. Screw the vernier tightly without exerting undue pressure to avoid
any damage to the threads of the screw.
3. Keep the eye directly over the division mark to avoid any error
due to parallax.

d
4. Note down each observation with correct significant figures

he
and units.

SOURCES OF ERROR

pu T
is
Any measurement made using Vernier Callipers is likely to be
incorrect if-
re R
bl
(i) the zero error in the instrument placed is not accounted for; and
E
(ii) the Vernier Callipers is not in a proper position with respect to the
body, avoiding gaps or undue pressure or both.

D
be C

ISCUSSION
to N

1. A Vernier Callipers is necessary and suitable only for certain


types of measurement where the required dimension of the object
is freely accessible. It cannot be used in many situations. e.g.
©

suppose a hole of diameter 'd' is to be drilled into a metal block.


If the diameter d is small - say 2 mm, neither the diameter nor
the depth of the hole can be measured with a Vernier Callipers.
2. It is also important to realise that use of Vernier Callipers for
measuring length/width/thickness etc. is essential only when
the desired degree of precision in the result (say determination
of the volume of a wire) is high. It is meaningless to use it where
precision in measurement is not going to affect the result much.
For example, in a simple pendulum experiment, to measure
t

the diameter of the bob, since L >> d.

S
no

ELF ASSESSMENT
1. One can undertake an exercise to know the level of skills developed
in making measurements using Vernier Callipers. Objects, such
as bangles/kangan, marbles whose dimensions can be measured
indirectly using a thread can be used to judge the skill acquired
through comparison of results obtained using both the methods.
2. How does a vernier decrease the least count of a scale.
31
LABORATORY MANUAL
LABORATORY MANUAL

SUGGESTED ADDITIONAL EXPERIMENTS/ACTIVITIES

1. Determine the density of glass/metal of a (given) cylindrical vessel.

2. Measure thickness of doors and boards.

3. Measure outer diameter of a water pipe.

ADDITIONAL EXERCISE

1. In the vernier scale nor mally used in a Fortin's barometer, 20 VSD


coincide with 19 MSD (each division of length 1 mm). Find the least
count of the vernier.

d
2. In vernier scale (angular) normally provided in spectrometers/sextant,
60 VSD coincide with 59 MSD (each division of angle 1°). Find the least

he
count of the vernier.

3. How would the precision of the measurement by Vernier Callipers be


affected by increasing the number of divisions on its vernier scale?

pu T How can you find the value of π using a given cylinder and a pair of

is
4.
Vernier Callipers?
re R
[Hint : Using the Ver nier Callipers, - Measure the diameter D and find

bl
the circumference of the cylinder using a thread. Ratio of circumference
to the diameter (D) gives π.]
E
5. How can you find the thickness of the sheet used for making of a steel
tumbler using Ver nier Callipers?
be C

[Hint: Measure the internal diameter (D i) and external diameter (Do) of


the tumbler. Then, thickness of the sheet Dt = (D o – Di )/2.]
t to N
©
no

32
EXPERIMENT 2
AIM

d
Use of screw gauge to
(a) measure diameter of a given wire,

he
(b) measure thickness of a given sheet; and
(c) determine volume of an irregular lamina.

pu T
APPARATUS AND MATERIAL REQUIRED

is
re R
bl
Wire, metallic sheet, irregular lamina, millimetre graph paper, pencil
and screw gauge.
E
D ESCRIPTION OF APPARATUS
be C

With Vernier Callipers. you are usually able to measure length


accurately up to 0.1 mm. More accurate measurement of length, up
to N

to 0.01 mm or 0.005 mm, may be made by using a screw gauge. As


such a Screw Gauge is an
instrument of higher precision than
©

a Vernier Callipers. You might have


observed an ordinary screw [Fig E2.1
(a)]. There are threads on a screw. The
separation between any two
consecutive threads is the same. The
screw can be moved backward or
forward in its nut by rotating it anti-
Fig.E 2.1 A screw (a) without nut (b) with nut
clockwise or clockwise [Fig E2.1(b)].
The distance advanced by the screw
t

when it makes its one complete


no

rotation is the separation between


two consecutive threads. This
distance is called the Pitch of the
screw. Fig. E 2.1(a) shows the pitch
(p) of the screw. It is usually 1 mm
or 0.5 mm. Fig. E 2.2 shows a
screw gauge. It has a screw ’S’
which advances forward or
backward as one rotates the head Fig.E 2.2: View of a screw gauge
C through rachet R. There is a linear
LABORATORY MANUAL
LABORATORY MANUAL

scale ‘LS’ attached to limb D of the U frame. The smallest division on


the linear scale is 1 mm (in one type of screw gauge). There is a circular
scale CS on the head, which can be rotated. There are 100 divisions
on the circular scale. When the end B of the screw touches the surface
A of the stud ST, the zero marks on the main scale and the circular
scale should coincide with each other.
ZERO ERROR
When the end of the screw and the surface of the

d
stud are in contact with each other, the linear scale
and the circular scale reading should be zero. In

he
case this is not so, the screw gauge is said to have
an error called zero error.
Fig. E 2.3 shows an enlarged view of a screw gauge

pu T with its faces A and B in contact. Here, the zero

is
mark of the LS and the CS are coinciding with each
other.
re R
bl When the reading on the circular scale across the
linear scale is more than zero (or positive), the
E
instrument has Positive zero error as shown in
Fig.E 2.3: A screw gauge with no zero error Fig. E 2.4 (a). When the reading of the circular scale
be C

across the linear scale is less than zero (or negative),


the instrument is said to have negative zero error
as shown in Fig. E 2.4 (b).
to N
©

Fig.E 2.4 (a): Showing a positive zero error

Fig.E 2.4 (b): Showing a negative zero error

TAKING THE LINEAR SCALE READING


t

The mark on the linear scale which lies close to the


no

left edge of the circular scale is the linear scale


reading. For example, the linear scale reading as
shown in Fig. E 2.5, is 0.5 cm.
TAKING CIRCULAR SCALE READING
The division of circular scale which coincides with
Fig.E 2.5: Measuring thickness with a screw the main scale line is the reading of circular scale.
guage For example, in the Fig. E 2.5, the circular scale
reading is 2.
34
EXPERIMENT 2
UNIT NAME

TOTAL READING
Total reading
= linear scale reading + circular scale reading × least count
= 0.5 + 2 × 0.001
= 0.502 cm

PRINCIPLE

d
The linear distance moved by the screw is directly proportional to the
rotation given to it. The linear distance moved by the screw when it is

he
rotated by one division of the circular scale, is the least distance that
can be measured accurately by the instrument. It is called the least
count of the instrument.

pu T
is
pitch
Least count =
No. of divisions on circular scale
re R
bl
For example for a screw gauge with a pitch of 1mm and 100 divisions
on the circular scale. The least count is
E
1 mm/100 = 0.01 mm
be C

This is the smallest length one can measure with this screw gauge.
In another type of screw gauge, pitch is 0.5 mm and there are 50
to N

divisions on the circular scale. The least count of this screw gauge
is 0.5 mm/50 = 0.01 mm. Note that here two rotations of the
circular scale make the screw to advance through a distance of 1
©

mm. Some screw gauge have a least count of 0.001 mm (i.e. 10–6
m) and therefore are called micrometer screw.
(a) Measurement of Diameter of a Given Wire

PROCEDURE
1. Take the screw gauge and make sure that the rachet R on the
head of the screw functions properly.
t

2. Rotate the screw through, say, ten complete rotations and observe
no

the distance through which it has receded. This distance is the


reading on the linear scale marked by the edge of the circular
scale. Then, find the pitch of the screw, i.e., the distance moved by
the screw in one complete rotation. If there are n divisions on the
circular scale, then distance moved by the screw when it is rotated
through one division on the circular scale is called the least count
of the screw gauge, that is,
pitch
Least count =
n
35
LABORATORY MANUAL
LABORATORY MANUAL

3. Insert the given wire between the screw and the stud of the screw
gauge. Move the screw forward by rotating the rachet till the wire
is gently gripped between the screw and the stud as shown in
Fig. E 2.5. Stop rotating the rachet the moment you hear a click
sound.
4. Take the readings on the linear scale and the circular scale.
5. From these two readings, obtain the diameter of the wire.
6. The wire may not have an exactly

d
circular cross-section. Therefore. it is
necessary to measure the diameter of the

he
wire for two positions at right angles to
each other. For this, first record the
reading of diameter d1 [Fig. E 2.6 (a)]

pu T and then rotate the wire through 90° at

is
the same cross-sectional position.
Record the reading for diameter d2 in this
re R
bl
position [Fig. E 2.6 (b)].
7. The wire may not be truly cylindrical.
E
Fig.E 2.6 (a): Two magnified views (a) and (b) of a wire
Therefore, it is necessary to measure the
showing its perpendicular diameters d1
and d2. d2 is obtained after the rotating diameter at several different places and
be C

the wire in the clockwise direction obtain the average value of diameter. For
through 90°. this, repeat the steps (3) to (6) for three
more positions of the wire.
to N

8. Take the mean of the different values of diameter so obtained.


9. Substract zero error, if any, with proper sign to get the corrected
©

value for the diameter of the wire.

OBSERVATIONS AND CALCULATION


The length of the smallest division on the linear scale = ... mm
Distance moved by the screw when it is rotated
through x complete rotations, y = ... mm

y
t

Pitch of the screw = = ... mm


no

Number of divisions on the circular scale n = ...


Least Count (L.C.) of screw guage

pitch
= = ... mm
No. of divisions on the circular scale

Zero error with sign (No. of div. × L. C.) = ... mm


36
EXPERIMENT 2
UNIT NAME

Table E 2.1: Measurement of the diameter of the wire

S. Reading along Reading Measured


No. one direction along diameter
(d1 ) perpendicular
direction (d2) d1 + d2
d=
2
Linear Circular Diameter Linear Circular Diameter
scale scale d1 = M + n × L.C. scale scale d = M + n × L.C.
reading reading reading reading 2

d
M (mm) (n) (mm) M (mm) (n) (mm)

he
1

pu T
is
4
re R
bl
Mean diameter = ... mm
E
Mean corrected value of diameter
be C

= measured diameter – (zero error with sign) = ... mm

R
to N

ESULT
The diameter of the given wire as measured by screw gauge is ... m.

P
©

RECAUTIONS
1. Rachet arrangement in screw gauge must be utilised to avoid undue
pressure on the wire as this may change the diameter.
2. Move the screw in one direction else the screw may develop “play”.
3. Screw should move freely without friction.
4. Reading should be taken atleast at four different points along the
t

length of the wire.


no

5. View all the reading keeping the eye perpendicular to the scale to
avoid error due to parallax.

SOURCES OF ERROR
1. The wire may not be of uniform cross-section.
2. Error due to backlash though can be minimised but cannot be
completely eliminated.
37
LABORATORY MANUAL
LABORATORY MANUAL

BACKLASH ERROR
In a good instrument (either screw gauge or a spherometer) the
thread on the screw and that on the nut (in which the screw moves),
should tightly fit with each other. However, with repeated use,
the threads of both the screw and the nut may get worn out. As
a result a gap develops between these two threads, which is called
“play”. The play in the threads may introduce an error in
measurement in devices like screw gauge. This error is called
backlash error. In instruments having backlash error, the screw

d
slips a small linear distance without rotation. To prevent this, it
is advised that the screw should be moved in only one direction

he
while taking measurements.
3. The divisions on the linear scale and the circular scale may not be
evenly spaced.

D pu T
is
ISCUSSION
re R
bl
1. Try to assess if the value of diameter obtained by you is realistic
or not. There may be an error by a factor of 10 or 100 . You can
E
obtain a very rough estimation of the diameter of the wire by
measuring its thickness with an ordinary metre scale.
be C

2. Why does a screw gauge develop backlash error with use?

S
to N

ELF ASSESSMENT
1. Is the screw gauge with smaller least count always better? If you
©

are given two screw gauges, one with 100 divisions on circular
scale and another with 200 divisions, which one would you prefer
and why?
2. Is there a situation in which the linear distance moved by the screw
is not proportional to the rotation given to it?
3. Is it possible that the zero of circular scale lies above the zero line
of main scale, yet the error is positive zero error?
4. For measurement of small lengths, why do we prefer screw gauge
t

over Vernier Callipers?


no

SUGGESTED ADDITIONAL EXPERIMENTS/ACTIVITIES

1. Think of a method to find the ‘pitch’ of bottle caps.


2. Compare the ‘pitch’ of an ordinary screw with that of a screw guage.
In what ways are the two different?
3. Measure the diameters of petioles (stem which holds the leaf) of
different leaf and check if it has any relation with the mass or surface
area of the leaf. Let the petiole dry before measuring its diameter by
screw gauge.
38
EXPERIMENT 2
UNIT NAME

4. Measure the thickness of the sheet of stainless steel glasses of


various make and relate it to their price structure.

5. Measure the pitch of the ‘screw’ end of different types of hooks and
check if it has any relation with the weight each one of these hooks
are expected to hold.
6. Measure the thickness of different glass bangles available in the
Market. Are they made as per some standard?

7. Collect from the market, wires of different gauge numbers, measure


their diameters and relate the two. Find out various uses of wires of
each gauge number.

d
(b) Measurement of Thickness of a Given Sheet

he
PROCEDURE

pu T
1. Insert the given sheet between the studs of the screw gauge and

is
determine the thickness at five different positions.
re R
2. Find the average thickness and calculate the correct thickness by

bl
applying zero error following the steps followed earlier.

O
E
BSERVATIONS AND CALCULATION
be C

Least count of screw gauge = ... mm


Zero error of screw gauge = ... mm
to N

Table E 2.2 Measurement of thickness of sheet

S. Linear scale Circular Thickness


©

No. reading M scale reading


t = M + n × L.C.
(mm) n
(mm)
1

4
t

5
no

Mean thickness of the given sheet = ... mm


Mean corrected thickness of the given sheet
= observed mean thickness – (zero error with sign) = ... mm

RESULT
The thickness of the given sheet is ... m.
39
LABORATORY MANUAL
LABORATORY MANUAL

S
OURCES OF ERROR
1. The sheet may not be of uniform thickness.
2. Error due to backlash though can be minimised but cannot be
eliminated completely.

D ISCUSSION

d
1. Assess whether the thickness of sheet measured by you is realistic
or not. You may take a pile of say 20 sheets, and find its thickness

he
using a metre scale and then calculate the thickness of one sheet.
2. What are the limitations of the screw gauge if it is used to measure
the thickness of a thick cardboard sheet?

pu T
is
SUGGESTED ADDITIONAL EXPERIMENTS/ACTIVITIES
re R
bl
1. Find out the thickness of different wood ply boards available in the
market and verify them with the specifications provided by the
supplier.
E
2. Measure the thickness of the steel sheets used in steel almirahs
manufactured by different suppliers and compare their prices. Is it
be C

better to pay for a steel almirah by mass or by the guage of steel


sheets used?
3. Design a cardboard box for packing 144 sheets of paper and give
to N

its dimensions.

4. Hold 30 pages of your practical notebook between the screw and


the stud and measure its thickness to find the thickness of one
©

sheet.
5. Find the thickness of plastic ruler/metal sheet of the geometry box.

(C) Determination of Volume of the Given Irregular Lamina

P ROCEDURE
1. Find the thickness of lamina as in Experiment E 2(b).
2. Place the irregular lamina on a sheet of paper with mm graph.
Draw the outline of the lamina using a sharp pencil. Count the
t
no

total number of squares and also more than half squares within
the boundary of the lamina and determine the area of the lamina.
3. Obtain the volume of the lamina using the relation
mean thickness × area of lamina.

O BSERVATIONS AND CALCULATION


Same as in Experiment E 2(b). The first section of the table is now for
readings of thickness at five different places along the edge of the
40
EXPERIMENT 2
UNIT NAME

lamina. Calculate the mean thickness and make correction for zero
error, if any.
From the outline drawn on the graph paper:-
Total number of complete squares = ... mm2 = ... cm2
Volume of the lamina = ... mm3 = ... cm3

RESULT

d
Volume of the given lamina = ... cm3

he
SUGGESTED ADDITIONAL EXPERIMENTS/ACTIVITIES

1. Find the density of cardboard.

pu T
2. Find the volume of a leaf (neem, bryophyte).

is
3. Find the volume of a cylindrical pencil.
re R
bl
E
be C
tto N
©
no

41
LABORATORY MANUAL
LABORATORY MANUAL

EXPERIMENT 3
AIM

d
To determine the radius of curvature of a given spherical surface by a
spherometer.

he
APPARATUS AND MATERIAL REQUIRED
pu T
A spherometer, a spherical surface such as a watch glass or a convex

is
mirror and a plane glass plate of about 6 cm × 6 cm size.

D
re R
bl
ESCRIPTION OF APPARATUS
E
A spherometer consists of a metallic triangular frame F supported on
three legs of equal length A, B and C (Fig. E 3.1). The lower tips of the
be C

legs form three corners of an equilateral triangle ABC


and lie on the periphery of a base circle of known radius,
r. The spherometer also consists of a central leg OS (an
to N

accurately cut screw), which can be raised or lowered


through a threaded hole V (nut) at the centre of the frame
F. The lower tip of the central screw, when lowered to
©

the plane (formed by the tips of legs A, B and C) touches


the centre of triangle ABC. The central screw also carries
a circular disc D at its top having a circular scale divided
into 100 or 200 equal parts. A small vertical scale P
marked in millimetres or half-millimetres, called main
scale is also fixed parallel to the central screw, at one end
of the frame F. This scale P is kept very close to the rim of
disc D but it does not touch the disc D. This scale reads
the vertical distance which the central leg moves through
Fig. E 3.1: A spherometer the hole V. This scale is also known as pitch scale.
t

T
no

ERMS AND DEFINITIONS


Pitch: It is the vertical distance moved by the central screw in one
complete rotation of the circular disc scale.
Commonly used spherometers in school laboratories have
graduations in millimetres on pitch scale and may have100 equal
divisions on circular disc scale. In one rotation of the circular scale,
the central screw advances or recedes by 1 mm. Thus, the pitch of
42 the screw is 1 mm.
EXPERIMENT 3
UNIT NAME

Least Count: Least count of a spherometer is the distance moved by


the spherometer screw when it is turned through one division on the
circular scale, i.e.,

Pitch of thespherom eter screw


Least count of the spherometer =
Number of divisions on the circular scale

The least count of commonly used spherometers is 0.01 mm.


However, some spherometers have least count as small as

d
0.005 mm or 0.001 mm.

he
RINCIPLE
FORMULA FOR THE RADIUS OF CURVATURE OF A SPHERICAL
SURFACE

pu T
is
Let the circle AOBXZY (Fig. E 3.2) represent the vertical section of
re R
sphere of radius R with E as its centre (The given spherical surface is

bl
a part of this sphere). Length OZ is the diameter (= 2R ) of this vertical
section, which bisects the chord AB. Points A and B are the positions
E
of the two spherometer legs on the given spherical surface. The position
of the third spherometer leg is not shown in Fig. E 3.2. The point O is
be C

the point of contact of the tip of central screw with the spherical surface.
Fig. E 3.3 shows
to N

the base circle and


equilateral triangle
ABC formed by the
tips of the three
©

spherometer legs.
From this figure, it
can be noted that the
point M is not only
the mid point of line
AB but it is the
centre of base circle
and centre of the
equilateral triangle
t

ABC formed by the


no

lower tips of the legs of


the spherometer (Fig.
E 3.1).
In Fig. E 3.2 the
distance OM is the
height of central Fig. E 3.2: Measurement of radius Fig. E 3.3: The base circle of
screw above the plane of curvature of a spheri- the spherometer
of the circular section cal surface
ABC when its lower
43
LABORATORY MANUAL
LABORATORY MANUAL

tip just touches the spherical surface. This distance OM is also called
sagitta. Let this be h. It is known that if two chords of a circle, such
as AB and OZ, intersect at a point M then the areas of the rectangles
described by the two parts of chords are equal. Then
AM.MB = OM.MZ
(AM)2 = OM (OZ – OM) as AM = MB
Let EZ (= OZ/2) = R, the radius of curvature of the given spherical
surface and AM = r, the radius of base circle of the spherometer.

d
r2 = h (2R – h)

he
r2 h
Thus, R= +
2h 2

pu T
is
Now, let l be the distance between any two legs of the spherometer or
re R
the side of the equilateral triangle ABC (Fig. E 3.3), then from geometry

bl
we have
E
l
Thus, r = , the radius of curvature (R) of the given spherical surface
be C

3
can be given by
to N

l2 h
R= +
6h 2
©

P
ROCEDURE
1. Note the value of one division on pitch scale of the given
spherometer.
2. Note the number of divisions on circular scale.
3. Determine the pitch and least count (L.C.) of the spherometer. Place
the given flat glass plate on a horizontal plane and keep the
t

spherometer on it so that its three legs rest on the plate.


no

4. Place the spherometer on a sheet of paper (or on a page in practical


note book) and press it lightly and take the impressions of the tips
of its three legs. Join the three impressions to make an equilateral
triangle ABC and measure all the sides of ΔABC. Calculate the
mean distance between two spherometer legs, l.
In the determination of radius of curvature R of the given spherical
surface, the term l 2 is used (see formula used). Therefore, great
care must be taken in the measurement of length, l.
44
EXPERIMENT 3
UNIT NAME

5. Place the given spherical surface on the plane glass plate and then
place the spherometer on it by raising or lowering the central screw
sufficiently upwards or downwards so that the three spherometer
legs may rest on the spherical surface (Fig. E 3.4).
6. Rotate the central screw till it gently touches the spherical surface.
To be sure that the screw touches the surface one can observe its
image formed due to
reflection from the surface
beneath it.

d
7. Take the spherometer

he
reading h 1 by taking the
reading of the pitch scale.
Also read the divisions of
the circular scale that is in

pu T
is
line with the pitch scale.
Record the readings in
re R
Table E 3.1.

bl
Fig.E 3.4: Measurement of sagitta h
8. Remove the spherical
E
surface and place the spherometer on plane glass plate. Turn the
central screw till its tip gently touches the glass plate. Take the
spherometer reading h 2 and record it in Table E 3.1. The difference
be C

between h 1 and h 2 is equal to the value of sagitta (h).


9. Repeat steps (5) to (8) three more times by rotating the spherical
to N

surface leaving its centre undisturbed. Find the mean value of h.

OBSERVATIONS
©

A. Pitch of the screw:


(i) Value of smallest division on the vertical pitch scale = ... mm

(ii) Distance q moved by the screw for p complete rotations of the


circular disc = ... mm
(iii) Pitch of the screw ( = q / p ) = ... mm

B. Least Count (L.C.) of the spherometer:


t
no

(i) Total no. of divisions on the circular scale (N ) = ...

(ii) Least count (L.C.) of the spherometer


Pitch of the spherometer screw
=
Number of divisionson the circu lar scale

L.C.= Pitch of the screw = ... cm


N
45
LABORATORY MANUAL
LABORATORY MANUAL

C. Determination of length l (from equilateral triangle ABC)


(i) Distance AB = ... cm
(ii) Distance BC = ... cm
(iii) Distance CA = ... cm

AB + BC +CA
Mean l = = ... cm
3

d
Table E 3.1 Measurement of sagitta h

he
S. Spherometer readings (h1 – h2 )
No.
With Spherical Surface Horizontal Plane Surface

pu T
is
Pitch Circular Circular Spherometer Pitch Circular Circular Spherometer
Scale scale scale reading with Scale scale scale reading with
re R
reading division reading spherical reading division reading spherical
x (cm) coinciding
with pitch

bl z =y × L.C. surface
(cm) h1 = x + z
x1 (cm) coinciding
with pitch
surface
z ′=y × L.C. h =x′ + z ′
E
2
scale y (cm) scale y ′ (cm) (cm)
be C
to N
©

Mean h = ... cm

C ALCULATIONS
A. Using the values of l and h, calculate the radius of curvature R
from the formula:

l2 h
R=
t

+ ;
6h 2
no

the term h/2 may safely be dropped in case of surfaces of large radii
⎛ 2⎞
of curvature (In this situation error in ⎜ l ⎟ is of the order of h/2).
⎜⎝ 6h ⎟⎠

R ESULT
The radius of curvature R of the given spherical surface is ... cm.

46
EXPERIMENT 3
UNIT NAME

P RECAUTIONS
1. The screw may have friction.
2. Spherometer may have backlash error.

SOURCES OF ERROR
1. Parallax error while reading the pitch scale corresponding to the

d
level of the circular scale.

he
2. Backlash error of the spherometer.
3. Non-uniformity of the divisions in the circular scale.
4. While setting the spherometer, screw may or may not be touching

pu T
is
the horizontal plane surface or the spherical surface.

D
re R
ISCUSSION

bl
E
Does a given object, say concave mirror or a convex mirror, have the
same radius of curvature for its two surfaces? [Hint: Does the thickness
be C

of the material of object make any difference?]

SUGGESTED ADDITIONAL EXPERIMENTS/ACTIVITIES


to N

1. Determine the focal length of a convex/concave spherical mirror


using a spherometer.

2. (a) Using spherometer measure the thickness of a small piece of


©

thin sheet of metal/glass.

(b) Which instrument would be precise for measuring thickness of


a card sheet – a screw gauge or a spherometer?
t
no

47
LABORATORY MANUAL
LABORATORY MANUAL

EXPERIMENT 4
A
IM

d
To determine mass of two different objects using a beam balance.

he
A
PPARATUS AND MATERIAL REQUIRED
Physical balance, weight box with a set of milligram masses and

pu T
is
forceps, spirit level and two objects whose masses are to be determined.

D
re R
bl
ESCRIPTION OF PHYSICAL BALANCE
E
A physical balance is a device that measures the weight (or gravitational
mass) of an object by comparing it with a standard weight (or standard
be C

gravitational mass).
The most commonly used two-pan beam
to N

balance is an application of a lever. It consists


of a rigid uniform bar (beam), two pans
suspended from each end, and a pivotal point
in the centre of the bar (Fig. E 4.1). At this pivotal
©

point, a support (called fulcrum) is set at right


angles to the beam. This beam balance works
on the principle of moments.
For high precision measurements, a physical
balance (Fig. E 4.2) is often used in laboratories.
Like a common beam balance, a physical
balance too consists of a pair of scale pans P1
and P2, one at each end of a rigid beam B. The
pans P1 and P2 are suspended through stirrups
t

S1 and S2 respectively, on inverted knife-edges


no

Fig. E 4.1: A beam balance and set of weights E 1 and E2, respectively, provided symmetrically
near the end of the beam B. The beam is also
provided with a hard material (like agate) knife-
edge (E) fixed at the centre pointing downwards
and is supported on a vertical pillar (V) fixed on a wooden baseboard
(W). The baseboard is provided with three levelling screws W1, W2 and
W3. In most balances, screws W1 and W2 are of adjustable heights and
through these the baseboard W is levelled horizontally. The third screw
W3, not visible in Fig. E 4.2, is not of adjustable height and is fixed in
48 the middle at the back of board W. When the balance is in use, the
EXPERIMENT 4
UNIT NAME

knife-edge E rests on a
plane horizontal plate
fixed at the top of pillar
V. Thus, the central
edge E acts as a pivot
or fulcrum for the beam
B. When the balance is
not in use, the beam
rests on the supports
X 1 and X 2, These

d
supports, X 1 and X 2,
are fixed to another

he
horizontal bar attached
with the central pillar V.
Also, the pans P1 and

pu T
P 2 rest on supports A1

is
and A2, respectively,
Fig. E 4.2: A physical balance and a weight box
re R
fixed on the wooden

bl
baseboard. In some
balances, supports Al and A2 are not fixed and in that case the pans
E
rest on board W, when the balance is not in use.
At the centre of beam B, a pointer P is also fixed at right angles to it. A
be C

knob K, connected by a horizontal rod to the vertical pillar V, is also


attached from outside with the board W. With the help of this knob,
to N

the vertical pillar V and supports A1 and A2 can be raised or lowered


simultaneously. Thus, at the 'ON' position of the knob K, the beam
B also gets raised and is then suspended only by the knife-edge E
and oscillates freely. Along with the beam, the pans P1 and P2 also
©

begin to swing up and down. This oscillatory motion of the beam


can be observed by the motion of the pointer P with reference to a
scale (G) provided at the base of the pillar V. When the knob K is
turned back to 'OFF' position, the beam rests on supports X1 and X2
keeping the knife-edge E and plate T slightly separated; and the
pans P1 and P2 rest on supports A1 and A2 respectively. In the 'OFF'
position of the knob K, the entire balance is said to be arrested.
Such an arresting arrangement protects the knife-edges from undue
wear and tear and injury during transfer of masses (unknown and
t

standards) from the pan.


no

On turning the knob K slowly to its ‘ON’ position, when there are no
masses in the two pans, the oscillatory motion (or swing) of the
pointer P with reference to the scale G must be same on either side
of the zero mark on G. And the pointer must stop its oscillatory
motion at the zero mark. It represents the vertical position of the
pointer P and horizontal position of the beam B. However, if the
swing is not the same on either side of the zero mark, the two
balancing screws B1 and B2 at the two ends of the beam are adjusted.
The baseboard W is levelled horizontal1y to make the pillar V vertical.
49
LABORATORY MANUAL
LABORATORY MANUAL

This setting is checked with the help of plumb line (R) suspended by
the side of pillar V. The appartus is placed in a glass case with two
doors.
For measuring the gravitational mass of an object using a physical
balance, it is compared with a standard mass. A set of standard
masses (100 g, 50 g, 20 g, 10g, 5 g, 2 g, and 1 g) along with a pair of
forceps is contained in a wooden box called Weight Box. The masses
are arranged in circular grooves as shown in Fig. E 4.2. A set of
milligram masses (500 mg, 200 mg, 100 mg, 50 mg, 20 mg 10 mg,

d
5 mg, 2 mg, and 1 mg) is also kept separately in the weight box. A
physical balance is usually designed to measure masses of bodies

he
up to 250 g.

P
RINCIPLE

pu T
is
The working of a physical balance is based on the principle of
re R
moments. In a balance, the two arms are of equal length and the two

bl
pans are also of equal masses. When the pans are empty, the beam
remains horizontal on raising the beam base by using the lower knob.
E
When an object to be weighed is placed in the left pan, the beam
turns in the anticlockwise direction. Equilibrium can be obtained
be C

by placing suitable known standard weights on the right hand pan.


Since, the force arms are equal, the weight (i.e., forces) on the two
pans have to be equal.
to N

A physical balance compares forces. The forces are the weights (mass
× acceleration due to gravity) of the objects placed in the two pans of
the physical balance. Since the weights are directly proportional to
©

the masses if weighed at the same place, therefore, a physical balance


is used for the comparison of gravitational masses. Thus, if an object
O having gravitational mass m is placed in one pan of the physical
balance and a standard mass O′ of known gravitational mass ms is
put in the other pan to keep the beam the horizontal, then
Weight of body O in one pan = Weight of body O′ in other pan
Or, mg = msg
where g is the acceleration due to gravity, which is constant. Thus,
t
no

m = ms
That is,
the mass of object O in one pan = standard mass in the other pan

P
ROCEDURE
1. Examine the physical balance and recognise all of its parts. Check
that every part is at its proper place.
50
EXPERIMENT 4
UNIT NAME

2. Check that set of the weight, both in gram and milligram, in the
weight box are complete.

3. Ensure that the pans are clean and dry.


4. Check the functioning of arresting mechanism of the beam B by
means of the knob K.

5. Level the wooden baseboard W of the physical balance


horizontally with the help of the levelling screws W1 and W2. In
levelled position, the lower tip of the plumb line R should be

d
exactly above the fixed needle point N. Use a spirit level for this
purpose.

he
6. Close the shutters of the glass case provided for covering the
balance and slowly raise the beam B using the knob K.

pu T
7. Observe the oscillatory motion of the pointer P with reference to

is
the small scale G fixed at the foot of the vertical pillar V. In case,
re R
the pointer does not start swinging, give a small gentle jerk to

bl
one of the pans. Fix your eye perpendicular to the scale to avoid
parallax. Caution: Do not touch the pointer.
E
8. See the position of the pointer P. Check that it either stops at the
central zero mark or moves equally on both sides of the central
be C

zero mark on scale G. If not, adjust the two balancing screws B1


and B2 placed at the two ends of the beam B so that the pointer
to N

swings equally on either side of the central zero mark or stops at


the central zero mark. Caution: Arrest the balance before
adjusting the balancing screws.
©

9 . Open the shutter of the glass case of the balance. Put the
object whose mass (M) is to be measured in the left hand
pan and add a suitable standard mass say M1, (which may
be more than the rough estimate of the mass of the object)
in the right hand pan of the balance in its rest (or arrested)
position, i.e., when the beam B is lowered and allowed to
rest on stoppers X l and X2. Always use forceps for taking
out the standard mass from the weight box and for putting
them back.
t

The choice of putting object on left hand pan and standard


no

masses on right hand pan is arbitrary and chosen due to the


ease in handling the standard masses. A left handed person may
prefer to keep the object on right hand pan and standard masses
on left hand pan. It is also advised to keep the weight box near
the end of board W on the side of the pan being used for putting
the standard masses.
10. Using the knob K, gently raise the beam (now the beam’s knife
edge E will rest on plate T fixed on the top of the pillar V) and
observe the motion of the pointer P. It might rest on one side of
51
LABORATORY MANUAL
LABORATORY MANUAL

the scale or might oscillate more in one direction with reference


to the central zero mark on the scale G.

Note: Pans should not swing while taking the observations. The
swinging of pans may be stopped by carefully touching the pan
with the finger in the arresting position of the balance.

11. Check whether M1 is more than M or less. For this purpose, the
beam need to be raised to the full extent.

d
12. Arrest the physical balance. Using forceps, replace the standard
masses kept in the right pan by another mass (say M2). It should

he
be lighter if M1 is more than the mass M and vice versa.

13. Raise the beam and observe the motion of the pointer P and check
whether the standard mass kept on right hand pan is still heavier

pu T
(or lighter) than the mass M so that the pointer oscillates more in

is
one direction. If so, repeat step 12 using standard masses in gram
till the pointer swings nearly equal on both sides of the central
re R
bl
zero mark on scale G. Make the standard masses kept on right
hand pan to be slightly lesser than the mass of object. This would
E
result in the measurement of mass M of object with a precision of
1 g. Lower the beam B.
be C

14. For fine measurement of mass add extra milligram masses


in the right hand pan in descending order until the pointer
to N

swings nearly equal number of divisions on either side of the


central zero mark on scale G (use forceps to pick the milligram
or fractional masses by their turned-up edge). In the
equilibrium position (i.e., when the masses kept on both the
©

pans are equal), the pointer will rest at the centre zero mark.
Close the door of the glass cover to prevent disturbances due
to air draughts.

Note: The beam B of the balance should not be raised to the full
extent until milligram masses are being added or removed.
Pointer’s position can be seen by lifting the beam very gently and
for a short moment.

15. Arrest the balance and take out masses from the right hand pan
t

one by one and note total mass in notebook. Replace them in


no

their proper slot in the weight box. Also remove the object from
the left hand pan.

16. Repeat the step 9 to step 15 two more times for the same object.

17. Repeat steps 9 to 15 and determine the mass of the second given
object.

Record the observations for the second object in the table similar to
Table E 4.1.
52
EXPERIMENT 4
UNIT NAME

O BSERVATIONS
TABLE E 4.1: Mass of First Object

S. Standard mass Mass of the object (x + y)


No.
Gram weights, x Milligram weights, y
(g) (mg) (g)

d
1
2

he
3

Mean mass of the first object = ... g

pu T
is
TABLE E 4.2: Mass of Second Object
re R
S. Standard mass Mass of the object (x + y)

bl
No.
E
Gram weights, x Milligram weights, y
(g) (mg) (g)
1
be C

2
to N

Mean mass of the second object = ... g

R
©

ESULT
The mass of the first given object is ... g and that of the second
object is ... g.

PRECAUTIONS
1. The correctness of mass determined by a physical balance depends
on minimising the errors, which may arise due to the friction between
t

the knife-edge E and plate T. Friction cannot be removed completely.


no

However, it can be minimised when the knife-edge is sharp and


plate is smooth. The friction between other parts of the balance may
be minimised by keeping all the parts of balance dry and clean.
2. Masses should always be added in the descending order of
magnitude. Masses should be placed in the centre of the pan.
3. The balance should not be loaded with masses more than
capacity. Usually a physical balance is designed to measure
masses upto 250 g.
53
LABORATORY MANUAL
LABORATORY MANUAL

4. Weighing of hot and coId bodies using a physical balance should


be avoided. Similarly, active substances like chemicals, liquids
and powders should not be kept directly on the pan.

S
OURCES OF ERROR
1. There is always some error due to friction at various parts of the
balance.
2. The accuracy of the physical balance is 1 mg. This limits the

d
possible instrumental error.

he
D ISCUSSION
The deviation of experimental value from the given value may be due

pu T
is
to many factors.
1. The forceps used to load/unload the weights might contain dust
re R
bl
particles sticking to it which may get transferred to the weight.
2. Often there is a general tendancy to avoid use of levelling and
E
balancing screws to level the beam/physical balance just before
using it.
be C

S
ELF ASSESSMENT
to N

1. Why is it necessary to close the shutters of the glass case for an


accurate measurement?
©

2. There are two physical balances: one with equal arms and other
with unequal arms. Which one should be preferred? What
additional steps do you need to take to use a physical balance
with unequal arms.
3. The minimum mass that can be used from the weight box is 10 g.
Find the possible instrumental error.
4. Instead of placing the mass (say a steel block) on the pan, suppose
it is hanged from the same hook S1 on which the pan P1 is hanging.
t

Will the value of measured mass be same or different?


no

SUGGESTED ADDITIONAL EXPERIMENTS/ACTIVITIES

1. Determination of density of material of a non-porous block and


verification of Archimedes principle:

Hint: First hang the small block (say steel block) from hook S1 and
determine its mass in air. Now put the hanging block in a half water -
filled measuring cylinder. Measure the mass of block in water. Will it
be same, more or less? Also detemine the volume of steel block.
Find the density of the material of the block. From the measured
masses of the steel block in air and water, verify Archimedes principle.
54
EXPERIMENT
UNIT NAME

EXPERIMENT 5
AIM

d
Measurement of the weight of a given body (a wooden block) using

he
the parallelogram law of vector addition.

APPARATUS AND MATERIAL REQUIRED


pu T
is
The given body with hook, the parallelogram law of vector apparatus
(Gravesand's apparatus), strong thread, slotted weights (two sets),
re R
bl
white paper, thin mirror strip, sharp pencil.

D
E
ESCRIPTION OF MATERIAL
be C

Gravesand's apparatus: It consists of a wooden board fixed


vertically on two wooden pillars as shown in Fig. E 5.1 (a). Two pulleys
P1 and P2 are provided on its two sides near the upper edge of the
to N

board. A thread carrying hangers for addition of slotted weights is


made to pass over the pulleys so that two forces P and Q can be applied
by adding weights in the hangers. By suspending the given object,
©

whose weight is to be determined, in the middle of the thread, a third


force X is applied.
t
no

Fig. E 5.1(a): Gravesand's apparatus Fig. E 5.1(b): Marking forces to scale


55
LABORATORY MANUAL
LABORATORY MANUAL

P
RINCIPLE
Working of this apparatus is based on the parallelogram law of
vector addition. The law states that "when two forces act
simultaneously at a point and are represented in magnitude and
direction by the two adjacent sides of a parallelogram, then the
resultant of forces can be represented both in magnitude and
direction by the diagonal of the parallelogram passing through the
point of application of the two forces.

d
Let P and Q be the magnitudes of the two forces and θ the angle be-

he
tween them. Then the resultant R of P and Q is given by

R = P 2 + Q2 + 2 PQ cosθ

pu T
is
If two known forces P and Q and a third unknown force due to the
weight of the given body are made to act at a point O [Fig. 5.1 (a)]
re R
such that they are in equilibrium, the unknown force is equal to

bl
the resultant of the two forces. Thus, the weight of a given body
can be found.
E
P
ROCEDURE
be C

1. Set the board of Gravesand's apparatus in vertical position by


to N

using a plumb-line. Ensure that the pulleys are moving


smoothly. Fix a sheet of white paper on the wooden board with
drawing pins.
©

2. Take a sufficiently long piece of string and tie the two hangers at
its ends. Tie another shorter string in the middle of the first string
to make a knot at 'O'. Tie the body of unknown weight at the
other end of the string. Arrange them on the pulley as shown in
Fig. E 5.1 (a) with slotted weights on the hangers.
3. Add weights in the hangers such that the junction of the threads
is in equilibrium in the lower half of the paper. Make sure that
neither the weights nor the threads touch the board or
the table.
t

4. Bring the knot of the three threads to position of no-friction. For


no

this, first bring the knot to a point rather wide off its position of
no-friction. On leaving there, it moves towards the position of
no-friction because it is not in equilibrium. While it so moves,
tap the board gently. The point where the knot thus come to rest
is taken as the position of no-friction, mark this point. Repeat
the procedure several times. Each time let the knot approach the
position of no-friction from a different direction and mark the
point where it comes to rest. Find by judgement the centre of
those points which are close together. Mark this centre as O.
56
EXPERIMENT 5
UNIT NAME

5. To mark the direction of the force acting along a string, place a


mirror strip below the string on the paper . Adjust the position of
the eye such that there is no parallax between the string and its
image. Mark the two points A1 and A2 at the edges of the mirror
where the image of the string leaves the mirror [Fig E 5.1 (b)].
Similarly, mark the directions of other two forces by points B1 and
B2 and by points X 1 and X2 along the strings OB and OX
respectively.

d
6. Remove the hangers and note the weight of each hanger and slotted
weights on them.

he
7. Place the board flat on the table with paper on it. Join the three
pairs of points marked on the paper and extend these lines to
meet at O. These three lines represent the directions of the three

pu T
forces.

is
8. Choose a suitable scale, say 0.5 N (50 g wt) = 1cm and cut off
re R
length OA and OB to represent forces P and Q respectively acting

bl
at point O. With OA and OB as adjacent sides, complete the
parallelogram OACB. Ensure that the scale chosen is such that
E
the parallelogram covers the maximum area of the sheet.
be C

9. Join points O and C. The length of OC will measure the weight of


the given body. See whether OC is along the straight line XO. If
not, let it meet BC at some point C′. Measure the angle COC′.
to N

10.Repeat the steps 1 to 9 by suspending two different sets of weights


and calculate the mean value of the unknown weight.

O
©

BSERVATIONS
Weight of each hanger = ... N
Scale, 1cm = ... N

Table E 5.1: Measurement of weight of given body

S. Force P = wt Force Q = wt Length OC Unknown Angle COC′


No. of (hanger + of (hanger + = L weight X =
t

slotted slotted weight L × s


no

weight)

P OA Q OB (cm) (N)
(N) (cm) (N) (cm)

1
2
3

57
LABORATORY MANUAL
LABORATORY MANUAL

R ESULT
The weight of the given body is found to be ... N.

P RECAUTIONS
1. Board of Gravesand's apparatus is perpendicular to table on which
it is placed, by its construction. Check up by plumb line that it is

d
vertical. If it is not, make table top horizontal by putting packing
below appropriate legs of table.

he
2. Take care that pulleys are free to rotate, i.e., have little friction
between pulley and its axle.

S pu T
is
OURCES OF ERROR
re R
bl
1. Friction at the pulleys may persist even after oiling.

2. Slotted weights may not be accurate.


E
3. Slight inaccuracy may creep in while marking the position of
be C

thread.

D
to N

ISCUSSION
1. The Gravesand's apparatus can also be used to verify the
parallelogram law of vector addition for forces as well as
©

triangle law of vector addition. This can be done by using the


same procedure by replacing the unknown weight by a
standard weight.

2. The method described above to find the point of no-friction for the
junction of three threads is quite good experimentally. If you like
to check up by an alternative method, move the junction to
extreme left, extreme right, upper most and lower most positions
where it can stay and friction is maximum. The centre of these
t

four positions is the point of no-friction.


no

3. What is the effect of not locating the point of no-friction accurately?


In addition to the three forces due to weight, there is a fourth
force due to friction. These four are in equilibrium. Thus, the
resultant of P and Q may not be vertically upwards, i.e., exactly
opposite to the direction of X.

4. It is advised that values of P and Q may be checked by spring


balance as slotted weights may have large error in their marked
value. Also check up the result for X by spring balance.
58
EXPERIMENT 5
UNIT NAME

SELF ASSESSMENT
1. State parallelogram law of vector addition.
2. Given two forces, what could be the
(a) Maximum magnitude of resultant force.
(b) Minimum magnitude of resultant force.

d
3. In which situation this parallelogram can be a rhombus.
4. If all the three forces are equal in magnitude, how will the

he
parallelogram modify?
5. When the knot is in equilibrium position, is any force acting on
the pulleys?

pu T
is
SUGGESTED ADDITIONAL EXPERIMENTS/ACTIVITIES
re R
bl 1. Interchange position of the body of unknown weight with either of
the forces and then find out the weight of that body.
E
2. Keeping the two forces same and by varying the unknown weight,
study the angle between the two forces.
be C

3. Suggest suitable method to estimate the density of material of a


given cylinder using parallelogram law of vectors.
to N

4. Implement parallelogram law of vectors in the following situations:-

(a) Catapult (b) Bow and arrow (c) Hand gliding


(d) Kite (e) Cycle pedalling
t ©
no

59
LABORATORY MANUAL
LABORATORY MANUAL

EXPERIMENT 6
AIM

d
Using a Simple Pendulum plot L – T and L – T2 graphs, hence find the

he
effective length of second's pendulum using appropriate graph.

APPARATUS AND MATERIAL REQUIRED


pu T
is
Clamp stand; a split cork; a heavy metallic (brass/iron) spherical bob
re R
with a hook; a long, fine, strong cotton thread/string (about 2.0 m);

D bl
stop-watch; metre scale, graph paper, pencil, eraser.
E
ESCRIPTION OF TIME MEASURING DEVICES IN A SCHOOL LABORATORY
be C

The most common device used for measuring time in a school


laboratory is a stop-watch or a stop-clock (analog). As the names
to N

suggest, these have the provision to start or stop their working as


desired by the experimenter.
(a) Stop-Watch
©

Analog
A stop-watch is a special kind of watch. It has a multipurpose knob
or button (B) for start/stop/back to zero position [Fig. E 6.1(b)]. It has
two circular dials, the bigger one for a longer second’s hand
and the other smaller one for a shorter minute’s hand. The
second’s dial has 30 equal divisions, each division repre-
senting 0.1 second. Before using a stop-watch you should
find its least count. In one rotation, the seconds hand covers
30 seconds (marked by black colour) then in the second
t

rotation another 30 seconds are covered (marked by red


no

colour), therefore, the least count is 0.1 second.


(b) Stop-Clock
The least count of a stop-watch is generally about 0.1s [Fig.
E 6.1(b)] while that of a stop-clock is 1s, so for more accurate
measurement of time intervals in a school laboratory, a
stop-watch is preferred. Digital stop-watches are also
available now. These watches may be started by pressing
Fig.E 6.1(a): Stop - Watch
the button and can be stopped by pressing the same button
60
EXPERIMENT 6
UNIT NAME

once again. The lapsed time interval is directly


displayed by the watch.

TERMS AND DEFINITIONS


1. Second's pendulum: It is a pendulum which
takes precisely one second to move from one
extreme position to other. Thus, its times period
is precisely 2 seconds.

d
2. Simple pendulum: A point mass suspended by
an inextensible, mass less string from a rigid

he
Fig.E 6.1(b): Stop - Clock
point support. In practice a small heavy
spherical bob of high density material of radius
r, much smaller than the length of the suspension, is suspended

pu T
by a light, flexible and strong string/thread supported at the other

is
end firmly with a clamp stand. Fig. E 6.2 is a good approximation
re R
to an ideal simple pendulum.

bl
3. Effective length of the pendulum: The distance L between the
E
point of suspension and the centre of spherical bob (centre of
gravity), L = l + r + e, is also called the effective length where l is the
length of the string from the top of the bob to the hook, e, the
be C

length of the hook and r the radius of the bob.

P
to N

RINCIPLE
The simple pendulum executes Simple Harmonic Motion (SHM)
©

as the acceleration of the pendulum bob is directly proportional to


its displacement from the mean position and is always directed
towards it.
The time period (T) of a simple pendulum for oscillations of small
amplitude, is given by the relation

T = 2π L / g (E 6.1)

where L is the length of the pendulum, and g is the acceleration due


to gravity at the place of experiment.
t

Eq. (6.1) may be rewritten as


no

4 π2 L (E 6.2)
T2 =

P
g

ROCEDURE
1. Place the clamp stand on the table. Tie the hook, attached to
the pendulum bob, to one end of the string of about 150 cm in
length. Pass the other end of the string through two half-pieces
of a split cork.
61
LABORATORY MANUAL
LABORATORY MANUAL

2. Clamp the split cork firmly in the clamp stand such that the line of
separation of the two pieces of the split cork is at right angles to
the line OA along which the pendulum oscillates [Fig. E 6.2(a)].
Mark, with a piece of chalk or ink, on the edge of the table a vertical
line parallel to and just behind the vertical thread OA, the position
of the bob at rest. Take care that the bob hangs vertically (about
2 cm above the floor) beyond the edge of the table so that it is free
to oscillate.
3 . Measure the effective length of simple pendulum as shown

d
in Fig. E 6.2(b).

he
pu T
is
re R
bl
E
be C
to N
©

Fig.E 6.2 (a): A simple pendulum; B and C show Fig.E 6.2 (b): Effective length of a
the extreme positions simple pendulum

4. Displace the bob to one side, not more than 15 degrees angular
displacement, from the vertical position OA and then release it gently.
In case you find that the stand is shaky, put some heavy object on
its base. Make sure that the bob starts oscillating in a vertical plane
t

about its rest (or mean) position OA and does not (i) spin about its
no

own axis, or (ii) move up and down while oscillating, or (iii) revolve
in an elliptic path around its mean position.
5. Keep the pendulum oscillating for some time. After completion of
a few oscillations, start the stop-watch/clock as the thread attached
to the pendulum bob just crosses its mean position (say, from left
to right). Count it as zero oscillation.
6. Keep on counting oscillations 1,2,3,…, n, everytime the bob crosses
the mean position OA in the same direction (from left to right).
62
EXPERIMENT 6
UNIT NAME

Stop the stop-watch/clock, at the count n (say, 20 or 25) of


oscillations, i.e., just when n oscillations are complete. For better
results, n should be chosen such that the time taken for n
oscillations is 50 s or more. Read, the total time (t) taken by the
bob for n oscillations. Repeat this observation a few times by noting
the time for same number (n) of oscillations. Take the mean of
these readings. Compute the time for one oscillation, i.e., the time
period T ( = t/n) of the pendulum.
7. Change the length of the pendulum, by about 10 cm. Repeat the

d
step 6 again for finding the time (t) for about 20 oscillations or
more for the new length and find the mean time period. Take 5 or

he
6 more observations for different lengths of penduLum and find
mean time period in each case.
8. Record observations in the tabular form with proper units and

pu T
is
significant figures.
9. Take effective length L along x-axis and T 2 (or T) along y-axis,
re R
bl
using the observed values from Table E 6.1. Choose suitable scales
on these axes to represent L and T 2 (or T ). Plot a graph between
E
L and T 2 (as shown in Fig. E 6.4) and also between L and T (as
shown in Fig. E 6.3). What are the shapes of L –T 2 graph and L –T
graph? Identify these shapes.
be C

OBSERVATIONS
to N

(i) Radius (r) of the pendulum bob (given) = ... cm


Length of the hook (given) (e) = ... cm
©

Least count of the metre scale = ... mm = ... cm


Least count of the stop-watch/clock = ... s

Table E 6.1: Measuring the time period T and effective length


L of the simple pendulum

S. Length of the Effective Number of Time for n oscillations T ime


No. string from the length, L = oscillations t (s) period T
t

top of the bob to (l+r+e) counted, n (= t/ n)


no

the point of
suspension l

(cm) m (i)... (ii) (iii) Mean s


t (s)

63
LABORATORY MANUAL
LABORATORY MANUAL

P
LOTTING GRAPH
(i) L vs T graphs
Plot a graph between L versus T from observations recorded in
Table E 6.1, taking L along x-axis and T along y-axis. You will
find that this graph is a curve, which is part of a parabola as
shown in Fig. E 6.3.
(ii) L vs T 2 graph

d
Plot a graph between L versus T 2 from observations recorded in

he
Table E 6.1, taking L along x-axis and T 2 along y-axis. You will
find that the graph is a straight line passing through origin as shown
in Fig. E. 6.4.

pu T
(iii) From the T 2 versus L graph locate the effective length of second's

is
pendulum for T 2 = 4s2.
re R
bl
E
be C
to N
©

Fig. E 6.3: Graph of L vs T Fig. E 6.4: Graph L vs T 2

R ESULT
1. The graph L versus T is curved, convex upwards.
2. The graph L versus T 2 is a straight line.
t
no

3. The effective length of second's pendulum from L versus T 2 graph


is ... cm.
Note : The radius of bob may be found from its measured
diameter with the help of callipers by placing the pendulum bob
between the two jaws of (a) ordinary callipers, or (b) Ver nier
Callipers, as described in Experiment E 1.1 (a). It can also be
found by placing the spherical bob between two parallel card
boards and measuring the spacing (diameter) or distance between
them with a metre scale.
64
EXPERIMENT 6
UNIT NAME

D ISCUSSION
1. The accuracy of the result for the length of second's pendulum
depends mainly on the accuracy in measurement of effective length
(using metre scale) and the time period T of the pendulum (using
stop-watch). As the time period appears as T 2 in Eq. E 6.2, a small
uncertainty in the measurement of T would result in appreciable
error in T 2, thereby significantly affecting the result. A stop-watch
with accuracy of 0.1s may be preferred over a less accurate

d
stop-watch/clock.

he
2. Some personal error is always likely to be involved due to stop-watch
not being started or stopped exactly at the instant the bob crosses
the mean position. Take special care that you start and stop the
stop-watch at the instant when pendulum bob just crosses the

pu T
is
mean position in the same direction.
re R
3. Sometimes air currents may not be completely eliminated. This

bl
may result in conical motion of the bob, instead of its motion in
vertical plane. The spin or conical motion of the bob may cause a
E
twist in the thread, thereby affecting the time period. Take special
care that the bob, when it is taken to one side of the rest position,
be C

is released very gently.


4. To suspend the bob from the rigid support, use a thin, light, strong,
to N

unspun cotton thread instead of nylon string. Elasticity of the


string is likely to cause some error in the effective length of the
pendulum.
©

5. The simple pendulum swings to and fro in SHM about the mean,
equilibrium position. Eq. (E 6.1) that expresses the relation
between T and L as T = 2π L / g , holds strictly true for small
amplitude or swing θ of the pendulum.
Remember that this relation is based on the assumption that sin
θ ≈ θ, (expressed in radian) holds only for small angular
displacement θ .
6. Buoyancy of air and viscous drag due to air slightly increase the
t

time period of the pendulum. The effect can be greatly reduced to


no

a large extent by taking a small, heavy bob of high density material


(such as iron/ steel/brass).

SELF ASSESSMENT
1. Interpret the graphs between L and T 2, and also between L and T
that you have drawn for a simple pendulum.
2. Examine, using Table E 6.1, how the time period T changes as the
65
LABORATORY MANUAL
LABORATORY MANUAL

effective length L of a simple pendulum; becomes 2-fold, 4-fold,


and so on.
3. How can you determine the value of 'g', acceleration due to gravity,
from the T 2 vs L graph?

SUGGESTED ADDITIONAL EXPERIMENTS/ACTIVITIES

1. To determine ' g', the acceleration due to gravity, at a given place,


from the L – T 2 graph, for a simple pendulum.

d
2. Studying the effect of size of the bob on the time period of the
simple pendulum.

he
[Hint: With the same experimental set-up, take a few spherical
bobs of same material (density) but of different sizes (diameters).
Keep the length of the pendulum the same for each case. Clamp
the bobs one by one, and starting from a small angular displacement
of about 10o, each time measure the time for 50 oscillations. Find

pu T
is
out the time period of the pendulum using bobs of different sizes.
Compensate for difference in diameter of the bob by adjusting the
re R
length of the thread.

bl
Does the time period depend on the size of the pendulum bob? If
yes, see the order in which the change occurs.]
E
3. Studying the effect of material (density) of the bob on the time
period of the simple pendulum.
be C

[Hint: With the same experimental set-up, take a few spherical


bobs (balls) of different materials, but of same size. Keep the
length of the pendulum the same for each case. Find out, in each
to N

case starting from a small angular displacement of about 10°, the


time period of the pendulum using bobs of different materials,

Does the time period depend on the material (density) of the


©

pendulum bob? If yes, see the order in which the change occurs.
If not, then do you see an additional reason to use the pendulum
for time measurement.]

4. Studying the effect of mass of the bob on the time period of the
simple pendulum.

[Hint: With the same experimental set-up, take a few bobs of


different materials (different masses) but of same size. Keep the
length of the pendulum same for each case. Starting from a small
angular displacement of about 10° find out, in each case, the time
period of the pendulum, using bobs of different masses.
t

Does the time period depend on the mass of the pendulum bob? If
no

yes, then see the order in which the change occurs. If not, then
do you see an additional reason to use the pendulum as a time
measuring device.]

5. Studying the effect of amplitude of oscillation on the time period of


the simple pendulum.

[Hint: With the same experimental set-up, keep the mass of the
bob and length of the pendulum fixed. For measuring the angular
amplitude, make a large protractor on the cardboard and have a
scale marked on an arc from 0° to 90° in units of 5°. Fix it on the
edge of a table by two drawing pins such that its 0°- line coincides

66
EXPERIMENT 6
UNIT NAME

with the suspension thread of the pendulum at rest. Start the


pendulum oscillating with a very large angular amplitude (say 70°)
and find the time period T of the pendulum. Change the amplitude
of oscillation of the bob in small steps of 5° or 10° and determine
the time period in each case till the amplitude becomes small (say
5°). Draw a graph between angular amplitude and T. How does
the time period of the pendulum change with the amplitude of
oscillation?

How much does the value of T for A = 10° differ from that for A=
50° from the graph you have drawn?

d
Find at what amplitude of oscillation , the time period begins to vary?

Determine the limit for the pendulum when it ceases to be a simple

he
pendulum.]

6. Studying the effect on time period of a pendulum having a bob of


varying mass (e.g. by filling the hollow bob with sand, sand being
drained out in steps)

pu T
is
[Hint: The change in T, if any, in this experiment will be so small
that it will not be possible to measure it due to the following reasons:
re R
bl
The centre of gravity (CG) of a hollow sphere is at the centre of the
sphere. The length of this simple pendulum will be same as that of
E
a solid sphere (same size) or that of the hollow sphere filled
completely with sand (solid sphere).

Drain out some sand from the sphere. The situation is as shown in
be C

Fig. E. 6.5. The CG of bob now goes down to point say A. The
effective length of the pendulum increases and therefore the T A
increases (TA > TO), some more sand is drained out, the CG goes
to N

down further to a point B. The effective length further increases,


increasing T .

The process continues and L and T change in the same direction


©

(increasing), until finally the entire sand is drained out. The bob is
now a hollow sphere with CG shifting back to centre C. The time
period will now become T0 again.]

C
t

A
no

Sand
B

Fig. E 6.5: Variation of centre of gravity of sand filled


hollow bob on time period of the pendulum;
sand being drained out of the bob in steps.
67
LABORATORY MANUAL
LABORATORY MANUAL

EXPERIMENT 7
AIM

d
To study the relation between force of limiting friction and normal

he
reaction and to find the coefficient of friction between surface of a
moving block and that of a horizontal surface.

APPARATUS AND MATERIAL REQUIRED


pu T
is
re R
A wooden block with a hook, a horizontal plane with a glass or

bl
laminated table top (the table top itself may be used as a horizontal
plane), a frictionless pulley which can be fixed at the edge of the
E
horizontal table/plane, spirit level, a scale, pan, thread or string, spring
balance, weight box and five masses of 100 g each.
be C

T ERMS AND DEFINITIONS


to N

Friction: The tendency to oppose the relative motion between two


surfaces in contact is called friction.
©

Static Friction: It is the frictional force acting between two solid


surfaces in contact at rest but having a tendency to move (slide) with
respect to each other.
Limiting Friction: It is the maximum value of force of static friction
when one body is at the verge of sliding with respect to the other body
in contact.
Kinetic (or Dynamic) Friction: It is the frictional force acting between
two solid surfaces in contact when they are in relative motion.

P
t
no

RINCIPLE
The maximum force of
static friction, i.e., limiting
friction, FL, between two
dry, clean and unlubricated
solid surfaces is found to
obey the following empirical
laws:
Fig. E 7.1: The body is at rest due to
(i) The limiting friction is static friction
68
EXPERIMENT 7
UNIT NAME

directly proportional to the normal reaction, R, which is given by


the total weight W of the body (Fig. E 7.1). The line of action is
same for both W and R for horizontal surface,

F L ∝ R ⇒ F L = μL R

FL
i.e. μL =
R
Thus, the ratio of the magnitude of the limiting friction, F L, to the

d
magnitude of the normal force, R, is a constant known as the
coefficient of limiting friction (μL ) for the given pair of surfaces in

he
contact.

(ii) The limiting friction depends upon the nature of surfaces in contact
and is nearly independent of the surface area of contact over wide

pu T
is
limits so long as normal reaction remains constant.
re R
Note that FL = μLR is

bl
R = (M+p)g
an equation of a
straight line passing
E
through the origin.
Pulley
Thus, the slope of the F
be C

straight-line graph Clear glass (or


between F l (along Y- wood mica) top
axis) and R (along X-
to N

axis) will give the (M+p)g q


value of coefficient of Pan
limiting friction μL.
©

In this experiment, (m+q)g


the relationship Fig. E 7.2: Experimental set up to study limiting friction
between the limiting
friction and normal
reaction is studied for a wooden block. The wooden block is made
to slide over a horizontal surface (say glass or a laminated surface)
(Fig. E 7.2).

PROCEDURE
t
no

1. Find the range and least count of the spring balance.

2. Measure the mass (M) of the given wooden block with hooks on its
sides and the scale pan (m) with the help of the spring balance.

3. Place the glass (or a laminated sheet) on a table and make it


horizontal, if required, by inserting a few sheets of paper or
cardboard below it. To ensure that the table-top surface is
horizontal use a spirit level. Take care that the top surface must
be clean and dry.
69
LABORATORY MANUAL
LABORATORY MANUAL

4. Fix a frictionless pulley on one edge of table-top as shown in Fig.


E 7.2. Lubricate the pulley if need be.
5. Tie one end of a string of suitable length (in accordance with the
size and the height of the table) to a scale pan and tie its other end
to the hook of the wooden block.
6. Place the wooden block on the horizontal plane and pass the string
over the pulley (Fig. E7.2). Ensure that the portion of the string
between pulley and the wooden block is horizontal. This can be

d
done by adjusting the height of the pulley to the level of hook of
block.

he
7. Put some mass (q) on the scale pan. Tap the table-top gently with
your finger. Check whether the wooden block starts moving.
8. Keep on increasing the mass (q) on the scale pan till the wooden

pu T
is
block just starts moving on gently tapping the glass top. Record
the total mass kept on the scale pan in Table E 7.1.
re R
bl
9. Place some known mass (say p ) on the top of wooden block and
adjust the mass (q′) on the scale pan so that the wooden block
E
alongwith mass p just begins to slide on gently tapping the table
top. Record the values of p′ and q′ in Table E 7.1.
be C

10.Repeat step 9 for three or four more values of p and record the
corresponding values of q in Table E 7.1. A minimum of five
to N

observations may be required for plotting a graph between FL and


R.

O
©

BSERVATIONS
1. Range of spring balance = ... to ... g
2. Least count of spring balance = ... g
3. Mass of the scale pan, (m) = ... g
4. Mass of the wooden block (M) = ... g
5. Acceleration due to gravity (g) at the place of experiment= ... m/s2
t

Table E 7.1: Variation of Limiting Friction with Normal


S. Mass on the Normal Mass on Force of Coefficient Mean μ L
no

No. wooden block force R due the pan limiting of friction


(p) (g) to mass (q) g friction FL FL
(M+p) μL =
R
(g) (kg) N (g) (kg) (N)
1
2
3
4
5
70
EXPERIMENT 7
UNIT NAME

Reaction

G RAPH
Plot a graph between the limiting friction (FL ) and
normal force (R) between the wooden block and the
horizontal surface, taking the limiting friction F L
along the y-axis and normal force R along the x-

d
axis. Draw a line to join all the points marked on it
(Fig. E 7.3). Some points may not lie on the straight-

he
line graph and may be on either side of it. Extend
the straight line backwards to check whether the
graph passes through the origin. The slope of this

pu T
straight-line graph gives the coefficient of limiting

is
friction (μL ) between the wooden block and the
horizontal surface. To find the slope of straight line, Fig. E 7.3: Graph between force of
re R
bl
choose two points A and B that are far apart from limiting friction FL and
each other on the straight line as shown in Fig. E normal reaction, R
E
7.3. Draw a line parallel to x-axis through point A
and another line parallel to y-axis through point B.
Let point Z be the point of intersection of these two lines. Then, the
be C

slope μL of straight line graph AB would be


F L BZ
to N

μL = =
R AZ

R ESULT
©

The value of coefficient of limiting friction μL between surface of wooden


block and the table-top (laminated sheet/glass) is:
(i) From calculation (Table E 7.1) = ...
(ii) From graph = ...

P RECAUTIONS
t

1. Surface of the table should be horizontal and dust free.


no

2. Thread connecting wooden block and pulley should be horizontal.


3. Friction of the pulley should be reduced by proper oiling.
4. Table top should always be tapped gently.

SOURCES OF ERROR
1. Always put the mass at the centre of wooden block.
71
LABORATORY MANUAL
LABORATORY MANUAL

2. Surface must be dust free and dry.


3. The thread must be unstretchable and unspun.

D
ISCUSSION
1. The friction depends on the roughness of the surfaces in contact.
If the surfaces in contact are ideally (perfactly) smooth, there

d
would be no friction between the two surfaces. However, there
cannot be an ideally smooth surface as the distribution of atoms

he
or molecules on solid surface results in an inherent roughness.

2. In this experimental set up and calculations, friction at the pulley


has been neglected, therefore, as far as possible, the pulley, should

pu T
is
have minimum friction as it cannot be frictionless.
re R
3. The presence of dust particles between the wooden block and

bl
horizontal plane surface may affect friction and therefore lead
to errors in observations. Therefore, the surface of the
E
horizontal plane and wooden block in contact must be clean
and dust free.
be C

4. The presence of water or moisture between the wooden block


and the plane horizontal surface would change the nature of
to N

the surface. Thus, while studying the friction between the surface
of the moving body and horizontal plane these must be kept
dry.
©

5. Elasticity of the string may cause some error in the observation.


Therefore, a thin, light, strong and unspun cotton thread must
be used as a string to join the scale pan and the moving block.

6. The portion of string between the pulley and wooden block must
be horizontal otherwise only a component of tension in the string
would act as the force to move the block.

7. It is important to make a judicious choice of the size of the block


and set of masses for this experiment. If the block is too light, its
t

force of limiting friction may be even less than the weight of empty
no

pan and in this situation, the observation cannot be taken with


the block alone. Similarly, the maximum mass on the block, which
can be obtained by putting separate masses on it, should not be
very large otherwise it would require a large force to make the
block move.

8. The additional mass, p, should always be put at the centre of


wooden block.

72
EXPERIMENT 7
UNIT NAME

9. The permissible error in measurements of coefficient of friction

Δ F L ΔR
= F + R = ...
L

SELF ASSESSMENT

d
1. On the basis of your observations, find the relation between
limiting friction and the mass of sliding body.

he
2. Why do we not choose a spherical body to study the limiting
friction between the two surfaces?
3. Why should the horizontal surfaces be clean and dry?

pu T
is
4. Why should the portion of thread between the moving body and
re R
pulley be horizontal?

bl
5. Why is it essential in this experiment to ensure that the surface
E
on which the block moves should be horizontal?
6. Comment on the statement: “The friction between two surfaces
be C

can never be zero”.


7. In this experiment, usually unpolished surfaces are preferred,
to N

why?
8. What do you understand by self-adjusting nature of force of
friction?
©

9. In an experiment to study the relation between force of limiting


friction and normal reaction, a body just starts sliding on applying
a force of 3 N. What will be the magnitude of force of friction
acting on the body when the applied forces on it are 0.5 N, 1.0 N,
2.5 N, 3.5 N, respectively.

SUGGESTED ADDITIONAL EXPERIMENTS/ACTIVITIES

1. To study the effect of the nature of sliding surface. [Hint: Repeat


t

the same experiment for different types of surfaces say, plywood,


carpet etc. Or repeat the experiment after putting oil or powder on
no

the surface.]

2. To study the effect of changing the area of the surfaces in contact.


[Hint: Place the wooden block vertically and repeat the experiment.
Discuss whether the readings and result of the experiment are same.]

3. To find the coefficient of limiting friction by sliding the block on an


inclined plane.

73
LABORATORY MANUAL
LABORATORY MANUAL

EXPERIMENT 8
AIM

d
To find the downward force, along an inclined plane, acting on a roller

he
due to gravity and study its relationship with the angle of inclination
by plotting graph between force and sin θ.

APPARATUS AND MATERIAL REQUIRED


pu T
is
re R
Inclined plane with protractor and pulley, roller, weight box, spring

bl
balance, spirit level, pan and thread.
E
Pulley
be C

Constant v
M1
Roller
to N

v
Mass, M3 Pan, M2
Protractor
W= (M2+M3)
©

Fig. E 8.1: Experimental set up to find the downward


force along an inclined plane

P RINCIPLE
Consider the set up shown in Fig. E 8.1. Here a roller of
mass M1 has been placed on an inclined plane making
t

an angle θ with the horizontal. An upward force, along


no

the inclined plane, could be applied on the mass M1 by


adjusting the weights on the pan suspended with a string
while its other end is attached to the mass through a
pulley fixed at the top of the inclined plane. The force on
the the mass M1 when it is moving with a constant velocity
v will be

W = M1g sin θ – f r
Fig. E 8.2: Free body diagram
where f r is the force of friction due to rolling, M 1 is
mass of roller and W is the total tension in the string
74
EXPERIMENT 8
UNIT NAME

(W = weight suspended). Assuming there is no friction between


the pulley and the string.

P ROCEDURE
1. Arrange the inclined plane, roller and the masses in the pan as
shown in Fig. E. 8.1. Ensure that the pulley is frictionless. Lubricate
it using machine oil, if necessary.
2. To start with, let the value of W be adjusted so as to permit the

d
roller to stay at the top of the inclined plane at rest.

he
3. Start decreasing the masses in small steps in the pan until the
roller just starts moving down the plane with a constant velocity.
Note W and also the angle θ . Fig. E 8.2 shows the free body diagram
for the situation when the roller just begins to move downwards.

pu T
is
4. Repeat steps 2 and 3 for different values of θ. Tabulate your
re R
observations.

O bl
E
BSERVATIONS
Acceleration due to gravity, g = ... N/m2
be C

Mass of roller, m = (M1) g


Mass of the pan = (M2) g
to N

Table E 8.1
S. No. θ° sinθ Mass added to pan Force
M3 W = (M2 + M3 ) g (N)
©

1
2
3

PLOTTING GRAPH
Plot graph between sin θ and
the force W (Fig. E 8.3). It
should be a straight line.
t
no

Fig. E 8.3: Graph between W


and sin θ

75
LABORATORY MANUAL
LABORATORY MANUAL

R ESULT
Therefore, within experimental error, downward force along inclined
plane is directly proportional to sin θ, where θ is the angle of inclination
of the plane.

P RECAUTIONS

d
1. Ensure that the inclined plane is placed on a horizontal surface
using the spirit level.

he
2. Pulley must be frictionless.
3. The weight should suspend freely without touching the table or
other objects.

pu T
is
4. Roller should roll smoothly, that is, without slipping.
re R
5. Weight, W should be decreased in small steps.

S bl
E
OURCES OF ERROR
be C

1. Error may creep in due to poor judgement of constant velocity.


2. Pulley may not be frictionless.
to N

3. It may be difficult to determine the exact point when the roller


begins to slide with constant velocity.
4. The inclined surface may not be of uniform smoothness/roughness.
©

5. Weights in the weight box may not be standardised.

D ISCUSSION
As the inclination of the plane is increased, starting from zero,
the value of mg sinθ increases and frictional force also increases
accordingly. Therefore, till limiting friction W = 0, we need not apply
any tension in the string.
t

When we increase the angle still further, net tension in the string is
no

required to balance (mg sinθ – f r ) or otherwise the roller will accelerate


downwards.
It is difficult to determine exact value of W. What we can do is we find
tension W 1 (< W) at which the roller is just at the verge of rolling
down and W 2 (> W) at which the roller is just at the verge of moving
up. Then we can take

W =
(W1 + W2 )
2
76
EXPERIMENT 8
UNIT NAME

SELF ASSESSMENT
1. Give an example where the force of friction is in the same direction
as the direction of motion.
2. How will you use the graph to find the co-efficient of rolling friction
between the roller and the inclined plane?
3. What is the relation between downward force and angle of
inclination of the plane?

d
4. How will you ensure that the roller moves upward/downward with

he
constant velocity?

SUGGESTED ADDITIONAL EXPERIMENTS/ACTIVITIES

pu T
is
1. From the graph, find the intercept and the slope. Interpret them
using the given equation.
re R
2. Allow the roller to move up the inclined plane by adjusting the mass

bl
in the pan. Interpret the graph between W ′ and sin θ where W ′ is
the mass in pan added to the mass of the pan required to allow the
E
roller to move upward with constant velocity.
be C
tto N
©
no

77
LABORATORY MANUAL
LABORATORY MANUAL

EXPERIMENT 9
AIM

d
To determine Young's modulus of the material of a given wire by using

he
Searle's apparatus.

APPARATUS AND MATERIAL REQUIRED


pu T
is
Searle's apparatus, slotted weights, experimental
re R
wire, screw gauge and spirit level.

bl SEARLE'S APPARATUS
E
It consists of two metal frames P and Q hinged
together such that they can move relative to each
be C

other in vertical direction (Fig. E9.1).


A spirit level is supported on a rigid crossbar
to N

frame which rests on the tip of a micrometer


screw C at one end and a fixed knife edge K at
the other. Screw C can be moved vertically. The
micrometer screw has a disc having 100 equal
©

divisions along its circumference. On the side of


it is a linear scale S, attached vertically. If there
is any relative displacement between the two
frames, P and Q, the spirit level no longer remains
horizontal and the bubble of the spirit level is
displaced from its centre. The crossbar can again
be set horizontal with the help of micrometer
screw and the spirit level. The distance through
which the screw has to be moved gives the
t

relative displacement between the two frames.


no

The frames are suspended by two identical long


wires of the same material, from the same rigid
horizontal support. Wire B is called the
experimental wire and wire A acts as a reference
Fig. E 9.1: Searle's apparatus for wire. The frames, P and Q, are provided with
determination of Y hooks H 1 and H 2 at their lower ends from which
weights are suspended. The hook H 1 attached
to the reference wire carries a constant weight
78 W to keep the wire taut.
EXPERIMENT 9
UNIT NAME

To the hook H2 is attached a hanger on which slotted weights can


be placed to apply force on the experimental wire.

PRINCIPLE
The apparatus works on the principle of Hookes’ Law. If l is the
extension in a wire of length L and radius r due to force F (=Mg), the
Young's modulus of the material of the given wire, Y, is
MgL

d
Y =
πr 2l

he
ROCEDURE
1. Suspend weights from both the hooks so that the two wires are

pu T
stretched and become free from any kinks. Attach only the constant

is
weight W on the reference wire to keep it taut.
re R
bl
2. Measure the length of the experimental wire from the point of its
support to the point where it is attached to the frame.
E
3. Find the least count of the screw gauge. Determine the diameter of
the experimental wire at about 5 places and at each place in two
be C

mutually perpendicular directions. Find the mean diameter and


hence the radius of the wire.
to N

4. Find the pitch and the least count of the miocrometer screw
attached to the frame. Adjust it such that the bubble in the
spirit level is exactly in the centre. Take the reading of the
micrometer.
©

5. Place a load on the hanger attached to the experimental wire and


increase it in steps of 0.5 kg. For each load, bring the bubble of the
spirit level to the centre by adjusting the micrometer screw and
then note its reading. Take precautions to avoid backlash error.
6. Take about 8 observations for increasing load.

7. Decrease the load in steps of 0.5 kg and each time take reading on
micrometer screw as in step 5.
t

O
no

BSERVATIONS
Length of the wire (L) = ...
Pitch of the screw gauge = ...
No. of divisions on the circular scale of the screw gauge = ...
Least count (L.C.) of screw gauge = ...
Zero error of screw gauge = ...
79
LABORATORY MANUAL
LABORATORY MANUAL

Table E 9.1: Measurement of diameter of wire

S. Reading along any Reading along perpen- Mean diameter


No. direction dicular direction d1 + d2
d =
2
(cm)
Main Circu- Diameter Main Circu- Diameter
scale lar d1 = scale lar d2 =
read- scale S + n × L.C. read- scale S + n × L.C.
ing S read- ing S read- (cm)

d
(cm) ing n (cm) ing n
1

he
2

pu T
is
4

5
re R
bl
Mean diameter (corrected for zero error) = ...
E
Mean radius = ...
be C

MEASUREMENT OF EXTENSION l

Pitch of the micrometer screw = ...


to N

No. of divisions on the circular scale = ...

Least count (L.C.) of the micrometer screw = ...


©

Acceleration due to gravity, g = ...

Table E 9.2: Measurement of extension with load

S. Load on experimental Micrometer reading Mean reading


No. wire ⎛ x + y ⎞
M ⎜ ⎟
⎝ 2 ⎠
(cm)
Load increasing Load decreasing
(kg)
x y
t

(cm) (cm)
no

1 0.5 a
2 1.0 b
3 1.5 c
4 2.0 d
5 2.5 e
6 3.0 f
7 3.5 g
8 4.0 h
80
EXPERIMENT 9
UNIT NAME

C ALCULATION
Observations recorded in Table E 9.2 can be utilised to find extension
of experimental wire for a given load, as shown in Table E 9.3.
Table E 9.3: Calculating extension for a given load

S. Mean extension Load Mean extension Extension l′ for


No. (cm) (kg) 1.5 kg

d
0.5 2.0 d–a

he
1.0 2.5 e–b

pu T
is
1.5 3.0 f–c
re R
bl
E
(a – d) +(b – c) + (c – f)
∴ Mean l =
3
be C

= ... cm for 1.5 kg


MgL
Young’s modulus, Y, of experimental wire Y = = ... N / m2
πr 2l
to N

G RAPH
©

The value of Y can also be found by plotting a graph between l


and Mg. Draw a graph with load on the x-axis and extension on
Δl
the y-axis. It should be a straight line. Find the slope = of the
ΔM
line. Using this value, find the value of Y.

R ESULT
The Young's modulus Y of the material of the wire
t
no

(using half table method) = Y ± ΔY N/m2


(using graph) = Y ± ΔY N/m2

ERROR
Uncertainty, ΔM, in the measurement of M can be determined by a
beam/physical balance using standard weight box/or by using water
bottles of fixed capacity.
81
LABORATORY MANUAL
LABORATORY MANUAL

Find the variation in M for each slotted weight of equal mass say
ΔM1 and ΔM2. Find the mean of these ΔM. This is the uncertainity
(ΔM) in M.
ΔL – the least count of the scale used for measuring L.
Δr – the least count of the micrometer screw gauge used for measuring r.
Δl – least count of the device used for measuring extension.

d
RECAUTION

he
1. Measure the diameter of the wire at different positions, check for
its uniformity.
2. Adjust the spirit level only after sufficient time gap following each

pu T loading/unloading.

is
S
re R
OURCES OF ERROR

bl
1. The diameter of the wire may alter while loading.
E
2. Backlash error of the device used for measuring extension.
be C

3. The nonuniformity in thickness of the wire.

D
to N

ISCUSSION
Which of the quantities measured in the experiment is likely to have
maximum affect on the accuracy in measurement of Y (Young's
©

modulus).

S
ELF ASSESSMENT
1. If the length of the wire used is reduced what will be its effect on
(a) extension on the wire and (b) stress on the wire.
2. Use wire of different radii (r1, r2, r 3) but of same material in the
above experimental set up. Is there any change in the value of
t

Young’s modulus of elasticity of the material? Discuss your result.


no

SUGGESTED ADDITIONAL EXPERIMENTS/ACTIVITIES

1. Repeat the experiment with wires of different materials, if available.

2. Change the length of the experimental wire, of same material and


study its ef fect on the Young’s modulus of elasticity of the material.

82
EXPERIMENT 10
AIM

d
To find the force constant and effective mass of a helical spring by

he
plotting T 2 - m graph using method of oscillation.

APPARATUS AND MATERIAL REQUIRED


pu T
is
Light weight helical spring with a pointer attached at the lower
end and a hook/ring for suspending it from a hanger, (diameter
re R
bl
of the spring may be about 1-1.5 cm inside or same as that in a
spring balance of 100 g); a rigid support, hanger and five slotted
E
weights of 10 g each (in case the spring constant is of high value
one may use slotted weight of 20 g), clamp stand, a balance, a
measuring scale (15-30 cm) and a stop-watch (with least count
be C

of 0.1s).

P
to N

RINCIPLE
Spring constant (or force constant) of a spring is given by
©

Restoring Force (E 10.1)


Spring constant, K =
Extension
Thus, spring constant is the restoring force per unit extension in the
spring. Its value is determined by the elastic properties of the spring.
A given object is attached to the free end of a spring which is suspended
from a rigid point support (a nail, fixed to a wall). If the object is
pulled down and then released, it executes simple harmonic
oscillations.
t
no

The time period (T ) of oscillations of a helical spring of spring constant


K is given by the relation T,

m
T = 2π where m is the load that is the mass of the object. If the
K
spring has a large mass of its own, the expression changes to

mo + m (E 10.2)
T = 2π
K
LABORATORY MANUAL
LABORATORY MANUAL

where mo and m define the effective mass of the spring system (the
spring along with the pointer and the hanger) and the suspended
object (load) respectively. The time period of a stiff spring (having
large spring constant) is small.
One can easily eliminate the term mo of the spring system appearing
in Eq. (E 10.2) by suspending two different objects (loads) of masses
m1 and m2 and measuring their respective periods of oscillations T1
and T2. Then,

d
(E 10.3) m0 + m1
T1 = 2π

he
K

(E 10.4) m0 + m 2
and T2 = 2 π

pu T
is
K
re R
Eliminating mo from Eqs. (E 2.3) and (E 2.4), we get

bl
E
(E 10.5) 4 π2 (m 1 – m 2 )
K =
(T 21 – T 22 )
be C

Using Eq. (E 10.5), and knowing the values of m1, m 2, T1 and T2, the
spring constant K of the spring system can be determined.
to N

P
ROCEDURE
©

1. Suspend the helical spring SA (having pointer


P and the hanger H at its free end A), from a
rigid support, as shown in Fig. E 10.1.

2. Set the measuring scale, close to the spring


vertically. Take care that the pointer P moves
freely over the scale without touching it.

3. Find out the least count of the measuring scale


t

(It is usually 1mm or 0.1 cm).


no

4. Familiarise yourself with the working of the


stop-watch and find its least count.

5. Suspend the load or slotted weight with mass


m1 on the hanger gently. Wait till the pointer
comes to rest. This is the equilibrium position
Fig. E 10.1: Experimental arrangement for for the given load. Pull the load slightly
studying spring constant of a downwards and then release it gently so that
helical spring it is set into oscillations in a vertical plane
84
EXPERIMENT 1 0
UNIT NAME

about its rest (or equilibrium) position. The rest position (x) of
the pointer P on the scale is the reference or mean position for
the given load. Start the stop-watch as the pointer P just crosses
its mean position (say, from upwards to downwards) and
simultaneously begin to count the oscillations.

6 . Keep on counting the oscillations as the pointer crosses the


mean position (x) in the same direction. Stop the watch after
n (say, 5 to 10) oscillations are complete. Note the time (t)
taken by the oscillating load for n oscillations.

d
7. Repeat this observation alteast thrice and in each occasion

he
note the time taken for the same number (n) of oscillations.
Find the mean time (t 1), for n oscillations and compute the
time for one oscillation, i.e., the time period T 1 (= t 1/n) of
oscillating helical spring with a load m 1.

pu T
is
8. Repeat steps 5 and 6 for two more slotted weights.
re R
bl
t
9. Calculate time period of oscillation T = for each weight and
n
E
tabulate your observations.
be C

10.Compute the value of spring constant (K 1, K 2, K3) for each load


and find out the mean value of spring constant K of the given
helical spring.
to N

11.The value of K can also be determined by plotting a graph of T 2 vs


m with T 2 on y-axis and m on x-axis.
©

[Note: The number of oscillations, n, should be large enough to


keep the error minimum in measurement of time. One convenient
method to decide on the number n is based on the least count of
the stop-watch. If the least count of the stop-watch is 0.1 s. Then
to have 1% error in measurement, the minimum time measured
should be 10.0 s. Hence, the number n for oscillations should be
so chosen that oscillating mass takes more than 10.0 s to
complete them.]

O
t
no

BSERVATIONS
Least count of the measuring scale = ... mm = ... cm

Least count of the stop-watch = ... s

Mass of load 1, m1 = ... g = ... kg

Mass of load 2, m2 = ... g = ... kg

Mass of load 3, m3 = ... g = ... kg


85
LABORATORY MANUAL
LABORATORY MANUAL

Table E 10.1: Measuring the time period T of oscillations of


helical spring with load

S. Mass of Mean No. of oscilla- Time for (n) T ime period,


No. the load, position of tions, (n) oscillations, T = t/n (s)
m (kg) pointer, x t (s)
(cm)

1 2 3 Mean
t (s)

d
1

he
C
ALCULATION

pu T
is
Substitute the values of m1, m 2, m3 and T1, T 2,
T3, in Eq. (E 10.5):
re R
bl
K1 = 4π2 (m1 – m 2)/(T12 – T22);
K2 = 4π2 (m2 – m 3)/(T22 – T32);
E
K3 = 4π2 (m1 – m3) / (T12 – T32)
be C

Compute the values of K 1, K 2 and K3 and find


the mean value of spring constant K of the given
helical spring. Express the result in proper SI
to N

units and significant figures.


Alternately one can also find the spring constant
and effective mass of the spring from the graph
©

between T 2 and m, which is expected to be a


straight line as shown in Fig. E 10.2.
2
Fig. E 10.2: Expected graph between T and m
The value of spring constant K ( = 4π2/m′) of the
for a helical spring
helical spring can be calculated from the slope
m′ of the straight line graph.
From the knowledge of intercept c on y-axis and the slope m, the
value of effective mass mo (= c/m′ ) of the helical spring can be
computed. Alternatively, the effective mass m o (= –c′ ) of the helical
spring can be directly computed from the knowledge of the
t

intercept c′ made by the straight line on x-axis.

R
no

ESULT
Spring constant of the given helical spring = ... N/m-1
Effective mass of helical spring = ... g = ... kg
Error in K, can be calculated from the error in slope

ΔK Δslope
=
K slope
86
EXPERIMENT 1 0
UNIT NAME

The error in effective mass m 0 will be equal to the error in intercept


and the error in slope. Once the error is calculated the result may be
stated indicating the error.

D ISCUSSION
1. The accuracy in determination of the spring constant depends
mainly on the accuracy in measurement of the time period T
of oscillation of the spring. As the time period appears as T 2 in

d
Eq. (E 10.5), a small uncertainty in the measurement of T would
result in appreciable error in T 2, thereby significantly affecting

he
the result. A stop-watch with accuracy of 0.1s may be
preferred.
2. Some personal error is always likely to occur in measurement of

pu T
time due to delay in starting or stopping the watch.

is
3. Sometimes air currents may affect the oscillations thereby affecting
re R
the time period. The time period of oscillation may also get affected

bl
if the load is released with a jerk. Take special care that the load
E
while being taken to one side (upwards or downwards) of the rest
(or mean) position, is released very gently.
be C

4. The load attached to the spring executes to and fro motion (in
SHM) about the mean, equilibrium position. Eqs. (E 10.1)
and (E 10.2) hold true for small amplitude of oscillations or
to N

small extensions of the spring within the elastic limit (Hook’s


law). Take care that initially the load is pulled only through a
small distance before being released gently to let it oscillate
©

vertically.
5. Oscillations of the helical spring are not likely to be absolutely
undamped. Buoyancy of air and viscous drag due to it may slightly
increase the time period of the oscillations. The effect can be greatly
reduced by taking a small and stiff spring of high density material
(such as steel/brass).
6. A rigid support is required for suspending the helical spring. The
slotted weights may not have exactly the same mass as engraved
on them. Some error in the time period of its oscillation is likely to
t

creep in due to yielding (sometimes) of the support and inaccuracy


no

in the accepted value of mass of load.

SELF-ASSESSMENT
1. Two springs A (soft) and B (stiff), loaded with the same mass on
their hangers, are suspended one by one from the same rigid
support. They are set into vertical oscillations at different times,
and the time period of their oscillations are noted. In which spring
will the oscillations be slower?
87
LABORATORY MANUAL
LABORATORY MANUAL

2 . You are given six known masses (m 1, m 2 ..., m 6), a helical


spring and a stop-watch. You are asked to measure time
periods (T 1, T 2, ..., T 6) of oscillations corresponding to each
mass when it is suspended from the given helical spring.
(a) What is the shape of the curve you would expect by using
Eq. (E 10.2) and plotting a graph between load of mass m
along x-axis and T 2 on y-axis?
(b) Interpret the slope, the x-and y-intercepts of the above graph,
and hence find (i) spring constant K of the helical spring, and

d
(ii) its effective mass m o.

he
[Hint: (a) Eq. (E 10.2), rewritten as: T 2 =(4π2/K) m + (4π2/K) mo , is
similar to the equation of a straight line: y = mx + c, with m as the
slope of the straight line and c the intercept on y–axis. The graph
between m and T 2 is expected to be a straight line AB, as shown in

pu T
is
Fig. E 10.2. From the above equations given in (a):
Intercept on y–axis (OD), c = (4π2/K) mo ; (x = 0, y = c)
re R
bl Intercept on x-axis (OE), c′=-c/m′ = –mo ; (y = 0, x = –c/m′)
E
Slope, m′ = tan θ = OD/OE = c/c′ = –c/m o = (4π2/K)]
be C

SUGGESTED ADDITIONAL EXPERIMENTS/ACTIVITIES

1. Take three springs with different spring constants K1, K2, K3 and join them in series
to N

as shown in Fig. E. 10.3. Determine the time period of oscillation of combined spring
and check the relation between individual spring constant and combined system.
2. Repeat the above activity with the set up shown in Fig. E. 10.4 and find out
whether there is any difference in the time period and spring constant between
©

the two set ups?


3. What is the physical significance of spring constant 20.5 Nm–1?
4. If possible, measure the mass of the spring. Is this related to the effective mass m o?
t
no

Fig. E 10.3: Springs joined in series Fig. E 10.4: Springs joined in parallel

88
EXPERIMENT
UNIT NAME

EXPERIMENT 11
AIM

d
To study the variation in volume (V) with pressure (P) for a sample of

he
air at constant temperature by plotting graphs between P and V, and
1
between P and .
V

pu T
is
APPARATUS AND MATERIAL REQUIRED
re R
bl
Boyle’s law apparatus, Fortin’s Barometer, Vernier Callipers,
E
thermometer, set square and spirit level.

DESCRIPTION AND APPARATUS


be C

The Boyle’s law apparatus consists


to N

of two glass tubes about 25 cm long


and 0.5 cm in diameter (Fig. E11.1).
One tube AB is closed at one end
©

while the other CD is open. The two


tubes are drawn into a fine opening
at the other end (B and D). The ends
B and D are connected by a thick
walled rubber tubing. The glass
tube AB is fixed vertically along the
metre scale. The other tube CD can
be moved vertically along a vertical
rod and may be fixed to it at any
height with the help of screw S.
t
no

The tube CD, AB and rubber tubing


are filled with mercury. The closed
tube AB traps some air in it. The
volume of air is proportional to the
length of air column as it is of
uniform cross section.
The apparatus is fixed on a
horizontal platform with a vertical Fig. E11.1: Boyle’s law apparatus
stand. The unit is provided with
levelling screws. 89
LABORATORY MANUAL
LABORATORY MANUAL

P
ROCEDURE
(a) Measurement of Pressure:
The pressure of the enclosed air in tube AB is measured by noting the
difference (h) in the mercury levels (X and Y) in the two tubes AB and
CD (Fig. E11.2). Since liquid in interconnected vessels have the same
pressure at any horizontal level,
(E 11.1)
P (Pressure of enclosed air) = H ± h

d
where H is the atmospheric pressure.

he
pu T
is
re R
bl
E
be C
to N

Fig. E 11.2 : Pressure of air in tube AB = H + h Fig. E 11.3 : Volume of trapped air in tube AB

(b) Measurement of volume of trapped air


©

In case the closed tube is not graduated.


Volume of air in tube
= Volume of air in length PR – Volume of air in curved
portion PQ
Let r be the radius of the tube
Volume of curved portion = volume of the hemisphere of radius r
t

1 4 3 2 3
= × πr = πr
no

2 3 3

Volume of PQ = πr2 × r = πr3

2 3 1 3
error in volume = πr 3 – πr = πr
3 3

1 3 1
resulting error in length = πr / π r 2 = r
3 3
90
EXPERIMENT 1 1
UNIT NAME

1 1 (E 11.2)
correction in length = – r = – PQ
3 3
This should be subtracted from the measured length l .
Boyle’s law: At a constant temperature, the pressure exerted by an
enclosed mass of gas is inversely proportional to its volume.
1

V

d
(E 11.3)
or PV = constant

he
Hence the P – V graph is a curve while that of P – 1 is a straight line.
V
(c) Measurement of volume of air for a given pressure.

pu T
is
1. Note the temperature of the room with a thermometer.
re R
2. Note the atmospheric pressure using Fortin’s Barometer

bl
(Project P-9).
E
3. Set the apparatus vertically using the levelling screws and
spirit level.
be C

4. Slide the tube CD to adjust the mercury level at the same level as
in AB. Use set square to read the upper convex meniscus of
mercury.
to N

5. Note the reading of the metre scale corresponding to the top end
of the closed tube P and that of level Q where its curvature just
©

1
ends. Calculate PQ and note it.
3
6. Raise CD such that the mercury level in tubes AB and CD is
different. Use the set square to carefully read the meniscus X
and Y of mercury in tube AB and CD. Note the difference h in the
mercury level.
7. Repeat the adjustment of CD for 5 more values of ‘h’. This should
be done slowly and without jerk. Changing the position of CD
t

with respect to AB slowly ensures that there is no change in


no

temperature, otherwise the Boyle’s law will not be valid.


8. Use the Vernier Callipers to determine the diameter of the closed
1 1
tube AB and hence find ‘r’, its radius PQ = r.
3 3
9. Record your observations in the Table E 11.1.

10. Plot graphs (i) P versus V and (ii) P versus 1 , interpret the graphs.
V
91
LABORATORY MANUAL
LABORATORY MANUAL

OBSERVATIONS AND CALCULATIONS


1. Room temperature = ... °C.
2. Atmospheric pressure as observed from the Fortins Barometer
= ... cm of Hg.
3. For correction in level l due to curved portion of tube AB
(a) Reading for the top of the closed tube AB (P) = ... cm.

d
Reading where the uniform portion of the tube AB begins (or the
curved portion ends) (Q) = ... cm.

he
Difference (P – Q) = r = ... cm.
1
Correction = r = ...

pu T
is
3
OR
re R
bl
(b) Diameter of tube AB = d = ... cm.
1
E
radius r = d = ... cm.
2
be C

1
correction for level l = r
3

R
to N

ESULT
1. Within experimental limits, the graph between P and V is a curve.
©

2. Within experimental limits, the product PV is a constant (from the


calculation).

Table E 11.1 : Measurement of Pressure and Volume of enclosed air

S. Level of Level of Pressure Pressure of Volume PV or 1/V


No. mercury mercury difference air in of air P ×l or
in closed in open h = X–Y AB = H ± h XA
1
tube AB tube (cm of (cm of Hg)
X (cm of CD Hg) ⎛ 1 ⎞ l
⎝⎜l – r⎟
3 ⎠
t

HG) Y (cm
no

of Hg)
1
2
3
4

Note: H ± h must be considered according to the levels X and Y taking


into account whether the pressure of air in AB will be more than
atmospheric pressure or less.
92
EXPERIMENT 1 1
UNIT NAME

d
he
1

pu T
Fig. E11.4 : Graph between Volume, V Fig. E11.5 : Graph between and pressure P

is
and pressure, P V
re R
bl
Note that Fig. E 11.4 shows that the graph between P and V is a curve
E
1
and that between P and is a straight line (Fig. E 11.5).
V
be C

1
3. The graph P and is a straight line showing that the pressure of
V
to N

a given mass of enclosed gas is inversely proportional to its volume


at constant temperature.

P
©

RECAUTIONS
1. The apparatus should be kept covered when not in use.
2. The apparatus should not be shifted in between observations.
3. While measuring the volume of the air, correction for the curved
portion of the closed tube should be taken into account.
4. Mercury used should be clean and not leave any trace on the glass.
The open tube should be plugged with cotton wool when not in
t

use.
no

5. The set square should be placed tangential to the upper meniscus


of the mercury for determining its level.

SOURCES OF ERROR
1. The enclosed air may not be dry.
2. Atmospheric pressure and temperature of the laboratory may
change during the course of the experiment.
93
LABORATORY MANUAL
LABORATORY MANUAL

3. The closed end of the tube AB may not be hemispherical.


4. The mercury may be oxidised due to exposure to atmosphere.

D ISCUSSION
1. The apparatus should be vertical to ensure that the difference in
level (h) is accurate.
2. The diameter of the two glass tubes may or may not be the same

d
but the apparatus should be vertical.

he
3. The open tube CD should be raised or lowered gradually to ensure
that the temperature of the enclosed air remains the same.
4. The readings should be taken in order (above and below the

pu Tatmospheric pressure). This ensures wider range of consideration,

is
also if they are taken slowly the atmospheric pressure and
re R
temperature over the duration of observation remain the same. So

bl
time should not be wasted.
E
5. Why should the upper meniscus of mercury in the two tubes
recorded carefully using a set square?

S
be C

ELF ASSESSMENT
to N

1 1
1. Plot versus ‘h’ graph and determine the value of when h = 0.
V V
Compare this to the value of atmospheric pressure. Give a suitable
©

explanation for your result.


2. Comment on the two methods used for estimation of the volume
of the curved portion of the closed tube. What are the assumptions
made for the two methods?
3. If the diameter of tube AB is large, why would the estimation of
the curved portion be unreliable?
4. The apparatus when not in use should be kept covered to avoid
contamination of mercury in the open tube. How will oxidation of
t

mercury affect the experiment?


no

SUGGESTED ADDITIONAL EXPERIMENTS/ACTIVITIES

1. Tilt apparatus slightly and note the value of ‘h’ for two or three
values of X and Y.

2. Take a glass U tube. Fill it with water. Pour oil in one arm. Note the
difference in level of water, level of oil and water in the two arms.
Deduce the density of oil. What role does atmospheric pressure
play in this experiment?

94
EXPERIMENT
UNIT NAME

EXPERIMENT 12
AIM

d
To determine the surface tension of water by capillary rise method.

APPARATUS AND MATERIAL REQUIRED

he
A glass/plastic capillary tube, travelling microscope, beaker, cork with

pu T
pin, clamps and stand, thermometer, dilute nitric acid solution, dilute

is
caustic soda solution, water, plumb line.

P
re R
RINCIPLE

bl
E
When a liquid rises in a capillary tube
[Fig. E 12.1], the weight of the column of the
be C

liquid of density ρ below the meniscus, is


supported by the upward force of surface
tension acting around the circumference of the
to N

points of contact. Therefore

2πrT = πr 2h ρg (approx) for water


©

h ρgr
or T =
2
where T = surface tension of the liquid,

h = height of the liquid column and


r = inner radius of the capillary tube Fig.E 12.1: Rise of liquid in a capil-
lary tube

P
t

ROCEDURE
no

1. Do the experiment in a well-lit place for example, near a window


or use an incandescent bulb.
2. Clean the capillary tube and beaker successively in caustic soda
and nitric acid and finally rinse thoroughly with water.
3. Fill the beaker with water and measure its temperature.
4. Clamp the capillary tube near its upper end, keeping it above the
beaker. Set it vertical with the help of a plumbline held near it.
95
LABORATORY MANUAL
LABORATORY MANUAL

Move down the tube so that its lower end dips into the water in
the beaker.
5. Push a pin P through a cork C, and fix it on another clamp such
that the tip of the pin is just above the water surface as shown in
Fig. E 12.1. Ensure that the pin does not touch the capillary
tube. Slowly lower the pin till its tip just touches the water
surface. This can be done by coinciding the tip of the pin with its
image in water.

d
6 . Now focus the travelling microscope M on the meniscus of
the water in capillary A, and move the microscope until the

he
horizontal crosswire is tangential to the lowest point of the
meniscus, which is seen inverted in M. If there is any
difficulty in focussing the meniscus, hold a piece of paper
at the lowest point of the meniscus outside the capillary tube

pu T
is
and focus it first, as a guide. Note the reading of travelling
microscope.
re R
bl
7. Mark the position of the meniscus on the capillary with a pen.
Now carefully remove the capillary tube from the beaker, and then
E
the beaker without disturbing the pin.
8. Focus the microscope on the tip of the pin and note the microscope
be C

reading.
9. Cut the capillary tube carefully at the point marked on it. Fix the
to N

capillary tube horizontally on a stand. Focus the microscope on


the transverse cross section of the tube and take readings to
measure the internal diameter of the tube in two mutually
perpendicular directions.
©

O BSERVATIONS
Determination of h
Least count (L.C.) of the microscope = ... mm

Table E 12.1 : Measurement of capillary rise


t

Reading of tip of pin touching


no

S. Reading of meniscus h1 h = h1 – h2
(cm) surface of water h2 (cm)
No.

M.S.R. V.S.R. h1 = (S + M.S.R. V.S.R. h2 = (S ′+n′×L.C.)


S (cm) n n × L.C.) S′ (cm) n′ (cm)

1
2
3

96
EXPERIMENT 1 2
UNIT NAME

Table E 12.2 : Measurement of diameter of the capillary tube

S. Reading along a Diameter Reading along Diameter Mean


diameter (cm) d1 (x2 – x1) perpendicular d2 (y 2 – y1) diameter
No.
diameter d

One other (cm) One other (cm) d1 + d2


=
end end end end 2
1 x1 x2 y1 y2

d
2
3

he
Mean radius r = ... cm; Temperature of water θ = ... °C;
Density of water at 0° C = ... g cm–3

pu T
is
C
re R
ALCULATION

bl
Substitute the value of h and r and ρ g in the formula for T and calculate
E
the surface tension.

R
be C

ESULT
The surface tension of water at ... °C = ... ± ... Nm–1
to N

P RECAUTIONS
1. To make capillary tube free of contamination, it must be rinsed
©

first in a solution of caustic soda then with dilute nitric acid and
finally cleaned with water thoroughly.
2. The capillary tube must be kept vertical while dipping it in water.
3. To ensure that capillary tube is sufficiently wet, raise and lower
water level in container by lifting or lowering the beaker. It should
have no effect on height of liquid level in the capillary tube.
4. Water level in the capillary tube should be slightly above the edge
of the beaker/dish so that the edge does not obstruct observations.
t
no

5. Temperature should be recorded before and after the experiment.


6. Height of liquid column should be measured from lowest point of
concave meniscus.

SOURCES OF ERROR
1. Inserting dry capillary tube in the liquid can cause gross error in
the measurement of surface tension as liquid level in capillary tube
may not fall back when the level in container is lowered.
97
LABORATORY MANUAL
LABORATORY MANUAL

2. Surface tension changes with impurities and temperature of the


liquid.
3. Non-vertical placement of the capillary tube may introduce error
in the measurement of height of the liquid column in the tube.
4. Improper focussing of meniscus in microscope could cause an
error in measurement of the height of liquid column in the
capillary tube.

d
ISCUSSION

he
1. In a fine capillary tube, the meniscus surface may be considered
to be semispherical and the weight of the liquid above the lowest
1 3
point of the meniscus as ρr πg . Taking this into account, the

pu T
is
3

ρ gr ⎛⎜h + ⎞⎟ . More
1 r
formula for surface tension is modified to T =
re R
⎝ 3⎠

bl
2
precise calculation of surface tension can be done using this
E
formula.
2. If the capillary is dry from inside the water that rises to a certain
be C

height in it will not fall back, so the capillary should be wet from
inside. To wet the inside of the capillary tube thoroughly, it is first
dipped well down in the water and raised and clamped.
to N

Alternatively, the beaker may be lifted up and placed down.

S
ELF ASSESSMENT
©

1. Suppose the length of capillary tube taken is less than the height
upto which liquid could rise. What do you expect if such a tube is
inserted inside the liquid? Explain your answer.
2. Two match sticks are floating parallel and quite close to each other.
What would happen if a drop of soap solution or a drop of hot
water falls between the two sticks? Explain your answer.
t

SUGGESTED ADDITIONAL EXPERIMENTS/ACTIVITIES


no

1. Experiment can be performed at different temperatures and effect


of temperature on surface tension can be studied.

2. Experiment can be performed by adding some impurities and effect


of change in impurity concentration (like adding NaCl or sugar) on
surface tension can be studied.

3. Study the effect of inclination of capillary tube on height of liquid


rise in the capillary tube.

98
EXPERIMENT
UNIT NAME

EXPERIMENT 13
AIM

d
To determine the coefficient of viscosity of a given liquid by measuring
the terminal velocity of a spherical body.

he
APPARATUS AND MATERIAL REQUIRED
pu T
is
A wide bore tube of transparent glass/acrylic (approximately 1.25 m
long and 4 cm diameter), a short inlet tube of about 10 cm length and
re R
1 cm diameter (or a funnel with an opening of 1 cm), steel balls of known

bl
diameters between 1.0 mm to 3 mm, transparent viscous liquid (castor
oil/glycerine), laboratory stand, forceps, rubber bands, two rubber
E
stoppers (one with a hole), a thermometer (0-50 °C), and metre scale.

P
be C

RINCIPLE
to N

When a spherical body of radius r and density σ falls freely through


a viscous liquid of density ρ and viscosity η, with terminal velocity v,
then the sum of the upward buoyant force and viscous drag, force F,
©

is balanced by the downward weight of the ball (Fig. E13.1).


= Buoyant force on the ball + viscous force
4 3 4
πr σ g = πr 3 ρ g + 6 π ηrv (E 13.1)
3 3

4 3
3 πr ( σ − ρ ) g 2 r 2 ( σ − ρ ) g (E 13.2)
4/3 r g or υ= 3 =
6 πη r q η
t

where v is the terminal velocity, the constant


no

velocity acquired by a body while moving


6 rv
through viscous fluid under application of
v constant force.
3
4/3 r g
The terminal velocity depends directly on the
square of the size (diameter) of the spherical
Fig.E 13.1: Forces acting on a
spherical body falling
ball. Therefore, if several spherical balls of
through a viscous different radii are made to fall freely through
liquid with terminal the viscous liquid then a plot of v vs r2 would
velocity be a straight line as illustrated in Fig. E 13.2. 99
LABORATORY MANUAL
LABORATORY MANUAL

υ
The shape of this line will give an average value of r 2 which may be
used to find the coefficient of viscosity η of the given liquid. Thus

η=
2 r2 2
g (σ − ρ ) . =
( σ − ρ) g
(E 13.3) 9 v 9 ( slope of line )

= ... Nsm–2 (poise)

d
The relation given by Eq. (E 13.3) holds good if

he
the liquid through which the spherical body falls
freely is in a cylindrical vessel of radius R >> r
and the height of the cylinder is sufficient enough
to let the ball attain terminal velocity. At the same

pu T
is
time the ball should not come in contact with
the walls of the vessel.
re R
P
bl ROCEDURE
E
Fig.E 13.2: Graph between terminal velocity v, and
square of radius of ball, r2
be C
to N

1.Find the least count of the stop-watch.


©

2.Note the room temperature, using a thermometer.


3.Take a wide bore tube of transparent glass/acrylic (of diameter
about 4 cm and of length approximately1.25 m). Fit a rubber
stopper at one end of the wide tube and ensure that it is airtight.
Fill it with the given transparent viscous liquid (say glycerine).
Fix the tube vertically in the clamp stand as shown in Fig. E
13.3. Ensure that there is no air bubble inside the viscous liquid
in the wide bore tube.
t

4.Put three rubber bands A, B, and C around the wide bore tube
no

dividing it into four portions (Fig. E 13.3), such that AB = BC,


each about 30 cm. The rubber band A should be around 40 cm
below the mouth of the wide bore tube (length sufficient to allow
the ball to attain terminal velocity).
5.Separate a set of clean and dry steel balls of different radii. The
set should include four or five identical steel balls of same known
radii (r1). Rinse these balls thoroughly with the experimental
viscous liquid (glycerine) in a petridish or a watch glass. Otherwise

100
EXPERIMENT 1 3
UNIT NAME

these balls may develop air bubble(s) on


their surfaces as they enter the liquid
column.
6.Fix a short inlet tube vertically at the
open end of the wide tube through a
rubber stopper fixed to it. Alternately one
can also use a glass funnel instead of an
inlet tube as shown in Fig. E 13.3. With
the help of forceps hold one of the balls

d
of radius r 1 near the top of tube. Allow
the ball to fall freely. The ball, after

he
passing through the inlet tube, will fall
along the axis of the liquid column.
7.Take two stop watches and start both of

pu T
is
them simultaneously as the spherical
ball passes through the rubber band A.
re R
bl
Stop one the watches as the ball passes
through the band B. Allow the second
E
stop-watch to continue and stop it when
the ball crosses the band C.
be C

8.Note the times t 1 and t 2 as indicated by Fig.E 13.3: Steel ball falling along the
axis of the tube filled with
the two stop watches, t1 is then the time
a viscous liquid.
to N

taken by the falling ball to travel from A


to B and t2 is the time taken by it in falling from A to C. If terminal
velocity had been attained before the ball crosses A, then t2 = 2 t1.
If it is not so, repeat the experiment with steel ball of same radii
©

after adjusting the positions of rubber bands.


9.Repeat the experiment for other balls of different diameters.
10.Obtain terminal velocity for each ball.
11.Plot a graph between terminal velocity, v and square of the radius
of spherical ball, r2. It should be a straight line. Find the slope of
the line and hence determine the coefficient of viscosity of the
liquid using the relation given by Eq. (E 13.3).
t

O
no

BSERVATIONS
1. Temperature of experimental liquid (glycerine) θ = ...°C.

2. Density of material of steel balls σ = ... kg m-3

3. Density of the viscous liquid used in the tube = ... kgm–3

4. Density of experimental viscous liquid ρ = ... kg m-3

101
LABORATORY MANUAL
LABORATORY MANUAL

5. Internal diameter of the wide bore tube =... cm = ... m


6. Length of wide bore tube = ... cm = ... m
7. Distance between A and B = ... cm = ... m
8. Distance between B and C = ... cm = ... m
Average distance h between two consecutive rubber bands
= ... cm = ... m
9. Acceleration due to gravity at the place of experiment, = ... gms–2

d
10.Least count of stop-watch = ... s

he
Table E 13.1: Measurement of time of fall of steel balls

Diameter of Square of Terminal


Time taken for covering distance
S.

pu T
spherical the Velocity

is
balls radius of h = ... cm between rubber bands
No. h
the balls v =
re R
d r =d/2 A and B A and C B and C Mean time t
r2

bl
(m–1)
(cm) (m) (m2 ) t1 t2 t3 = t2–t1 t 1 + t3
t=
E
2
(s) (s) (s) (s)
1
be C

2
3
to N

G RAPH
©

Plot a graph between r 2 and v taking r2 along x -axis and v along


y-axis. This graph will be similar to that shown in Fig. E 13.2.

v RT
Slope of line 2 =
r ST

2 r (σ − ρ ) g
2

η=
So 9 ( slope of line )
t

Δη 2Δ r Δslope
= +
no

Error η r slope
Standard value of η = ... Nsm–2
% error in η = ... %

R ESULT
The coefficient of viscosity of the given viscous liquid at temperature
θ °C = ... ± ... Nsm–2
102
EXPERIMENT 1 3
UNIT NAME

P RECAUTIONS AND SOURCES OF ERROR


1. In order to minimise the effects, although small, on the value of
terminal velocity (more precisely on the value of viscous drag, force
F), the radius of the wide bore tube containing the experimental
viscous liquid should be much larger than the radius of the falling
spherical balls.
2. The steel balls should fall without touching the sides of the tube.

d
3. The ball should be dropped gently in the tube containing viscous/
liquid.

he
D ISCUSSION

pu T
is
1. Ensure that the ball is spherical. Otherwise formula used for
terminal velocity will not be valid.
re R
bl
2. Motion of falling ball must be translational.
E
3. Diameter of the wide bore tube should be much larger than that
of the spherical ball.

S
be C

ELF ASSESSMENT
to N

1. Do all the raindrops strike the ground with the same velocity
irrespective of their size?
2. Is Stokes’ law applicable to body of shapes other than spherical?
©

3. What is the effect of temperature on coefficient of viscosity of


a liquid?

SUGGESTED ADDITIONAL EXPERIMENTS/ACTIVITIES

1. Value of η can be calculated for steel balls of dif ferent radii


and compared with that obtained from the experiment.

2. To find viscosity of mustard oil [Hint: Set up the apparatus


t

and use mustard oil instead of glycerine in the wide bore


no

tube].

3. To check purity of milk [Hint: Use mustard oil in the tall


tube. Take an eye dropper, fill milk in it. Drop one drop of
milk in the oil at the top of the wide bore tube and find its
terminal velocity. Use the knowledge of coefficient of viscosity
of mustard oil to calculate the density of milk].

4. Study the effect of viscosity of water on the time of rise of air


bubble [Hint: Use the bubble maker used in an aquarium.
Place it in the wide bore tube. Find the terminal velocity of
rising air bubble].
103
LABORATORY MANUAL
LABORATORY MANUAL

EXPERIMENT 14

d
AIM

he
To study the relationship between the temperature of a hot body and
time by plotting a cooling curve.

APPARATUS AND MATERIAL REQUIRED


pu T
is
Newton’s law of cooling apparatus that includes a copper calorimeter
re R
bl
with a wooden lid having two holes for inserting a thermometer and a
stirrer and an open double – walled vessel, two celsius thermometers
E
(each with least count 0.5 oC or 0.1 oC), a stop clock/watch, a heater/
burner, liquid (water), a clamp stand, two rubber stoppers with holes,
be C

strong cotton thread and a beaker.

DESCRIPTION OF APPARATUS
to N

As shown in Fig. E 14.1, the law of cooling


T2 T1
100

100

apparatus has a double walled container, which


90

90

can be closed by an insulating lid. Water filled


80

80

Stirrer
70

70

between double walls ensures that the temperature


60

60

of the environment surrounding the calorimeter


50

50

Lid
40

40

remains constant. Temperature of the liquid and


30

30

the calorimeter also remains constant for a fairly


20

20
10

10

long period of time so that temperature


0

Double walled measurement is feasible. Temperature of water in


-10

-10

container calorimeter and that of water between double walls


of container is recorded by two thermometers.

THEORY
Calorimeter
t
no

The rate at which a hot body loses heat is directly


proportional to the difference between the
temperature of the hot body and that of its
Fig.E 14.1: Newton's law of cooling apparatus surroundings and depends on the nature of
material and the surface area of the body. This is
Newton’s law of cooling.

For a body of mass m and specific heat s, at its initial temperature θ


higher than its surrounding’s temperature θo , the rate of loss of heat
104
EXPERIMENT 1 4
UNIT NAME

dQ
is , where dQ is the amount of heat lost by the hot body to its
dt
surroundings in a small interval of time.
Following Newton’s law of cooling we have

dQ
Rate of loss of heat, = – k (θ – θ o) (E 14.1)
dt

dQ ⎛ dθ ⎞

d
Also = ms ⎜⎝ dt ⎟⎠ (E 14.2)
dt

he
Using Eqs. (E 14.1) and (E 14.2), the rate of fall of temperature is given by
dθ k
=– (θ – θ o) (E 14.3)
dt ms

pu T
is
where k is the constant of proportionality and k ′ = k/ms is another
constant (The term ms also includes the water equivalent of the
re R
bl
calorimeter with which the experiment is performed). Negative sign
appears in Eqs. (E 14.2) and (E 14.3) because loss of heat implies
E
temperature decrease. Eq. (E 14.3) may be re written as
d θ = - k′ (θ – θo) dt
be C

On integrating, we get

to N

∫θ – θ o
= − k ' ∫ dt

or ln (θ – θ o) = loge (θ – θo) = – k′t + c


©

or ln (θ – θo ) = 2.303 log10 (θ – θ o) = – k′t + c (E 14.4)

where c is the constant of integration.


Eq. (E 14.4) shows that the shape of a plot between log10 (θ – θo ) and t
will be a straight line.

PROCEDURE
1. Find the least counts of thermometers T1 and T 2. Take some water
t

in a beaker and measure its temperature (at room temperature θ o)


no

with one (say T1) of the thermometers.


2. Examine the working of the stop-watch/clock and find its least count.
3. Pour water into the double- walled container (enclosure) at room
temperature. Insert the other thermometer T2 in water contained
in it, with the help of the clamp stand.
4. Heat some water separately to a temperature of about 40 oC above
the room temperature θo. Pour hot water in calorimeter up to its top.
105
LABORATORY MANUAL
LABORATORY MANUAL

5. Put the calorimeter, with hot water, back in the enclosure and
cover it with the lid having holes. Insert the thermometer T1 and
the stirrer in the calorimeter through the holes provided in the
lid, as shown in Fig. E14.1.
6. Note the initial temperature of the water between enclosure of
double wall with the thermometer T2, when the difference of
readings of two thermometers T1 and T2 is about 30 oC. Note the
initial reading of the thermometer T1.

d
7. Keep on stirring the water gently and constantly. Note the
reading of thermometer T1, first after about every half a minute,

he
then after about one minute and finally after two minutes
duration or so.
8. Keep on simultaneously noting the reading of the stop-watch and

pu T that of the thermometer T1, while stirring water gently and

is
constantly, till the temperature of water in the calorimeter falls to
a temperature of about 5 oC above that of the enclosure. Note the
re R
bl
temperature of the enclosure, by the thermometer T2.
9. Record observations in tabular form. Find the excess of
E
temperature (θ − θο ) and also log10 ( θ − θο) for each reading, using
logarithmic tables. Record these values in the corresponding
be C

columns in the table.


10.Plot a graph between time t, taken along x-axis and log10 (θ – θo )
to N

taken along y-axis. Interpret the graph.

O BSERVATIONS
©

Least count of both the identical thermometers = ... °C


Least count of stop-watch/clock = ... s
Initial temperature of water in the enclosure θ1 = ... °C
Final temperature of water in the enclosure θ 2 = ... oC
Mean temperature of the water in the enclosure θ ο = (θ1 + θ 2)/2 = ... oC
Table E 14.1: Measuring the change in temperature of water with time
t
no

S. Time (t) Temperature Excess Temperature log10 (θ – θ0 )


No. (s) of hot water of hot water (θ – θ0)
θ °C °C
1
2
.
.
20

106
EXPERIMENT 1 4
UNIT NAME

P LOTTING GRAPH
(i) Plot a graph between (θ – θo) and t as shown in Fig. E 14.2 taking t
along x-axis and (θ – θo ) along y-axis. This is called cooling curve.
(ii) Also plot a graph between log10 (θ - θo ) and time t, as shown in Fig.
E 14.3 taking time t along x-axis and log10 (θ - θo ) along y-axis.
Choose suitable scales on these axes. Identify the shape of the
cooling curve and the other graph.

d
he
pu T
is
re R
bl
E
be C

Fig.E 14.2: Graph between (θ – θo) and t for Fig.E 14.3: Graph between log10 (θ – θo) and t
cooling

R
to N

ESULT
The cooling curve is an exponential decay curve (Fig. E 14.2). It is
observed from the graph that the logarithm of the excess of temperature
©

of hot body over that of its surroundings varies linearly with time as
the body cools.

P RECAUTIONS
1. The water in the calorimeter should be gently stirred continuously.
2. Ideally the space between the double walls of the surrounding
vessel should be filled with flowing water to make it an enclosure
having a constant temperature.
t

3. Make sure that the openings for inserting thermometers are air
no

tight and no heat is lost to the surroundings through these.


4. The starting temperature of water in the calorimeter should be
about 30°C above the room temperature.

S OURCES OF ERROR
1. Some personal error is always likely to be involved due to delay in
starting or stopping the stop-watch. Take care in starting and
stopping the stop-watch.
107
LABORATORY MANUAL
LABORATORY MANUAL

2. The accuracy of the result depends mainly on the simultaneous


measurement of temperature of hot water (decrease in
temperature being fast in the beginning and then comparatively
slower afterwards) and the time. Take special care while reading
the stop-watch and the thermometer simultaneously.
3. If the opening for the thermometer is not airtight, some loss of heat
can occur.
4. The temperature of the water in enclosure is not constant.

d
D ISCUSSION

he
Each body radiates heat and absorbs heat radiated by the other. The
warmer one (here the calorimeter) radiates more and receives less.
Radiation by surface occurs at all temperatures. Higher the

pu T
is
temperature difference with the surroundings, higher is rate of heat
radiation. Here the enclosure is at a lower temperature so it radiates
re R
bl
less but receives more from the calorimeter. So, finally the calorimeter
dominates in the process.
E
S
ELF ASSESSMENT
be C

1. State Newton's law of cooling and express this law mathematically.


to N

2. Does the Newton’s law of cooling hold good for all temperature
differences?
3. How is Newton's law of cooling different from Stefan's law of heat
©

radiation?
4. What is the shape of cooling curve?
5. Find the specific heat of a solid/liquid using Newton's law of
cooling apparatus.

SUGGESTED ADDITIONAL EXPERIMENTS/ACTIVITIES

1. Find the slope and intercept on y-axis of the straight line graph (Fig.
E 14.2) you have drawn. Determine the value of constant k and the
t

constant of integration c from this graph.


no

[Hint: Eq. (E 14.4) is similar to the equation of a straight line: y =


m ′ x + c′ , with m ′ as the slope of the straight line and c′ the
intercept on y-axis. It is clear m′ = k′/2.303 and c′ = c' × 2.303 .]

2. The cooling experiment is perfor med with the calorimeter, filled with
same volume of water and turpentine oil successively, by maintaining
the same temperature difference between the calorimeter and the
surrounding enclosure. What ratio of the rates of heat loss would
you expect in this case?

108
EXPERIMENT
UNIT NAME

EXPERIMENT 15
AIM

d
(i) To study the relation between frequency and length of a given
wire under constant tension using a sonometer.

he
(ii) To study the relation between the length of a given wire and tension
for constant frequency using a sonometer.

APPARATUS AND MATERIAL REQUIRED


pu T
is
re R
Sonometer, six tuning forks

bl
of known frequencies, metre
E
scale, rubber pad, paper
rider, hanger with half-
kilogram weights, wooden
be C

bridges.
SONOMETER
to N

It consists of a long
sounding board or a hollow Fig. E 15.1: A Sonometer
wooden box W with a peg G
©

at one end and a pulley at


the other end as shown in Fig E 15.1. One end of a metal wire S is
attached to the peg and the other end passes over the pulley P. A
hanger H is suspended from the free end of the wire. By placing slotted
weights on the hanger tension is applied to the wire. By placing two
bridges A and B under the wire, the length of the vibrating wire can be
fixed. Position of one of the bridges, say bridge A is kept fixed so that
by varying the position of other bridge, say bridge B, the vibrating
length can be altered.
t

PRINCIPLE
no

The frequency n of the fundamental mode of vibration of a string is


given by

1 T (E 15.1)
n=
2l m
where m = mass per unit length of the string
l = length of the string between the wedges 109
LABORATORY MANUAL
LABORATORY MANUAL

T = Tension in the string (including the weight of the


hanger) = Mg
M = mass suspended, including the mass of the hanger
(a) For a given m and fixed T,

1
nα or n l = constant.
l
(b) If frequency n is constant, for a given wire (m is

d
constant),

he
T
is constant. That is l 2 ∝ T.
l
Fig. E 15.2: Variation of resonant length

pu T
is
with frequency of tuning fork

(i) Variation of frequency with length


re R
PROCEDURE
bl
E
1. Set up the sonometer on the table and clean the groove on the
be C

pully to ensure that it has minimum friction. Stretch the wire by


placing a suitable load on the hanger.
2. Set a tuning fork of frequency n 1 into vibrations by striking it
to N

against the rubber pad and hold it near one of your ears. Pluck
the sonometer wire and compare the two sounds, one produced
by the tuning fork and the other by the plucked wire. Make a note
©

of difference between the two sounds.


3. Adjust the vibrating length of the wire by sliding the bridge B till
the two sounds appear alike.
4. For final adjustment, place a small paper rider R in
the middle of wire AB. Sound the tuning fork and
place its shank stem on the bridge A or on the
sonometer box. Slowly adjust the position of bridge
B till the paper rider is agitated violently, which
indicates resonance.
t

The length of the wire between A and B is the resonant


no

length such that its frequency of vibration of the


fundamental mode equals the frequency of the tuning
fork. Measure this length with the help of a metre scale.
5. Repeat the above procedures for other five tuning
forks keeping the load on the hanger unchanged. Plot
a graph between n and l (Fig. E 15.2)
6. After calculating frequency, n of each tuning fork, plot
Fig. E 15.3: Variation of 1/l with n a graph between n and 1/l where l is the resonating
length as shown in Fig. E 15.3.
110
EXPERIMENT 1 5
UNIT NAME

O BSERVATIONS (A)
Tension (constant) on the wire (weight suspended from the hanger
including its own weight) T = ... N
Table E 15.1: Variation of frequency with length

Frequency n o f
n1 n2 n3 n4 n5 n6
tuning fork (Hz)

d
Resonating
length l (cm)

he
1
(cm –1 )
l

pu T
is
nl (Hz cm)

C
re R
bl
ALCULATIONS AND GRAPH
1
E
Calculate the product nl for each fork. and, calculate the reciprocals,
l
1 1
be C

of the resonating lengths l. Plot vs n, taking n along x axis and


l l
along y axis, starting from zero on both axes. See whether a straight
to N

line can be drawn from the origin to lie evenly between the plotted points.

RESULT
©

1
Check if the product n l is found to be constant and the graph of vs n
l
is also a straight line. Therefore, for a given tension, the resonant length
of a given stretched string varies as reciprocal of the frequency.

D ISCUSSION
1. Error may occur in measurement of length l. There is always an
uncertainty in setting the bridge in the final adjustment.
t
no

2. Some friction might be present at the pulley and hence the tension
may be less than that actually applied.
3. The wire may not be of uniform cross section.
(ii) Variation of resonant length with tension for constant
frequency
1. Select a tuning fork of a certain frequency (say 256 Hz) and hang
a load of 1kg from the hanger. Find the resonant length as before.

111
LABORATORY MANUAL
LABORATORY MANUAL

2. Increase the load on the hanger in steps of 0.5 kg and each


time find the resonating length with the same tuning fork.
Do it for at least four loads.
3. Record your observations.
4. Plot graph between l 2 and T as shown in Fig. E 15.4.

O BSERVATIONS (B)

d
Frequency of the tuning fork = ... Hz

he
Fig. E 15.4: Graph between l2 Table E 15.2: Variation of resonant length with tension
and T
Tension applied T
(including weight of

pu T the hanger) (N)

is
Resonating length l
re R
of the wire

bl l2 (cm2)
E
T/l2 ( N cm–2)
be C

C
to N

ALCULATIONS AND GRAPH


Calculate the value of T l 2 for the tension applied in each case.
Alternatively, plot a graph of l 2 vs T taking l 2 along y-axis and T
©

along the x-axis.

R ESULT
It is found that value of T/l 2 is constant within experimental error.
The graph of l 2 vs T is found to be a straight line. This shows that
l 2 α T or l α T .
Thus, the resonating length varies as square root of tension for a
t

given frequency of vibration of a stretched string.


no

P
RECAUTIONS
1. Pulley should be frictionless ideally. In practice friction at the pulley
should be minimised by applying grease or oil on it.
2. Wire should be free from kinks and of uniform cross section,
ideally. If there are kinks, they should be removed by stretching
as far as possible.
112
EXPERIMENT 1 5
UNIT NAME

3. Bridges should be perpendicular to the wire, its height should be


adjustes so that a node is formed at the bridge.
4. Tuning fork should be vibrated by striking its prongs against a
soft rubber pad.
5. Load should be removed after the experiment.

SOURCES OF ERROR

d
1. Pulley may not be frictionless.
2. Wire may not be rigid and of uniform cross section.

he
3. Bridges may not be sharp.

D
pu T
ISCUSSION

is
1. Error may occur in measurement of length l. There is always an
re R
uncertainty in setting the bridge in the final adjustment.

bl
2. Some friction might be present at the pulley and hence the tension
E
may be less than that actually applied.
3. The wire may not be of uniform cross section.
be C

4. Care should be taken to hold the tuning fork by the shank only.

S
to N

ELF ASSESSMENT
1. What is the principle of superposition of waves?
©

2. What are stationary waves?


3. Under what circumstances are stationary waves formed?
4. Identify the nodes and antinodes in the string of your sonometer.
5. What is the ratio of the first three harmonics produced in a stretched
string fixed at two ends?
6. Keeping material of wire and tension fixed, how will the resonant
length change if the diameter of the wire is increased?
t

SUGGESTED ADDITIONAL EXPERIMENTS/ACTIVITIES


no

1. Take wires of the same material but of three different diameters


and find the value of l for each of these for a given frequency, n
and tension, T .
1
2. Plot a graph between the value of m and obtained, in 1 above,
l2
with m along X axis.
3. Pluck the string of an stringed musical instrument like a sitar, voilin
or guitar with different lengths of string for same tension or same
length of string with different tension. Observe how the frequency
of the sound changes.
113
LABORATORY MANUAL
LABORATORY MANUAL

EXPERIMENT 16
AIM

d
To determine the velocity of sound in air at room temperature using a
resonance tube.

he
APPARATUS AND MATERIAL REQUIRED
pu T
is
Resonance tube apparatus, a tuning fork of known frequency
(preferably of 480 Hz or 512 Hz), a rubber pad, a thermometer, spirit
re R
level, a set-square, beaker and water.

P bl
E
RINCIPLE
When a vibrating tuning fork of known frequency ν is
be C

held over the top of an air column in a glass tube AB (Fig.


A E 16.1), a standing wave pattern could be formed in the
A
tube. Under the right conditions, a superposition between
to N

a forward moving and reflected wave occurs in the tube to


cause resonance. This gives a very noticeable rise in the
amplitude, or loudness, of the sound. In a closed organ
©

pipe like a resonance tube, there is a zero amplitude point


at the closed end (Fig. E 16.2). For resonance to occur, a
node must be formed at the closed end and an antinode
must be formed at the open end. Let the first loud sound
be heard at length l1 of the air column [Fig. E 16.2(a)].
That is, when the natural frequency of the air column of
length l1 becomes equal to the natural frequency of the
B B
tuning fork, so that the air column vibrates with the
(a) (b) maximum amplitude. In fact the length of air column
t

vibrating is slightly longer than the length of the air column


Fig. E 16.1 : Formation of standing
no

wave in glass tube AB


in tube AB. Thus,
closed at one end
λ (E 16.1)
= l1 + e
4

where e (= 0.6 r, where r = radius of the glass tube) is the end correction
for the resonance tube and λ is the wave-length of the sound produced
by the tuning fork.
Now on further lowering the closed end of the tube AB, let the second
114 resonance position be heard at length l2 of the air column in the tube
EXPERIMENT 1 6
UNIT NAME

[Fig. E 16.2(b)]. This length l 2 would


approximately be equal to three quarters of
the wavelength. That is, l1


(E 16.2) = l2 + e
4 l2

Subtracting Eq. (E 16.l) from Eq. (E 16.2)


gives

d
(E. 16.3) λ = 2 (l2–l1 )
T hu s, the velo city o f s o u n d i n a i r a t

he
r o o m t e m p e r a t u r e (v = ν λ ) w o u l d b e
v = 2 ν ( l 2 – l 1) . (a) (b)

P
Fig. E 16.2: Vibrations in a resonance tube

pu T
is
ROCEDURE
re R
ADJUSTMENT OF RESONANCE TUBE

bl
The apparatus usually consists of a narrow glass tube about a metre
E
long and 5 cm in diameter, rigidly fixed in its vertical position with a
wooden stand. The lower end of this tube is attached to a reservoir by
a rubber tube. Using a clamp, the reservoir can be made to slide up
be C

or down along a vertical rod. A pinch cock is provided with the rubber
tube to keep the water level (or the length of air column) fixed in the
to N

tube. A metre scale is also fixed along the tube. The whole apparatus
is fixed on a horizontal wooden base that can be levelled using the
screws provided at the bottom. Both the reservoir and tube contain
water. When reservoir is raised the length of the air column in the
©

tube goes down, and when it is lowered the length of the air column in
the tube goes up. Now:–
1. Set the resonance tube vertical with the help of a spirit level and
levelling screws provided at the bottom of the wooden base of the
apparatus.
2. Note the room temperature with a thermometer.
3. Note the frequency ν of given tuning fork.
t

4. Fix the reservoir to the highest point of the vertical rod with the
no

help of clamp.
De--termination of First Resonance Position
5. Fill the water in the reservoir such that the level of water in the
tube reaches up to its open end.
6. Close the pinch cock and lower down the position of reservoir on
the vertical rod.
7. Gently strike the given tuning fork on a rubber pad and put
it nearly one cm above the open end of the tube. Keep both the
115
LABORATORY MANUAL
LABORATORY MANUAL

prongs of the tuning fork parallel to the ground and lying one
above the other so that the prongs vibrate in the vertical plane.
Try to listen the sound being produced in the tube. It may not
be audible in this position.
8. Slowly loosen the pinch cock to let the water level fall in the
tube very slowly. Keep bringing the tuning fork near the open
end of the resonance tube, notice the increasing loudness of
the sound.

d
9. Repeat steps 7 and 8 till you get the exact position of water
level in the tube for which the intensity of sound being produced

he
in the tube is maximum. This corresponds to the first resonance
position or fundamental node, if the length of air column is
minimum. Close the pinch cock at this position and note the
position of water level or length l 1 of air column in the tube

pu T
is
[Fig. E 16.2]. This is the determination of first resonance
position while the level of water is falling in the tube.
re R
bl
10. Repeat steps (5) to (9) to confirm the first resonance position.
E
11. Next find out the first resonance position by gradually raising
the level of water in resonance tube, and holding the vibrating
tuning fork continuously on top of its open end. Fix the tube
be C

at the position where the sound of maximum intensity is heard.


to N

Determination of Second Resonance Position

12. Lower the position of the water level further in the resonance tube
by sliding down the position of reservoir on the vertical stand and
©

opening the pinch cock till the length of air column in the tube
increases about three times of the length l1.

13. Find out the second resonance position and determine the length
of air column l2 in the tube with the same tuning fork having
frequency ν1 and confirm the length l2 by taking four readings,
two when the level of water is falling and the other two when the
level of water is rising in the tube.

14. Repeat steps (5) to (13) with a second tuning fork having frequency
ν2 and determine the first and second resonance positions.
t
no

15. Calculate the velocity of sound in each case.

O
BSERVATIONS
1. Temperature of the room θ = ... o C
2. Frequency of first tuning fork , ν 1 = ... Hz

3. Frequency of second tuning fork, ν2 = ... Hz


116
EXPERIMENT 1 6
UNIT NAME

Table E 16.1: Determination of length of the resonant air columns

Frequency of S. length l1 for the first length l 2 for the


tuning fork No. resonance position of second resonance
used the tube position of the tube
Water Water Mean Water Water Mean
level is level is length, level is level is length,
falling rising l 1 cm falling rising l 2 cm
1
ν1 = ... Hz 2

d
1
ν2 = ... Hz
2

he
C ALCULATIONS

pu T
is
(i) For first tuning fork having frequency ν1 = ... Hz
Velocity of sound in air v1 = 2 ν 1 (l2– l1) = ... ms–1
re R
bl
(ii) For second tuning fork having frequency ν 2 = ... Hz
E
Velocity of sound in air v2 = 2ν 2 (l2– l1) = ... ms–1
Obtain the mean velocity v of sound in air.
be C

R ESULT
to N

The velocity of sound v in air at room temperature is


v1 + v 2
= ... ms –1
©

PRECAUTIONS
1. The resonance tube should be kept vertical using the levelling
screws.
2. The experiment should be performed in a quiet atmosphere so
that the resonance positions may be identified properly.
3. Striking of tuning fork on rubber pad must be done very gently.
t
no

4. The lowering and raising of water level in the resonance tube should
be done very slowly.
5. The choice of frequencies of the tuning forks being used should be
such that the two resonance positions may be achieved in the air
column of the resonance tube.
6. The vibrating tuning fork must be kept about 1 cm above the top
of the resonance tube. In any case it should not touch the walls of
the resonance tube.
117
LABORATORY MANUAL
LABORATORY MANUAL

7. The prongs of the vibrating tuning fork must be kept parallel to


the ground and keeping one over the other so that the vibrations
reaching the air inside the tube are vertical.
8. Room temperature during the performance of experiment should
be measured two to three times and a mean value should be taken.

S
OURCES OF ERROR
1. The air inside the tube may not be completely dry and the presence

d
of water vapours in the air column may exhibit a higher value of
velocity of sound.

he
2. Resonance tube must be of uniform area of cross-section.
3. There must be no wind blowing in the room.

D pu T
is
ISCUSSION
re R
bl
1. Loudness of sound in second resonance position is lower than the
loudness in first resonance. We determine two resonance positions
E
in this experiment to apply end correction. But the experiment
can also be conducted by finding first resonance position only
be C

and applying end correction in resonating length as e = 0.6 r.


2. For a given tuning fork, change in the resonating length of air
to N

coloumn in 2 nd resonance does not change the frequency,


wavelength or velocity of sound. Thus, the second resonance is
not the overtone of first resonance.

S
©

ELF ASSESSMENT
1. Is the velocity of sound temperature dependent? If yes, write the
relation.
2. What would happen if resonance tube is not vertical?
3. Name the phenomenon responsible for the resonance in this
experiment.
t

4. Write two other examples of resonance of sound from day to


no

day life.

SUGGESTED ADDITIONAL EXPERIMENTS/ACTIVITIES

1. Calculate the end correction in the resonance tube.

2. Compare the end correction required for the resonance tubes of


different diameters and study the relation between the end correction
and the diameter of the tube.

3. Perform the same experiment with an open pipe.

118
EXPERIMENT
UNIT NAME

EXPERIMENT 17
AIM

d
To determine the specific heat capacity of a given (i) and solid
(ii) a liquid by the method of mixtures.

he
APPARATUS AND MATERIAL REQUIRED
pu T
is
Copper calorimeter with lid, stirrer and insulating cover (the lid
should have provision to insert thermometer in addition to the
re R
stirrer), two thermometers (0 °C to 100 °C or 110 °C with a least

bl
count of 0.5 °C), a solid, preferably metallic (brass/copper/steel/
aluminium) cylinder which is insoluble in given liquid and water,
E
given liquid, two beakers (100 mL and 250 mL), a heating device
(heater/hot plate/gas burner); physical balance, spring balance with
be C

weight box (including fractional weights), a piece of strong non-


flexible thread (25-30 cm long), water, laboratory stand, tripod stand
and wire gauze.
to N

P RINCIPLE / THEORY
©

For a body of mass m and specific heat s, the amount of heat Q


lost/gained by it when its temperature falls/rises by Δt is given by
(E 17.1)
ΔQ = ms Δt
Specific heat capacity: It is the amount of heat required to raise the
temperature of unit mass of a substance through 1°C. Its S.I unit is
Jkg–1 K –1.
Principle of Calorimetry: If bodies of different temperatures are
brought in thermal contact, the amount of heat lost by the body at
t

higher temperature is equal to the amount of heat gained by the body


no

at lower temperature, at thermal equilibrium, provided no heat is lost


to the surrounding.
(a) Specific heat capacity of given solid by method of mixtures

P ROCEDURE
1. Set the physical balance and make sure there is no zero error.
2. Weigh the empty calorimeter with stirrer and lid with the physical
balance/spring balance. Ensure that calorimeter is clean and dry. 119
LABORATORY MANUAL
LABORATORY MANUAL

Note the mass m 1 of the calorimeter. Pour the given water in the
calorimeter. Make sure that the quantity of water taken would be
sufficient to completely submerge the given solid in it. Weigh the
calorimeter with water along with the stirrer and the lid and note
its mass m2. Place the calorimeter in its insulating cover.
3. Dip the solid in water and take it out. Now shake it to remove
water sticking to its surface. Weigh the wet solid with the physical
balance and note down its mass m3.
4. Tie the solid tightly with the thread at its middle. Make sure that it

d
can be lifted by holding the thread without slipping.

he
Place a 250 mL beaker on the wire gauze kept on a tripod stand as
shown in the Fig. E 17.1(a). Fill the beaker up to the half with
water. Now suspend the solid in the beaker containing water by
tying the other end of the thread to a laboratory stand. The solid

pu T
is
should be completely submerged in water and should be atleast
0.5 cm below the surface. Now heat the water with the solid
re R
bl
suspended in it [Fig. E 17.1 (a)].
E
be C
t to N
©

Fig. E 17.1: Experimental setup for determining specific heat of a given solid
no

5. Note the least count of the thermometer. Measure the temperature


of the water taken in the calorimeter. Record the temperature t 1 of
the water.
6. Let the water in the beaker boil for about 5-10 minutes. Now
measure the temperature t2 of the water with the other thermometer
and record the same. Holding the solid with the thread tied to it,
120
EXPERIMENT 1 7
UNIT NAME

remove it from the boiling water, shake it to remove water sticking


on it and quickly put it in the water in the calorimeter and replace
the lid immediately (Fig. E 17.1 (b)). Stir the water with the stirrer.
Measure the temperature of the water once equilibrium is attained,
that is, temperature of the mixture becomes constant. Record this
temperature as t 3.

O BSERVATIONS

d
Mass of the empty calorimeter with stirrer (m1) = ... g
Mass of the calorimeter with water (m 2) = ... g

he
Mass of solid (m3) = ... g
Initial temperature of the water (t 1) = ... °C = ... K

pu T
is
Temperature of the solid in boiling water (t 2) = ... °C = ... K
re R
Temperature of the mixture (t3) = ... °C

bl
Specific heat capacity of material of calorimeter s 1 = ... Jkg–1 °C–1 (Jkg–1 K–1)
E
Specific heat capacity of water (s) = ... Jkg–1 K–1

C
be C

ALCULATIONS
to N

1. Mass of the water in calorimeter (m2 – m1) = ... g = ... kg


2. Change in temperature of liquid and calorimeter (t3 – t1) = ... °C
©

3. Change in temperature of solid (t2 – t3) == ... °C


Heat given by solid in cooling from t 2 to t 3.
= Heat gained by liquid in raising its temperature from t1 to t 3 +
heat gained by calorimeter in raising its temperature from t 1 to t 3.
m3s o (t 2 – t3) = (m 2 – m 1) s (t 2 – t1) + m1s 1 (t3 – t 1)

so =
(m 2 – m 1 ) s ( t2 − t1 ) + m1s1 ( t3 − t1 )
= ... J kg–1 °C–1
m 3 ( t2 − t3 )
t
no

(b) Specific heat capacity of given liquid by method of mixtures

PROCEDURE
1. Set the phyiscal balance and make sure there is no zero error.
2. Weigh the empty calorimeter with stirrer and lid with the
physical balance/spring balance. Ensure that calorimeter is
clean and dry. Note the mass m 1 of the calorimeter. Pour the
121
LABORATORY MANUAL
LABORATORY MANUAL

given liquid in the calorimeter. Make sure that the quantity of


liquid taken would be sufficient to completely submerge the
solid in it. Weigh the calorimeter with liquid along with the
stirrer and the lid and note its mass m2. Place the calorimeter
in its insulating cover.
3. Take a metallic cylinder whose specific heat capacity is known.
Dip it in water in a container and shake it to remove the water
sticking to its surface. Weigh the wet solid with the physical balance
and note down its mass m3.

d
4. Tie the solid tightly with the thread at its middle. Make sure that it

he
can be lifted by holding the thread without slipping.
Place a 250 mL beaker on the wire gauze kept on a tripod stand
as shown in Fig. E 17.1(a). Fill the beaker up to half with water.

pu T
Now suspend the solid in the beaker containing water by tying

is
the other end of the thread to a laboratory stand. The solid should
be completely submerged in water and should be atleast 0.5 cm
re R
bl
below the surface. Now heat the water with the solid suspended in
it [Fig. E 17.1(a)].
E
5. Note the least count of the thermometer. Measure the temperature
of the water taken in the calorimeter. Record the temperature t 1 of
be C

the water.
6. Let the liquid in the beaker boil for about 5-10 minutes. Now
to N

measure the temperature t 2 of the liquid with the other thermometer


and record the same. Holding the solid with the thread tied to it
remove it from the boiling water, shake it to remove water sticking
on it and quickly put it in the liquid in the calorimeter and replace
©

the lid immediately [Fig. E 17.1(b)]. Stir it with the stirrer. Measure
the temperature of the liquid once equilibrium is attained, that is,
temperature of the mixture becomes constant. Record this
temperature as t 3.

O
BSERVATIONS
Mass of the empty calorimeter with stirrer (m1) = ... g
t

Mass of the calorimeter with liquid (m2) = ... g


no

Mass of solid (m3) = ... g


Initial temperature of the liquid (t1) = °C = ... K
Temperature of the solid in boiling water (t 2) = °C = ... K
Temperature of the mixture (t3) = °C = ... K
Specific heat capacity of material of calorimeter s 1 = ... Jkg–1 °C–1 (Jkg–1 K–1)
Specific heat capacity of solid (s 0) = ... Jkg–1 K–1
122
EXPERIMENT 1 7
UNIT NAME

C ALCULATIONS
1. Mass of the liquid in calorimeter (m2 – m 1) = ... g = ... kg
2. Change in temperature of liquid and calorimeter (t 3 – t1) = ... °C
3. Change in temperature of solid (t 2 – t3) = ... °C
Heat given by solid in cooling from t 2 to t 3.
= Heat gained by liquid in raising its temperature from t1 to t 3 +

d
heat gained by calorimeter in raising its temperature from t 1 to t 3.

he
m3s o (t 2 – t3) = (m 2 – m 1) s (t 2 – t1) + m1s 1 (t3 – t 1)

m 3 s 0 ( t 2 − t 3 ) – m 1s 1 ( t 3 − t1 )
s= = ... J kg–1 °C–1
( m 2 − m1 ) (t 2 − t 1 )

pu T
is
R
re R
ESULT

bl
E
(a) The specific heat of the given solid is ... Jkg –1 K –1 within
experimental error.
be C

(b) The specific heat of the given liquid is ... Jkg–1 K –1 within
experimental error.
to N

PRECAUTIONS
1. Physical balance should be in proper working condition and ensure
©

that there is no zero error.


2. The two thermometers used should be of the same range and least
count.
3. The solid used should not be chemically reactive with the liquid
used or water.
4. The calorimeter should always be kept in its insulated cover and at
a sufficient distance from the source of heat and should not be
t

exposed to sunlight so that it absorbs no heat from the surrounding.


no

5. The solid should be transferred quickly so that its temperature is


same as recorded when it is dropped in the liquid.
6. Liquid should not be allowed to splash while dropping the solid
in it in the calorimeter. It is advised that the solid should be lowered
gently into the liquid with the help of the thread tied to it.
7. While measuring the temperature, the thermometers should always
be held in vertical position. The line of sight should be
perpendicular to the mercury level while recording the temperature.
123
LABORATORY MANUAL
LABORATORY MANUAL

S
OURCES OF ERROR
1. Radiation losses cannot be completely eliminated.
2. Heat loss that takes place during the short period while transferring
hot solid into calorimeter, cannot be accounted for.
3. Though mercury in the thermometer bulb has low specific heat, it
absorbs some heat.

d
4. There may be some error in measurement of mass and temperature.

he
ISCUSSION
1. There may be some heat loss while transferring the solid, from
boiling water to the liquid kept in the calorimeter. Heat loss may

pu T
is
also occur due to time lapsed between putting of hot solid in
calorimeter and replacing its lid.
re R
bl
2. The insulating cover of the calorimeter may not be a perfect
insulator.
E
3. Error in measurement of mass of calorimeter, calorimeter with liquid
and that of the solid may affect the calculation of specific heat
be C

capacity of the liquid.


4. Calculation of specific heat capacity of the liquid may also be
to N

affected by the error in measurement of temperatures.


5. Even though the metal piece is kept in boiling water, it may not
have exactly the same temperature as that of boiling water.
©

S
ELF ASSESSMENT
1. What is water equivalent?
2. Why do we generally use a calorimeter made of copper?
3. Why is it important to stir the contents before taking the
temperature of the mixture?
t

4. Is specific heat a constant quantity?


no

5. What is thermal equilibrium?

SUGGESTED ADDITIONAL EXPERIMENTS/ACTIVITIES

We can verify the principle of calorimetry, if specific heat capacity of the


solid and the liquid are known.

124
ACTIVITIES

ACTIVITY 1
AIM

d
To make a paper scale of given least count: (a) 0.2 cm and (b) 0.5 cm

he
APPARATUS AND MATERIAL REQUIRED
pu T
Thick ivory/drawing sheet; white paper sheet; pencil; sharpener;

is
eraser; metre scale (ruler); fine tipped black ink or gel pen.
re R
P RINCIPLE
bl
E
Least count of a measuring instrument is the smallest measurement
that can be made accurately with the given measuring instrument.
be C

A metre scale normally has graduations at 1 mm (or 0.1 cm) spacing,


as the smallest division on its scale. You cannot measure lengths
with this scale with accuracy better than 1mm (or 0.1 cm).
to N

You can make paper scale of least count (a) 0.2 cm (b) 0.5 cm, by
dividing one centimetre length into smaller divisions by a simple
method, without using mm marks.
©

P ROCEDURE
(a) Making Paper Scale of Least Count 0.2 cm
1. Fold a white paper sheet in the middle along its length.
2. Using a sharp pencil, draw a line AB, of length 30 cm in either
half of the white paper sheet [Fig. A1.1(a)].
3. Starting with the left end marked A as zero,
t

mark very small dots on the line AB after


no

every 1.0 cm and write 0,1,2 ..., 30 at


successive dots.
4. Draw thin, sharp straight lines, each 5 cm
in length, perpendicular to the line AB at
the position of each dot mark.
5. Draw 5 thin, sharp lines parallel to the line
AB at distances of 1.0 cm, 2.0 cm, 3.0
cm, 4.0 cm and 5.0 cm respectively. Let Fig. A1.1(a): Making a paper scale
the line at 5 cm be DC while those at 1 cm, of least count 0.2 cm
LABORATORY MANUAL
LABORATORY MANUAL

2 cm, 3 cm, and 4 cm be A1B1, A 2B2, A3B3 and A4B4 respectively


[Fig A 1.1(a)].
6. Join point D with the dot at 1 cm on line AB. Intersection of this
line with lines parallel to AB at A4, A3, A2 and A 1 are respectively
0.2 cm, 0.4 cm, 0.6 cm and 0.8 cm in length.
7. Use this arrangement to measure length of a pencil or a knitting
needle with least count of 0.2 cm.
(b) Making Paper Scale of Least Count 0.5 cm

d
1. Using a sharp pencil, draw a line AB of length 30 cm

he
in the other half of the white paper sheet [Fig. A1.1(b)].
2. Repeat steps 3 to 6 as in the above Activity 1.1(a), but
draw only two lines parallel to AB at distances 1.0 cm

pu T and 2.0 cm instead of 5 cm.

is
3. Join diagonal 1-D by fine tipped black ink pen [Fig. A
re R
Fig. A1.1(b): 1.1 (b)].
4.

blUse this scale to measure length of a pencil/knitting needle with


E
least count of 0.5 cm. Fractional part of length 0.5 cm is measured
on line A1B1.
be C

(c) Measuring the Length of a Pencil Using the Paper Scales A and B
1. Place the pencil PP’ along the length of the paper scale A (least
to N

count 0.2 cm) such that its end P is on a full mark (say 1.0 cm or
2.0 cm etc. mark). The position of the other end P′ is on diagonal
1–D. If P′ goes beyond the diagonal, place it on next upper line, in
©

which fraction of intersection is 0.2 cm larger, and so on. Thus, in


Fig. A 1.1 (a), length of the pencil = 3 cm + .2 × 2 cm = 3.4 cm. Take
care that you take the reading with one eye closed and the other
eye directly over the required graduation mark. The reading is
likely to be incorrect if the eye is inclined to the graduation mark.
2. Repeat preceding step 1, using the paper scale B having least
count 0.5 cm and record your observation in proper units.

O
BSERVATIONS
t
no

Least count of the paper scale A = 0.2 cm


Least count of the paper scale B = 0.5 cm

R
ESULT
(i) Scale of least count 0.2 cm and 0.5 cm have been made; and
(ii) Length of pencil as measured by using the scales made above is
(a) ... cm and (b) ... cm.
126
ACTIVITY 1
UNIT NAME

P RECAUTIONS
(i) Very sharp pencil should be used.
(ii) Scale should be cut along the boundary by using a sharp paper
cutter.
(iii) Observation should be recorded showing accuracy of the scale.
(iv) While measuring lengths, full cm mark should be made to

d
coincide with one end of the object and other end should be read
on the scale.

he
SOURCES OF ERROR

pu T
is
The line showing the graduations may not be as sharp as required.
re R
D ISCUSSION
bl
E
1. The accuracy of measurement of length with the scale so formed
depends upon the accuracy of the graduation and thickness of
be C

line drawn.
2. Some personal error is likely to be involved e.g. parallax error.
t to N
©
no

127
LABORATORY MANUAL
LABORATORY MANUAL

ACTIVITY 2
AIM

d
To determine the mass of a given body using a metre scale by the

he
principle of moments.

APPARATUS AND MATERIAL REQUIRED


pu T
is
A wooden metre scale of uniform thickness (a wooden strip of one
metre length having uniform thickness and width can also be used);
re R
bl
load of unknown mass, wooden or metal wedge with sharp edge, weight
box, thread (nearly 30 cm long), a spirit level, and a raised platform of
E
about 20 cm height (such as a wooden or metal block).

P
be C

RINCIPLE
For a body free to rotate about a fixed axis, in equilibrium, the sum of
to N

the clockwise moments is equal to the sum of the anticlockwise


moments.
If M1 is the known mass, suspended at a distance l1 on one side from
©

the centre of gravity of a beam and M2 is the unknown mass, suspended


at a distance l2 on the other side from the centre of gravity, and the
beam is in equilibrium, then M2 l2 = M1 l1.

P ROCEDURE
1. Make a raised platform on a table. One can use a wooden or a
metal block to do so. However, the platform should be a sturdy,
place a wedge having a sharp edge on it. Alternately one can fix
t

the wedge to a laboratory stand at about 20 cm above the table


no

top. With the help of a spirit level set the level of the wedge
horizontal.
2. Make two loops of thread to be used for suspending the unknown
mass and the weights from the metre scale (beam). Insert the loops
at about 10 cm from the edge of the metre scale from both sides.
3. Place the metre scale with thread loops on the wedge and adjust
it till it is balanced. Mark two points on the scale above the wedge
where the scale is balanced. Join these two points with a straight
128 line which would facilitate to pin point the location of balance
ACTIVITY 2
UNIT NAME

position even if the scale topples over from the wedge due to some
reason. This line is passing through the centre of gravity of scale.
4. Take the unknown mass in one hand. Select a weight from the
weight box which feels nearly equal to the unknown mass when
it is kept on the other hand.
5. Suspend the unknown mass from
either of the two loops of thread Wedge
attached to the metre scale. A G B

d
Suspend the known weight from
the other loop (Fig. A 2.1). x y

he
Unknown
6. Adjust the position of the known Mass, m m Known standard
weight by moving the loop till the W = mg mass
metre scale gets balanced on the

pu T
sharp wedge. Make sure that in Fig. A 2.1: Experimental set up for determination

is
balanced position the line drawn in of mass of a given body
Step 3 is exactly above the wedge
re R
bl
and also that the thread of two loops passing over the scale is
parallel to this line.
E
7. Measure the distance of the position of the loops from the line
drawn in Step 3. Record your observations.
be C

8. Repeat the activity atleast two times with a slightly lighter and a
heavier weight. Note the distances of unknown mass and weight
to N

from line drawn in Step 3 in each case.

OBSERVATIONS
©

Position of centre of gravity = ... cm


Table A 2.1: Determination of mass of unknown object
S. Mass M1 Distance of Distance of Mass of Average
No. suspended the mass solid of unknown mass of
from the from the unknown load M 2 (g) unknown
thread wedge l 1 mass from load (g)
loop to (cm) the wedge
M1l1
=
balance l 2 (cm) l2
t

the metre
no

scale (g)

5
129
LABORATORY MANUAL
LABORATORY MANUAL

C ALCULATIONS
In balanced position of the metre scale, moment of the force on one
side of the wedge will be equal to the moment of the force on the other
side.
Moment of the force due to known weight = (M1l1) g
Moment of the force due to unknown weight = (M2l2) g

d
In balanced position

he
M1l1 = M2l2

M1l1

pu T
is
or M2 = l
2
re R
Average mass of unknown load = ... g

R bl
E
ESULT
be C

Mass of given body = ... g (within experimental)

P
to N

RECAUTIONS
1. Wedge should be sharp and always perpendicular to the length of the
scale.
©

2. Thread loops should be perpendicular to the length of the scale.


3. Thread used for loops should be thin, light and strong.
4. Air currents should be minimised.

S
OURCES OF ERROR
1. Mass per unit length may not be uniform along the length of the
t

metre scale due to variation in its thickness and width.


no

2. The line marked on the scale may not be exactly over the wedge
while balancing the weights in subsequent settings.
3. The thread of the loops may not be parallel to the wedge when the
weights are balanced, which in turn would introduce some error
in measurement of weight-arm.
4. It may be difficult to adjudge balance position of the scale exactly.
A tilt of even of the order of 1° may affect the measurement of
mass of the load.
130
ACTIVITY 2
UNIT NAME

DISCUSSION
1. What is the name given to the point on the scale at which it is
balanced horizontally on the wedge?
2. How does the least count of the metre scale limit the accuracy in
the measurement of mass?
3. What is the resultant torque on the metre scale, due to gravitational
force, when the scale is perfectly horizontal?

d
4. Explain, how a physical balance works on the principle of

he
moments.
5. What problems would air currents cause in this activity?
SUGGESTED ADDITIONAL EXPERIMENTS/ACTIVITIES

pu T
is
1. We can determine the accuracy of various weights available in
the laboratory, by finding out their mass by the above method
re R
and comparing with their marked values.

bl 2. Verify the principle of moments using a metr e scale. After


E
balancing the metre scale at its centre of gravity, suspend
masses M 1 and M 2 at distances l1 and l2 respectively, from the
centre of gravity, on either side. Adjust the distances l 1 and l2
be C

so that the metre scale is horizontal. Calculate and compare


M1 l1 and M2 l2. Repeat with other combinations of masses M1
and M2.
tto N
©
no

131
LABORATORY MANUAL
LABORATORY MANUAL

ACTIVITY 3
AIM

d
To plot a graph for a given set of data choosing proper scale and show

he
error bars due to the precision of the instruments.

APPARATUS AND MATERIAL REQUIRED


pu T
is
Graph paper, a pencil, a scale and a set of data
re R
P
bl
RINCIPLE
E
Graphical representation of experimentally obtained data helps in
interpreting, communicating and understanding the interdependence
be C

between the variable parameters of a given phenomena. Measured


values of variables have some error or expected uncertainty. For this
reason each data point on the graph cannot have a unique position.
to N

That means depending upon the errors, the x-axis coordinate and y-
axis coordinate of every point plotted on the graph will lie in a range
known as an error bar.
©

Any measurement using a device has an uncertainty in its value


depending on the precision of the device used. For example, in the
measurement of diameter of a spherical bob, the correct way is to
represent it d + Δd, where Δd is the uncertainty in measurement of d
given by the least count of the vernier/screw gauze used.
Representation of d + Δd in a graph is shown as a line having a length
of + Δd about point ‘d’. This is known as the error bar of d.
We take an example where the diameters of objects, circular in shape,
are measured using a vernier calipers of least count 0.01 cm. These
t

measured values are given in Table 1. From the measured values of


no

diameters, it is required to calculate the radius of each object and to


round off the digits in the radius to the value consistent with the least
count of the measuring instrument, in this case, the vernier calipers.
We also estimate the maximum possible fractional uncertainty (or
error) in the values of radius. Next, the area A of each object is then
calculated using the formula.
πd 2
Area, A =
4
132 where π is the well-known constant.
ACTIVITY 3
UNIT NAME

Graphical representation of experimental data provides a convenient


way to look for interdependence or patterns between various
parameters associated with a given experiment or phenomenon or an
event. Graphs also provide a useful tool to communicate a given data
in pictorial form. We are often required to graphically represent the
data collected during an experiment in the laboratory, to verify a given
relation or to infer inter-relationships between the variables. It is,
therefore, imperative that we must know the method for representing
a given set of data on a graph, develop skill to draw most appropriate
curve to represent the plotted data and learn as to how to interpret a

d
given graph to infer relevant information.

he
Basic ideas about the steps involved in plotting a line graph for a
given data and finding the slope of the curve have already been
discussed in Chapter I. The steps involved in plotting a graph include

pu T
choice of axes (independent variable versus dependent variable), choice

is
of scale, marking the points on the graph for each pair of data and
drawing a smooth curve/line by joining maximum number of points
re R
bl
corresponding to the given data. Interpretation of the graph usually
involves finding the slope of the curve/line, inferring nature of
E
dependence between variables/parameters, interpolating/
extrapolating the graph to find desired value of the dependable variable
corresponding to a given value of independent variable or vice versa.
be C

However, so far you have learnt to graphically represent the data for
which uncertainty or error is either ignored or is presumed not to
to N

exist. As you know every data has some uncertainty/error due lack
of precision in measurement or some other factors inherent in the
process/method of data collection. It is possible to plot a graph that
depicts the extent of uncertainty/error in the given data. Such a
©

depiction in the graph is called an error bar. In general error bars


allow us to graphically illustrate actual errors, the statistical probability
of errors in the measurement or typical data points in comparison to
the rest of the data.

You have learnt to show uncertainty in measurement of a physical


quantity like length, mass, temperature and time on the basis of the
least count of the measuring instruments used. For example, the
diameter of a wire measured with a screw gauge having least count
0.001cm is expressed as 0.181 cm ± 0.001 cm. The figure ± 0.001 cm
t

in the measurement indicates that the actual value of diameter of the


no

wire may lie between 0.180 and 0.182 cm. However, the error in
measurement may also be due to many other factors, such as personal
error, experimental error etc. In some cases the error in data may be
due to factors other than those associated with measurement. For
example, angles of scattering of charge particles in an experiment on
scattering of α–particles or opinion collected from a section of a
population on a social issue. The uncertainty due to such errors is
estimated through a variety of statistical methods about which you will
learn in higher classes. Here we shall consider uncertainty in
133
LABORATORY MANUAL
LABORATORY MANUAL

measurements only due to the least count of the measuring instrument


so as to learn how uncertainty for a given data is shown in a line graph.
Let us take the example of the graph between time period, T, and the
length, l, of a simple pendulum. The uncertainty in measurement of
time period will depend on the least count of the stop watch/clock
while that in measurement of length of the pendulum will depend on
the least count of the device(s) used to measure length. Table A 3.1
gives the data for the time period of simple pendulum measured in an
experiment along with the uncertainty in measurement of the length

d
and time period of the pendulum.
Table A 3.1 Time period of simple pendulums of different lengths

he
S. Length of the pendulum Time period
No.

pu T
is
Length as Length with Average time Time period Square of
measured with uncertainty in L period as with time period
re R
metre scale, L (least count of scale measured uncertainty in T 2 with
(cm)

bl 0.1 cm) with stop T (least count


of stop watch
uncertainty
E
(cm) watch, T
(s) 0.1 s)
(s)
be C

1 80.0 80±0.1 1.8 1.8±0.1 3.24±0.2


to N

2 90.0 90±0.1 1.9 1.9±0.1 3.61±0.2

3 100.0 100±0.1 2.0 2.0±0.1 4.0±0.2


©

4 110.0 110±0.1 2.1 2.1±0.1 4.41±0.2

5 120.0 120±0.1 2.2 2.2±0.1 4.84±0.2

6 130.0 130±0.1 2.3 2.3±0.1 5.29±0.2


7 140.0 140±0.1 2.4 2.4±0.1 5.76±0.2

8 150.0 150±0.1 2.4 2.4±0.1 5.76±0.2

P
t

LOTTING OF A GRAPH WITH ERROR BARS


no

Steps involved in drawing a graph with error bars on it are as follows:


1. Draw x- and y- axes on a graph sheet and select an appropriate
scale for plotting of the graph. In order to show uncertainty/error
in given data, it is advisable that the scale chosen should be such
that the lowest value of uncertainty/error on either axes could be
shown by at least the smallest division on the graph sheet.
2. Mark the points on the graph for each pair of data without taking
into account the given uncertainty/error.
134
ACTIVITY 3
UNIT NAME

3. Each point marked on the graph in Step 2 has an uncertainty in


the value shown on either the x-axis or the y-axis or both. For
example, let us consider the
case for the point
corresponding to (80, 1.8)
marked on the graph. If we
take into account the
uncertainty in measurement
for this case, the actual length
of the pendulum may lie

d
between 79.9 cm and 80.1
cm. This uncertainty in the

he
data is shown in the graph by
a line of length 0.2 cm drawn
parallel to x-axis with its

pu T
midpoint at 80.0 cm, in

is
accordance with the scale
re R
chosen. The line of length 0.2

bl
cm parallel to x-axis shows
the error bar for the pendulum
E
of length 80.0 cm. One can
similarly draw error bar for
each length of the pendulum. Fig. A 3.1: Error bars corresponding to uncertainty
be C

in time period of the given pendulum


4. Repeat the procedure explained (uncertainty in length is not shown due to
to N

in Step 3 to draw error bars for limitation of scale)


uncertainty in measurement of
time period. However, the error
bars in this case will be parallel
©

to the y-axis.
5. Once the error bars showing
the uncertainty for data in both
the axes of the graph have been
marked, each pair of data on
the graph will be marked with
a + or <% or <% sign,
depending on the extent of
uncertainty and the scale
t

chosen for each axis, instead


no

of a point usually marked for


drawing line graph (Fig. A 3.1).
6. A smooth curve drawn
passing as close as possible
through all the + marks
marked on the graph, instead
of points, gives us the plot Fig. A 3.2: Graph showing variation in time period
between the two given of a simple pendulum with its length
along with error bars
variables (Fig. A 3.2).
135
LABORATORY MANUAL
LABORATORY MANUAL

R ESULT
A given set of data gives unique points. However, when plotted, a curve
representing that data may not physically pass through these points.
It must, however, pass through the area enclosed by the error bars
around each point.

P RECAUTIONS

d
1. In this particular case the point of intersection of the two x-axis
and y-axis represent the origin of O at (0, 0). However, this is not

he
always necessary to take the values of physical quantities being
plotted as zero at the intersection of the x-axis and y-axis. For a
given set of data, try to maximize the use of the graph paper area.

pu T
is
2. While deciding on scale for plotting the graph, efforts should be
made to choose a scale which would enable to depict uncertainty
re R
by at least one smallest division on the graph sheet.

bl
3. While joining the data points on the graph sheet, enough care
E
should be taken to join them smoothly. The curve or line should
be thin.
be C

4. Every graph must be given a suitable heading, which should be


written on top of the graph.
to N

S
OURCES OF ERROR
1. Improper choice of origin and the scale.
©

2. Improper marking of observation points.

SUGGESTED ADDITIONAL EXPERIMENTS/ACTIVITIES

how error bars in the graphs plotted for the data obtained while doing
Experiment Nos. 6, 9, 10, 11, 14 and 15.
t

Note:
no

As the aim of the Activity is to choose proper scale while plotting a graph
alongwith uncertainty only due to the measuring devices, the calculation in
the activity should be avoided.
Suggested alternate Activity for plotting cooling curve with error bars
(Experiment No. 14) where temperature and time are measured using a
thermometer and a stop-clock (stop-watch) with complete set of data /
Δθ ΔT
observations with LC of the measuring devices and and values
θ T
be given.
Additionally the same curve along with error bar be asked to be drawn using
two different scales and the discussion may be done using them.
136
ACTIVITY
UNIT NAME

ACTIVITY 4
AIM

d
To measure the force of limiting rolling friction for a roller (wooden

he
block) on a horizontal plane.

APPARATUS AND MATERIAL REQUIRED


pu T
is
Wooden block with a hook on one side, set of weights, horizontal plane
re R
fitted with a frictionless pulley at one end, pan, spring balance, thread,

bl
spirit level, weight box and lead shots (rollers).
E
P RINCIPLE
be C

Rolling friction is the least force required to make a body start rolling
over a surface. Rolling friction is less than the sliding friction.
to N

P ROCEDURE
©

1. Check that the pulley is almost frictionless otherwise oil it to


reduce friction.

2. Check the horizontal surface with a spirit level and spread a layer
of lead shots on it as shown in Fig. A 4.1.

3 . Weigh the wooden block.

4. Find the weight of the pan.


Tie one end of the thread to
the pan and let it hang over
t

the pulley.
no

5. Now put the block over the


layer of lead shots and tie the
other end of the thread to its
hook.

6. Put a small weight in the pan


and observe whether the
wooden block kept on rollers Fig. A 4.1: Setup to study rolling friction
begin to move.
137
LABORATORY MANUAL
LABORATORY MANUAL

7. If the block does not start rolling, put some more weights on the
pan from the weight box increasing weights in the pan gradually
till the block just starts rolling.
8. Note the total weight put in the pan, including the weight of the
pan and record them in the observation table.
9. Put a 100 g weight over the wooden block and repeat Steps (7) to (9).
10. Increase the weights in steps over the wooden block and repeat
Steps (7) to (9).

d
O

he
BSERVATIONS
Mass of wooden block m = ... g = ... kg
Weight of wooden block, W (mg) = ... N

pu T
is
Weight on the pan
re R
bl
= (Mass of the pan + weight) × acceleration due to gravity (g)
= ... N
E
Table A 4.1: Table for additional weights
be C

S. Mass of Total weight Mass on Total weight (force)


No. standard being pulled pan (p) (kg) pulling the block and
weights on = (W + w) × g standard weights (P+p) g
to N

wooden = Normal
block, W Reaction, R
(N)
©

R ESULT
t
no

As the total weight being pulled increases limiting value of rolling


friction increases/decreases.

P
RECAUTIONS
1. The pulley should be frictionless. It should be lubricated, if
necessary.
2. The portion of the string between the pulley and the hook should
be horizontal.
138
ACTIVITY 4
UNIT NAME

3. The surfaces of lead shots as well as the plane and the block
should be clean, dry and smooth.
4. The weights in the pan should be placed carefully and very gently.

SOURCES OF ERROR
1. Friction at the pulley tends to give larger value of limiting friction.
2. The plane may not be exactly horizontal.

d
D ISCUSSION

he
1. The two segments of the thread joining the block and the pan
passing over the pulley should lie in mutually perpendicular
planes.

pu T
is
2. The total weight pulling the block (including that of pan) should
re R
be such that the system just rolls without acceleration.
3.

bl
While negotiating a curve on a road, having sand spread over it, a
E
two wheeler has to be slowed down to avoid skidding, why?
be C

SUGGESTED ADDITIONAL EXPERIMENTS/ACTIVITIES

1. Find the co-efficient of rolling


friction μr by plotting the
to N

graph between rolling friction,


F and normal reaction, R.

2. What will be the effect of


greasing the lead shots, and
©

the horizontal surface on


which they are placed.

3. Study the rolling motion of


a roller as shown in Fig. A
4.2 and compare it with the
motion in the arrangement
for the above Activity. Fig. A 4.2:
t
no

139
LABORATORY MANUAL
LABORATORY MANUAL

ACTIVITY 5

d
AIM

he
To study the variation in the range of a jet of water with the change in
the angle of projection.

pu T
APPARATUS AND MATERIAL REQUIRED

is
re R
PVC or rubber pipe, a nozzle, source of water under pressure (i.e., a

bl
tap connected to an overhead water tank or water supply line), a
E
measuring tape, large size protractor.

P
be C

RINCIPLE
The motion of water particles in a jet of water could be taken as an
to N

example of a projectile motion under acceleration due to gravity 'g'.


Its range R is given by
v 02 sin 2 θ0
R=
©

where θ 0 is the angle of projection and v 0 is the velocity of projection.

P ROCEDURE
1. Making a large protractor: Take a circular plyboard or thick
circular cardboard sheet of radius about 25 cm. Draw a diameter
through its centre. Cut it along the diameter to form two dees. On
t

one of the dees, draw angles at an interval of 15° starting with 0°.
no

2. Attach one end of pipe to a tap. At the other end of the pipe fix a
nozzle to obtain a jet of water. Ensure that there is no leakage in
the pipe.
3. Fix the protractor vertically on the ground with its graduated–face
towards yourself, as shown in Fig. A 5.1.
4. Place the jet at the centre O of the protractor and direct the nozzle
of the jet along 15° mark on the protractor.
5. Open the tap to obtain a jet of water. The water coming out of the
140
ACTIVITY 5
UNIT NAME

v02/2g

R (cm)

d
x

he
0 15 30 45 60 75
θ (Degrees)

Fig. A 5.1: Setup for studying the variation in Fig. A 5.2: Variation of range with angle

pu T
is
the range of a jet of water with the of projection
angle of projection
re R
bl jet would strike the ground after completing its parabolic
trajectory. Ask your friend to mark the point (A) where the water
E
falls. Close the tap.
be C

6. Measure the distance between point O and A. This gives the range
R corresponding to the angle of projection, 15°.
Now, vary θ 0 in steps of 15° upto 75° and measure the
to N

7.
corresponding range for each angle of projection.
8. Plot a graph between the angle of projection θ0 and range R
©

(Fig. A 5.2).

O BSERVATIONS
Least count of measuring tape = ... cm
Table A 5.1: Measurement of range

S. Angle of projection θ0 Range


t

No. (degrees) R (cm)


no

1 15°

2 30°

3 45°

4 60°

5 75°

141
LABORATORY MANUAL
LABORATORY MANUAL

G RAPH
Plot a graph between angle of projection (on x-axis) and range
(on y-axis).

R ESULT
The range of jet of water varies with the angle of projection as shown
in Fig. A 5. 2.

d
The range of jet of water is maximum when θ0 = ... °

he
P RECAUTIONS

pu T1. There should not be any leakage in the pipe and the pressure

is
with which water is released from the jet should not vary during
re R
the experiment.

bl2. The jet of water does not strike the ground at a point but gets
E
spread over a small area. The centre of this area should be
considered for measurement of the range.
be C

3. The nozzle should be small so as to get a thin stream of water.

S
to N

OURCES OF ERROR
1. The pressure of water and hence the projection velocity of water
may not remain constant, particularly if there is leakage in
©

the pipe.
2 . The markings on the protractor may not be accurate
or uniform.

D ISCUSSION
1. Why do you get same range for angles of projection 15° and 75°?
2. Why has a big protractor been taken? Would a protractor of radius
t

about 10 cm be preferable? Why?


no

S
ELF ASSESSMENT
1. This Activity requires the pressure of inlet water be kept constant
to keep projection velocity of water constant. How can this be
achieved?
2. How would the range change if the velocity of projection is
increased or decreased?
142
ACTIVITY 5
UNIT NAME

SUGGESTED ADDITIONAL EXPERIMENTS/ACTIVITIES

1. Study the variation in maximum height attained by the water stream


for different angles of projection.
2. Study the variation in range of water stream by varying the height at
which the water supply tank is kept.
3, Take a toy gun which shoots plastic balls and repeat the Activity
using this gun.
4. Calculate velocity of projection by using maximum value of horizontal
range measured as above.

d
he
pu T
is
re R
bl
E
be C
to N

no

143
LABORATORY MANUAL
LABORATORY MANUAL

ACTIVITY 6
AIM

d
To study the conservation of energy of a ball rolling down an inclined

he
plane (using a double inclined plane).

APPARATUS AND MATERIAL REQUIRED


pu T
is
A double inclined plane having hard surface, (for guided motion of
re R
the ball on the double inclined plane it is suggested that an aluminium

bl
channel or rails of two steel wires be used for it), a steel ball of about
2.5 cm diameter, two wooden blocks, spirit level, tissue paper or cotton,
E
and a half metre scale.

P
be C

RINCIPLE
to N

The law of conservation of energy states that ‘energy can neither


be created nor destroyed but can only be changed from one form
to another’.
©

For a mechanical system, viz., the


rolling of a steel ball on a perfactly
smooth inclined plane, the energy of
ball remains in the form of its kinetic
and potential energies and during the
course of motion, a continuous
transformation between these energies
takes place. The sum of its kinetic and
potential energies remains constant
t

Fig.A 6.1: Set up for studying the conservation of provided there is no dissipation of
no

energy using double inclined tracks energy due to air resistance, friction etc.
In this experiment, the law of
conservation of energy is illustrated by the motion of a steel ball rolling
on a double inclined plane. A steel ball rolling on a hard surface of
inclined plane is an example of motion with low friction. When the ball
is released from point A on inclined plane AO, it will roll down the
slope and go up the opposite side on the plane OB to about the same
height h from which it was released. If the angle of the slope on right
hand plane is changed, the ball will still move till it reaches the same
144 vertical height from which it was released.
ACTIVITY 6
UNIT NAME
At point of release, A, say on the right hand inclined plane, the steel
ball possesses only potential energy that is proportional to the vertical
height, h, of the point of release and has a zero kinetic energy. This
potential energy transfers completely into kinetic energy when the
steel ball rolls down to the lowest point O on the double inclined plane.
It then starts rolling up on the second inclined plane during which its
kinetic energy changes into potential energy. At point B where it stops
on the left hand inclined plane OB, it again has only potential energy
and zero kinetic energy. The law of conservation of mechanical energy
can be verified by the equality of two vertical heights AA′ and BB′.

d
ROCEDURE

he
1. Adjust the experimental table horizontally with the help of spirit
level.
2. Clean the steel ball and inclined planes with cotton or tissue paper.

pu T
is
Even a minute amount of dust or stain on the ball or on the
plane can cause much friction.
re R
bl
3. Keep the clean double inclined plane on a horizontal table.
Note: In order to reduce friction and thereby reduce loss of energy
E
due to it one can also design an unbreakable double inclined
track apparatus, in which the steel ball rolls on stainless steel
be C

wire track. In a try outs with such an inclined plane it has been
observed that the rolling friction is extremely low and it is very
good for this Activity. It also does not develop a kink in the centre,
to N

unlike the apparatus presently in use in many schools.


4. Insert identical wooden blocks W1 and W2 underneath each plane
at equal distance from point O. The two planes will be inclined
©

nearly equally, as shown in Fig. A 6.1. The inclined plane should


be stable on horizontal table otherwise there would be energy
losses due to the movement of inclined plane as well.
5. Release the steel ball from A, on either of the two inclined.
6. Find the vertical height AA′ (x) of the point A from the table
using a scale.
7. Note the point B up to which the ball reaches the inclined plane
on the other side and find the vertical height BB′ (y) (Fig. A. 6.1).
t

Record the observations. While observing the highest position of


no

the steel ball on other plane, observer has to be very alert as the
ball stays at the highest position only for an instant.
8. Shift the wooden block W1 and W2, kept under either of the two planes,
towards the centre point O by a small distance. Now the angle of the
slope of one of the planes would be larger than that of the other.
9. Release the ball again from point A on one of the two planes and
mark the point B on the other plane up to which the steel ball
rolls up. Also find the vertical height BB′.
145
LABORATORY MANUAL
LABORATORY MANUAL

10. Repeat Steps (8) and (9) for one more angle of the slope of the
inclined plane.
11. Repeat the observations for another point of release on the same
inclined plane.

O BSERVATIONS
Table A 6.1:

d
S. Reading on inclined Reading on the inclined Difference
No. plane from which the plane in which the ball (x – y)

he
ball is rolled down rolls up (cm)

Position of Vertical Position of Vertical Mean, y


mark A height mark up to height, (cm)

pu T
is
AA′, x which the y
(cm) ball rolls (cm)
re R
up

bl
1 B =
E
2 C =
3 D=
be C

1 B =
to N

2 C =
3 D=

R
©

ESULT
It is observed that initial vertical height and final vertical height upto
which the ball rolls up are approximately same. Thus, the rolling steel
ball has same initial and final potential energies, though during the
motion, the form of energy changes. The total mechanical energy (sum
of kinetic and potential energies) remains same. This is the verification
of law of conservation of energy.

P
t

RECAUTIONS
no

1. Steel balls and inclined planes must be cleaned properly with


cotton/tissue paper.
2. Both wings of the inclined plane must lie in the same vertical plane.
3. Both the planes must be stable and should not have any movement
due to rolling of the ball or otherwise.
4. The position of the ball at the highest point while climbing up the
plane must be noted quickly and carefully.
146
ACTIVITY 6
UNIT NAME

SOURCES OF ERROR
1. Some energy is always lost due to friction.
2. Due to lack of continuity at junction of two inclined planes, rolling
ball usually suffers a collision with second plane and hence
results in some loss of energy.

D ISCUSSION

d
1. The key to the success of this Activity for the verification of law

he
of conservation of energy is in keeping the rolling friction between
the steel ball and inclined plane as low as possible. Therefore,
the ball and inclined plane surfaces should be smooth, clean

pu T
and dry.

is
2. The dissipation of energy due to friction can be minimised by
re R
minimising the area of contact between the steel ball and inclined

bl
plane. Therefore, it is advised that the inclined planes should be
made of polished aluminium channels having narrow grooves.
E
3. The surface of inclined planes should be hard and smooth so
be C

that role of friction remains minimum.


4. If the inclination of the planes is large then the dissipation of
to N

energy will be more (how)? Therefore inclination of the planes


should be kept small.

S
©

ELF ASSESSMENT
1. Can this Activity be performed successfully with a steel ball of
smaller diameter?
2. If the ball is not reaching exactly up to the same height on the
other wing, comment on the observations?

SUGGESTED ADDITIONAL EXPERIMENTS/ACTIVITIES

1. Study of the effects of mass and size of the ball on rolling down an
t

inclined plane.
no

2. Study the effect of inclination of the planes on coefficient of rolling


friction.

147
LABORATORY MANUAL
LABORATORY MANUAL

ACTIVITY 7
AIM

d
To study dissipation of energy of a simple pendulum with time.

he
APPARATUS AND MATERIAL REQUIRED
pu T
is
A heavy metallic spherical ball with a hook; a rigid support; a long
fine strong cotton thread (1.5 m to 2m); metre scale; weighing balance;
re R
sheet of paper; cotton; cellophane sheet.

P bl
E
RINCIPLE
be C

When a simple pendulum executes simple harmonic motion, the re-


storing force F is given by
(A 7.1)
to N

F(t) = –kx (t)


Where x (t) is the displacement at time t and k = mg/L, the symbols k,
m, g and L have been explained in Experiment E 6. The displacement
©

is given by
(A 7.2) x (t) = A0 cos (ωt – θ )
where ω is the (angular) frequency and θ is a constant. A0 is the maxi-
mum displacement in each oscillation, which is called the amplititude.
The total energy of the pendulum is given as

(A 7.3) 1
E° = k A 20
2
t

The total energy remains a constant in an ideal pendulum, because


no

its amplitude remains constant.


But in a real pendulum, the amplitude never remains constant. It
decreases with time due to several factors like air drag, some play at
the point of suspension, imperfection in rigidity of the string and sus-
pension, etc. Therefore, the amplitude of A0 falls with time at each
successive oscillation. The amplitude becomes a function of time and
is given by
(A 7.4) A(t) = A 0e –λ t/2
148 where A0 is the initial amplitude and λ is a contant which depends on
ACTIVITY 7
UNIT NAME

damping and the mass of the bob. The total energy of the pendulum
at time t is then given by

1
E (t) = kA2(t)
2

= E0 e –λ t (A 7.5)

Thus, the energy falls with time, because some of the energy is being
lost to the surroundings.

d
The frequency of a damped oscillator does not depend much on the

he
amplitude. Therefore, instead of measuring the time, we can also
measure the number of oscillations n. At the end of n oscillations,
t = nT, where T is the time period. Then Eq. (A 7.5) can be written in
the form En = E0 e–α n

pu T
is
(A 7.6)
where α = λt
re R
bl
and En is the energy of the oscillator at the end of n oscillations.

P
E
ROCEDURE
be C

1. Find the mass of the pendulum bob.

2. Repeat Steps 1 to 5 of Experiment E 6.


to N

3. Fix a metre scale just below the pendulum so that it is in the


plane of oscillations of the pendulum, and such that the zero mark
of the scale is just below the bob at rest.
©

4. When the pendulum oscillates, you have to observe the point on


the scale above which the bob rises at its maximum displace-
ment. In doing this, do not worry about millimetre marks. Take
observations only upto 0.5 cm.

5. Pull the pendulum bob so that it is above the 15 cm mark. Thus,


the initial amplitude will be A 0 = 15 cm at n = 0. Leave the bob
gently so that it starts oscillating.
6. Keep counting the number of oscillations when the bob is at its
t

maximum displacement on the same side.


no

7. Record the amplitude An at the end of n oscillations for n = 5, 10,


15, ..., that is at the end of every five oscillations. You may even
note An after every ten oscillations.

8. Plot a graph of A n2 versus n and intepret the graph (Fig. A 7.1).

9. Stick a bit of cotton or a small strip of paper to the bob so as to


increase the damping, and repeat the experiment.
149
LABORATORY MANUAL
LABORATORY MANUAL

A2n
2
(m )

d
Fig. A 7.1: Graph between A2n and n

he
for a simple pendulum

O
BSERVATIONS

pu T
is
Least count of the balance = ... g
re R
bl
Least count of the metre scale = ... cm
Mass of the pendulum bob. m = ... g
E
Radius (r) of the pendulum bob (given) = ... cm
be C

Effective length of the pendulum (from the tip of the bob to the point
of suspension), L = ... cm
to N

Force constant, k = mg/L = ... N m–1


Initial amplitude of oscillation, A0 = ... cm
©

Initial energy, E0 = 1/2 (k A 2)= ... J

Table A 7.1 : Decay of amplitude with time and dissipation of


energy of simple pendulum

S. Amplitude, Number of A2n Energy of Dissipation


No. A n (cm) oscillations, oscillater, E n of energy,
n (J) (En –Eo) (J)
1
t
no

2
3
4

R
ESULT
From the graphs, we may conclude that the energy of a simple
pendulum dissipates with time.
150
ACTIVITY 7
UNIT NAME

P RECAUTIONS
1. The experiment should be performed in a section of the laboratory
where air flow is minimum.
2. The pendulum must swing for atleast a couple of oscillations
before recording its amplitude, this will ensure that the pendulum
is moving in the same plane.

d
OURCES OF ERROR

he
1. Some movement of air is always there in the laboratory.
2. Accurate measurement of amplitude is difficult.

D pu T
is
ISCUSSION
re R
bl
1. Which graph among the A – n and A2 – n graph would you prefer
for studying the dissipation of energy of simple pendulum with
E
time and why?
2. How would the amplitude of oscillation change with time with
be C

the variation in (a) size and (b) mass of the pendulum bob; and
(c) length of the pendulum?
to N

SELF ASSESSMENT
1. Interpret the graph between A 2 and n you have drawn for a sim-
©

ple pendulum.
2. Examine how the amplitude of oscillations changes with time.
3. What does the decreasing amplitude of oscillation with time indi-
cate in terms of variations in energy of simple pendulum with time.
4. In what way does graph between A and n differ from that between
the A 2 and n graph, you have drawn.
5. Compare the A 2 – n plots for
t

(a) oscillations with small damping and


no

(b) oscillations with large damping.

SUGGESTED ADDITIONAL EXPERIMENTS/ACTIVITIES

Take a plastic ball (5 cm diameter) make two holes in it along its


diameter. Fill it with sand. Use the sand filled ball to make a pendulum
of 100 cm length.
Swing the pendulum allowing the sand to drain out of the hole.
Find the rate at which the amplitude of pendulum falls and compare
it with the case when mass of the bob is constant.
151
LABORATORY MANUAL
LABORATORY MANUAL

ACTIVITY 8
AIM

d
To observe the change of state and plot a cooling curve for

he
molten wax.

APPARATUS AND MATERIAL REQUIRED


pu T
is
A 500 mL beaker, tripod stand, wire gauge, clamp stand, hard glass
re R
boiling tube, celsius thermometer of least count 0.5 °C, a stop-watch/

bl stop-clock, burner, parraffin wax, cork with a hole to fit the boiling
tube and hold a thermometer vertically.
E

P
be C

RINCIPLE
Matter exists in three states – solid, liquid and gas.
to N

On heating a solid expands and its temperature increases. If we


continue to heat the solid, it changes its state.
The process of conversion of solid to a liquid state is called melting.
©

The temperature at which the change takes place is called melting


point. Melting does not take place instantaneously throughout
the bulk of a solid, the temperature of solid-liquid remains
y
constant till the whole solid changes into
liquid. The time for melting depends upon the
nature and mass of solid.
A liquid when cooled freezes to solid state at the
same temperature as its melting point. In this case
Temperature (°C)

TM
also the temperature of liquid-solid remains
t

constant till all the liquid solidifies.


no

TR Paraffin wax is widely used in daily life. We can


determine the melting point of wax by plotting
a cooling curve. The temperature of molten
wax is recorded at equal intervals of time. First
x
0 the temperature of wax falls with time then
Time (min)
becomes constant at T M, the melting point,
when it solidifies. On further cooling the
Fig. A 8.1: Cooling curve
temperature of solid wax falls to room
152 temperature T R as shown in Fig. A 8.1.
ACTIVITY 8
UNIT NAME

PROCEDURE
1. Note the least count and range of the thermometer.
2. Note the least count of the stop-clock.
3. Record the room temperature.
4. Set up the tripod, burner, heating
arrangement as shown in Fig A 8.2.

d
5. Adjust the boiling tube and the thermometer
such that the graduation marks could be

he
easily read by you.
6. Heat the water and observe the state of wax.
Continue to heat till all the wax melts, note

pu T
is
the approximate melting point.
re R
7. Continue to heat the wax in the water bath Fig. A 8.2: Experimental set up

bl
till the temperatue is atleast 20°C above the
approximate melting point as observed in Step 6.
E
8. Turn off the burner, and carefully raise the clamp to remove the
boiling tube from the water bath.
be C

9. Record readings of temperature after every 2 minutes.


to N

10. Plot a graph of temperature of wax versus time, (temperature on


y – axis).
11. From the graph
©

(i) determine the melting point of wax.


(ii) mark the time interval for which the wax is in liquid state/solid state.

O BSERVATIONS
Least count of thermometer = ... °C
Thermometer range ... °C to ... °C
t

Room temperature = ... °C


no

Least count of stop clock = ... s


Table A 8.1: Change in temperature of molten wax with time

S. time temperature
No. s °C
1
2
3
4
153
LABORATORY MANUAL
LABORATORY MANUAL

R ESULT
The cooling curve of molten wax is shown in the graph. From the
graph (i) the melting point of wax is ... °C and (ii) the wax remains in
liquid state for ... s and in solid state for ... s.

P RECAUTIONS

d
1. The boiling tube with wax should never be heated directly on
a flame.

he
2. The stop clock should be placed on the right hand side of the
apparatus as it may be easy to see.
3. Wax should not be heated more than 20°C above its melting point.

pu T
is
S
re R
OURCES OF ERROR

bl
Simultaneous recording of temperature and time may give rise to
E
some errors.

S
be C

ELF ASSESSMENT
to N

1. Why should we never heat the wax directly over a flame?


2. Why is water bath used to melt the wax and heat it further?
3. What is the maximum temperature to which molten wax can be
©

heated in a water bath?


4. Would this method be suitable to determine the melting point of
plastics? Give reason for your answer.
5. Will the shape of the curve for coding of hot water be different
than that for wax?

SUGGESTED ADDITIONAL EXPERIMENTS/ACTIVITIES


t

1. Find melting point of ice.


no

2. Study the effect of addition of colour/fragrance on the melting point


of a given sample of colour less wax. Find the change in melting
point of wax by adding colour/fragrance in different proportions.

154
ACTIVITY
UNIT NAME

ACTIVITY 9
AIM

d
To observe and explain the effect of heating on a bi-metallic strip.

he
APPARATUS AND MATERIAL REQUIRED
pu T
A iron-brass bi-metallic strip with an insulating (wooden) handle;

is
heater/burner.
re R
D
bl
ESCRIPTION OF THE DEVICE
E
A bi-metallic strip is made of
two bars/strips of different
be C

metals (materials), but of same


dimensions. These metallic
bars/strips (A and B) are
to N

put together lengthwise and


firmly rivetted. An insulating
(wooden) handle is also fixed
©

at one end of the bi-metallic


strip. A bi-metallic strip can
be made by selecting metals
(materials) with widely
different values of coefficients
of linear thermal expansion.
The bi-metallic strip is
straight at room temperature, Fig. A 9.1: A bi-metallic strip in (a) straight, and (b)
as shown in position (a) of bent positions
t

Fig. A 9.1. When the bi-metallic


no

strip is heated, both metallic pieces expand to different extents


because of their different linear thermal expansivities, as shown
in position (b) of Fig. A 9.1. As a result, the bimetallic strip
appears to bend.

P RINCIPLE
The linear thermal expansion is the change in length of a bar on
heating. If L1 and L2 are the lengths of rod/bar of a metal at
temperatures t 1°C and t2°C (such that t 2 > t 1), the change in length 155
LABORATORY MANUAL
LABORATORY MANUAL

(L2 – L 1) is directly proportional to the original length L 1 and the rise


in temperature (t 2 – t 1).

(A 9.1) Then, (L2 – L1) = α L 1 (t2 – t 1)

(A 9.2) or L2 = L1 [1 + α (t2 – t 1)]

(A 9.3) and α = (L2 – L1)/(t 2 – t 1)

d
where α is the coefficient of linear thermal expansion of the material

he
of the bar/rod.
The coefficient of linear thermal expansion (α) is the increase in length
per unit length for unit degree rise in temperature of the bar. It is

pu T
expressed in SI units as K–1.

is
P
re R
ROCEDURE
1.

bl
Light a burner or switch on the electric heater.
E
2. Keep the bi-metallic strip in the horizontal position by holding it
with the insulated handle and heat it with the help of burner/
be C

heater. Note which side of the bi-metallic strip is in direct contact


of heat source.
to N

3. Observe the effect of heating the strip. Note carefully the direction
of the bending of the free end of the bi-metallic strip, whether it is
upwards or downwards?
©

4. Identify the metal (A or B) which is on the convex side of the


bi-metallic strip and also the one which is on its concave side.
Which one of the two metals/materials strips have a larger
thermal expansion? (The one on the convex side of the bi-
metallic strip will expand more and hence have larger linear
thermal expansion).
5. Note down the known values of coefficient of linear thermal
expansion of two metals (A and B) of the bi-metallic strip. Verify
whether the direction of bending (upward or downward) is on
t

the side of the metal/material having lower coefficient of linear


no

thermal expansion.
6. Take the bi-metallic strip away from the heat source. Allow the
strip to cool to room temperature.
7 . Repeat the Steps 1 to 6 to heat the other side of the bi-metallic
strip. Observe the direction of bending of the bi-metallic strip.
What change, if any, do you observe in the direction of
bending of the strip in this case relative to that observed
earlier in Step 3?
156
ACTIVITY 9
UNIT NAME

R ESULT
The bending of a bi-metallic strip on heating is due to difference in
coefficient of linear expansion of the two metals of the strip.

P RECAUTIONS
The two bars (strips) should be firmly rivetted near their ends.

d
D ISCUSSION

he
The direction of bending of the bi-metallic strip is towards the side of
the metal which has lower value of linear thermal expansion.

S pu T
is
ELF ASSESSMENT
re R
1.

bl
You have been given bars of identical dimensions of following
metals/materials along with their α - values, for making a bi-
E
metallic strip:
Aluminium (α = 23 × 10–6 K–1); Nickel (α = 13 × 10–6 K–1)
be C

Copper (α = 17 × 10–6 K–1); Invar (α = 0.9 × 10–6 K–1)


to N

Iron (α = 12 × 10–6 K–1); Brass (α = 18 × 10–6 K–1)


which pair of metals/materials would you select as best choice
for making a bi-metallic strip for pronounced effect of bending?
©

Why?
2. What would be the effect on the bending of the bi-metallic strip if
it is heated to a high temperature?
3. Name a few devices in which bi-metallic strips are generally used
as a thermostat?

SUGGESTED ADDITIONAL EXPERIMENTS/ACTIVITIES


t

Design fire alarm circuit using a bi-metallic strip.


no

157
LABORATORY MANUAL
LABORATORY MANUAL

ACTIVITY 10
AIM

d
To study the effect of heating on the level of a liquid in a container and

he
to interpret the observations.

APPARATUS AND MATERIAL REQUIRED


pu T
is
A round bottom flask of 500 mL capacity, a narrow tube about 20 cm
re R
long and of internal diameter 2mm, a rubber cork, glycerine, hot water,

P bl
a stand for holding the flask, a strip of graph paper, a thermometer.
E
RINCIPLE
be C

A container is required to keep the liquid. When we heat the liquid, the
container also gets heated. On being heated, liquid and container both
to N

expand. Therefore, the observed expansion of liquid is its apparent


expansion, i.e. (the expansion of the liquid) – (the expansion of the
container). For finding the real expansion of the liquid, we must take
into account the expansion of the container. Real expansion = apparent
©

expansion of the liquid + expansion of the container.

P ROCEDURE
1. Fill the flask with glycerine upto the brim. Close
its mouth with a tight fitting cork having a long
narrow tube fixed in it. Glycerine will rise in
the tube; mark the level of the glycerine in
the tube as A. Set the apparatus as shown in
t

Fig. A 10.1.
no

2. Place the flask in the trough filled with hot water


and hold the flask in position with the help of a
stand as shown.

O BSERVATION
It is observed that as the flask is immersed in hot
Fig.A 10.1: Expansion of liquid (glycerine)
water, the level of glycerine in the tube first falls down
to a point, say B, and then rises up to a level C.
158
ACTIVITY 10
UNIT NAME

D ISCUSSION
The level falls from A to B on account of expansion of the flask on
coming in contact with hot water. This fall is equal to the expansion
of the container. After some time glycerine also gets heated and
expands. Finally, the glycerine level attains a stationary level C.
Obviously the glycerine has expanded from B to C. B C gives the real
expansion and A C is the apparent expansion.

d
ELF ASSESSMENT

he
Water in a flask is heated in one case from 25°C to 45°C and in another
case, from 50°C to 70°C. Will the apparent expansion/real expansion
be the same in the two cases?

pu T
is
re R
SUGGESTED ADDITIONAL EXPERIMENTS/ACTIVITIES

bl Take equal volume of water in a glass tumbler and a steel tumbler having
similar shape and size. Cover them both with thermocol sheet and insert
E
a narrow bore tube in each. Heat both from 25°C to 50°C and study the
apparent/real expansion in both cases. Are they equal? Give reason for
your answer.
be C
t to N
©
no

159
LABORATORY MANUAL
LABORATORY MANUAL

ACTIVITY 11
AIM

d
To study the effect of detergent on surface tension of water by

he
observing capillary rise.

APPARATUS AND MATERIAL REQUIRED


pu T
is
A capillary tube, a beaker of 250 mL, small quantity of solid/liquid
re R
detergent, 15/30 cm plastic scale, rubber band, stand with clamp

P bl
and water.
E
RINCIPLE
be C

Substances that can be used to separate grease, dust and dirt


sticking to a surface are called detergents. When added to water
to N

detergents lower its surface tension due to additional


intermolecular interactions.
The lowering of surface tension by addition of
©

detergent in water can be observed by capillary rise


method.

For a vertically placed capillary tube of radius r in


a water - filled shallow vessel, the rise of water in
capillary tube h (Fig. A11.1) is given by:
2 S cosθ
h =
ρgr
Or
t

h ρ gr
no

Fig. A 11.1: Rise of water in capillary tube S =


2cosθ
where S is the surface tension of the water vapour
film; θ is the contact angle (Fig. A11.1), ρ is the
density of water and g is the acceleration due to gravity. For pure
or distilled water in contact with a clean glass capillary tube θ ≈ 8°
or cos θ ≈ 1. Thus,
1
S= h ρgr
160 2
ACTIVITY 11
UNIT NAME

Using this result, the surface tension of different detergent solutions


(colloidal) in water can be compared. In a detergent solution, the
capillary rise (or the surface tension) would be lower than that for
pure and distilled water. And an increase in detergent’s concentration
would result in a further lowering the rise of solution in the capillary.
A detergent for which the capillary rise is minimum (or the one that
causes maximum lowering of surface tension), is said to have better
cleansing effect.

d
ROCEDURE

he
1. Take a capillary tube of uniform bore. Clean and rinse it with
distilled water. Also clean and rinse the beaker with water. Pour
water to fill the beaker up to half. Make sure that the capillary

pu T
tube is dry and free from grease, oil etc. Also check that the top

is
of the capillary tube is open and not blocked by anything.
re R
2. Take a plastic scale and mount the capillary tube on it using

bl
rubber bands.
E
3. Hold the scale with capillary in vertical position with the help of a
clamp stand.
be C

4. Place the half filled beaker below the lower end of the scale and
gradually lower down the scale till its lower end get immersed
to N

below the surface of water in the beaker as shown in Fig. A 11.2.


5. Read the position of the water level inside and outside the capillary
tube on the scale. Let the positions be h 2 and h1 respectively. The
©

rise of water in the capillary is h = h 2 – h 1.


6. Rinse the capillary thoroughly in running water and dry it.
7. Take a little quantity of the given
detergent and mix it with water in Rubber
the beaker. band
Capillary tube
8. Repeat the experiment with
Scale
detergent solution and find h2
capillary rise again. Let it be h′.
t

h
Rubber
no

Note band
h1
The concentration of detergent must
not be made high, otherwise the
density of solution (colloidal) will Water with
change substantially as compared detergent

to water. Mor eover, the value of


angle of contact between the surface
Fig. A 11.2: To study capillary rise in water
of glass and solution may also
and detergent mixed in it
change substantially.
161
LABORATORY MANUAL
LABORATORY MANUAL

O BSERVATIONS
The height to which water rose in the capillary h = ... cm
The height to which the detergent solution rose in the capillary
h′ = ... cm.

R ESULT

d
The capillary rise of detergent solution h′ is less than the capillary rise
of water, h.

he
P RECAUTIONS

pu T
is
1. The inner surface of the beaker and the part of capillary tube to
be immersed in water or solution in the beaker should not be
re R
touched by hand after cleaning them. This is essential to avoid

bl
contamination by the hand.
E
2. To wet the inside of the capillary tube freely, it is first dipped well
down in the water and then raised and clamped. Alternatively,
the beaker may be lifted up and then put down.
be C

S
to N

OURCES OF ERROR
1. Contamination of liquid surface as also of the capillary tube cannot
be completely ruled out.
©

2. The tube may not be at both ends or its one end may be open
blocked.

D ISCUSSION
Can you also think of materials, which have a property of increasing
the surface tension of a liquid? If yes, what are these?
[Hint: There are some polymeric materials which can increase the
t

surface tension of water. Such materials are called hydrophilic.


no

These have immense use in pumping out oil from the ground with
less power.]

162
ACTIVITY
UNIT NAME

ACTIVITY 12
AIM

d
To study the factors affecting the rate of loss of heat of a liquid.

he
APPARATUS AND MATERIAL REQUIRED
pu T
is
Two copper calorimeters of different sizes (one small and another
big); two copper calorimeters of same size (one painted black and
re R
the other highly polished), two tumblers of same size (one metallic

bl
and another plastic); two thermometers having a range of - 10° C to
110° C and least count 0.5 °C, stop watch/clock, cardboard lids for
E
calorimeters, two laboratory stands, a pan to heat water; a measuring
cylinder, a plastic mug.
be C

P RINCIPLE
to N

Hot bodies cool whenever placed in a cooler surrounding.


dQ
©

Rate of loss of heat is given by


ds

Q = mass × specific heat capacity(s) × temperature (θ ) = msθ

dQ dθ
= ms
dt dt
hence rate of loss of heat is proportional to rate of change of
temperature.
t

The rate of loss of heat of a body depends upon (a) the difference in
no

temperature of the hot body and its surroundings, (b) area of the
surface losing heat, (c) nature of the surface losing heat and (d) material
of the container.

P ROCEDURE
(A). Effect of area of surface on rate of loss of heat.
1. Note the room temperature, least count of the two thermometers
(TA and T B).
163
LABORATORY MANUAL
LABORATORY MANUAL

2. Take the big (A) and small (B)


calorimeters.

3 . Heat water in the pan up to


nearly 80°C (no need to boil
the water).

4. Pour 100 mL of hot water in


calorimeter (A) and also in
calorimeter (B). This should be

d
done carefully and with least time
loss. One can use a plastic mug

he
to pour 100 mL of hot water in a
measuring cylinder.
5. Insert a thermometer in each

pu T of the two calorimeters. Use

is
stands to keep the thermometers
re R
Fig. A 12.1: Experimental set up for studying the
vertical. Also ensure that the

bl
effect of surface area on cooling thermometer bulb is well
inside the hot water in the
E
calorimeters (Fig. A 12.1).

6. Note the temperature of the


be C

water in the two calorimeters


initially at an interval of 1
to N

minute till the temperature of


water in the calorimeter is about
40–30°C above the room
temperature and thereafter at
©

intervals of 2 minutes when the


temperature of hot water is
about 20–10°C above room
temperature.

7. Record your observation in


Table A 12.1. Plot graphs
between θ A versus time and θB
Fig. A 12.2: Cooling curve for water cooled versus time for both the
in calorimeters A and B.
calorimeters on the same graph
t

Surface area of water is more


paper (Fig. A 12.2).
no

for calorimeter B than for the


calorimeter A 8. Determine the slope of θ versus t
graph after 5 minute interval.

OBSERVATIONS
Least count of thermometer = ... °C
Room temperature = ... °C
164
ACTIVITY 12
UNIT NAME

Table A 12.1: Effect of area of surface on rate of cooling

Calorimeter A (Big) Calorimeter B (Small)

S. Time Temp θA S. Time Temp θB


No. No.

d
he
B. Effect of nature of surface of container on rate of cooling of

pu T
a liquid

is
1. Use the two identical small calorimeters; one with black (A)
re R
and the other with highly polished (B) surfaces.

bl
2. Repeat Steps 3 to 8 as in part A.
E
Table A 12.2: Effect of nature of surface on rate of cooling
be C

Calorimeter Black (A) Calorimeter White (B)


to N

S. Time Temp θA S. Time Temp θB


No. No.
©

C. Effect of material of container on rate of cooling of a liquid


1. Use the metallic tumbler (A) and the plastic tumbler (B) instead of
t

calorimeters.
no

2. Repeat Steps 3 to 8 as in part A. Record your observations in a


table similar to Table A 12.1.

RESULT
From the six graphs plotted on 3 graph sheets complete the following:
1. The rate of cooling is ... °C/min in the larger calorimeter as
compared to the smaller calorimeter.
165
LABORATORY MANUAL
LABORATORY MANUAL

2. Least rate of cooling is ... °C/min observed in calorimeter ... part


A/B/C.
3. Black surfaces radiate ... heat as compared to white or polished
surface in the same time when heated to the same temperature.
4. Plastic mugs are preferred for drinking tea, as the rate of cooling
of a liquid in them is ...

P
RECAUTIONS

d
1. θA, θ B and time recordings are to be done simultaneously so a set-

he
up that allows both thermometers could be read quickly and at
the same time should be planned.
2. The lid of the calorimeter should be covered with insultating

pu T material to make sure that the heat is lost (cooling takes place)

is
only from the calorimeter surface.
re R
3. All three activities should be performed under similar conditions

bl of wind and temperature of the surrounding to reduce their effect


E
on the rate of cooling.

D
be C

ISCUSSION
1. The rate of cooling in summers is lower than in winters. Give a
to N

reason for your answer.


2. Surface of metallic kettles are often polished to keep the tea warm
for a long time.
©

3. Why does the rate of cooling decrease when the temperature of


liquid is closer to the room temperature?

SUGGESTED ADDITIONAL EXPERIMENTS/ACTIVITIES

1. Compare the effectiveness of disposable thermocole tumblers with


that of glass for taking tea.

2. Study the rate of cooling of tea contained in a stainless steel (metallic)


teapot and a ceremic teapot.
t

3. Compare the rate of cooling of tea in a cup and in a saucer.


no

166
ACTIVITY
UNIT NAME

ACTIVITY 13
AIM

d
To study the effect of load on depression of a suitably clamped metre

he
scale loaded (i) at its end; and (ii) in the middle.
A. Bending of a metre scale loaded at its end

APPARATUS AND MATERIAL REQUIRED


pu T
is
re R
bl
Metre scale (or a thick wooden strip of about 1 m length), thread,
slotted weights with hanger (10 g, 20 g, 50 g, 100 g), another
E
graduated scale to be used to measure depression, a pin, cellotape
and clamp.
be C

T HEORY
to N

The depression 'y' of a cantilever of length 'L' clamped at one end and
loaded at the free end with a load M (weight Mg) is given by relation
MgL3
©

y=
3Y ( bd 3 /12 )

where L, b and d are length, width and thickness of the rectangular


cantilever respectively and Y is the modulus of elasticity of the material
of the rod.

4 MgL3
or y = Y bd 3

The readings of depression ‘y’ of the cantilever, in this case with


t

variation of load suspended at the other end, are taken. The variation
no

of depression with load is expected to be linear.

P ROCEDURE
1. Clamp the metre scale firmly to the edge of the table. As shown in
Fig. A 13.1 ensure that the length and breadth of the scale are in
horizontal plane and 90 cm of the length of the scale is projected
out. Fix a pin with a tape at the free end of the metre scale along
its length to act as a pointer. 167
LABORATORY MANUAL
LABORATORY MANUAL

2. Fix a graduated scale vertically near the


Rigid but
1 free end of the clamped metre scale and
adjustable
G clamp Beam 2 note its least count. Ensure that the pointed
3 end of the pin is just above the graduation
y
4 marks of the scale but do not touch it.
5 3. Read the pointer 'p' when metre scale
6 cantilever is without any load.
Load (Mg)
4. Suspend a hanger of known mass for

d
keeping slotted weights to depress the free
end of the cantilever.

he
5. Read the pointer on vertical scale and record
Fig. A 13.1: Experimental set up to study the observation.
depression of metre scale (used as
cantilever) with load suspended at 6. Keep on adding 20 g masses to the hanger

pu T
is
free end of the cantilever and record the reading of the pointer
everytime when it stops vibrating.
re R
bl
7. After taking 6-7 observations with increasing load, gradually
remove the slotted weights one by one and record the reading
E
while unloading.
8. Plot a graph between the depression and the load.
be C

O
BSERVATIONS
to N

Length of the cantilever L = ... cm

Width of the metre scale cantilever b = ... cm


©

Thickness of the metre scale d = ... cm

Reading of the free end of the cantilever with no load, l0=

Table A 13.1: Effect of load on depression of cantilever

S . Load M Reading of free end of Depression


No. (g) cantilever y = lm – l o
l 1 (cm) when l 2 (cm) when Mean
t

load is load is l1 + l2
no

increasing decreasing lm =
2
(cm)
1
2
3
4
5
6
7

168
ACTIVITY 13
UNIT NAME

R ESULT
The depression 'y' is directly proportional to the load M.

P RECAUTIONS
1. The beam should be rigidly clamped at one end.
2 . Loading and unloading of the slotted weights should be done

d
carefully without disturbing the position of the hanger on
the beam.

he
3. The vertical scale should be adjusted close to the pointer in such
a way that the pointer moves along it freely.

S pu T
is
OURCES OF ERROR
re R
bl
1. The scale should not be loaded beyond its elastic limit.
E
(This can be easily checked by comparing the zero load reading
after removing the maximum suspended load with that taken at
the beginning of the experiment).
be C

2. There should be no vibratory motion of the beam when reading is


recorded.
to N

3. While noting down the observation, the eye should be normal to


the tip of the pin and the graduated scale.
©

4. Observations should be repeated while removing masses.

B. Bending of metre scale loaded in the middle

APPARATUS AND MATERIAL REQUIRED


Metre scale, two wedges to rest the ends of the metre scale, thread,
slotted weights 200 g each, hanger for slotted weights, a graduated
scale with a stand to hold the scale vertical, a plane mirror, a pointer
t

and plasticine.
no

D ESCRIPTION OF THE DEVICE


Fig. A 13.2 shows the arrangement. A horizontal metre scale is held
on two wedges, a hanger is provided at the middle of the metre scale
for applying load. A pointer is fixed at the mid point to measure the
dipression. A graduated (least count 1 mm) scale with a plane mirror
strip attached to it is held in vertical position in a stand behind the
horizontal metre scale.
169
LABORATORY MANUAL
LABORATORY MANUAL

Plane mirror for taking reading


Scale 1 without any parallex
2
3 Depression Beam
4
5
Wedge 6 Wedge
W
Hanger with weights

d
in middle of beam

Fig. A 13.2: Experimental set up to study depression,

he
i.e., sag of a beam with load in the middle

T
HEORY

pu T
is
Let a beam be loaded at the centre and supported near its ends as
re R
shown in Fig A 13.2. A bar of length 'L', breadth 'b' and thickness 'd'

bl
when loaded at the centre by a load 'W' sags by an amount given by
E
W l3
y=
4b d 3 Y
be C

where 'Y' is the Young’s modulus of the material of the rod/ beam, W,
the load (= mg), where 'm' is the mass of the hanger with weights.
to N

The depression 'y' is directly proportional to the load.

P
©

ROCEDURE
1. Place the metre scale on two wedges with (5–10 cm) length
projecting out on either side. Metre scale supported at both ends
is like a beam.
2. Tie a loop of thread in the middle of the load such that a hanger
to support slotted weights each of 200 g can be suspended on
it. Ensure that the thread is tied tightly with the rod and does
not slip.
t
no

3. Place a graduated scale (with least count 0.1 cm) vertically in a


stand at the centre of the metre scale used as beam. To facilitate
readings the vertical scale should be kept on the far side of the
metre scale. Fix a pin to the hanger such that its pointed end is
close to the edge of the vertical scale which has graduation marks
on it.
4. Suspend the hanger of mass 200 g and record the position of the
pointer fixed to the hanger. The mirror strip on the vertical scale
should be used to remove any parallax.
170
ACTIVITY 13
UNIT NAME

5. Keep on adding 200 g slotted masses to the hanger and record


the readings of the pointer each time.
6. Take about six observations.
7. Now, remove masses of 200g one by one recording the position of
the pointer each time while unloading.
8. Calculate the depression for the load M gram and hence depression
per unit load.

d
9. Plot a graph between the values of depression y against
corresponding values of load and interpret the result.

he
BSERVATIONS
Width of the beam, b =

pu T
is
Thickness of the beam, d =
re R
Length of the beam between the wedges, L =

bl
Table A 13.2 Depression of the beam for different loads
E
S. Load Reading of the centre of Depression Depression Mean y/M
No. M (g) cantilever for load M per unit (cm/g)
be C

(g), y (cm) load y/M


(cm/g)
to N

Load Load Mean


increasing decreasing reading
r′1 (cm) r′2 (cm) r1′ + r2′
r=
2
©

(cm)

1 0 r0 0
2 200 r1 r1 – r0
3 400 r2 r2 – r0
4
5
6
t

R
no

ESULT
The depression of the metre scale at its middle is ... mm/g. The
depression 'y' is directly proportional to the load M.

SOURCES OF ERROR
1. The rod should not be loaded beyond elastic limit.
171
LABORATORY MANUAL
LABORATORY MANUAL

2. There should be no vibratory motion of the rod when reading is


recorded.
3. While taking readings, the eye should be normal to tip of the
pointer and the metre scale.
4. The beam should be of uniform thickness and density throughout
its length.
5. The masses used must have standard value as engraved on them.

d
RECAUTIONS

he
1. The beam should be symmetrical on the knife edges.
2. Loading and unloading of the slotted weights should be done

pu T
carefully without disturbing the centre point.

is
3. Mirror strip used to eliminate parallax error should not disturb
re R
the experimental setup.

bl
E
be C
t to N
©
no

172
PROJECT
UNIT NAME
PROJECTS

PROJECT 1
AIM

d
To investigate whether the energy of a simple pendulum is conserved.

he
APPARATUS AND MATERIAL REQUIRED
pu T
is
A tall laboratory clamp stand with clamps, a split cork, a brick (or
any heavy metallic weight) to be used as bob, strong cotton thread/
re R
string (about 1.5 m to 2.0 m), stop-watch, ticker timer, paper tape,

P bl
balance, wooden block, cellotape, metre scale and graph paper.
E
RINCIPLE
be C

Energy can neither be created nor destroyed, though it can be


transformed from one form to another, and the sum of all forms
to N

of energies in the
universe remains O

constant (Law of
©

conservation of
energy). In any
isolated mechanical
L–h
system with practically
negligible/no
dissipation of energy to
D
overcome viscous x x
F E
drag/air resistance / h

friction, (as in case of A


t

a pendulum), the
no

sum of the kinetic and (b)


potential energies
Fig. P 1.1: An oscillating pendulum
remains constant.
For small angular
amplitude (θ ≤ 15°), the pendulum executes simple harmonic motion
(SHM) with insignificant damping, i.e., loss of energy. Hence, an oscillating
simple pendulum provides a convenient arrangement to investigate/
validate the law of conservation of energy for a mechanical system.

173
LABORATORY MANUAL
LABORATORY MANUAL

The oscillations of a simple pendulum of effective length L with mean


position at point A and extreme positions at points B and C, are shown
in Fig. P 1.1. In the extreme positions, i.e., at B and C the oscillating
bob is raised to a certain height h ( = AD) above the mean position
where it possesses maximum potential energy but minimum kinetic
energy. In the mean position, at A, it possesses maximum kinetic
energy and minimum potential energy. At any intermediate position
i.e., at E and F the bob will possess energy in the form of both kinetic
and potential energies. The effective length L ( = l + r ) of the pendulum
is taken from the point of suspension O to the centre of gravity of the

d
bob (Fig P 1.1; also refer Experiment E 6). For small angular amplitudes
(θ ) (about 8° to 10°) the arc length EA = (FA) is about the same as

he
linear distance ED = (FD) = x, the points E and F are symmetrically
above point D.
From the geometry of the Fig. P 1.1, it follows

pu T
is
DF. DE = OD. DA
re R
x × x = (L – h ) h

bl
For small values of x and h (and x << L and h << x)
E
x2
h =
be C

(P 1.1)
L

Then the potential energy of the bob (brick) of mass m at point E (or F)
to N

mg 2
(P 1.2) = mgh = x
L
©

The kinetic energy E possessed by the bob moving with velocity v at


1
(P 1.3) point E (or F) is = mv 2
2

Then total energy of the bob is given by

1 mg 2
(P 1.4) E= mv 2 + x
2 L
t

Using this relation, now investigate whether the total energy E of the
no

oscillating simple pendulum remains constant.

DEVICE FOR MEASURING SHORT TIME INTERVALS IN THE


LABORATORY: TICKER TIMER
Ticker-timer is a device used for the measurement of short time-
intervals in the laboratory. It can measure short time intervals of
about 0.02s to much higher degree of accuracy as compared to that
of a stop-watch (with least count of 0.1s). Ticker-timers are available
in different designs.
174
PROJECT 1
UNIT NAME

A simple type of ticker-timer,


as s h o w n i n F i g . P 1 . 2 ,
consists of a steel/metallic
strip T which can be made
to vib rate at a k n o w n
frequency with the help of an
electromagnet. The pointed
hammer of the vibrating
steel strip, T strikes a small
carbon paper disc C under

d
which a paper tape, is
pulled by the oscillating

he
object. The dot marks are
marked on the paper tape Fig. P1.2: Ticker-timer
by the pointed hammer
when the strip vibrates.

pu T
is
The dot marks are obtained on the paper tape at regular (or equal)
intervals of time. Each dot mark refers to a complete vibration of the
re R
bl
vibrating steel strip. The time interval between the two consecutive dot
marks can be taken as a unit of time for a tick. The time period of the
E
vibrating strip is obtained from its given (known) frequency of vibration.
When it is run on 6V step-down ac supply, its frequency is the same as
that of ac mains (50 Hz, in India).
be C

In this way, the measured time interval for one tick (between the two
consecutive dot marks) can be converted into the basic unit, second,
to N

for time measurement. Thus, the ticker-timer can be used to measure


accurately time interval of the order of 0.02 s in the laboratory.

P
©

ROCEDURE
1. Find the mass of the pendulum bob.
2. Determine r and l by metre scale.
The length of the pendulum
L = l + r.
3. Take the ticker-timer and place it at
about the same level as the centre of
the bob as shown in Fig. P 1.3. Fix
t

the ticker-timer on a wooden block


no

with tape, to ensure that its position


is not disturbed when tape is pulled
through it.
4. Attach the tip of the paper tape of
the ticker-timer to the bob with the
help of cellotape such that it is Fig. P 1.3: Experimental setup for studying
horizontal and lies in the plane in conservation of energy
which centre of gravity of the bob lies
in its rest position.
175
LABORATORY MANUAL
LABORATORY MANUAL

5. Pull the bob towards the timer such that its angular
displacement (θ < 10o ) is about one tenth of its length from the
vertical position. Take care that the ticker tape is sufficiently
light and is so adjusted that it easily moves by the pull of bob
as soon as it begins to move.

6. Start the ticker-timer carefully and let the bob oscillate. While
the bob moves towards the other side, it pulls the paper tape
through the ticker-timer. Ticker timer, thus, records the positions
of the bob at successive time intervals.

d
7. Switch off the ticker-timer when the brick reaches the other

he
extreme end. Take out the paper tape and examine it.
Extreme dot marks on the record of the tape represent the
extreme positions B and C of the pendulum. The centre

pu T
point A of this half oscillation is the centre of the two

is
extreme dot marks, and may be marked by the half metre
scale, as in Fig. P1.4.
re R
B

bl A C
E
r
be C

Extreme Centre Extreme


to N

Fig. P 1.4: Position of the oscillating bob marked on paper tape


©

8 . Measure the displacements of the bob corresponding to


each dot (about 10 to 12) on either sides from the centre
marked A as x 1, x 2, x 3, ... Find the time t 1, t 2, t 3, ... when
each selected dot was made by counting the number of dots
from the central point A, representing the mean position of
the pendulum. If central point A is not coinciding with a
dot marked by the ticker -timer, appropriate fraction of
time-period of ticker-timer has to be added for finding
correct t 1, t 2, t 3, ...
t

9. Record observations in the tabular form in SI units and proper


no

significant figures.

10. Calculate the corresponding velocity for each selected position


of the dot as v i (= Δx i / Δt i ). For this take one earlier and one
later dot. The distance between these two dots is Δx i and Δt i is
time to cover this distance. Then find magnitude of

1 ⎡ m ⎛ Δx ⎞ 2 ⎤
kinetic energy mv 2 ⎢= ⎜ i ⎟ ⎥ and potential energy
2 ⎢⎣ 2 ⎝ Δt i ⎠ ⎥⎦
176
PROJECT 1
UNIT NAME

mghi [= mg (x i2/L) ] of the pendulum bob. Find the sum of kinetic


and potential energies in each case. Express the result in SI
units and proper significant figures.

11. Plot a graph between the displacement (x i ) of the pendulum bob


(distance of dots from the central dot) against the time.
12. Find the velocity (v) from the slope of the graph at five or six
points on the left and also on the right of the mean position.
Calculate the corresponding kinetic energy (mv2/2 ) for each

d
position of the points on the graph.
13. Plot another graph between kinetic energy and the position (x) of

he
the bob. Find out the position of the point for which kinetic energy
is minimum.
⎛ x2⎞

pu T
14. Calculate also the potential energy, PE ⎜ = mg i ⎟ , at the

is
⎝ L ⎠
re R
corresponding points at which you have calculated the kinetic

bl
energy. Plot the graph of potential energy (PE) against the
displacement position (x) on the same graph on which you have
E
plotted kinetic energy versus position graph.
15. Find the total mechanical energy E as the sum of kinetic energy
be C

and potential energy of the pendulum at each of the displacement


positions x. Express the result in SI units with proper significant
to N

figures. Plot also a graph between the total mechanical energy E


against displacement position (x) of the pendulum on the same
graph on which you have plotted the graphs in Steps 13 and 14,
i.e., for K.E. and P.E.
©

OBSERVATIONS
Measuring the mass of bob and effective length of simple
pendulum
(a) Effective length of the simple pendulum
Least count of the metre scale = ... mm = ... cm
Length of the top of the brick from the point of suspension,
t

l = ... cm = ... m
no

Diameter of the bob, 2r = ... cm


Effective length of the simple pendulum L = ( l + r ) = ... cm = ... m
(b) Mass of the ... g
Time period (T) of ticker-timer = ... s
Fraction of T to be added for finding corrected Ti on left = ...
Fraction of T to be added for finding corrected Ti on right = ...
177
LABORATORY MANUAL
LABORATORY MANUAL

Table P1.1: Measuring the displacement and time using


ticker-timer and the recorded tape

S. No. S. No. of dot Displacement Number of T 1 (s) Velocity v


on tape (i) (Distance of vibrations of (m s–1 )
dot from ticker -timer
centre, xi ) between
(cm) central and
ith point

d
1 2nd left
2 4th left

he
3 6th left
------
2nd right

pu T
is
4th right
6th right
re R
bl
------
E
(c) Plotting a graph between displacement and time
Take time t along x-axis and displacement x along y-axis, using the
be C

observed values from Table P1.1. Choose suitable scales on these axes
to represent t and x. Plot a graph between t and x as shown in Fig. P1.5.
What is the shape of x-t graph?
to N

C ALCULATION
©

(i) Find out from the graph (Fig. P1.5), the


velocity of bob at five or six different
Variation of d vs t points on the either side of the mean
position O of the graph.

sine curve Compute the values of kinetic energy,


using Eq. (P1.3), corresponding to
each value of velocity obtained from
d (cm)

the graph. Record these values in


Table P1.2.
t
no

(ii) Plot a graph by taking displacement


(distance) x along x-axis and kinetic
energy (K.E.) along y-axis using the
t (s) values from Table P1.2 as shown in
Fig. P1.6.
Fig. P1.5: Graph between displacement and
time of the oscillating bob (iii) Compute the values of potential energy
using Eq. (P1.2), for each value of
displacement in Step (ii) above.

178
PROJECT 1
UNIT NAME

Table P 1.2: Finding potential, kinetic and total energy of the


oscillating bob

S. Velocity, v Kinetic Energy, Potential Energy, Total Energy =


No. (ms–1)
1 x2 Potential Energy
mv 2 (J) mg L (J) + Kinetic Energy
2 (J)

d
2
3

he
4

(iv) Plot a graph by taking y

pu T
displacement (distance) x

is
Total energy
along x-axis and potential
ET
re R
energy (P.E.) along y-axis on

bl
the same graph (Fig. P1.6). P.E
E
(v) Compute the total energy K.E

Energy
ET as the sum of the kinetic
energy and potential
be C

energy at each of the


displacement positions, x.
to N

Plot a graph by taking the


displacement along x-axis
x
and total energy ET along O
y-axis on the same graph Displacement, x
©

Fig. P1.6).
Fig. P 1.6: Graph between displacement and

RESULT
energy of the oscillating bob

The total energy, as the sum of kinetic and potential energies, of the
bob of the simple pendulum is conserved (remains the same) at all the
points along its path.

D ISCUSSION
t
no

1. Refer to points 3 to 5 under discussion given in Experiment E 6


on page 65.
2. Eq. P1.1 that expresses the relation between x, h and L for a simple
pendulum, holds true under the conditions h << x << L for small
angular amplitudes (θ < 10°) of the pendulum.
3. Linear displacement x of the bob, about (1/8)th to (1/10)th of
the effective length of the pendulum corresponds to angular
displacement (θ ) of about 8° to 10° for small angular amplitudes,
179
LABORATORY MANUAL
LABORATORY MANUAL

the displacement (distance) of a dot mark on the paper tape from


the central point/position truly represent corresponding
displacement of the pendulum bob from its central (mean)
position.
4. The shape of the graphs shown in Fig. P1.5 and Fig. P1.6
correspond to ideal conditions in which no energy is lost due to
friction and air drag. The graph drawn on the basis of observed
data may differ due to error in data collection and friction.

d
ELF ASSESSMENT

he
1. Identify the shape of displacement time graph, you have drawn
for the oscillating simple pendulum. Interpret the graph.
2. Identify the shape of kinetic energy-displacement and potential

pu T
is
energy-displacement graphs, you have drawn for the simple
pendulum.
re R
bl
Study the change in potential energy and kinetic energy at each
of the displacement positions. Interpret these graphs and see how
E
these compare.
3. What is the shape of the graph between the total (mechanical)
be C

energy and displacement you have drawn for the simple


pendulum? Interpret the graph to show what it reveals?
t to N
©
no

180
PROJECT
UNIT NAME

PROJECT 2
AIM

d
To determine the radius of gyration about the centre of mass of a

he
metre scale used as a bar pendulum.

APPARATUS AND MATERIAL REQUIRED


pu T
is
A metre scale with holes at regular intervals, knife edge shaped axle,
re R
a rigid support, two glass plates (to be used for suspension plane),

bl
spring balance, spirit level, telescope fixed on a stand, stop-watch
and graph paper.
E

P
be C

RINCIPLE
A rigid body oscillating in a vertical plane about a horizontal axis
to N

passing through it is known as compound pendulum. The point in


the body through which the axis of rotation passes is known as centre
of suspension.
©

The time period of a compound pendulum is given by

I
T = 2π (P 2.1)
mgl

where m is the mass of the rigid body, l is the distance of the point of
suspension from the centre of gravity, I is the moment of inertia of
the body about the axis of oscillation and g is the acceleration due
t

to gravity.
no

If K is the radius of gyration of the body about an axis through the


centre of gravity, then the moment of inertia about the centre of
suspension is

I = m (K2 + l2)

⎛ K2 ⎞
= m l ⎜l + (P 2.2)
⎝ l ⎟⎠
181
LABORATORY MANUAL
LABORATORY MANUAL

⎛ K2 ⎞ ⎛ K2 ⎞
ml ⎜l + ⎟ ⎜l + ⎟
T = 2π ⎝ l ⎠
= 2π ⎝
l ⎠
Hence
mgl g

(P 2.3) L
or T = 2π
g
(P 2.4)
where L = (l + K2/l)
Eq. (P 2.4) can be written as

d
(P 2.5) l . L = (l2 + K 2) ⇒l2 – l L + K 2 = 0

he
Eq. (P 2.5) is quadratic in l and therefore has two roots, say l1 and
l2 then
l1 + l2 = L and l1 l2 = K 2

pu T
is
or K = l1 l 2
re R
P
ROCEDURE
bl
E
1. Take a metre scale. Draw a line in the
middle along its length. Drill holes of
be C

about 1.6 mm diameter on this line


separated by a distance of 2 cm,
to N

starting from one end to the other.


2 . Determine the centre of gravity
of the scale by balancing it over
a wedge.
©

3. Pass the knife edge shaped axle in


the hole near one of the ends of the
metre scale and let it rest on the
suspension base having glass plates
at its top.
4. Ensure that the glass plates fixed
on the suspension plane be
horizontal and in the same level so
t

that when we suspend the metre


no

scale by placing the knife edge we


may be sure that the scale hangs
vertically (Fig. P2.1).
5. Make a reference line, drawn on the
paper strip, near the lower end of the
pendulum and focus it with a
telescope. Adjust the telescope until
its vertical crosswire focuses on the
Fig. P 2.1: A metre scale oscillating about a point
close to C.G.
reference line.
182
PROJECT 2
UNIT NAME

6. Displace the lower end of the scale horizontally through a small


distance from its equilibrium position and then release it. The
pendulum (metre scale) will begin to oscillate. Take care that the
angular amplitude of oscillation is within 5° or 6° and pendulum
oscillates in a vertical plane without any jerk.
7. Count zero when the reference mark on oscillating pendulum
passes across the vertical crosswire of telescope and start the stop-
watch at that instant (The counting of oscillations could be done
visually, in case a telescope is not available).

d
8. Continue counting 2, 3, 4,... successively when the reference line

he
progressively passes the vertical crosswire from the same side and
note the time for 20 oscillations. Repeat the observations at least
three times.

pu T
9. Measure from the lower end, the distance of the point

is
of suspension.
re R
10.Repeat Steps 7 and 9 after shifting the knife edge to the successive

bl
holes leaving two holes on either side of the centre of gravity of the
pendulum. Take length of pendulum on one side of C. G. as positive
E
while on the other side as negative. Record your observations in
tabular form.
be C

OBSERVATIONS
to N

Table P. 2.1: Measurement of time period of compound pendulum

Hole Hole
©

One side of C.G. Other side of C.G.


No. No.
Distance T ime for 20 T ime period Distance Time for 20 Time period
from C.G., oscillations from C.G., oscillations
t1 + t 2 + t 3 t1′ + t2′ + t ′3
l1 t1 t2 t3 T= l2 t ′1 t′2 t′3 T′ =
3 3
(cm) (cm)
(s) (s)
t
no

CALCULATION
1 . Plot a graph between l and T by taking the l along x-axis
and T along y-axis. The graph will consist of two symmetrical
curves Fig. P 2.2. The point on the x-axis about which the
graph is symmetrical is the centre of gravity of the metre
scale pendulum.
183
LABORATORY MANUAL
LABORATORY MANUAL

y 2. Draw a line parallel to x-axis cutting the graph


at points, P, Q, R and S
(a) From the graph, CP= ... cm, CS= ... cm

CP +CS
l1 = = ...cm
2
x
O
(b) From the graph, CQ = ... cm, CR = ... cm

d
P Q C R S CQ +CR
l2 = = ...cm
2

he
Fig. P 2.2: Graph between distance from
C.G. and time period
(c) The radius of gyration K = l1 l2

R pu T
is
ESULT
re R
The radius of gyration about the axis passing through the centre of

bl mass of the metre scale is found as K = ... cm.


E
P RECAUTIONS
be C

1. Pendulum should be hung vertically and knife edge be kept


horizontal so that the pendulum oscillates in a vertical plane.
to N

2. Note the time by the stop-watch leaving 5 or 6 initial oscillations


so that effect of any irregularities in the oscillations get subsided.
©

3. Increase the number of observations for a given length of


pendulum if time for 20 oscillations is to be measured without
using a telescope.
4. Keep the fans off or else air droughts will shift the position of the
scale and its oscillations will not remain in the same plane.

S OURCES OF ERROR
1. The metre scale may not have uniform mass distribution.
t
no

2. The wedge may not be sharp.


3. The holes drilled may not be colinear or have equally smooth inner
surface.

D ISCUSSION
1. If a metallic bar is used in place of wooden scale we would have
better results as its inertia will hold it in position in a better way.
184
PROJECT 2
UNIT NAME

Moreover a metallic bar of homogeneous material and uniform


cross-section can be easily made.
2. To draw smooth symmetrical graphs, we may make use of curved
surface on the inside of set squares or by suitably bending plastic
tongue cleaners or broomsticks.

SELF ASSESSMENT
1. How would you establish that the compound pendulum executes

d
SHM?

he
2. By knowing the radius of gyration of the metre scale about its
centre of mass, determine the moment of inertia of the same scale
about an axis passing through the centre of mass.

pu T
is
3. Why do we get two L – T plots symmetrical about y-axis?
re R
bl
SUGGESTED ADDITIONAL EXPERIMENTS/ACTIVITIES
E
1. Increase the angular amplitude slowly and see how your result
changes.
be C

2. Note the angular amplitude at which the variation in your results is


appreciable. How will you explain the changes?
tto N
©
no

185
LABORATORY MANUAL
LABORATORY MANUAL

PROJECT 3
AIM

d
he
To investigate changes in the velocity of a body under the action of a
constant force and to determine its acceleration.

APPARATUS AND MATERIAL REQUIRED


pu T
is
Ticker-timer, a horizontal table, a bumper (a heavy rectangular
re R
block of wood), a trolley, three G-clamps, long paper tape, a pulley,

bl
strong thread, a few bricks, hanger, slotted weights, plug-key and

P
a spring balance.
E
RINCIPLE
be C

The acceleration of a moving body is constant when force acting on it


is kept constant. The principle and working of a ticker-timer has
to N

already been discussed in Project P1. Suppose the experimental


arrangment allows you to mark the position of a moving object as a
dot on the tape of the ticker-timer. The time interval between two
successive dots is the same but the dots may not be necessarily equally
©

spaced. Equally spaced dots would represent uniform motion while


unequally spaced dots would represent non-uniform motion.
For calculation of speed of a given object from the tape, take one of the
tapes used in the experiment. Let S1, S2, S3, ..... be the distances
between two successive dots, say of ten dots, on the tape measured
from point A by a metre scale as shown in the Fig. P 3.1.
t
no

Fig.P 3.1: Dots on tape

The frequency of the vibrator of ticker-timer


= Frequency of the A.C. supply
= 50 Hz.
186
PROJECT 3
UNIT NAME

1
The time interval between two successive dots = s
50
The time taken for covering 10 dots i.e., for displacements S1, S2, S3, ...
1
= × 10 = 0.2 s
50
S (cm)
The average speed v 1 over the distance S1 = 1 = ... cm s –1
0.2s

d
S2(cm)
The average speed v 2 over the distance S2 = = ... cm s –1
0.2s

he
So, the increase in speed in the time interval of 0.2 s

= S2 – S1 = ... cm s –1

pu T 0.2s 0.2s

is
The average acceleration = ( S2 – S1 ) = ... cm s–2
re R
0.2 × 0.2

P bl
E
ROCEDURE
1. Setup the ticker-timer at one end of a long horizontal table and
be C

fix the bumper at its other end with the help of G-clamps as shown
in Fig. P 3.2.
to N

2. Place the trolley between the timer and the bumper. Attach one
end of a strong thread of suitable length to the trolley and pass it
over a frictionless pulley fixed on the bumber. Attach a hanger at
©

the free end of the thread.


3. Adjust the length of the thread in such a manner that when the
trolley is brought near the timer, the hanger stands at its highest
position near the pulley.
4 . Bring the trolley near the ticker-timer and release it, observe
its motion.
5. Place one or two small bricks on the trolley if it moves too fast.
Adjust the weights on the hanger so that the trolley moves with a
t

moderate speed.
no

6 . Hold the trolley in position near the timer. Check that the
tape is passing under the carbon paper disc. Switch the
ticker-timer on and release the trolley. Ensure that the trolley
gains speed till the pan touches the ground, thereafter it is
stopped by the bumper.
7. Encircle the mark on the tape which was under the point of
the vibrator of the timer at the instant when the pan touches
the ground because there after the force ceases to act on the
187
LABORATORY MANUAL
LABORATORY MANUAL

trolley, label this mark as P. Encircled mark


P is the limiting position upto which the
trolley was accelerated by constant force
before it touched the ground.
8. Remove the part of tape where dots are marked,
from the timer.
9. Choose a dot, close to the starting point, mark it
as A and take it as the reference point for
measurement of displacements.

d
10. Divide the entire motion of the trolley in about

he
10 equal intervals of time. To do this, count the
total number of dots marked on the tape during
the motion of trolley. From A, mark the positions
Fig. P 3.3: Graph between speed and time as B, C, D etc. at the end of 10 ticks on the paper.

pu T
under a constant force

is
11. Measure the distance AB, BC, CD etc. and record them as shown
in Table P 3.1. Compute average speed between different time
re R
bl
intervals (Table P 3.1). This can be taken as instantaneous
velocity at the mid point of the time interval tabulate. The
E
computed values of the average speeds against the mid point of
the time intervals.
be C

12. The instantaneous speed at the mid point of time intervals would
be nearly the same as the average speed during the interval in
each case.
to N

13. Plot a graph showing the values of speed against time which
depicts the motion of the trolley under a constant force. Find the
slope of speed-time graph to calculate the instantaneous
©

accleration (Fig. P 3.3).

O BSERVATIONS
(a) Mass of the pan ... g.
(b) Mass of the pan + Mass of the weights in the pan = ... g.
(c) Mass of the trolley + mass placed in the trolley = ... g.
Table P 3.1: Instantaneous speed of the body
t
no

S. T ime interval (in Distance, s Average velocity T ime (in mid


No. units of tick (cm) vav = s/t (cm s–1 ) of interval), t
interval) (s) (tick
interval) (s)

1 0 – 10 S1 ... 5
2 10 – 20 S2 ... 15
3 20 – 30 S3 ... 25

188
PROJECT 3
UNIT NAME

Table P 3.2: Acceleration of the body

S. Point chosen Time, t (No. of Interval


ML
Slope, =
No. ticks) NM
ML (cm/ NM acceleration
tick) (tick) cm/ tick–2

d
R

he
ESULT
1. The speed of the trolley increases with time as constant force acts

pu T
on it.

is
2. The acceleration of the trolley is found to be ... roughly constant
re R
within the limitations of the experiment.

P bl
E
RECAUTIONS
1. Make sure that the ticker-timer and bumper are rigidly fixed.
be C

2. The ticks in the beginning when the trolley just begins to move
and at the time when the force ceases to act, be encircled properly
to N

for the purpose of measurement of distances and calculation of


velocity and acceleration.

S
©

ELF ASSESSMENT
Is the acceleration calculated equal to ‘g’ ? If not, why? With increase
in mass in the pan, does the acceleration approach to acceleration
due to gravity?

SUGGESTED ADDITIONAL EXPERIMENTS/ACTIVITIES

1. Study the variation of acceleration for different masses placed on


t

the trolley for constant force.


no

2. Study the variation of acceleration for different forces, by changing


the mass placed on the pan.

189
LABORATORY MANUAL
LABORATORY MANUAL

PROJECT 4
AIM

d
To compare the effectiveness of different materials as insulators of heat.

he
APPARATUS AND MATERIAL REQUIRED
A cylindrical metallic container, a cylindrical plastic container (with

pu T
is
height same as that of metal container but having a much larger
radius), a thermometer, an insulating lid for plastic container with a
re R
hole for inserting a thermometer, different insulating materials in

bl
powder or liquid forms.

T
E
ERMS AND DEFINITIONS
be C

Insulators of heat are those substances, which do not allow the flow
of heat through them easily.
to N

P RINCIPLE
©

The underlying principle of comparing the effectiveness of different


materials as insulators of heat is to compare their thermal

Thermometer

B Insulating lid
t
no

Insulating material
A
Plastic container
C

Water
Metal container
D

Fig. P 4.1:

190
PROJECT 4
UNIT NAME

conductivities. A material having a lower thermal conductivity will be


more effective as an insulator.

PROCEDURE
1. Place the metal container A inside the plastic container B leaving
equal gap all around it. Fill the gap, between the two containers
with the insulating material you want to study (Fig P4.1).

d
2. Pour in container A hot water (having temperature nearly 60 °C).
3. Cover both the containers with a non-conducting lid.

he
4. Fix a thermometer, in a hole provided in the lid, in such a way
that the thermometer bulb is well within the water.

pu T
is
5. Record time for every 5 °C fall in temperature.
re R
6. Repeat the above procedure for different insulating materials.
7.

bl
Plot temperature v/s time graph for different materials on the
E
same graph paper.

O
be C

BSERVATIONS
Least count of the thermometer = ... °C
to N

Table P 4.1: Fall in temperature with time for different


materials as insulators
©

Name of
S. No. the Variation of temparature with time
Material

Temparature
1.
Time

Temparature
2.
t
no

Time

Temparature
3.
Time

Temparature
4.
Time

191
LABORATORY MANUAL
LABORATORY MANUAL

P
LOTTING OF GRAPH AND INTERPRETATION
Plot a graph between time t and temperature θ for different materials
on the same graph paper, taking time on x-axis and temperature
on y-axis.
Steeper the graph, faster the rate of cooling of water thereby implying
lower efficiency of the material used as thermal insulator.

d
ESULT

he
From the cooling curves of water drawn for different insulating
materials surrounding it can be inferred that the effectiveness of
different materials as insulators of heat in decreasing order is

pu T
is
(a)
(b)
re R
bl
(c)
E
(d)

P
be C

RECAUTIONS
1. Make sure that the gaps C and D are kept the same for all the
to N

materials.
2. This method can be used only for the insulating materials available
in the powdered/liquid form as the effect of trapped air can be
©

minimised for them.


3. Packing of insulating material in the gaps C and D should be equally
uniform in all the cases.
4. Insulating lid should fit tightly to minimise heat loss.

SUGGESTED ADDITIONAL EXPERIMENTS/ACTIVITIES


t

1. Repeat the same procedure with the cold water (instead of hot water).
no

2. Repeat the same procedure with other insulating materials other


than the ones you have used in this Activity.

192
PROJECT
UNIT NAME

PROJECT 5
AIM

d
To compare the effectiveness of different materials as absorbers

he
of sound.

APPARATUS AND MATERIALS REQUIRED


pu T
is
An audio frequency oscillator, cathode ray oscilloscope (CRO),
two transformers, a microphone, a speaker (8 Ω), absorbing
re R
bl
materials such as glass sheet, cardboard, plywood and fibre
board having roughly the same thickness, 4 cardboard sheets of
E
different thicknesses, screw gauge, vernier calipers and
a metre scale.
be C

P RINCIPLE
to N

When sound waves travel through a material, part of its mechanical


energy is absorbed by the material. The degree of absorption of sound
energy by a material depends upon
©

(i) the nature of material and

(ii) the thickness of the material through which sound waves are made
to pass.

P ROCEDURE
1. Take sheets of different absorbing materials such as glass sheet,
cardboard, plywood and fibre board sheets.
t
no

2. Measure the thickness of each material with the help of screw


gauge/vernier calipers/metre scale.

3. Make the circuit arrangement of various components as shown in


Fig. P 5.1. High impedence coils L1 and L4 of the two transformers
are to be connected to an audio frequency oscillator and a CRO
respectively. Speaker and the microphone are to be connected to
the low resistance coils L2 and L3 of the two transformers in order
to achieve impedence-matching of the coils.
193
LABORATORY MANUAL
LABORATORY MANUAL

d
Fig. P. 5.1: Circuit arrangement for comparing effectiveness of different

he
materials as absorbers of sound

4. Adjust the CRO such that a suitable wave form appears on


the screen.

pu T
is
5. Feed an audio signal of known frequency from the audio oscillator
re R
to the speaker and note the amplitude of the corresponding audio

bl
signal on the CRO, without any sheet between the speaker and
microphone.
E
6. Without changing the distance between speaker and microphone,
insert one by one sheets of different materials, i.e., glass, cardboard,
be C

plywood, fibreboard (having same thickness) in between the


speaker and the microphone and each time note the amplitude of
to N

the corresponding audio signal on the CRO graduated screen.


7. Record the observations in tabular form to analyse the relation
between the degree of absorption of sound energy and the nature
©

of the absorbing material.


8. Insert four sheets of different thicknesses of the same material (say
cardboard) one by one in between the speaker and the microphone.
9. Repeat Steps 5 and 6 of the experiment.
10.Record the observations in tabular form to analyse the degree of
absorption of sound with the thickness of the absorbing material.

O
BSERVATIONS
t
no

1. Least count of screw gauge/vernier valipers = ... mm


2. Thickness of cardboard = ... mm
Thickness of glass sheet = ... mm
Thickness of fireboard = ... mm
Thickness of plywood = ... mm
3. Frequency of the audio signal used = ... Hz
194
PROJECT 5
UNIT NAME

Table P 5.1: Degree of absorption of sound in different


absorbing materials of same thickness.

No. of Name of
absorbing Amplitude of wave on CRO (mm)
observations
material
Before insertion After insertion A1
of absorbing of absorbing A0
material A0 material A 1

d
1. Glass
2. Card board

he
3. Fibre board
4. Plywood

pu T
is
Table P 5.2: Variation in degree of absorption of sound for
re R
different thicknesses of the same absorbing material

bl
E
No. of Thickness
of Amplitude of wave on CRO (mm)
observations
absorbing
be C

material Before insertion After insertion A1


of absorbing of absorbing A0
material A0 material A 1
to N

1.

2.
©

3.
4.

CALCULATION
1. Find the ratio of amplitude of the waveform before and after
insertion of the absorbing material from the experiment data
t

recorded in Table P 5.1.


no

2. Find the ratio of amplitude of the waveform before and after


insertion of the absorbing material of different thicknesses and
infer its dependence on absorption of sound.

RESULT
1. Degree of absorption of sound waves is maximum in .... (material)
and minimum in ... (material).
195
LABORATORY MANUAL
LABORATORY MANUAL

2. Degree of absorption of sound waves increases/decreases with


increase in the thickness of absorbing material (cardboard).

P
RECAUTIONS
1. The amplitude of the input audio signal is kept constant while
performing the experiment, with different absorbing materials of
same thickness.
2. The thickness of absorbing material should not be so high

d
that the corresponding output signal on the screen of CRO is no
longer measurable.

he
3. The respective positions of the speaker, microphone and
absorbing material sheets for all sets of experiment should be
kept unchanged.

pu T
is
re R
bl
SUGGESTED ADDITIONAL EXPERIMENTS/ACTIVITIES

1. Plot a graph between the density (along x-axis) and the ratio of the
E
amplitudes of the waveform (along y-axis) after and before insertion
of the absorbing material (Table P 2.1). Study the nature of the
graph and interpret it.
be C

2. Plot a graph between the thickness (along x-axis) of the


absorbing material and the ratio of the amplitude of the wave
to N

form (along y-axis) after and before insertion of the absorbing


material (Table P 5.2). Study the nature of the graph and
interpret it.
t ©
no

196
PROJECT
UNIT NAME

PROJECT 6
AIM

d
he
To compare the Young’s modules of elasticity of different specimen of
rubber and compare them by drawing their elastic hysteresis curve.

APPARATUS AND MATERIAL REQUIRED


pu T
is
Two samples of rubber bands of about 10 cm length, a rigid support,
re R
number of slotted weights (10 g), a hanger (10 g), a scale and a fine pointer.

T bl
E
ERMS AND DEFINITIONS
be C

1. Elastic hysteresis: When the stress-strain curve is not retraced on


reversing the strain, the phenomenon is known as elastic hysteresis.
to N

2. Residual strain: On removing the deforming force, if the length of


the specimen does not reduce to its original length, this results in
residual strain.

P
©

RINCIPLE
1. The graph of stress versus strain (or elongation) for rubber is not
a straight line. Hence, the Young’s modules of elasticity for rubber
cannot be defined uniquely. For a given stress, it is defined as the
slope of the stress-strain curve at particular stress-strain point.
2. The area enclosed by the hysteresis curve is a measure of energy
loss during the loading and unloading cycle.
t

P
no

ROCEDURE
1. Suspend a rubber band from a rigid support and attach a hanger
of mass (10 g) along with a fixed pointer at the lower end.
2. Fix a scale S vertically such that the pointer moves freely on the
scale and note the reading on the scale.
3. Place 10g slotted weight in the hanger and wait till the rubber
band becomes stationary. Read the position of the pointer.
197
LABORATORY MANUAL
LABORATORY MANUAL

4. Repeat Step 3 by increasing load in Steps of 10 g till the total


weight is 80-100 g.

5. Start removing the weight in Steps of 10 g and note the


corresponding reading of the pointer (Give time for the rubber to
stabilise before taking the reading).

6. Repeat Steps 1 to 5 for different samples of rubber bands.

d
BSERVATIONS
(i) Least count of the scale = ... cm

he
(ii) Original length of unstreched rubber band, L = ... cm

Table P 6.1: Extension of rubber band on loading

pu T
is
re R
S. Load Reading of pointer r (cm) Extension

bl
No. suspended =
applied force =
E
F (N) Loading Unloading Loading Unloading

1
be C

Specimen A 2
3
to N

1
Specimen B 2
©

C ALCULATIONS
1. Plot a graph between the load and extension by taking
extension along x-axis and load along y-axis for loading
and unloading.
t

2. The area of hysteresis loop for specimen A = ...


no

The area of hysteresis loop for specimen B = ...


(This can be done by counting the squares enclosed in the
hysteresis loop).

R ESULT
Hysteresis of specimen A ... is (greater or less than the) hysteresis of
specimen B.
198
PROJECT 6
UNIT NAME

P RECAUTIONS
1. The weights must be added or removed gently.
2. One should wait for some time after adding or removing the weights
before reading is taken.

EVALUATION

d
1. What does the area of hysteresis curve depict?

he
2. Interpret the hysteresis curves obtained for the specimen A and B.
3. When do the curves obtained while loading and unloading
coincide?

pu T
is
4. When do the curves obtained while loading and unloading
not coincide?
re R
bl
5. For which purpose is the rubber with large hysteresis loop used?
E
6. For which purpose is the rubber with small hysteresis loop used?
7 . Is the stress-strain graph for rubber a straight line as
be C

expected by Hooke’s law? What would happen if the elastic


limit is exceeded?
to N

8. How would you known that elastic limit has been crossed?
t ©
no

199
LABORATORY MANUAL
LABORATORY MANUAL

PROJECT 7
AIM

d
To study the collision of two balls in two-dimensions.

he
APPARATUS AND MATERIAL REQUIRED
pu T
is
Apparatus for collision in two dimensions, metre scale, tracing paper,
carbon paper, G-clamp, a screw, cellotape, protractor, two identical
re R
steel spheres or marble spheres and a plumbline.

D bl
E
ESCRIPTION OF APPARATUS
be C

A scale or ruler with a groove (or an


aluminium channel) which is bent
A
Table to act as a ramp so that a steel ball
to N

Wooden
support
can be rolled from the top. At the
B
Aluminium lower end of the ruler a set screw is
channel Depression fixed that has a depression on its
top. This is the resting place for the
©

Plumb line
target steel ball. The ruler rests on
a metal base which can be clamped
at the edge of a laboratory table.
Carbon paper
From the set screw, a plumbline is
Fig. P 7.1: Setup to study the collision of two suspended as shown in Fig. P 7.1.
balls in two-dimensions

P RINCIPLE
t

When two steel spheres of mass m and m′ moving with velocities u


no

and u′ respectively collide, their velocities change after collision. If


their velocities after collision are v and v′ respectively, then according
to the law of conservation of momentum

mu + mu′ = mv + mv′

In this Activity, we study collision of two balls in two-dimensions using


the apparatus described above and verify the law of conservation of
momentum in two-dimensions. We allow one steel ball to roll down
200
PROJECT 7
UNIT NAME

the ramp and collide with a target ball (at rest) placed at the lower end
of the ramp. For simplicity, we take two identical balls.

After collision the two balls moving in different directions fall down
and strike the ground. The horizontal velocity of each sphere is
proportional to the horizontal distance travelled by each sphere (Why
this should be so?). The horizontal distance is the distance from point
on the floor just below the initial position of the stationary ball to the
point where it lands. This same horizontal distance can also be used
to represent the magnitude of the momentum of each ball as they

d
have the same mass.

he
ROCEDURE
1. Arrange the apparatus as shown in Fig. P 7.1. Adjust the set screw

pu T
is
so that the depression in it is directly in front of the groove and
about one radius of the steel ball away from the groove end. Roll a
re R
steel ball down the ramp and adjust the set screw by moving

bl
upward/downward so that the ball just clears it as it falls freely.
Place the target ball on the depression in the screw. Suspend the
E
plumb line with it.
be C

2. Next adjust the position of the set screw so that the bullet ball will
collide with the target ball at an angle. Mark the incident and target
balls as 1 and 2. Ensure that the two balls are exactly at the same
to N

height from the floor at the time of collision.


3. Spread on the floor a large sheet of tracing paper on a similar
sized carbon paper. The steel balls would be falling on this
©

combination to make their imprints. In case large sheets of carbon


paper or plain paper are not available tape together their pieces
(A-4 size) to make a large sheet.
4 . Put the carbon paper on the floor, with its inked side facing
up. Place the tracing paper directly over it. Place the sheets
such that the centre of one end of the paper lies just below
the plumb line.

5. Without placing a target ball on the set screw, roll the ball marked
t

1. Mark the point on the tracing paper where the ball lands (P0).
no

Repeat it several times and mark the cluster P0 1 , P0 2 , P0 3 , etc. ...


Find the centre of the cluster and mark it P0.
6. Using identical steel ball (2) to act as a target ball, try a few
collisions. Ensuring that the incident ball (1) is always released
from the same height. Circle and label the clusters of points where
the incident ball and the target ball hit the paper.
(You can find the centre of cluster points, by drawing a quadrilateral
and intersecting diagonals to find the location of mean point.)
201
LABORATORY MANUAL
LABORATORY MANUAL

d
he
Fig. P 7.2: To find location of mean print

7. Mark point ‘O’ on the paper where the plumb line touches the paper.
Draw vectors from the point O to the mean point P0, P1 and P2.

pu T
is
uuur uuur
8. (a) Add the two vectors OP1 and OP 2 representing the
re R
bl
momentum of the incident ball and target ball to determine
the total momentum P after the collision (Fig. P7.2).
E
(b) Relate the total momentum P after the collision with the initial
uuur
be C

momentum of the incident ball represented by vector OP 0


and the target ball.

R
to N

ESULT
The total momentum of the two ball after collision is ... g cms–1 which
is almost equal to the initial momentum of the incident ball.
©

P RECAUTIONS
1. Adjust the set screw and ensure that the two balls are exactly at
the same height from the floor at the time of collision.
2. In each trial, the incident ball should be rolled down from the
same height.

S
t

OURCES OF ERROR
no

Friction between the ball and surface may introduce an error.

S
ELF ASSESSMENT
1. For each trial, measure the angle between the two final momentum
vectors. Can you make any generalisation?
2. Suppose the target ball is replaced by a glass marble of same size
and we carry out the experiment using the same incident ball. In
202
PROJECT 7
UNIT NAME

this case, the horizontal distances, would represent velocity


vectors? Do they still represent momentum vectors? How will you
draw momentum vectors in this case and verify the law of
conservation of momentum?
3. What happens to the momentum components corresponding to
OP1 and OP2 in Fig. P7.2 in the direction perpendicular to OP0?

d
SUGGESTED ADDITIONAL EXPERIMENTS/ACTIVITIES

he
This experiment can also be used to verify the law of conservation of
momentum quantitatively, the momentum of a ball can be calculated
knowing its mass and velocity. Measure the mass of each ball with a
balance. The horizontal velocity is equal to the horizontal distance travelled

pu T
is
divided by the time taken. Note that this time is equal to the time taken
by the ball to hit the floor. This time can be determined by measuring the
re R
distance (d) from the top of the set screw to the floor and using the

bl
equation d = (gt2)/2. Further, note that t will be the same for all calculations.

Calculate the original momentum of the incident ball and final momenta
E
of the incident and target balls for the case with balls of (1) equal mass
and (2) unequal mass. Find the resultant of the two final momenta in
each case and compare it with the initial momentum.
be C

ALTERNATE METHOD FOR MAKING CHANNEL


to N

Take plastic pipe having internal diameter slightly more than the diameter
of the balls.

Cut the pipe lengthwise into two equal parts (two halves). Bend slightly
one part of the cut pipe by gently warming it and fix it on a table top as
©

shown in the figure below.

Make a small depression near end B of the pipe with the help of a heated
thick nail/rod for resting the target ball.
t
no

203
LABORATORY MANUAL
LABORATORY MANUAL

PROJECT 8
A

d
IM
To study Fortin’s Barometer and use it to measure the

he
atmospheric pressure.

APPARATUS AND MATERIAL REQUIRED


pu T
is
Fortin’s Barometer and a thermometer.
re R
D
bl
ESCRIPTION OF APPARATUS
E
Fortins’s Barometer
be C

It consists of a uniform glass tube about 80 cm


long, open at one end. It is filled with mercury
to N

and turned upside down carefully in a trough


of mercury C. The lower part of the trough is
made of leather and the level of mercury in the
trough can be adjusted by means of screw A
©

[Fig. P 8.1 (a)]. The upper side of the trough is


closed by a leather patch L in such a way that the
contact is maintained between the outside air and
the mercury in the trough. There is a small ivory
pin P fixed with its pointed tip touching the
mercury in the trough. The function of the pin P
is to adjust the zero of the scale at the same level
as the mercury in the trough. The glass tube is
enclosed in a brass tube for protection. There are
t

two vertical slits diametrically opposite each other


no

so that the level of mercury in the tube can be


seen [Fig. P 8.1 (b)]. A scale graduated in
centimetre is engraved on the brass tube on both
sides along the edges of the front slit. The scale
graduation does not start from zero but from 68
cm to 85 cm, as the atmospheric pressureremains
within these limits. A brass vernier scale slides
along the front slit and can be adjusted using
Fig. P 8.1: Fortin’s barometer
screw B.
204
PROJECT 8
UNIT NAME

PRINCIPLE
When a completely filled mercury tube is turned upside down in the
trough C, some mercury flows out of the tube in the trough leaving a
vacuum on the top.

The level of mercury stabilises when the atmospheric pressure exerted


on the surface of mercury in the trough equalises that due to the
mercury column in the tube. The height of the mercury column in
the tube is proportional to atmospheric pressure under normal

d
conditions, Column of mercury in the glass tube stands at a height of
about 76 cm at sea level.

he
From theoretical point of view, a barometer could be made of any
liquid. Mercury is chosen for many reasons mainly it is so dense
(13600 kg/m 3) that column supported by air pressure is of a

pu T
is
managable height.
re R
A water barometer would be more than 10 m in height.

P bl
E
ROCEDURE
be C

1. Use the plumb line to hang the barometer vertically on a wall.

2. Examine the screws A, B, pin P and vernier V.


to N

3. Determine the least count of the vernier scale.

4. Adjust the level of mercury surface in the trough of the barometer


t ©
no

Fig. P 8.2: Correct adjustment of mercury surface in the reservoir

205
LABORATORY MANUAL
LABORATORY MANUAL

with the help of screw A and by looking at the ivory pin and
its image on the mercury surface in the trough (Fig. P 8.2).
Vernier V 5. Adjust the vernier using screw B such that the zero of the vernier
touches the convex meniscus of mercury in the tube. The eye
should be kept at the level of the meniscus (Fig. P 8.3).
6. Note the reading on the main scale and the vernier.

R 7. Record the room temperature using a thermometer.

d
Correct 8. Repeat the procedure two more times and determine the
adjustment average atmospheric pressure.
of Vernier Scale

he
Fig. P 8.3: Eye should be at the level of
meniscus of mercury in the tube

pu T
is
O
re R
BSERVATIONS
(i)

bl Vernier constant or least count = ...


E
No. of divisions on the vernier = ...
be C

No. of divisions on the main scale = ...


Least count of main scale (1 MSD) = ... cm
to N

Least count of vernier scale


1 MSD
= = ... cm
©

No. of divisions on vernier scale


(ii) Room Temperature = ... °C
Table P 8.1: Measuring height of mercury column
in a barometer
S. Main scale reading Ver nier scale Height of mercury
No. below zero mark of reading n column
vernier scale, S (cm) h = (S + n × least count)
t

1
no

2
3

R
ESULT
Atmospheric pressure in the laboratory on dd/mm/yr (date) at ... am/
pm at room temperature ...°C was measured as ...cm of Hg.
Atmospheric pressure = ...N/m2
206
PROJECT 8
UNIT NAME

P RECAUTIONS
1. The barometer is a fragile instrument and should be handled
carefully.
2. The wall mount should be firm in a room of a laboratory and not
in any passage.
3. Adequate light must fall on the ivory pin and the vernier scale.
4. Least count should be calculated with care.

d
5. Screw A should be moved slowly and gently.

he
SOURCES OF ERROR

pu T
1. There may be air bubbles in the barometer tube.

is
2. Ivory pin may not be fixed properly.
re R
bl
3. Room temperature may change, affecting the observations.

D
E
ISCUSSION
be C

1. The barometer should be placed in such a way on the wall that screw
A can easily be adjusted by viewing the ivory pin P. A suitable platform
to N

can be used to stand and see the vernier reading at eye level.
2. Why does the barometer require adjustment everytime one has to
use it?
©

SELF ASSESSMENT
1. What effect would there be of the following:
(a) Ivory pin not adjusted as advised?
(b) Barometer is not vertical but tilted?
(c) The pin P and scale S not viewed at eye level?
t

2. If water is used instead of mercury, what problems would you


no

encounter?

SUGGESTED ADDITIONAL EXPERIMENTS/ACTIVITIES

1. Take barometer readings and temperature readings at different times


during school hours. Study the pattern for the change in atmospheric
pressure over a week.

2. Plot a graph between atmospheric pressure and humidity (as given


in the newspaper) for a month. Can we relate humidity to atmospheric
pressure?

207
PROJECT
UNIT NAME

PROJECT 10
AIM
To study the effect of nature of surface on emission and absorption

d
of radiation.

APPARATUS AND MATERIAL REQUIRED

he
Two identical calorimeters with wooden lids having holes for
thermometers, two thermometers, clamp stands for holding

pu T
is
thermometer, arrangement to coat one calorimeter black and the other
shining white, stop-clock, ice.
re R
P RINCIPLE
bl
E
Black surfaces are good emitters and good absorbers of heat radiation.
Bright surfaces are poor emitters and poor absorbers of heat radiation.
be C

P
to N

ROCEDURE
A. For emission of radiation
1. Note the range and least count of both the thermometers.
©

2. Record the room temparature.


3. Paint one of the calorimeters with black paint or lamp black as
shown in Fig. P 10.1(a) and the other calorimeter white with
aluminium paint or by wrapping shining silver foil around the
calorimeter as shown in Fig. P 10.1(b).
4. Fill hot water in each calorimeter and insert a thermometer in each.
Let them stand 30 cm apart.
5. Start the stop-clock and keep it in the middle.
t

6. Record the temperatures of both the calorimeters at intervals of


no

1/2 a minute for first 10 minutes and next 10 minutes at intervals


of one minute.
B. For absorption of radiation
1. Use the two calorimeters used for Activity (A) above.
2. Fill them with cold water taken from the refrigerator or made by
adding ice to tap water.
3. Insert thermometers in the calorimeters and place them in front of
an electric heater so that they receive the same amount of heat. 213
LABORATORY MANUAL
LABORATORY MANUAL

A B

Calorimeter A Calorimeter B
Coated with silver
Coated black paint paint or wrapped
with silver foil

d
Hot water
Hot water

he
Stand
Stand

Fig. P 10.1(a): Experimental setup for studying Fig. P 10.1(b): Experimental setup for studying

pu T
is
emission of heat radiation from emission of heat radiation from
black surface shining surface
re R
bl
Alternatively, place them in the sun, if there is bright sunlight
coming from a window.
E
4. With the help of a stop-clock, take temperature vs. time data as in
Activity (A).
be C

O
BSERVATIONS AND CALCULATIONS
to N

Range of thermometer A = ... °C


Least count of thermometer A = ... °C
©

Range of thermometer B = ... °C


Least count of thermometer B = ... °C
Table P 10.1(a) : For emission of radiation

S. No. Black coated calorimeter White painted calorimeter


T ime (t) Temperature of T ime (t) Temperature of
(minutes) water (°C) (minutes) water (°C)
1
2
t

3
no

Table P 10.1(b) : For absorption of radiation

S. No. Black coated calorimeter White painted calorimeter


T ime (t) Temperature of T ime (t) Temperature of
(minutes) water (°C) (minutes) water (°C)
1
2
3
214
PROJECT 10
UNIT NAME

G RAPH
Plot a graph between time (on x-axis) and temperature (on y-axis) for
both the calorimeters and for both, emission and absorption, as shown
in Fig. P 10.2 (a) and (b).

y y

d
90 °C
40 °C ened)
(Black
rA

he
mete
Calori ed)
ilver
B (s

Temperature (°C)
ter
rime
Calo
Temperature (°C)

pu T
is
Ca
lor
ime
ter
B
re R
(silvere
d)

bl
Cal
orim
ete
rA
E
(Bla
cke
ned
)
25 °C x 25 °C x
be C

0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20
Time (min) Time (min)
to N

Fig. P 10.2(a): Temperature vs. time graph for Fig. P 10.2(b): Temperature vs. time graph for
emission of heat radiation absorption of heat radiation
©

C ONCLUSION
1. Compare the rates of cooling in Activity (A) in both cases for the
same temperature range. It is found that the (blackened/silvered)
calorimeter is a better emitter of heat.
2. Compare the rise in temperatures of the two calorimeters in Activity
(B). It is found that the ... calorimeter is a better absorber of
radiation.
t

S
no

OURCES OF ERROR
1. Perfectly black and perfectly shining surfaces may not be available.
2. Variations in surrounding temperature during the period of
Activity may take place.

215
LABORATORY MANUAL
LABORATORY MANUAL

PROJECT 11
AIM
To study conservation of energy with a 0.2 pendulum.

d
APPARATUS AND MATERIAL REQUIRED

he
A heavy spherical, bob with a hook, thread, metre scale, a peg (a pencil
or a 15 cm scale), a rigid support and a stand with a clamp.

pu T
is
P
re R
RINCIPLE

bl
A simple pendulum of length l, mass m oscillates due to the
E
restoring force expressed as F = – mg sin θ for small displacement
(less than 15°)
be C

x
sinθ = θ =
l
to N

mg
The force constant k can be written as k =
l

and maximum kinetic energy KE = 1 kx 2


©

D ESCRIPTION
When the oscillation of a simple pendulum is restricted into two
parts using a peg P at any point on its string, it becomes a two-
length pendulum. During one half of the journey, the bob of mass
m, has length l1 and dispalcement x 1 at position A and for other half
it has a length l2 and displacement x 2. At position B, the bob of mass
t

m has the same kinetic energy. Therefore, energy conservation


no

demands that

1 1
k x2 = k x2
2 1 1 2 2 2
(P 11.1)
2
or l1 = x12
l2 x 2

This relationship (Eq. P 11.1) can be verified for different positions


216 of peg P.
PROJECT 1 1
U N
NIT AME

θ
l

l1

Peg ,P

d
x1 A l2
x1
x2

he
B A
mg C B

Fig. P 11.1: A simple pendulum Fig. P 11.2: A two-length pendulum

pu T
is
P
re R
ROCEDURE

bl
1. Setup a simple pendulum using a heavy bob. Release the bob
E
gently from position A and measure the maximum displacement
x 1, using a metre scale (Fig. P 11.1).
be C

2. Fix a peg P (a pencil or a scale will do) horizontally to a clamp


stand and bring it in contact with the string of the oscillating
to N

pendulum. The peg should obstract the motion of the


pendulum when its sting is vertical, that is, along its mean
position (Fig. P 11.2).
©

3. The effective length of the pendulum would get reduced for a part
of its oscillation after it is held by the peg (Fig. P 11.2).

4. Measure the maximum displacement x2 using metre scale, when


the bob reaches at position C.

5. Repeat the Steps 2 to 4 for different positions of peg P.

2
l1
6. Record these observations in a table and calculate and x 12 for
t

l2 x2
no

each case.

2
7. Establish the equality, l1 = x 12 .
l2 x 2

O BSERVATIONS AND CALCULATIONS


Length of a simple pendulum, l = ... cm
217
LABORATORY MANUAL
LABORATORY MANUAL

l1 x 12
S. No. Displacement of bob Length of the pendulum
l2 x 22
In position In position In position In position
A B A B
x1 (cm) x2(cm) l 1 (cm) l 2 (cm)

1
2

d
3

he
4

R pu T
is
ESULT
re R
2
Relationship l1 = x 1 , based on the conservation of energy is verified.

bl l2 x 22
E
be C
t to N
©
no

218
LABORATORY MANUAL
LABORATORY MANUAL

PROJECT 9
AIM

d
To study of the spring constant of a helical spring from its
load-extension graph.

he
APPARATUS AND MATERIAL REQUIRED
Helical spring with a pointer attached at its lower end and a hook/

pu T
is
ring for suspending a hanger; a rigid support/clamp stand; five or six
slotted masses (known) for hanger; a metre scale.
re R
P bl
RINCIPLE
E
Rigid support
When an external force is applied to a body,
be C

S the shape of the body changes or deformation


occurs in the body. Restoring forces (having
0

magnitude equal to the applied force)


to N

are developed within the body which tend


10

Helical
spring
to oppose this change. On removing
the applied force, the body regains its
20

original shape.
30

P
A For small changes in length (or shape/
Pointer
dimensions) of a body (wire), within the elastic
50 40

Hanger H
limit, the magnitude of the elongation or
extension is directly proportional to the applied
Load (m)
force (Hooke’s law).

Fig. P 9.1: Measurement of extension of Following Hooke’s law, the spring constant (or
a helical spring due to a load force constant) of a spring is given by
t

Restoring force, F
no

(P 9.1) Spring constant, K =


Extension, x

Thus, the spring constant is the restoring force per unit extension in
the spring. Its value is determined by the elastic properties of the spring.
A given load is attached to the free end of the spring which is suspended
from a rigid point support (a nail fixed to a wall). A load (slotted weight)
is placed in the hanger and the spring gets extended/elongated due
to the applied force. By measuring the extensions, produced by the
forces applied by different loads (slotted mass) in the spring and
208
PROJECT 9
UNIT NAME

plotting the load (force) extension graph, the spring constant of the
spring can be determined.

PROCEDURE
1. Suspend the helical spring, SA, having a pointer, P, at its
lower free end, A, freely from a rigid point support, as shown
in Fig. P 9.1.

d
2. Set the metre scale close to the spring vertically. Take care that
the pointer moves freely over the scale without touching it and

he
the tip of the pointer is in front of the graduations on the scale.
3. Find out the least count of the metre scale. It is usually 1 mm or
0.1 cm.

pu T
is
4. Record the initial position of the pointer on the metre scale,
without any slotted mass suspended from the hook.
re R
bl
5. Suspend the hanger, H (of known mass, say 20 g) from the lower
free end, A, of the helical spring and record the position of the
E
pointer, P on the metre scale.
6. Put a slotted mass on the hanger gently. Wait for some time for
be C

the load to stop oscillating so as to attain equilibrium (rest)


position, or even hold it to stop. Record the position of the pointer
on the metre scale. Record observations in a table with proper
to N

units and significant figures.


7. Put another slotted mass on the hanger and repeat Step 6.
©

8. Keep on putting slotted masses on the hanger and repeat Step 6.


Record the position of the pointer on the metre scale every time.
9. Compute the load/force F ( = mg ) applied by the slotted mass,
M and the corresponding extension (or stretching), x in the
helical spring. Here g is the acceleration due to gravity at the
place of the experiment.
10. Plot a graph between the applied force F along x-axis and the
corresponding extension x (or stretching) on the y-axis. What is
t

the shape of the curve of the graph you have drawn?


no

11. If you find that the force-extension graph is a straight line, find
the slope (F/x) of the straight line. Find out the spring constant
K of helical spring from the slope of the straight line graph.

O BSERVATIONS
Least count of the metre scale= ... mm= ... cm
Mass of the hanger = ... g
209
LABORATORY MANUAL
LABORATORY MANUAL

Table P 9.1: Computing spring constant of the helical spring

S. Mass Force, Position of Extension, Spring


No. suspended F = mg the pointer x constant, K
from the (= F/x)
spring, M

(10–3 kg) (N) (cm) (10–2 m) (N m–1)


1 0

d
2 20

he
3 .
4 .
5 .

pu T
6 .

is
. .
re R
. .

bl
.
.
.
.
E
be C

Mean Spring constant K = ... N/m


Plotting load - extension graph for a helical spring
to N

Take force, F along the x-axis and extension, x along the y-axis.
Choose suitable scales to represent F and x. Plot a graph between F
and x (as shown in Fig. P 9.2). Identify the shape of the load-extension
graph OA.
©

CALCULATIONS
Choose two points, O and A, wide apart on the straight line OA
obtained from load extension graph, as shown in Fig. P 9.2. From
the point A, draw a perpendicular AB on x-axis. Then, from
y the graph,
AB
Slope of the straight line graph = tan θ = = x/F
t

OB
no

A
Extension (m)

1
Spring constant, K = F =
x (slope of the graph)
OB F B − F O
Spring constant, K = = = ... Nm–1
B
AB x A − x B
x
O F (N)
where x A and x B are the corresponding extensions at points
Fig. P 9.2: Load-extension graph A and B (or O) respectively where FB and FO are the loads
for a helical spring (forces) at points B and O.
210
PROJECT 9
UNIT NAME

R ESULT
The spring constant of the given helical spring = ... Nm–1

P RECAUTIONS
1. The spring should be suspended from a rigid support and it
should hang freely so that it remains vertical.

d
2. Slotted weights should be chosen according to elastic limit of
the spring.

he
3. After adding or removing the slotted weight on the hanger, wait
for sometime before noting the position of the pointer on the
scale because the spring takes time to attain equilibrium position.

pu T
is
S
re R
OURCES OF ERROR

bl
1. If support is not perfectly rigid, some error may creep in due to
E
the yielding of the support.
2. The slotted weights may not be standard weights.
be C

D ISCUSSION
to N

1. A rigid support is required for suspending the helical spring with


load (or slotted mass) from it. The slotted masses may not have
©

exact values engraved on them. Some error in the extension is


likely to creep in due to the yielding (sometimes) of the support
and inaccuracy in the values of the masses of loads.
2. The accuracy of the result depends mainly on the measurement
of extension produced by the force (load) within the elastic limit.
Take special care that the slotted mass is put gently on the hanger
as the wire of the helical spring takes sometime to attain its new-
equilibrium position.
3. If the elastic limit is crossed slightly, what changes will you expect
t

in the spring and your result?

S
no

ELF ASSESSMENT
1. Two springs A (of thicker wire) and B (of thinner wire) of the same
material, loaded with the same mass on their hangers, are
suspended from a rigid support. Which spring would have more
value of spring constant?
2. Soft massive spring of mass Ms and spring constant K has
extension under its own weight. What mass correction factor for
211
LABORATORY MANUAL
LABORATORY MANUAL

the extension in the spring would you suggest when a mass, M is


attached at its lower end?
[Hint: Extension Xm of the spring of mass Ms with the mass M
F M g
attached at its lower end would be X m = ( M + s )( ) ]
K 2 K

3. What other factors affect spring constant, e.g. length.

d
SUGGESTED ADDITIONAL EXPERIMENTS/ACTIVITIES

he
1. Take spring of the same material but of different diameters of the
wires. See how the spring contant varies.

2. Take springs of the same diameters of the wires but of different


materials. See how the spring constant varies. What inference do

pu T
is
you draw from your result?
re R
bl
E
be C
t to N
©
no

212
LABORATORY MANUAL
LABORATORY MANUAL

NATURAL SINES

TABLE I

0' 6' 12' 18' 24' 30' 36' 42' 48' 54' Mean

0°.0 0°.1 0°.2 0°.3 0°.4 0°.5 0°.6 0°.7 0°.8 0°.9 Differences

1' 2' 3' 4' 5'


0 .0000 0017 0035 0052 0070 0087 0105 0122 0140 0157 3 6 9 12 15

d
1 .0175 0192 0209 0227 0244 0262 0279 0297 0314 0332 3 6 9 12 15
2 .0349 0366 0384 0401 0419 0436 0454 0471 0488 0506 3 6 9 12 15
3 .0523 0541 0558 0576 0593 0610 0628 0645 0663 0680 3 6 9 12 15

he
4 .0698 0715 0732 0750 0767 0785 0802 0819 0837 0854 3 6 9 12 15
5 .0872 0889 0906 0924 0941 0958 0976 0993 1011 1028 3 6 9 12 14
6 .1045 1063 1080 1097 1115 1132 1149 1167 1184 1201 3 6 9 12 14
7 .1219 1236 1253 1271 1288 1305 1323 1340 1357 1374 3 6 9 12 14
8 .1392 1409 1426 1444 1461 1478 1495 1513 1530 1547 3 6 9 12 14

pu T
is
9 .1564 1582 1599 1616 1633 1650 1668 1685 1702 1719 3 6 9 12 14
10 .1736 1754 1771 1788 1805 1822 1840 1857 1874 1891 3 6 9 12 14
re R
11 .1908 1925 1942 1959 1977 1994 2011 2028 2045 2062 3 6 9 11 14
12 .2079 2096 2113 2130 2147 2164 2181 2198 2215 2232 3 6 9 11 14

bl
13 .2250 2267 2284 2300 2317 2334 2351 2368 2385 2402 3 6 8 11 14
14 .2419 2436 2453 2470 2487 2504 2521 2538 2554 2571 3 6 8 11 14
E
15 .2588 2605 2622 2639 2656 2672 2689 2706 2723 2740 3 6 8 11 14
16 .2756 2773 2790 2807 2823 2840 2857 2874 2890 2907 3 6 8 11 14
17 .2924 2940 2957 2974 2990 3007 3024 3040 3057 3074 3 6 8 11 14
be C

18 .3090 3107 3123 3140 3156 3173 3190 3206 3223 3239 3 6 8 11 14
19 .3256 3272 3289 3305 3322 3338 3355 3371 3387 3404 3 5 8 11 14
20 .3420 3437 3453 3469 3486 3502 3518 3535 3551 3567 3 5 8 11 14
to N

21 .3584 3600 3616 3633 3649 3665 3681 3697 3714 3730 3 5 8 11 14
22 .3746 3762 3778 3795 3811 3827 3843 3859 3875 3891 3 5 8 11 14
23 .3907 3923 3939 3955 3971 3987 4003 4019 4035 4051 3 5 8 11 14
24 .4067 4083 4099 4115 4131 4147 4163 4179 4195 4210 3 5 8 11 13
25 .4226 4242 4258 4274 4289 4305 4321 4337 4352 4368 3 5 8 11 13
©

26 .4384 4399 4415 4431 4446 4462 4478 4493 4509 4524 3 5 8 10 13
27 .4540 4555 4571 4586 4602 4617 4633 4648 4664 4679 3 5 8 10 13
28 .4695 4710 4726 4741 4756 4772 4787 4802 4818 4833 3 5 8 10 13
29 .4848 4863 4879 4894 4909 4924 4939 4955 4970 4985 3 5 8 10 13
30 .5000 5015 5030 5045 5060 5075 5090 5105 5120 5135 3 5 8 10 13
31 .5150 5165 5180 5195 5210 5225 5240 5255 5270 5284 2 5 7 10 12
32 .5299 5314 5329 5344 5358 5373 5388 5402 5417 5432 2 5 7 10 12
33 .5446 5461 5476 5490 5505 5519 5534 5548 5563 5577 2 5 7 10 12
34 .5592 5606 5621 5635 5650 5664 5678 5693 5707 5721 2 5 7 10 12
35 .5736 5750 5764 5779 5793 5807 5821 5835 5850 5864 2 5 7 10 12
36 .5878 5892 5906 5920 5934 5948 5962 5976 5990 6004 2 5 7 9 12
37 .6018 6032 6046 6060 6074 6088 6101 6115 6129 6143 2 5 7 9 12
t

38 .6157 6170 6184 6198 6211 6225 6239 6252 6266 6280 2 5 7 9 11
39 .6293 6307 6320 6334 6347 6361 6374 6388 6401 6414 2 4 7 9 11
no

40 .6428 6441 6455 6468 6481 6494 6508 6521 6534 6547 2 4 7 9 11
41 .6561 6574 6587 6600 6613 6626 6639 6652 6665 6678 2 4 7 9 11
42 .6691 6704 6717 6730 6743 6756 6769 6782 6794 6807 2 4 6 9 11
43 .6820 6833 6845 6858 6871 6884 6896 6909 6921 6934 2 4 6 8 11
44 .6947 6959 6972 6984 6997 7009 7022 7034 7046 7059 2 4 6 8 10

270
DATA SECTION
U NIT NAME

NATURAL SINES
TABLE I (Continued)
0' 6' 12' 18' 24' 30' 36' 42' 48' 54' Mean

0°.0 0°.1 0°.2 0°.3 0°.4 0°.5 0°.6 0°.7 0°.8 0°.9 Differences

1' 2' 3' 4' 5'


45 .7071 7083 7096 7108 7120 7133 7145 7157 7169 7181 2 4 6 8 10
46 .7193 7206 7218 7230 7242 7254 7266 7278 7290 7302 2 4 6 8 10
47 .7314 7325 7337 7349 7361 7373 7385 7396 7408 7420 2 4 6 8 10

d
48 .7431 7443 7455 7466 7478 7490 7501 7513 7524 7536 2 4 6 8 10
49 .7547 7558 7570 7581 7593 7604 7615 7627 7638 7649 2 4 6 8 9

he
50 .7660 7672 7683 7694 7705 7716 7727 7738 7749 7760 2 4 6 7 9
51 .7771 7782 7793 7804 7815 7826 7837 7848 7859 7869 2 4 5 7 9
52 .7880 7891 7902 7912 7923 7934 7944 7955 7965 7976 2 4 5 7 9
53 .7986 7997 8007 8018 8028 8039 8049 8059 8070 8080 2 3 5 7 9
54 .8090 8100 8111 8121 8131 8141 8151 8161 8171 8181 2 3 5 7 8

pu T
is
55 .8192 8202 8211 8221 8231 8241 8251 8261 8271 8281 2 3 5 7 8
56 .8290 8300 8310 8320 8329 8339 8348 8358 8368 8377 2 3 5 6 8
57 .8387 8396 8406 8415 8425 8434 8443 8453 8462 8471 2 3 5 6 8
re R
58 .8480 8490 8499 8508 8517 8526 8536 8545 8554 8563 2 3 5 6 8

bl
59 .8572 8581 8590 8599 8607 8616 8625 8634 8643 8652 1 3 4 6 7
60 .8660 8669 8678 8686 8695 8704 8712 8721 8729 8738 1 3 4 6 7
E
61 .8746 8755 8763 8771 8780 8788 8796 8805 8813 8821 1 3 4 6 7
62 .8829 8838 8846 8854 8862 8870 8878 8886 8894 8902 1 3 4 5 7
63 .8910 8918 8926 8934 8942 8949 8957 8965 8973 8980 1 3 4 5 6
be C

64 .8988 8996 9003 9011 9018 9026 9033 9041 9048 9056 1 3 4 5 6
65 .9063 9070 9078 9085 9092 9100 9107 9114 9121 9128 1 2 4 5 6
66 .9135 9143 9150 9157 9164 9171 9178 9184 9191 9198 1 2 3 5 6
to N

67 .9205 9212 9219 9225 9232 9239 9245 9252 9259 9265 1 2 3 4 6
68 .9272 9278 9285 9291 9298 9304 9311 9317 9323 9330 1 2 3 4 5
69 .9336 9342 9348 9354 9361 9367 9373 9379 9385 9391 1 2 3 4 5
70 .9397 9403 9409 9415 9421 9426 9432 9438 9444 9449 1 2 3 4 5
71 .9455 9461 9466 9472 9478 9483 9489 9494 9500 9505 1 2 3 4 5
©

72 .9511 9516 9521 9527 9532 9537 9542 9548 9553 9558 1 2 3 3 4
73 .9563 9568 9573 9578 9583 9588 9593 9598 9603 9608 1 2 3 3 4
74 .9613 9617 9622 9627 9632 9636 9641 9646 9650 9655 1 2 2 3 4
75 .9659 9664 9668 9673 9677 9681 9686 9690 9694 9699 1 1 2 3 4
76 .9703 9707 9711 9715 9720 9724 9728 9732 9736 9740 1 1 2 3 3
77 .9744 9748 9751 9755 9759 9763 9767 9770 9774 9778 1 1 2 3 3
78 .9781 9785 9789 9792 9796 9799 9803 9806 9810 9813 1 1 2 2 3
79 .9816 9820 9823 9826 9829 9833 9836 9839 9842 9845 1 1 2 2 3
80 .9848 9851 9854 9857 9860 9863 9866 9869 9871 9874 0 1 1 2 2
81 .9877 9880 9882 9885 9888 9890 9893 9895 9898 9900 0 1 1 2 2
82 .9903 9905 9907 9910 9912 9914 9917 9919 9921 9923 0 1 1 2 2
83 .9925 9928 9930 9932 9934 9936 9938 9940 9942 9943 0 1 1 1 2
t

84 :9945 9947 9949 9951 9952 9954 9956 9957 9959 9960 0 1 1 1 2
85 .9962 9963 9965 9966 9968 9969 9971 9972 9973 9974 0 0 1 1 1
no

86 .9976 9977 9978 9979 9980 9981 9982 9983 9984 9985 0 0 1 1 1
87 .9986 9987 9988 9989 9990 9990 9991 9992 9993 9993 0 0 0 1 1
88 .9994 9995 9995 9996 9996 9997 9997 9997 9998 9998 0 0 0 0 0
89 .9998 9999 9999 9999 9999 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000 0 0 0 0 0
90 1.000

271
LABORATORY MANUAL
LABORATORY MANUAL

NATURAL COSINES

TABLE II
0' 6' 12' 18' 24' 30' 36' 42' 48' 54' Mean

0°.0 0°.1 0°.2 0°.3 0°.4 0°.5 0°.6 0°.7 0°.8 0°.9 Differences

1' 2' 3' 4' 5'


0 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000 .9999 9999 9999 9999 0 0 0 0 0

d
1 .9998 9998 9998 9997 9997 9997 9996 9996 9995 9995 0 0 0 0 0
2 .9994 9993 9993 9992 9991 9990 9990 9989 9988 9987 0 0 0 1 1
3 .9986 9985 9984 9983 9982 9981 9980 9979 9978 9977 0 0 1 1 1

he
4 .9976 9974 9973 9972 9971 9969 9968 9966 9965 9963 0 0 1 1 1
5 .9962 9960 9959 9957 9956 9954 9952 9951 9949 9947 0 1 1 1 2
6 .9945 9943 9942 9940 9938 9936 9934 9932 9930 9928 0 1 1 1 2
7 .9925 9923 9921 9919 9917 9914 9912 9910 9907 9905 0 1 1 2 2
8 .9903 9900 9898 9895 9893 9890 9888 9885 9882 9880 0 1 1 2 2

pu T
is
9 .9877 9874 9871 9869 9866 9863 9860 9857 9854 9851 0 1 1 2 2
10 .9848 9845 9842 9839 9836 9833 9829 9826 9823 9820 1 1 2 2 3
11 .9816 9813 9810 9806 9803 9799 9796 9792 9789 9785 1 1 2 2 3
re R
12 .9781 9778 9774 9770 9767 9763 9759 9755 9751 9748 1 1 2 3 3

bl
13 .9744 9740 9736 9732 9728 9724 9720 9715 9711 9707 1 1 2 3 3
14 .9703 9699 9694 9690 9686 9681 9677 9673 9668 9664 1 1 2 3 4
E
15 .9659 9655 9650 9646 9641 9636 9632 9627 9622 9617 1 2 2 3 4
16 .9613 9608 9603 9598 9593 9588 9583 9578 9573 9568 1 2 2 3 4
17 .9563 9558 9553 9548 9542 9537 9532 9527 9521 9516 1 2 3 3 4
be C

18 .9511 9505 9500 9494 9489 9483 9478 9472 9466 9461 1 2 3 4 5
19 .9455 9449 9444 9438 9432 9426 9421 9415 9409 9403 1 2 3 4 5
20 .9397 9391 9385 9379 9573 9367 9361 9354 9348 9342 1 2 3 4 5
to N

21 .9336 9330 9323 9317 9311 9304 9298 9291 9285 9278 1 2 3 4 5
22 .9272 9265 9259 9252 9245 9239 9232 9225 9219 9212 1 2 3 4 6
23 .9205 9198 9191 9184 9178 9171 9164 9157 9150 9143 1 2 3 5 6
24 .9135 9128 9121 9114 9107 9100 9092 9085 9078 9070 1 2 4 5 6
25 .9063 9056 9048 9041 9033 9026 9018 9011 9003 8996 1 3 4 5 6
©

26 .8988 8980 8973 8965 8957 8949 8942 8934 8926 8918 1 3 4 5 6
27 .8910 8902 8894 8886 8878 8870 8862 8854 8838 1 3 4 5 7
28 .8829 8821 8813 8805 8796 8788 8780 8771 8763 8755 1 3 4 6 7
29 .8746 8738 8729 8721 8712 8704 8695 8686 8678 8669 1 3 4 6 7
30 .8660 8652 8643 8634 8625 8616 8607 8599 8590 8581 1 3 4 6 7
31 .8572 8563 8554 8545 8536 8526 8517 8508 8499 8490 2 3 5 6 8
32 .8480 8471 8462 8453 8443 8434 8425 8415 8406 8396 2 3 5 6 8
33 .8387 8377 8368 8358 8348 8339 8329 8320 8310 8300 2 3 5 6 8
34 .8290 8281 8271 8261 8251 8241 8231 8221 8211 8202 2 3 5 7 8
3S .8192 8181 8171 8161 8151 8141 8131 8121 8111 8100 2 3 5 7 8
36 .8090 8080 8070 8059 8049 8039 8028 8018 8007 7997 2 3 5 7 8
37 .7986 7976 7965 7955 7944 7934 7923 7912 7902 7891 2 4 5 7 9
t

38 .7880 7869 7859 7848 7837 7826 7815 7804 7793 7782 2 4 5 7 9
39 .7771 7760 7749 7738 7727 7716 7705 7694 7683 7672 2 4 6 7 9
no

40 .7660 7649 7638 7627 7615 7604 7593 7581 7570 7559 2 4 6 8 9
41 .7547 7536 7524 7513 7501 7490 7478 7466 7455 7443 2 4 6 8 10
42 .7431 7420 7408 7396 7385 7373 7361 7349 7337 7325 2 4 6 8 10
43 .7314 7302 7290 7278 7266 7254 7242 7230 7218 7206 2 4 6 8 10
44 .7193 7181 7169 7157 7145 7133 7120 7108 7096 7083 2 4 6 8 10

272
DATA SECTION
U NIT NAME

NATURAL COSINES

TABLE II (Continued)
0' 6' 12' 18' 24' 30' 36' 42' 48' 54' Mean

0°.0 0°.1 0°.2 0°.3 0°.4 0°.5 0°.6 0°.7 0°.8 0°.9 Differences

1' 2' 3' 4' 5'


45 .7071 7059 7046 7034 7022 7009 6997 6984 6972 6959 2 4 6 8 10
46 .6947 6934 6921 6909 6896 6884 6871 6858 6845 6833 2 4 6 8 11
47 .6820 6807 6794 6782 6769 6756 6743 6730 6717 6704 2 4 6 9 11

d
48 .6691 6678 6665 6652 6639 6626 6613 6600 6587 6574 2 4 7 9 11
49 .6561 6547 6534 6521 6508 6494 6481 6468 6455 6441 2 4 7 9 11

he
50 .6428 6414 6401 6388 6374 6361 6347 6334 6320 6307 2 4 7 9 11
51 .6293 6280 6266 6252 6239 6225 6211 6198 6184 6170 2 5 7 9 11
52 .6157 6143 6129 6115 6]01 6088 6074 6060 6046 6032 2 5 7 9 11
53 .6018 6004 5990 5976 5962 5948 5934 5920 5906 5892 2 5 7 9 12
54 .5878 5864 5850 5835 5821 5807 5793 5779 5764 5750 2 5 7 9 12

pu T
is
55 .5736 5721 5707 5693 5678 5664 5650 5635 5621 5606 2 5 7 10 12
56 .5592 5577 5563 5548 5534 55]9 5505 5490 5476 5461 2 5 7 10 12
57 .5446 5432 5417 5402 5388 5373 5358 5344 5329 5314 2 5 7 10 12
re R
58 .5299 5284 5270 5255 5240 5225 5210 5195 5180 5165 2 5 7 10 12

bl
59 .5150 5135 5120 5105 5090 5075 5060 5045 5030 5015 3 5 8 10 13
60 .5000 4985 4970 4955 4939 4924 4909 4894 4879 4863 3 5 8 10 13
E
61 .4848 4833 4818 4802 4787 4772 4756 4741 4726 4710 3 5 8 10 13
62 .4695 4679 4664 4648 4633 4617 4602 4586 4571 4555 3 5 8 10 13
63 .4540 4524 4509 4493 4478 4462 4446 4431 4415 4399 3 5 8 10 13
be C

64 .4384 4368 4352 4337 4321 4305 4289 4274 4258 4242 3 5 8 11 13
65 .4226 4210 4195 4179 4163 4147 4131 4115 4099 4083 3 5 8 11 13
66 .4067 4051 4035 4019 4003 3987 3971 3955 3939 3923 3 5 8 11 14
67 .3907 3891 3875 3859 3843 3827 3811 3795 3778 3762 3 5 8 11 14
to N

68 .3746 3730 3714 3697 3681 3665 3649 3633 3616 3600 3 5 8 11 14
69 .3584 3567 3551 3535 3518 3502 3486 3469 3453 3437 3 5 8 11 14
70 .3420 3404 3387 3371 3355 3338 3322 3305 3289 3272 3 5 8 11 14
71 .3256 3239 3223 3206 3190 3173 3156 3140 3123 3107 3 6 8 11 14
©

72 .3090 3074 3057 3040 3024 3007 2990 2974 2957 2940 3 6 8 11 14
73 .2924 2907 2890 2874 2857 2840 2823 2807 2790 2773 3 6 8 11 14
74 .2756 2740 2723 2706 2689 2672 2656 2639 2622 2605 3 6 8 11 14
75 .2588 2571 2554 2538 2521 2504 2487 2470 2453 2436 3 6 8 11 14
76 .2419 2402 2385 2368 2351 2334 2317 2300 2284 2267 3 6 8 11 14
77 .2250 2233 2215 2198 2181 2164 2147 2130 2113 2096 3 6 9 11 14
78 .2079 2062 2045 2028 2011 1994 1977 1959 1942 1925 3 6 9 11 14
79 .1908 1891 1874 1857 1840 1822 1805 1788 1771 1754 3 6 9 11 14
80 .1736 1719 1702 1685 1668 1650 1633 1616 1599 1582 3 6 9 12 14
81 .1564 1547 1530 1513 1495 1478 1461 1444 1426 1409 3 6 9 12 14
82 .1392 1374 1357 1340 1323 1305 1288 1271 1253 1236 3 6 9 12 14
83 .1219 1201 1184 1167 1149 1132 1115 1097 1080 1063 3 6 9 12 14
84 .1045 1028 1011 0993 0976 0958 0941 0924 0906 0889 3 6 9 12 14
t

85 .0872 0854 0837 0819 0802 0785 0767 0750 0732 0715 3 6 9 12 15
no

86 .0698 0680 0663 0645 0628 0610 0593 0576 0558 0541 3 6 9 12 15
87 .0523 0506 0488 0471 0454 0436 0419 0401 0384 0366 3 6 9 12 15
88 .0349 0332 0314 0297 0279 0262 0244 0227 0209 0192 3 6 9 12 15
89 .0175 0157 0140 0122 0105 0087 0070 0052 0035 0017 3 6 9 12 15
90 .0000

273
LABORATORY MANUAL
LABORATORY MANUAL

NATURAL TANGENTS

TABLE III

0' 6' 12' 18' 24' 30' 36' 42' 48' 54' Mean

0°.0 0°.1 0°.2 0°.3 0°.4 0°.5 0°.6 0°.7 0°.8 0°.9 Differences

1' 2' 3' 4' 5'


0 .0000 0017 0035 0052 0070 0087 0105 0122 0140 0157 3 6 9 12 15

d
1 .0175 0192 0209 0227 0244 0262 0279 0297 0314 0332 3 6 9 12 15
2 .0349 0367 0384 0402 0419 0437 0454 0472 0489 0507 3 6 9 12 15
3 .0524 0542 0559 0577 0594 0612 0629 0647 0664 0682 3 6 9 12 15

he
4 .0699 0717 0734 0752 0769 0787 0805 0822 0840 0857 3 6 9 12 15
5 .0875 0892 0910 0928 0945 0963 0981 0998 1016 1033 3 6 9 12 15
6 .1051 1069 1086 1104 1122 1139 1157 1175 1192 1210 3 6 9 12 15
7 .1228 1246 1263 1281 1299 1317 1334 1352 1370 1388 3 6 9 12 15
8 .1405 1423 1441 1459 1477 1495 1512 1530 1548 1566 3 6 9 12 15

pu T
is
9 .1584 1602 1620 1638 1655 1673 1691 1709 1727 1745 3 6 9 12 15
10 .1763 1781 1799 1817 1835 1853 1871 1890 1908 1926 3 6 9 12 15
re R
11 .1944 1962 1980 1998 2016 2035 2053 2071 2089 2107 3 6 9 12 15
12 .2126 2144 2162 2180 2199 2217 2235 2254 2272 2290 3 6 9 12 15

bl
13 .2309 2327 2345 2364 2382 2401 2419 2438 2456 2475 3 6 9 12 15
14 .2493 2512 2530 2549 2568 2586 2605 2623 2642 2661 3 6 9 12 16
E
15 .2679 2698 2717 2736 2754 2773 2792 2811 2830 2849 3 6 9 13 16
16 .2867 2886 2905 2924 2943 2962 2981 ‘3000 3019 3038 3 6 9 13 16
17 .3057 3076 3096 3115 3134 3153 3172 3191 3211 3230 3 6 10 13 16
be C

18 .3249 3269 3288 3307 3327 3346 3365 3385 3404 3424 3 6 10 13 16
19 .3443 3463 3482 3502 3522 3541 3561 3581 3600 3620 3 7 10 13 16
20 .3640 3659 3679 3699 3719 3739 3759 3779 3799 3819 3 7 10 13 17
to N

21 .3839 3859 3879 3899 3919 3939 3959 3979 4000 4020 3 7 10 13 17
22 .4040 4061 4081 4101 4122 4142 4163 4183 4204 4224 3 7 10 14 17
23 .4245 4265 4286 4307 4327 4348 4369 4390 4411 4431 3 7 10 14 17
24 .4452 4473 4494 4515 4536 4557 4578 4599 4621 4642 4 7 11 14 18
25 .4663 4684 4706 4727 4748 4770 4791 4813 4834 4856 4 7 11 14 18
©

26 .4877 4899 4921 4942 4964 4986 5008 5029 5051 5073 4 7 11 15 18
27 .5095 5117 5139 5161 5184 5206 5228 5250 5272 5295 4 7 11 15 18
28 .5317 5340 5362 5384 5407 5430 5452 5475 5498 5520 4 8 11 15 19
29 .5543 5566 5589 5612 5635 5658 5681 5704 5727 5750 4 8 12 15 19
30 .5774 5797 5820 5844 5867 5890 5914 5938 5961 5985 4 8 12 16 20
31 .6009 6032 6056 6080 6104 6128 6152 6176 6200 6224 4 8 12 16 20
32 .6249 6273 6297 6322 6346 6371 6395 6420 6445 6469 4 8 12 16 20
33 .6494 6519 6544 6569 6594 6619 6644 6669 6694 6720 4 8 13 17 21
34 .6745 6771 6796 6822 6847 6873 699 6924 6950 6976 4 9 13 17 21
35 .7002 7028 7054 7080 7107 7133 7159 7186 7212 7239 4 9 13 18 22
36 .7265 7292 7319 7346 7373 7400 7427 7454 7481 7508 5 9 14 18 23
37 .7536 7563 7590 7618 7646 7673 7701 7729 7757 7785 5 9 14 18 23
t

38 .7813 7841 7869 7898 7926 7954 7983 8012 8040 8069 5 9 14 19 24
39 .8008 8127 8156 8185 8214 8243 8273 8302 8332 8361 5 10 15 20 24
no

40 .8391 8421 8451 8481 8511 8541 8571 8601 8632 8662 5 10 15 20 25
41 .8693 8724 8754 8785 8816 8847 8878 8910 8941 8972 5 10 16 21 26
42 .9004 9036 9067 9099 9131 9163 9195 9228 9260 9293 5 11 16 21 27
43 .9325 9358 9391 9424 9457 9490 9523 9556 9590 9623 6 11 17 22 28
44 .9657 9691 ‘ 9725 9759 9793 9827 9861 9896 9930 9965 6 11 17 23 29

274
DATA SECTION
U NIT NAME

NATURAL TANGENTS
TABLE III (Continued)
0' 6' 12' 18' 24' 30' 36' 42' 48' 54' Mean

0°.0 0°.1 0°.2 0°.3 0°.4 0°.5 0°.6 0°.7 0°.8 0°.9 Differences

1' 2' 3' 4' 5'

45 1.0000 0035 0070 0105 0141 0176 0212 0247 0283 0319 6 12 18 24 30

d
46 1.0355 0392 0428 0464 0501 0538 0575 0612 0649 0686 6 12 18 25 31
47 1-0724 0761 0799 0837 0875 0913 0951 0990 1028 1067 6 13 19 25 32
48 1-1106 1145 1184 1224 1263 1303 1343 1383 1423 1463 7 13 20 27 33

he
49 1.1504 1544 1585 1626 1667 1708 1750 1792 1833 1875 7 14 21 28 34
50 1-1918 1960 2002 2045 2088 2131 2174 2218 2261 2305 7 14 22 29 35
51 1.2349 2393 2437 2482 2527 2572 2617 2662 2708 2753 8 15 23 30 38
52 1.2799 2846 2892 2938 2985 3032 3079 3127 3175 3222 8 16 24 31 39
53 1.3270 3319 3367 3416 3465 3514 3564 3613 3663 3713 8 16 25 33 41

pu T
is
54 1.3764 3814 3865 3916 3968 4019 4071 4124 4176 4229 9 17 26 34 43
55 1-4281 4335 4388 4442 4496 4550 4605 4659 4715 4770 9 18 27 36 45
re R
56 1-4826 4882 4938 4994 5051 5108 5166 5224 5282 5340 10 19 29 38 48

bl
57 1.5399 5458 5517 5577 5637 5697 5757 5818 5880 5941 10 20 30 40 50
58 1.6003 6066 6128 6191 6255 6319 6383 6447 6512 6577 11 21 32 43 53
59 1.6643 6709 6775 6842 6909 6977 7045 7113 7182 7251 11 23 34 45 56
E
60 1-7321 7391 7461 7532 7603 7.675 7747 7820 7893 7966 12 24 36 48 60
61 1.8040 8115 8190 8265 8341 8418 8495 8572 8650 8728 13 26 38 51 64
62 1.8807 8887 8967 9047 9128 9210 9292 9375 9458 9542 14 27 41 55 68
be C

63 1.9626 9711 9797 9883 9970 2.0057 2.0145 2.0233 2.0323 2.0413 15 29 44 58 73
64 2.0503 0594 0686 0778 0872 0965 1060 1155 1251 1348 16 31 47 63 78
65 2.1445 1543 1642 1742 1842 1943 2045 2148 2251 2355 17 34 51 68 85
to N

66 2.2460 2566 2673 2781 2889 2998 3109 3220 3332 3445 18 37 55 73 92
67 2.3559 3673 3789 3906 4023 4142 4262 4383 4504 4627 20 40 60 79 99
68 2.4751 4876 5002 5129 5257 5386 5517 5649 5782 5916 22 43 65 87 108
69 2.6051 6187 6325 6464 6605 6746 6889 7034 7179 7326 24 47 71 95 119
70 2.7475 7625 7776 7929 8083 8239 8397 8556 8716 8878 26 52 78 104 131
©

71 2.9042 9208 9375 9544 9714 9887 3.0061 3.0237 3.0415 3.0595 29 58 87 116 145
72 3.0777 0961 1146 1334 1524 1716 1910 2106 2305 2500 32 64 96 129 161
73 3.2709 2914 3122 3332 3544 3759 3977 4197 4420 4646 36 72 108 144 180
74 3.4874 5105 5339 5576 5816 6059 6305 6554 6806 7062 41 811 22 163 204
75 3.7321 7583 7848 8118 8391 8667 8947 9232 9520 9812 46 93 139 186 232
76 4.0108 0408 0713 1022 1335 i653 1976 2303 2635 2972 53 107 160 213 267
77 4.3315 3662 4015 4374 4737 5107 5483 5864 6252 6646
78 4.7046 7453 7867 8288 8716 9152 9594 5.0045 5.0504 5.0970 Mean differences cease
79 5.1446 1929 2422 2924 3435 3955 4486 5026 5578 6140 to be sufficiently accurate.
80 5.6713 7297 7894 8502 9124 9758 6.0405 6.1066 6.1742 6.2432
81 6.3138 3859 4596 5350 6122 6912 7720 8548 9395 7.0264
82 7.1154 2066 3002 3%2 4947 5958 6996 8062 9158 8.0285
t

83 8.1443 2636 3863 5126 6427 7769 9152 9.0579 9.2052 9.3572
84 9.5144 9.677 9.845 10.02 10.20 10.39 10.58 10.78 10.99 11-20
no

85 1143 11.66 11.91 12.16 12.43 12.71 13.00 13.30 13.62 13.95
86 14.30 14.67 15.06 15.46 15.89 16.35 16.83 17.34 17.89 18.46
87 19.08 19.74 20.45 21.20 22.02 22.90 23.86 24.90 26.03 27.27
88 28.64 30.14 31.82 33.69 35.80 38.19 40.92 44.07 47.74 52.08
89 57.29 63.66 71.62 81.85 95.49 114.6 143.2 191.0 286.5 573.0
90 not defined

275
LABORATORY MANUAL
LABORATORY MANUAL

NOTES

d
he
pu T
is
re R
bl
E
be C
t to N
©
no

276
DATA SECTION
UNIT NAME

NOTES

d
he
pu T
is
re R
bl
E
be C
to N

no

277
LABORATORY MANUAL
LABORATORY MANUAL

NOTES

d
he
pu T
is
re R
bl
E
be C
t to N
©
no

278
DEMONSTRATION
UNIT NAME
DEMONSTRATIONS

DEMONSTRATION 1

d
To demonstrate uniform motion in a straight line
It is rather difficult to demonstrate uniform motion of a freely

he
moving body due to the inherent force of friction. However, it is
possible to demonstrate uniform motion if a body of the forces
acting on it are balanced.

pu T
is
(a) Demonstration of uniform motion of a body in glycerine or caster
oil in a glass or a plastic tube
re R
bl
Take a glass or plastic tube one metre long and about 10 mm end
diameter. Close one end of it with a cork. Fill the tube with glycerine
E
(white) or castar oil upto the brim. Insert a steel ball or lead shot of
three mm diameter in it and close it with a cork such that no air
be C

bubble is left in the tube. Take a wooden base 7.5 – 10.0 cm broad
having metallic brackets near its ends. Paint the board with white
paint or fix a sheet of white paper on it. Mount the tube on the wooden
to N

base with the help of metallic brackets (to rest the tube like the base of
a fluorescent tube). Put marks on the base with black/blue paint or
ink at regular intervals of 10 cm each [Fig. D 1.1(a)]. To demonstrate
t ©
no

Fig. D 1.1: Demonstration of uniform rectilinear motion of a ball under


two balancing forces: (a) A demonstration apparatus 1 m
long (b) A low cost apparatus 50 cm long 219
LABORATORY MANUAL
LABORA TORY MANUAL

uniform motion keep the tube vertical and ask a student to note the
time taken by the ball to travel successive segments of 10 cm. Repeat
the experiment by inverting the tube a couple of times. It may be
emphasised that if a 10 cm segment is further sub-divided into
segments of 1 or 2 cm length, then the ball should travel successive
smaller segments also is equal intervals of time*.
This demonstration can also be done with a half metre long glass tube
and a half metre scale. It may be clamped vertical in a laboratory stand
[Fig. D 1.1(b)]. In this case students can also be asked to note the time
taken by the ball to travel successive segments of one cm.

d
The tube may be inclined slightly, say, at about 5° to the vertical. The
advantages of this are:

he
(i) The ball moves closer to the scale which reduces the parallax
error in observing its position on the scale.

pu T (ii) The ball moving in contact with the wall of the tube is under

is
identical conditions throughout its motion. If you wish it to
re R
move in the centre of the tube, i.e., along the axis of the tube,

bl
then the vertical adjustment of the tube has to done with
greater precision.
E
In order to perform this demonstration with the half metre tube
more effectively, students may be encouraged to devise their own
be C

mechanism to simultaneously record the distance moved by the ball


and the time taken to do so. For example, let one student watch the
to N

falling ball at close distance and give signals by tapping the table as
the ball passes successive equidistant marks at a
pre-decided distance from each other.
100
A second student may start the stop-watch at the
©

90
sound of any tap. Thereafter, he observes and speaks
80
out the time shown by the watch at each successive
(cm)

70
60
tap, without stopping the watch. A third student may
keep noting the data of distance covered by the ball
50
40
and time elapsed since the measurement was started.
Ask students to plot the distance versus time graph
d

30
20
of the motion of the ball on the basis of this data and
10
discuss the nature of this graph [Fig. D 1.1(c)].
In this coordinated activity of three students, it is
t

0
2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30
likely that the first one may happen to miss giving
no

t (s)
signal at a mark when the ball passes it. He should
Fig. D 1.1(c): Distance–time graph for motion only indicate this by saying “missed” and a few
of metal ball in glycerine points less on the graph made with about 15 to 20
points are of no significance. Similarly, any tapping which he
subsequently feels, was not made at the right instant, he may indicate
* In this experiment, the ball accelerates for some time initially and approaches the
ter minal velocity u0 according to relation u = u 0 = (1-e -t/T). For a typical terminal
velocity u0 = 3 cms –1, the time constant T = 0.003s. Thus, the duration of accelerated
motion is so small that one may not at all bother for it.
220
DEMONSTRATION 1
U N
NIT AME

by saying “wrong”. Two students can also record this data, if there
is sufficient time between successive readings, the second one taking
over the task of the third. With some practice and by keeping the
watch in the left hand close to the ball, even one student can record
the data and take it up as an individual activity.
By mixing water with glycerine in a suitable ratio one can make
adjust the speed of motion of the ball such that it is neither too
slow as to cause boredom to the class nor so fast that the data is
difficult to record.

d
(b) By using a burette

he
The above demonstration may also be performed by using a long
burette. It has its own scale too. However, it may be difficult for
students sitting at the back in the classroom to see the scale. Also,
the upper end is open, which implies that several balls of the same

pu T
is
size should be available. In fact, in the demonstration (a) above, the
upper end of the tube may be kept open, if several balls of the same
re R
size are available, since the most tricky part of it is to close the upper

bl
end leaving no air bubbles inside the tube.
E
The demonstration with the burette can also be made more effective
in the same manner as discussed above.
be C

Note:
1. In the class discussion following the demonstration of a steel
to N

ball falling down with uniformed speed, an important question


will be “what are the two balancing forces under which it moves
with uniform velocity?” One is the net weight of the ball acting
downwards due to which its speed increases in the beginning.
©

As its speed increases, the resistance of liquid, acting upwards,


to the motion increases till it balances the weight. Then
onwards, the ball acquires terminal velocity and the speed
remains nearly constant.
2. There are a number of situations in everyday life where an object
falls down with uniform velocity in exactly the same manner as
the ball in a liquid.
(a) When a paratrooper descends from an aeroplane with the
t

help of a parachute, resistance of air on the parachute often


no

balances her/his weight. In such an event she/he moves


vertically down with uniform speed, except for some
horizontal drift due to the wind (Fig. D 1.2).
(b) Many children play with a toy parachute which is first thrown
up. Then it moves down in exactly the same manner as the
paratrooper with a parachute.
(c) A shuttle cock, which is used in the game of badminton,
may be shot vertically upwards, when it comes down,
221
LABORATORY MANUAL
LABORA TORY MANUAL

d
he
pu T
is
re R
bl
E
be C
to N
©

Fig. D 1.2: Discent of a parachute is nearly uniform

players often see that it is moving down with uniform


downward speed (if there is no wind) after a small initial
period of increasing speed.
3. This demonstration may also be done by the apparatus used for
finding the viscosity of liquid by Stoke’s law. However, for
demonstrating uniform motion in a straight line, the
t

demonstration is easier and better by: (a) using a scale to read


no

the position of the ball, and (b) keeping the tube slightly inclined
towards the horizontal.

222
DEMONSTRATION
UNIT NAME

DEMONSTRATION 2

d
To demonstrate the nature of motion of a ball on an
inclined track

he
Make an inclined plane of about 50 cm length with 2 – 3 cm height at
the raised end. Alternately, one can use a double inclined track
apparatus and make the inclined plane by joining its two arms at the

pu T
is
base strip so that these form a single plane. Give it a low inclination
by raising one end of the base strip by about two cm with the help of
re R
a wooden block, or a book, etc. (Fig. D 2.1). Now let a metronome

bl
produce sound signals at intervals of ½ seconds. Keep the ball at the
E
higher end of one of the inclined planes. Release it at any signal (which
may be called 0th signal) and let students observe its position at 1st,
2nd, 3rd and 4th signals after the release. For this purpose, divide the
be C

class into four groups. Explain to them in advance, with the help of a
diagram on the blackboard, that group I will observe the 1st position
to N

of the ball, group II the 2nd position of the ball, and so on.
©

B′ A′

Fig. D 2.1: Motion of a ball on a double inclined plane

After the demonstration, there are as many observations for each


position of the ball as the number of students in each group. Let one
student in each group collect the observation in his/her group,
calculate the mean value and record it on the blackboard. Then it
can be shown that distances covered by the ball in successive intervals
t

of ½ second go on increasing by equal amounts when the ball roll


no

down the incline.


Note:
1. In the absence of a metronome, let a person tap on the table at a
steady pace which synchronises with extreme positions of the
pendulum of a clock, or a simple pendulum of 25 cm length on
a laboratory stand.
2. If a strobe-light is available, use it illuminate the ball moving
down the track. Then students can visually see successively
longer distances moved by the ball in equal intervals of time. 223
LABORATORY MANUAL
LABORA TORY MANUAL

DEMONSTRATION 3

d
To demonstrate that a centripetal force is necessary for moving
a body with a uniform speed along a circle, and that magnitude

he
of this force increases with angular speed
(a) Using a glass tube and slotted weights

pu T
Take a glass tube about 15 cm long and 10 mm outside diameter.

is
Make its ends smooth by heating them over a flame. Now pass a
re R
strong silk or nylon thread about 1.5 m long through the tube. At

bl
one end of the thread tie a packet of sand or a rubber stopper and
at the other a weight (W) (about three to 10 times the weight of the
E
sand/cork). First, demonstrate that on lifting the glass tube, the
weight stays on the table while the packet of sand or the stopper
be C

gets lifts up (Fig. D 3.1).


Now by holding the glass tube firmly in one hand and the weight (W)
to N

in the other, rotate the packet of sand in a horizontal circle. When the
speed of motion is sufficiently fast, the weight (W) can hang freely
without the support of your hand. Adjust the speed of rotation such
that the position of the weight (W) does not change. In this situation,
©

weight (W) provides the centripetal force necessary to keep the packet
or stopper moving along a circular path (Fig. D 3.2). If the speed of
motion is increased further, the weight (W) even moves up and vice
versa. Why?
t
no

Fig. D 3.1: The weight tied at the end passing


down the glass tube is much heavier
than the packet of sand
224
DEMONSTRATION 3
U N NIT AME

As a safety precaution, in this demonstration, Packet moving


the packet to be rotated in a horizontal circle in a horizontal
should be a packet of sand, or a packet of a circle
few fine lead shots, or a rubber stopper, etc.,
lest it breaks off and strikes someone. Again,
the glass tube should be wrapped with two Glass tube
layers of tape, lest it breaks and hurt the hand held in hand
of the person demonstrating the experiment.
(b) Using a roller and a turn table

d
If a turn table (as you might have seen in a Nylon thread
gramophone) or a potter’s wheel is available,

he
it can also be used to demonstrate centripetal
force. A small roller is placed on the turn Weight
table and its frame is attached to the control
peg by a rubber band (Fig. D 3.3). The roller Fig. D 3.2: On revolving the packet of

pu T
is
is free to roll radially towards or away from sand at a suitable speed,
the centre. The disc is set in motion first at the weight lifts off the table;
re R
the lowest speed of 16 revolution per minute. its weight is just enough to

bl
The stretching of the rubber band indicates provide the necessary
centripetal force
that a force acts outwards along the radius.
E
At higher speeds, 33 r.p.m., or 45 r.p.m., or 78 r.p.m., the stretching
of the rubber band could seen to be larger and larger, showing that
be C

greater and greater centripetal force comes into play. Note that as
the angular speed increases, the radius of circular motion of the
roller also increases due to elongation of the rubber band.
to N

Turn table
©

Central peg

Roller
Rubber band
t
no

Fig. D 3.3: Elongation of rubber band indicates


that it is exerting a centripetal force
on the roller

225
LABORATORY MANUAL
LABORA TORY MANUAL

DEMONSTRATION 4

d
To demonstrate the principle of centrifuge

he
Bend a glass tube (about 10 to 15 mm diameter) slightly at its middle
to make an angle of, say, 160°. Fill it with coloured water leaving an
air bubble in it and then close its both ends with rubber stoppers.

pu T
is
Now mount it on the turn-table with both its arms inclined to
horizontal say, at, 10° while keeping the turn-table horizontal. The
re R
lowest portion of the tube in the middle is attached to the central peg

bl
of the turn-table (Fig. D 4.1). The air bubble then stays at the top of
one or both the arms of the glass tube.
E
be C
to N
©

Fig. D 4.1: A bent glass tube filled with a liquid but having an air bubble
attached to the central peg of turn table at its middle

Now rotate the turn-table and increase its speed in steps, 16 r.p.m.,
t

then 33 r.p.m., then 45 r.p.m. and then 78 r.p.m. As the speed of


no

rotation increases, draw attention that the air bubble is moving


towards the centre, the lowest part of the tube.
The rotating turn-table is an accelerated frame of reference. At every
point on it, the acceleration is directed towards the centre. Thus, an
object at rest in this frame of reference experiences an outward force.
Every molecule of water in the tube experiences this force, just like
the force of gravitation. Under the action of this force, denser matter
moves outwards and the less dense inwards.

226
DEMONSTRATION
UNIT NAME

DEMONSTRATION 5

d
To demonstrate interconversion of potential and kinetic energy

he
Interconversion of kinetic and potential energies may be easily
demonstrated by Maxwell’s Wheel (Fig. D 5.1). It consists of a wheel
rigidly fixed on a long axle passing through its centre. It is suspended

pu T
is
by two threads of equal length, tied to the axle on two sides of the
wheel. In the lowest position of the wheel, separation between the
re R
lower ends of the two threads is slightly more than that between

bl
them at the supporting at the
top.
E
To set it in action the wheel is
be C

rotated and moved up so that


both threads wind up on the Thread
axle. As the wheel moves up, it
to N

gains some potential energy. On Thread


releasing, it moves down and its Axle
P.E. is converted to K.E. of
rotation of the wheel. At its
©

Wheel
lowest position when all the
length of the two threads has
unwound, all the energy of the
wheel is kinetic due to which the
threads start winding up in the
opposite direction.
Thus, the wheel starts moving
upwards, converting its K.E.
into P.E.
t
no

Fig. D 5.1: The Maxwell’s wheel

Note: In order to ensure that loss of energy in successive up and


down motions of the wheel be small, the threads should be
quite flexible, inextensible and identical to each other.

227
LABORATORY MANUAL
LABORA TORY MANUAL

DEMONSTRATION 6

d
To demonstrate conservation of momentum

he
The law of conservation of momentum can be demonstrated using
two bifilar pendulums of the same length using bobs of different
materials (Fig. D 6.1). The time period T for both pendulums is the

pu T
is
same. Initially the two bobs A and B touch each other in their rest
position. Also the suspension fibres of A and B are parallel to each
re R
other in their rest positions.

bl
The bob A is displaced with the
E
help of a wooden strip and allowed
to touch the reference peg C and
be C

thus given a displacement, a,


which is noted with the scale. The
strip is then quickly removed, so
to N

that bob A moves smoothly


towards the rest position and
collides with the bob B. The
maximum displacement a′ and b ′
©

of the bobs A and B respectively C AB


after collision are noted
simultaneously. On the right hand
side of B, a rider is put on the scale,
which is pushed by the ball B, as Fig. D 6.1: The bifilar pendulums
it undergoes the displacement b ′.
Then reading the displacement of A directly and of B from the
displaced position of the rider becomes easier.
The masses mA and mB of the bobs are measured. The velocities of the
t

bobs, just before and just after the collision are proportional to their
no

displacements, since the time period, T, for both the pendulums is


equal and the velocity of a simple pendulum in its central position is
equal to (amplitude × 2π/T). Therefore, the equality of total momentum
of the two bobs before and after their collision implies
m A a = mA a′ + mB b′
Having measured a, a′ and b ′, the above equality can be checked up
(a′ and b′ are the displacements’ after the impact).

228
DEMONSTRATION
UNIT NAME

DEMONSTRATION 7

d
To demonstrate the effect of angle of launch on range of a
projectile

he
The variation in the range of a projectile with the angle of launch can
be demonstrated using a ballistic pistol or toy-gun and mounting it
suitably so that the angle of launch can be varied. While mounting

pu T
is
the gun care must be taken to see that the axis of the gun passes
through the centre of the circle graduated in degrees (Fig. D 7.1). If a
re R
toy-gun is used, whose maximum range is more than the length of

bl
the classroom, then this demonstration may be done in an open
E
area such as the school play ground.

Plumb-line
be C
to N

Clamp
©

90°

180°
Holes for
270° fixing the
clamp

Circular
protector
Wooden
circular disc
rigidly fixed
vertically
t
no

Fig. D 7.1: A set up to study the range of a


projectile fired with a toy pistol

As the gun is fired at different angles ranging between 0° and 90°,


the corresponding ranges are measured with care. A graph for the
angle of projection versus the range may be drawn.
Alternately one can also study the range of water jet projected at
different angles provided it is assured that water will be released at
same pressure.
229
LABORATORY MANUAL
LABORA TORY MANUAL

DEMONSTRATION 8

d
To demonstrate that the moment of inertia of a rod changes with
the change of position of a pair of equal weights attached to the rod

he
Take a glass rod and hang it horizontally from its centre of gravity with
the help of a light, thin wire. Take two lumps of equal mass of plasticine,

pu T
is
roll both of them separately to get discs of same size and uniform
thickness. Now attach them near the two ends of the rod (like rings) so
re R
that the rod is again horizontal [Fig. D 8.1(a)]. Make sure that the

bl
plasticine cylinders easily move along the rod. Give a small angular
displacement to the rod and note the time for 10 oscillations. Find the
E
time period for one oscillation. Now, move the rings of plasticine by
equal distances towards the centre of the rod so that it remains
be C

horizontal [Fig. D 8.1(b)]. Give a small displacement to the rod and


again note the time period for 10 oscillations. Find the time period for
one oscillation. Are the two time periods the same or different? If you
to N
©

Copper wire
Glass rod C.G.

Nut near Nut closer


the ends to centre
t
no

(a) (b)

Fig. D 8.1: Setup to demonstrate that total mass remaining constant, the
moment of inertia depends upon distribution of mass. Here
nuts have replaced the plasticine balls: (a) the movable mass
are far apart, (b) the masses are closer to the C.G. of the rod
230
DEMONSTRATION 8
U N
NIT AME

find that the time periods in both the situations are different, it shows
that the moment of inertia changes with the distribution of the mass
of a body even if the total mass remains the same.
An important caution for a convincing demonstration is that the
point where a thin metal wire is attached to the glass rod (the point
about which the glass rod makes rotatory oscillations) should remain
fixed. The metal wire should be so tied that the rod hangs horizontally
from it. It ensures that the axis of rotation passes through its C.G.
The wire can be fixed tightly by using a strong adhesive. Therefore,

d
the position of plasticine discs have to be adjusted so that the glass
rod hangs horizontally.

he
pu T
is
re R
bl
E
be C
to N

no

231
DEMONSTRATION 9

d
To demonstrate the shape of capillary rise in a wedge-shaped gap
between two glass sheets

he
You would require two plane glass
slides, a thick rubber band, a match

pu T
is
Water level Match stick stick, a petri-dish, some potassium
between the slides permanganate granules and a felt-tip
re R
Glass slides

bl
Rubber band glass marking pen.
Coloured water
Clean the two slides and the petri-dish
E
thoroughly with soap and water and
rinse with distilled water. Ensure that
be C

no soap film remains on them. Fill the


dish about half with distilled water
to N

coloured by potassium permangnate.


Tie one end of the pair of slides together
Petri-dish with a rubber band and put a match
©

Fig. D 9.1: Capillary rise of water is higher at the end stick between their free ends (Fig. D 9.1).
tied by rubber band in the wedge-shaped Dip this arrangement in the coloured
gap between the glass slides water in the petri-dish. Water rises more
at the tied end as compared to that at
the match stick end because the
separation between the glass slides
increases linearly from the tied end to
Capillary Water the match stick end.
tubes levels Coloured
water Note
t

Petri-dish
no

1. The same effect could be


demonstrated by using a number
of capillary tubes of different
diameters arranged side by side in
increasing order of diameter, as
shown in Fig. D 9.2.

Fig. D 9.2: Rise of water in capillary tubes of different 2. Students may take up this
diameters experiment as an activity or
project work.
DEMONSTRATION 10

d
To demonstrate affect of atmospheric pressure by making partial
vacuum by condensing steam

he
To perform this demonstration you will need a round-bottom flask,
a glass tubing, a cork, cork borer, a long piece of pressure rubber

pu T
is
tube just fitting the glass tubing, a pinch cock, burner, tripot stand,
laboratory stand with a clamp and large water container.
re R
bl
Take some water in a round bottom flask. Close its mouth tightly
with a rubber cork, in which a short glass tube is fitted. Attach a
E
pressure rubber tube, about 1.5 m long, in the open end of the glass
tube. Heat the water, as shown in Fig. D 10.1(a). The steam produced
be C

in the flask expels the air from the flask, the glass tube and the
rubber tube. Stop heating after some time and tightly close the mouth
of the rubber tube with a pinch cock immediately.
to N

Invert the flask and clamp it as high as possible in a tall stand placed
on the table [Fig. D 10.1(b)]. Dip the free end of the rubber tube in
coloured water kept in the large container on the ground and release
©

the pinch cock. As the flask cools, water from the container rushes
through the glass tube into the flask. The students will naturally

Rubber tube

Short glass tube


Rubber cork
t

Water
no

Fig. D 10.1 (a): On heating the water in flask,


steam drives air out fr om it
LABORATORY MANUAL
LABORA TORY MANUAL

d
he
pu T
is
re R
bl
E
be C
to N

Fig. D 10.1 (b): Atmospheric pressure pushes coloured water up


into the flask as steam in the flask condenses

become curious to know the reason why water rises through the height.
©

It may be explained in terms of difference in pressure of air on the


surface of the water in the container and inside the flask.
Note
To make this experiment more spectacular, a student may climb
on the table and raise the stand by another 2 m. Then the pressure
rubber tube may also have to be longer.
t
no

234
DEMONSTRATION
UNIT NAME

DEMONSTRATION 11

d
To study variation of volume of a gas with its pressure at constant
temperature with a doctor’s syringe

he
This demonstration can be given with the help of a large (50 mL or
more) doctor’s syringe (disposable type), laboratory stand, grease or

pu T
is
thick lubricating oil, 200 gram to 1 kg weights which fit over one
another, cycle value-tube, rubber band, a wooden block and a
re R
laboratory stand.

bl
Make the piston in the syringe air tight by applying a drop of thick
E
lubricating oil or grease into the syringe. Draw out the piston in the
syringe so that the volume of air enclosed by it is equal to its full
be C

capacity. Next close the outlet tube of the syringe by fixing a piece of
cycle value-tube on it and folding the valve-tube. Hold the syringe
vertically with a laboratory stand with its base resting on a wooden
to N

block (Fig. D 11.1).


Press the piston downward with the hand to compress the air inside.
Release the piston and observe, whether the air inside regains its
©

initial volume by pushing the piston up. Since, the friction between
the piston and the inner surface of the syringe is quite large, both

Piston

40
t

35
no

Compressed air 25
20
15
Rubber or Graduated
10
cloth pad 5
outer body
0 of syringe
Wooden block Cycle valve
tube

Fig. D 11.1: The load is kept on the piston of the syringe to apply
the force of its weight along the axis of the piston 235
LABORATORY MANUAL
LABORA TORY MANUAL

being of plastic, the air inside is unable to push the piston upto its
original position. When the piston comes to rest, the thrust of
atmospheric pressure plus limiting friction is acting on it downwards.
Note the volume of enclosed air in this position of the piston.
Next, pull the piston up a little and release. Again it does not reach
quite upto its original position. This time the thrust of atmospheric
pressure minus limiting friction is acting on it downwards. Note this

d
volume of air also and check that the mean of the two volumes so
measured is equal to the original volume of air at atmospheric pressure.

he
Now balance a 1 kg weight on the handle of the piston. Note the two
volumes of enclosed air, (i) piston slowly moving up and coming to
rest, and (ii) piston slowly moving down and coming to rest and find

pu T
their mean. In this manner note volume, V, of air for at least two

is
different loads, say 1 kg and 1.8 kg, balanced turn by turn on the
re R
piston. Check up, in the end that volume for no load is same as that

bl
at the beginning to ensure that no air leaks out during the experiment.
Draw a graph between 1/V and load W for the three observations,
E
W = 0 kg, 1 kg and 1.8 kg if a graph black-board is available.
Alternately, it may be given as an assignment to students.
be C
t to N
©
no

236
DEMONSTRATION
UNIT NAME

DEMONSTRATION 12

d
To demonstrate Bernoulli’s theorem with simple illustrations

he
(a) Suspend two simple pendulums from a horizontal rod clamped
to a laboratory stand (Fig. D 12.1). Use paper balls or table tennis
balls as bobs. Their bobs should be close to each other and at

pu T
the same height but not touching each

is
other. Ask the students what would
happen if you strongly blow into the
re R
bl
space between the bobs. A person/
student not thinking in terms of
E
Bernoulli’s theorem would conclude that
air pushed into this space will push the
be C

bobs away from each other. Now blow air


between the two bobs suspended close
to each other and ask them to observe
to N

what happens. The speed of air passing


between them gets increased due to less
space available and so the pressure there,
gets decreased. Thus, the pressure of air
©

on their outer faces of the bobs pushes Fig. D 12.1


them closer. That is why one observes
the bobs to actually move closer.

(b) Place a sheet of paper supported by


two books in the form of a bridge.
Let the books be slightly converging
(Fig. D 12.2) i.e., their separation is larger
on the side facing you. Now, you blow
t

under the `bridge’, the paper `bridge’ is


no

pushed down.

(c) Hold the shorter edge of a sheet of paper


horizontally, so that its length curves
down by its weight [Fig. D 12.3(a)]. If you
press down lightly on the horizontal part
of the curve with your finger the paper Fig. D 12.2
curves down more. Now, instead of
touching with the hand hold the horizontal edge of the sheet of
paper close to your mouth. Blow over the paper along the
horizontal. Does the hanging sheet of paper get pushed down or 237
LABORATORY MANUAL
LABORA TORY MANUAL

Sheet of
Paper Blown Air

d
he
Fig. D 12.3 (a) Fig. D 12.3 (b)

lifts up [Fig. D 12.3(b)]? The curved shape of paper makes the

pu T tubes of flow of the wind narrower as the wind moves ahead as

is
shown in [Fig. D 12.3(c)]. Thereby its speed increases and pressure
on the upper side of the paper decreases.
re R
bl (d) Fill coloured water in an insecticide/pesticide spray
pump. Spray the water on a white sheet of paper.
E
Coloured drops deposit on the paper. It is evident
that water from the tank rises up in the tube
be C

attached to it and is then forced ahead in the form


of tiny droplets. But what makes it rise up in the
tube? As the pump forces air out of a fine hole, the
to N

speed of air in the region immediately above the


open end of the tube in the tank becomes high
(Fig. D 12.4). Thus, the pressure of air in the region
©

is lower than the surrounding still air (which is equal


to atmospheric pressure). Right in this region, just below
Fig. D 12.3 (c) the hole in the pump is the upper end of the fine tube
through which water rises up, due to atmospheric
pressure acting on the surface of water outside the tube.
t
no

Fig. D 12.4

238
DEMONSTRATION 12
UNIT NAME

(e) Fig. D 12.5 shows the construction of a Bunsen burner. The fuel
gas issues out of the jet J in the centre of the vertical tube. Due
to the high speed of gas, its pressure gets lowered. So, through a
wide opening in the side of the vertical tube air rushes in, mixes
up with fuel gas and the gas burns with a hot and blue flame. If
the air does not get mixed with fuel gas at this stage and comes
into contact with it only at the flame level, the flame will be
bright yellow-orange like that of a candle, due to incomplete
combustion of the gas which gives off comparatively less heat
than when it burns with a blue flame.

d
he
pu T
is
re R
bl
E
be C
to N
©

Fig. D 12.5
t
no

239
LABORATORY MANUAL
LABORA TORY MANUAL

DEMONSTRATION 13

d
To demonstrate the expansion of a metal wire on heating

he
Stretch a length of any metal wire firmly between two laboratory
stands, which are fixed rigidly on the table by G-clamps (Fig. D 13.1).
Suspend a small weight at the centre of the wire and stretch the wire

pu T
is
as tightly as possible, without significantly bending the iron stands.
However, the wire cannot be made straight and some sagging is
re R
inevitable due to the weight suspended at the centre. Place a pointer

bl
on the hind side of the upper edge of the weight to serve as reference.
E
Heat the wire along its entire length by a spirit lamp or a candle. The
wire is seen to sag more and the weight moves down. Remove the
be C

flame to let the wire cool. As the wire gradually cools, the weight
ascends to its original position.
to N

Wire
©

Pointer

Small
weight
t
no

Fig. D 13.1: A taut wire sags on heating due to its thermal expansion

Note:
The wire can also be heated electrically, if so desired. Use a step-down
transformer which gives various voltages in steps from 2 volt to 12
volt. The advantage is that heating of the wire for a certain voltage
applied across it will be uniform along its whole length and the
observed sagging by this heating will be repeatable.
240
DEMONSTRATION
UNIT NAME

DEMONSTRATION 14

d
To demonstrate that heat capacities of equal masses of
aluminium, iron, copper and lead are different

he
This demonstration can be performed with
four cylinders of aluminium, iron, copper

pu T
is
and lead having equal mass and cross-
sectional area, a rectangular blocks of
re R
paraffin wax, beaker/metallic vessel,

bl
thread, water and a heating device.
E
Since the four solid cylinders are having
equal mass and equal cross-sectional
be C

a rea, their lengths are inversely


proportional to their densities. Take
water in a beaker or a metallic vessel and
to N

boil it. Suspend the four cylinders, tied


with threads, fully inside boiling water
(cautiously, if a beaker is being used).
After a few minutes all have attained
©

the temperature of boiling water


[Fig. D 14.1(a)].
(a)
Take out the cylinders in quick
succession and place them side by
side on a thick block of paraffin wax
[Fig. D 14.1(b)]. The cylinders sink to
different depths in the paraffin wax. They
all cool from temperature of boiling water
to melting point of wax during the process
t

of sinking. Although all the cylinders have


no

the same mass, but the amount of heat


they give out are different.
An alternative (and more convenient to do) (b)
method is to have a wooden board with
semi cylindrical grooves resting against a Fig. D 14.1: Qualitative comparison of
block. Equal length of each groove is heat capacities of different
metals
initially filled with wax. Hot cylinders are
placed on this wax in the grooves, instead
of on the wax block. 241
LABORATORY MANUAL
LABORA TORY MANUAL

Note
A substantial portion of heat given out by each cylinder is
radiated into the atmosphere. Moreover, they radiate at
different rates because of the difference in their surface areas.
Therefore, by this experiment we only get a qualitative
comparison of the heat capacities of these solids.

d
he
pu T
is
re R
bl
E
be C
t to N
©
no

242
DEMONSTRATION
UNIT NAME

DEMONSTRATION 15

d
To demonstrate free oscillations of different vibrating systems

he
A number of demonstrations involving vibrating systems are
presented through (a) to (j). Demonstrate as many vibrating systems
as possible and discuss the following in each case:

pu T
is
(i) What are the energy changes that occur during vibrations?
re R
(ii) How can the frequency of vibration be altered?

bl
(iii) Can the damping of the system be reduced? If so, how?
E
(iv) How does the force acting on the oscillating body vary with
its displacement from the
be C

mean position?
(a) Simple pendulum: Make a
to N

rather long and heavy simple


pendulum following the steps
described in Experiment 6. One
©

may tie a brick or a 1kg weight


at one end of a strong thread
about 1.5 m in length. Suspend
the pendulum from a stand
having a heavy base so that it
does not topple over. The base
can be made heavy by putting
a heavy load on it, say a few
bricks. Alternatively, the stand
may be clamped on the table
t

with a G-clamp. The vertical rod


no

of the stand may be further


supported by tying it to three
G-clamps fixed on the table
(Fig. D 15.1). A sturdy stand will
Fig. D 15.1: Set up to study oscillations
help in keeping the pendulum
of a heavy pendulum
oscillating for quite a long time
with very small damping.

(b) Vibrating hacksaw blade: Clamp a hacksaw blade (or a thin metal
strip) with its flat surface horizontal at the edge of the table by a
243
LABORATORY MANUAL
LABORA TORY MANUAL

G-clamp (Fig. D 15.2). Load the free end by


about 20 g of plasticine or by putting a 20 g
weight on the flat free end and fastening it to
the blade with a thread. Let the free end of the
blade vibrate up and down. Repeat the
demonstration with a smaller load and then
with no load on the blade. Compare the
oscillations with different loads.
(c) Oscillating liquid column: Fix a U-tube of
large diameter (about 2cm) on a stand with

d
Fig. D 15.2: A hacksaw blade clamped at its arms vertical. Fill liquid of low viscosity
one end vibrates up and down
e.g., water or kerosene or methylated spirit

he
in it. Let the liquid column oscillate up and
down in the tube (Fig. D 15.3). For this
purpose blow repeatedly into one arm of

pu T the U-tube with your mouth as soon as

is
the liquid column in the arm you are
re R
blowing attains maximum height so as to

bl
generate a small air pressure in it each
time so as to oscillate the liquid column
E
by resonance. Another method is to slightly
tilt the stand to one side repeatedly, with
be C

the U-tube fixed on it so as to oscillate the


liquid column by resonance.
to N

A low cost U-tube can be improvised with


two straight tubes of about 3.5 cm to 4 cm
Fig. D 15.3: Set up to demonstrate oscillations diameter and each of length about 50 cm. Fix
of liquid column in a U-tube the tubes vertically on a wooden board about
©

20 cm to 30 cm apart. Join their lower ends


with a piece of a rubber tube, or a piece of hose
pipe made of plastic. A plastic hose pipe is better
because it bends to the U-shape easily. Fill this U-tube with
coloured water upto about 10 cm below the two open ends.
Oscillate the liquid in the tube by either of the two methods
described above.
(d) Helical spring : Attach a suitable mass, say 1kg, at one end of a
t

helical spring (Fig. D 15.4). Suspend the spring vertically. Pull


no

the weight down through a small distance and let it go. Observe
and study the vertical oscillations of the mass suspended by the
lower end of the spring.
(e) Oscillations of a floating test-tube : Take a test tube and fill at its
Fig. D 15.4: A load attached bottom about 10 g of lead shots or iron filings or sand. Float the
to the lower end of a helical tube in water and adjust the load (lead shots or iron filings or
spring oscillates up and down sand) in the tube till it floats vertically. Keeping the tube vertical
push it a little downwards and release it so that it begins to
oscillates up and down on the surface of the water (Fig. D 15.5).
244
DEMONSTRATION 15
UNIT NAME

(f) Oscillations of a ball along a curve : Take about


30 cm length of aluminium curtain channel
and bend it into an arc of a circle. Put it on a
table and provide it proper support by two
rectangular pieces of thick card board or
Lead shots
plywood to keep it standing in a vertical plane.
Let a ball–bearing or a glass marble oscillate
in its groove (Fig. D 15.6). Alternatively place
a concave mirror (10 cm or 15 cm aperture)
or a bowl or a karahi on a table with its
Fig. D 15.5: A test tube floating

d
concave side facing up. Let a ball bearing or a in vertical position
glass marble oscillate in it along an arc passing due to a load in it,

he
through its lowest point as shown by point P oscillates up and
in Fig. D 15.6. down, when it is
pushed a little and
(g) Oscillations of a ball on the double inclined then released

pu T
track: Adjust a double inclined

is
track on a table with its arms
re R
equally inclined to the horizontal

bl
(Fig. D 15.7). Release a steel ball–
bearing (2.5 cm diameter) from
E
the upper end of one of the arms
and let it oscillate to and fro
be C

between the two arms of the


double inclined plane.
Fig. D 15.6: Arrangement to demonstrate the
to N

(h) Oscillations of a trolley held to-and-fro motion of a steel ball in


between two springs on a table: a channel in the for m of an arc of
Take a trolley and attach two a circle
identical helical springs at each of
©

its ends such that the springs are along a straight line. Place the
trolley on a table and fix the free ends of the springs to two rigid
supports on opposite ends of the table so that the springs are
under tension along the same straight line [Fig. D 15.8(a)].
Displace the trolley slightly to
one side keeping both springs
under tension. Release the Enlarge view of
trolley and observe its to and central curved part
fro motion along the length of
t

the springs. Find the time


no

period of oscillations and also


make a note of damping.
(i) Oscillations of a trolley
attached to a spring: Remove
Fig. D 15.7: Arrangement to demonstrate the to-
one of the springs from the set and-fr o motion of a ball along a
up arranged for demonstration double inclined track
(h) shown in Fig D 15.8 (a).
Displace the trolley to one side and release it. Compare the time
period of oscillations affect of damping with the earlier case.
245
LABORATORY MANUAL
LABORA TORY MANUAL

(a)

d
he
pu T
is
re R
Wheels not

bl
touching
the table
E
(b)
be C

Fig. D 15.8: (a) Set up for demonstrating the to-and-fro motion


of a trolley held between two identical springs
to N

(b) Arrangement to demonstrate the to-and-fro motion


of a trolley suspended from a high support while it is
held between two springs on either side
©

(j) Oscillations of a trolley suspended from a point and held between


two springs: Set up the trolley with two springs on a table as
described in demonstration (h) above. Attach an inflexible string
to the trolley as shown in Fig. D 15.8(b). Fix the other end of the
string to a stand kept on a stool placed on the table or to a hook
on the ceiling such that the trolley remains suspended just above
the table. Set the trolley in oscillation by displacing it slightly to
one side. Study how the time period of oscillations and damping
get affected as compared to the case when the trolley was placed
t

on the table, as in demonstration (h).


no

246
DEMONSTRATION
UNIT NAME

DEMONSTRATION 16

d
To demonstrate resonance with a set of coupled pendulums

he
Take two iron stands and keep them on the table at about 40 cm
from each other. Tie a half metre scale (or still better a straight strip
of wood about 1.5 cm wide) between them so that it is horizontal

pu T
is
with its face vertical and free to rotate about its upper edge
(Fig. D 16.1). Near one edge of the scale suspend a pendulum with a
re R
heavy bob (say, approximately 200 g). Also suspend four or five

bl
pendulums of different lenghts with bobs of relatively lower masses.
However, one of them should be exactly of the same length as the
E
one with the heavy bob, as described.
be C
to N
©

Fig. D 16.1: A set up to demonstrate resonance


t

Let all the pendulums come to a rest after setting up the arrangement
no

described above. Gently pull the bob of the heavy pendulum and
release it so that it starts oscillating. Make sure that other pendulums
are not disturbed in the process. Observe the motion of other
pendulums. Which of the pendulums oscillates with the same
frequency as that of the heavy pendulum? How does the amplitude
of vibrations of different pendulums differ?

247
LABORATORY MANUAL
LABORA TORY MANUAL

DEMONSTRATION 17

d
To demonstrate damping of a pendulum due to resistance
of the medium

he
(a) Damping of two pendulums of equal mass due to air: Set up two
simple pendulums of equal length. The bob of one should be small

pu T
is
in size say made of solid brass. The bob of the other should be of
the same mass but larger in size — either of a lighter material like
re R
thermocole or a hollow sphere. Give them the same initial

bl
displacement and release simultaneously. Observe that in the
pendulum with the larger bob the amplitude decreases more
E
rapidly. Due to its larger area, air offers more resistance to its
motion. Though both pendulums had the same energy to start
be C

with, the larger bob looses more energy in each oscillation.


(b) Alternative demonstration by comparing damping due to air and
to N

water: Set up a simple pendulum about half metre long with a


metal bob of 25 mm or more diameter. In its vertical position the
bob should be about 4 cm to 5 cm above the table. First, let the
pendulum oscillate in air and observe its damping. Now place a
©

trough below the bob containing water just enough to immerse


the bob in water. Let the pendulum oscillate with the bob immersed
in water and note the effect of changing the medium on damping.
t
no

248
DEMONSTRATION
UNIT NAME

DEMONSTRATION 18

d
To demonstrate longitudinal and transverse waves

he
A few characteristic properties of
transverse and longitudinal waves can
be demonstrated with the help of a

pu T
is
slinky, which is a soft spring made of a
thin flat strip of steel (about 150 to 200
re R
turns) having a diameter of about 6 cm

bl
and width 8 cm to 10 cm. Nowadays
slinky shaped spirings made of plastics
E
are also available. Let two students hold
each end of the slinky and stretch it to
be C

its full length (at least 5 metres) on a


smooth floor. Give a sharp transverse
jerk at one end and let the student
to N

observe the pulse as it moves along the


spring [Fig. D 18.1(a)].
Find the speed of the pulse by
©

measuring the time taken by it to move (a)


from one end to the other along the
stretched length of the spring. For more Fig. D 18.1(a): Motion of a pulse through a
accuracy, instead of measuring time slinky
taken by the pulse to move from one
end to the other, measure the time taken by it to make three to four
journeys along the entire length of the spring. This would be possible
because each pulse moves back and forth along the spring a few
times before it dies.
t

Repeat the experiment by decreasing


no

the tension in the spring (by stretching


it to a smaller length) and find the speed
(b)
of the pulse. Does the speed depend on
tension? Fig. D 18.1(b): A compression moving along
the length of a slinky
The slinky can also be used to
demonstrate propagation of longitudinal waves. To do so, give a
longitudinal jerk at one end of the slinky, keeping the slinkly
stretched on the floor to about half the length (2.5 m) than while
demonstrating movement of a transverse pulse [Fig. D 18.1(b)]. Ask 249
LABORATORY MANUAL
LABORA TORY MANUAL

the students to observe the motion of the pulse in the form of


compression of the spring.
The damping may be too high if the floor is not very smooth. In that
case the experiment may be performed by suspending the slinky from
a steel wire stretched between two pegs firmly fixed on opposite walls
of the room. In order to minimise the effect of sagging of the spring in
the middle, support the spring by tying it to the wire with pieces of
thread spaced at about 25 cm from each other. All pieces of thread
must be equal in length.

d
The transverse waves may also be demonstrated with the help of a

he
flexible clothes line or a rubber tubing or a rope instead of a slinky.
Tie one end of the rubber tubing or the clothes line to the knob of a
door and give it a jerk at the other end while keeping it stretched. If
the rubber tube is heavy (fill water in it) and is held loosely, the pulse

pu T
is
would move slowly to make better observation.
Instead of a single pulse, a series of pulses one after the other creating
re R
bl
an impression of a continuous wave propagation may also be
demonstrated. This can be done by using a slinky or a flexible clothes
E
line. Stretch the slinky on the ground and ask one of the students to
hold one end firmly. Instead of giving just one jerk at the other end,
move the hand to and fro continuously to make waves of wavelength
be C

about 0.5m which can be seen to move continuously along the spring.
t to N
©
no

250
DEMONSTRATION
UNIT NAME

DEMONSTRATION 19

d
To demonstrate reflection and transmission of waves at the

he
boundary of two media

Stretch the slinky on a smooth floor

pu T
or suspend it from a stretched steel

is
wire as described in Demonstration
re R
18.1. Keeping one end fixed, send a

bl
pulse from the other end. Note the
size and direction of displacement of
E
pulse before and after it gets reflected
at the fixed end. Note that the
be C

reflected pulse is upside down with


little change in its size in comparison
to N

to the incident pulse [Fig. D 19.1(a)].

Next join the coil spring (slinky) with


another long helical spring of heavier
©

mass end to end [Fig. D 19.1(b)].


Stretch them by holding the free end
of each spring and produce a pulse
at the free end of the lighter spring
(slinky). Observe what happens when
(a)
the pulse arrives at the joint of two
springs. In what way (i.e., with Fig. D 19.1 (a): A pulse reflected at a fixed end
respect to size and direction of undergoes phase change of π
t

displacement) does the reflected


no

pulse undergo a change? Does the


pulse transmitted to the heavier spring also undergo any change?

Repeat the demonstration by sending the pulse from the end of the
heavier spring. Note how the reflected and transmitted pulse undergo
a change at the boundary of the two springs as compared to the
incident pulse [Fig. D 19.1(c)].

How do these changes differ from those in case of incident pulse


going from lighter to heavier spring?
251
LABORATORY MANUAL
LABORA TORY MANUAL

d
he
pu T
is
re R
bl
E
be C
to N

Fig. D 19.1 (b): Reflection and transmission Fig. D 19.1 (c): Reflection and transmission of
©

of a pulse moving from a pulse moving from a denser


a rarer medium to a medium to a rarer medium
denser medium

Now join the slinky (coil spring) to a fine thread instead of a heavier
spring. Stretch the spring and the thread and produce a pulse at the
free end of the spring. Note what happens to the pulse at the boundary
of the spring and the thread.
t
no

252
DEMONSTRATION
UNIT NAME

DEMONSTRATION 20

d
To d e m o n s t r a t e t h e p h e n o m e n o n o f b e a t s d u e t o
superposition of waves produced by two tuning forks of

he
slightly different frequencies

Take two tuning forks of identical frequency. Attach a small piece of

pu T
is
plasticine or wax to the prongs of one of the tuning forks. This will
slightly lower the frequency of the tuning fork. Now holding them
re R
one in each hand strike both the tuning forks simultaneously on two

bl
rubber pads. Place them close to each other.
E
Carefully listen to the combined sound produced by the two tuning
forks. Gradual increase and decrease in the intensity of sound will
be C

be heard. It is due to beats produced by the superposition of waves


of slightly different frequencies. You can also count the number of
beats produced per second if their frequency does not exceed two or
to N

three beats per second. The person who is listening to the beats,
gives a silent signal at each minimum intensity or maximum intensity,
e.g., by shaking his head in the manner we say ‘yes’. Then a second
person with a stop-watch, either finds the time taken by 10 beats or
©

counts the number of beats in 5 seconds. The person with the stop-
watch will also listen to the beats, though less loudly and may measure
the frequency without the aid of a signal by the first person.
If two tall tuning forks of the same frequency mounted on resonating
wooden boxes are available, all the students in a classroom may be
able to listen to the beats. Place them on a desk in the centre of the
classroom. Let there be pin-drop silence in the classroom. Then strike
the tuning forks with a rubber hammer in quick succession, with
roughly equal force. Make their frequencies slightly different by
t

loading one with plasticine or wax or by tightly attaching a small


no

load with adhesive tape. Both tuning forks must be of rather good
quality and must give audible sound for about 8 to 10 seconds in
spite of dissipation of energy in the resonating box.

253
LABORATORY MANUAL
LABORA TORY MANUAL

DEMONSTRATION 21

d
To demonstrate standing waves with a spring

he
Stretch the wire spring (heavier one and not the slinky) to a length of
6 m to 7 m, by tying its one end to a door handle. It may sag in the
middle but that will not affect the demonstration. Give a transverse

pu T
horizontal jerk at the free end, a pulse will travel along the spring,

is
and get reflected back and forth. If instead of stretching the spring in
air it is stretched along the ground, then due to large damping, the
re R
bl
results will not be so clear and convincing.
Now generate a continuous transverse wave in the spring by giving
E
series of jerks to the spring at fixed time intervals. Change the
frequency of the waves by changing the time period of oscillating your
be C

hand till stationary waves are set up. You will find that stationary
waves are produced only when an integral number of loops, i.e., 1,2,3
etc. are accommodated in the entire length of the spring. In other
to N

words, stationary waves are produced corresponding to only some


definite time periods.
Ask one of the students to measure the time period of standing waves
©

when one loop, two loops, three loops, and so on are formed in a
given length of stretched spring. For the same extension of the spring,
and thus for the same tension in the spring, how are the time periods
of stationary waves of one loop, two loops, and three loops related to
each other?
While producing stationary waves, suddenly stop moving your hand
to and fro and thus stop supplying energy to the spring. This is best
done by taking the help of a stool on which your hand rests while
t

producing the waves as well as when you stop your hand. Observe
no

that the spring continues to vibrate for some time with the same time
period and the same number of loops. Thus, it can be demonstrated
that the stretched spring is capable of making free oscillations in
several modes—with one loop, two loops, three loops, etc. The various
time periods with which you can produce stationary waves in it, are
also the natural time periods of the spring.
Thus, when you are producing and observing stationary waves in the
stretched spring, you can consider it as a resonance phenomenon.
However, in this case, the object being subjected to forced oscillations
254 (i.e., the stretched spring), is capable of oscillating freely with one of
DEMONSTRATION 21
UNIT NAME

the several time periods, unlike the simple pendulums with which
you experimented earlier to study the phenomenon of resonance.
One can also demonstrate stationary waves with a spring when its
both ends are free to move. Tie a thread, 3 – 4 m in length, at one
end of the spring. Tie other end of the thread to a hook on the wall or
a door handle. Stretch the spring by holding it at its free end and
send a continuous transverse wave in the spring by moving the end
in your hand. Do you observe that the stationary waves now produced
are somewhat different than those produced when one end of the

d
spring was fixed. Note the difference in the pattern of stationary
waves in the two situations and discuss the reason for the difference.

he
Also ask to note the number of loops produced when a stationary
wave is set in the spring.
Change the time period of the wave by adjusting to and fro motion of

pu T
is
your hand to produce ½ loop, 1½ loop, 2½ loop and so on for same
extension of the spring.
re R
bl
How are these time periods related to the various time periods of
vibration when the end not in your hand was kept fixed and extension
E
of the spring was the same?
Note
be C

Mathematically, it can be shown that superposition of two waves


of the same frequency (and thus moving with same velocity)
to N

travelling in opposite directions in an infinite medium, produce


stationary waves. In this mathematical treatment, there is no
need of specific frequencies at which the stationary waves are
produced. However, it is not possible to translate that
©

mathematical result into a simple experimental demonstration.


In an experiment we have to take a finite medium, like the
stretched spring of finite length. A finite medium with boundaries
has its natural frequencies and thus experiment is done at those
frequencies. In the above demonstrations one wave is produced
by hand and the other (travelling in the opposite direction) is
the reflected wave and their superposition produces stationary
waves, exemplifying the above referred mathematical result.
t
no

255
LABORATORY MANUAL
LABORATORY MANUAL

APPENDICES
APPENDIX A-1
SOME IMPORTANT CONSTANTS

Name Symbol Value

d
Speed of light in vacuum c 2.9979 × 108 m s–1
Charge of electron e 1.602 × 10–19 C

he
Gravitational constant G 6.673 × 10–11 N m2 kg –2
Planck constant h 6.626 × 10–34 J s
Boltzmann constant k 1.381 × 10–23 J K–1
Avogadro number NA 6.022 × 1023 mol–1

pu T
Universal gas constant R 8.314 J mol–1 K–1

is
Mass of electron me 9.110 × 10–31 kg
Mass of neutron mn 1.675 × 10–27 kg
re R
Mass of proton mp 1.673 × 10–27 kg

bl
Electron-charge to mass ratio e/me 1.759 × 1011 C/kg
Faraday constant F 9.648 × 104 C/mol
E
Rydberg constant R 1.097 × 107 m–1
Bohr radius a0 5.292 × 10–11 m
Stefan-Boltzmann constant σ 5.670 × 10–8 W m–2 K–4
be C

Wien’s constant b 2.898 × 10–3 m K


Permittivity of free space ε0 8.854 × 10–12 C2 N–1 m–2
to N

1/4πε0 8.987 × 109 N m –2 C –2


Permeability of free space μ0 4π × 10–7 T m A–1
≅ 1.257 × 10–6 Wb A–1m–1
©

Other Useful Constants

Name Symbol Value


Mechanical equivalent of heat J 4.186 J cal–1
Standard atmospheric pressure 1 atm 1.013 × 105 Pa
Absolute zero 0K – 273.15 °C
Electron volt 1 eV 1.602 × 10–19 J
Unified Atomic mass unit 1u 1.661 × 10–27 kg
t

Electron rest energy mc2 0.511 MeV


no

Energy equivalent of 1 u 1 uc2 931.5 MeV


Volume of ideal gas (0 °C and 1 atm) V 22.4 L mol–1
Acceleration due to gravity g 9.78049 m s–2
(sea level, at equator)

256
APPENDICES
UNIT NAME

APPENDIX A-2
Densities of substances (20 °C)
Substance Density Substance Density
(103 kgm–3) (103 kgm–3)

Alcohol (methyl) 0.81 Olive oil 0.9


Alcohol (ethyl) 0.79 Quartz (crystal) 2.6
Asbestos 2.4 Sea water 1.03
Brass (60.40) 8.4 Stainless steel 7.8
Brass (70.30) 8.5 Turpentine 0.85
Cast iron 7.0 Wrought iron 7.8

d
Caster Oil 0.95 Zinc 7.1
Charcoal 0.4 Water 0 °C 0.99987

he
Coal 1.6 – 1.4 4 °C 1.00000
Copper 8.9 20 °C 0.99823
Constantan 8.9 100 °C 0.9584
Cork 0.24 Water, heavy
Diamond

pu T 3.5 (D2O) at max. density

is
German Silver 8.4 temperature, 11 °C 1.106
Glass 2.5
re R
Glycerine 1.3 Petrol 0.70

bl
Gold (pure) 19.3 Kerosene 0.80
Gold (22 carat) 17.5 Common salt sol. 1.189
E
Gold (9 carat) 11.3 (20% by wt.)
Graphite 2.3 Air (STP) 0.00129
Ice 0.92 Carbon dioxide (STP) 0.00198
be C

Manganin 8.5 Hydrogen (STP) 0.00009


Mild Steel 7.9 Oxygen (STP) 0.00143
Milk 1.03 Nitrogen (STP) 0.00125
to N

Mercury 13.56

APPENDIX A-3
Variation of atmospheric temperature and pressure with altitude
©

(At sea level, pressure = Standard atmosphere and temperature = 15 °C assumed)

Altitude Pressure Temperature (°C)


(metres) (millibars)
(1) (2) (3)
0 1013.25 15.0
250 983.58 13.4
500 854.61 11.8
750 926.34 10.1
1000 898.75 8.5
1500 825.56 5.2
t

2000 794.25 2.0


no

2500 746.82 1.2


3000 701.08 – 4.5
3500 657.64 – 7.8
4000 616.40 –11.0
4500 577.28 –14.2
5000 540.20 –17.5
6000 471.81 –29.0
7000 410.61 –30.5
8000 356.00 –37.0
9000 307.42 –43.5
10000 246.36 –50.0
257
LABORATORY MANUAL
LABORATORY MANUAL

APPENDIX A-4

Acceleration due to gravity at different


places in India along with their Latitude,
Longitude and Elevation

Place g(m/s2) Latitude Longitude Elevation


(N) ( E) (m)

Agra 9.7905 27°12’ 78°02’ 158


Aligarh 9.7908 27°54’ 78°05’ 187
Allahabad 9.7894 25°27’ 81°51’ 94

d
Varanasi 9.7893 25°20’ 83°00’ 81
Mumbai 9.7863 18°54’ 72°49’ 10

he
Kolkata 9.7880 22°35’ 88°20’ 6
Delhi 9.7914 28°40’ 77°14’ 216
Equator 9.7805 00°00’ n.a. 0
Jaipur 9.7900 26°55’ 75°47’ 433
Udaipur 9.7881 24°35’ 73°44’ 563

pu T
is
Srinagar 9.7909 34°05’ 74°50’ 159
North Pole 9.8322 90°00’ n.a. 0
re R
Chennai 9.7828 13°04’ 80°15’ 6

bl
Thruanatapuram 9.7812 8°28’ 76°58’ 27
Tirupati 9.7822 13°38’ 79°24’ 169
E
Madurai 9.7810 9°55’ 78°7’ 133
Bangaluru 9.7803 12°57 77°37’ 915
Guwahati 9.7899 26°12’ 91°45’ 52
be C

Bhubaneswar 9.7866 20°28’ 85°54’ 23


to N

APPENDIX A-5
Surface tension of liquids
©

Substance In contact with Temp (°C) Surface Tension(10–3 Nm–1)

Water Air 10 74.22


Air 20 72.55
Air 30 71.18
Air 40 69.56
Air 50 67.91
Acetic acid Vapour 10 28.8
Vapour 20 27.8
Vapour 50 24.8
Ethyl Alcohol Air 0 24.05
Vapour 10 23.61
t

Vapour 20 22.75
no

Vapour 30 21.89
Glycerol Air 20 63.04
Vapour 90 58.6
Methyl Alcohol Air 0 24.49
Air 20 22.61
Vapour 50 20.14
Mercury Vapour 20 470
Vapour 100 456
Oleic acid Air 20 32.5
Kerosene Air 20 24
Turpentine Air 20 27

258
APPENDICES
UNIT NAME

APPENDIX A-6
Coefficient of viscosity of liquids
Substance Temp (°C) Coefficient of viscosity (cP)
(1) Water 0 1.787
20 1.002
50 0.5468
100 0.2818
(2) Acetic Acid 15 1.31
30 1.04
60 0.70
100 0.43

d
(3) Ethyl Alcohol 0 1.773
20 1.200
50 0.834

he
70 0.504
(4) Mercury 0 1.685
20 1.554
50 1.407
100 1.240

pu T
is
200 1.052
(5) Methyl Alcohol 0 0.82
20 0.597
re R
30 0.510

bl
50 0.403
(6) Glycerine 20 1495
25 942
E
30 622
(7) Carbon disulphide 0 0.436
20 0.4375
be C

40 0.329
(8) Castor oil 10 2420
30 451
50 125
to N

(9) Carbon tetrachloride 0 1.348


20 0.972
40 0.744
©

APPENDIX A-7
Elastic properties of solids
Substance Young’s Modulus of Bulk
Modulus rigidity Modulus
(1010 Nm–2) (1010 Nm–2) (1010 Nm–2)
Aluminium 7.03 2.61 7.55
Brass (70/30) 10.06 3.73 11.18
Copper 12.98 9.83 13.78
t

Gold 7.8 2.7 21.7


no

Iron (soft) 21.14 8.16 16.98


Silver 8.27 3.03 10.36
Steel (mild) 21.19 8.22 17.92
Rubber 0.05 0.00015 -
Wood (oak) 1.3 - -
Wook (teak) 1.7 - -
Glass 5.1-7.1 3.1 3.75
Quartz 5.4 3.4 -

259
LABORATORY MANUAL
LABORATORY MANUAL

APPENDIX A-8
Velocity of sound
Substance Temperature Velocity of Substance Temperature Velocity of
(0 °C) longitudinal (0 °C) longitudinal
wave (ms–1) wave (ms–1)
Alcohol 20 1177 Hydrogen 0 1284
*Aluminium 20 5240 *Iron 20 5170
Air 0 331.45 Mercury 20 1451
*Brass 20 3130-3450 Nitrogen 0 334
*Copper 20 3790 *Steel 20 5150

d
(annealed) (tool)
Carbon dioxide 0 259 Water 20 1484
*Glass, crown 20 4710-5300 Water vapour 100 405

he
*Glass, flint 20 3490-4550 Oxygen 0 316
*In case of solids, velocities of longitudinal waves in thin rods are quoted.
For the gases for which v0, the velocity of sound at 0 °C is quoted here, vt the velocity at t 0C with fair degree

pu T
is
1
⎛ 273.15 +t ⎞ 2