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PHYSICS

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Class XI

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FOREWORD

The National Council of Educational Research and Training (NCERT) is the apex

body concerning all aspects of refinement of School Education. It has recently

developed textual material in Physics for Higher Secondary stage which is based

on the National Curriculum Framework (NCF)–2005. NCF recommends that

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children’s experience in school education must be linked to the life outside school

so that learning experience is joyful and fills the gap between the experience at

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home and in community. It recommends to diffuse the sharp boundaries between

different subjects and discourages rote learning. The recent development of syllabi

and textual material is an attempt to implement this basic idea. The present

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Laboratory Manual will be complementary to the textbook of Physics for Class

XI. It is in continuation to the NCERT’s efforts to improve upon comprehension

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of concepts and practical skills among students. The purpose of this manual is

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not only to convey the approach and philosophy of the practical course to students

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and teachers but to provide them appropriate guidance for carrying out

experiments in the laboratory. The manual is supposed to encourage children to

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reflect on their own learning and to pursue further activities and questions. Of

course, the success of this effort also depends on the initiatives to be taken by

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the laboratory and develop their thinking and nurture creativity.

The methods adopted for performing the practicals and their evaluation will

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determine how effective this practical book will prove to make the children’s life

at school a happy experience, rather than a source of stress and boredom. The

practical book attempts to provide space to opportunities for contemplation and

wondering, discussion in small groups, and activities requiring hands-on

experience. It is hoped that the material provided in this manual will help students

in carrying out laboratory work effectively and will encourage teachers to

introduce some open-ended experiments at the school level.

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Chairperson

National Steering Committee

National Council of Educational

Research and Training

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PREFACE

NCERT’s efforts to support comprehension of concepts of science and also

facilitate inculcation of process skills of science. This manual is complementary

to the Physics Textbook for Class XI published by NCER T in 2006 following the

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guidelines enumerated in National Curriculum Framework (NCF)-2005. One of the

basic criteria for validating a science curriculum recommended in NCF–2005, is

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that ‘it should engage the learner in acquiring the methods and processes that

lead to the generation and validation of scientific knowledge and nurture the

natural curiosity and creativity of the child in science’. The broad objective of

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this laboratory manual is to help the students in performing laboratory based

exercises in an appropriate manner so as to develop a spirit of enquiry in them.

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It is envisaged that students would be given all possible opportunities to raise

questions and seek their answers from various sources.

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The physics practical work in this manual has been presented under four

sections (i) experiments (ii) activities (iii) projects and (iv) demonstrations. A

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been given in the beginning which includes discussion on objectives of practical

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for recording experiments.

Experiments and activities prescribed in the NCERT syllabus (covering CBSE

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each experiment has been presented under the headings (i) apparatus and

material required (ii) principle (iii) procedure (iv) observations (v) calculations

(vi) result (vii) precautions (viii) sources of error. Some important experimental

aspects that may lead to better understanding of result are also highlighted in

the discussion. Some questions related to the concepts involved have been raised

so as to help the learners in self assessment. Additional experiments/activities

related to a given experiment are put forth under suggested additional

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types of topics that may interest young learners at higher secondary level.

A large number of demonstration experiments have also been suggested for the

teachers to help them in classroom transaction. Teachers should encourage

participation of the students in setting up and improvising apparatus, in

discussions and give them opportunity to analyse the experimental data to arrive

at conclusions.

Appendices have been included with a view to try some innovative experiments

using improvised apparatus. Data section at the end of the book enlists a number

of useful Tables of physical constants.

Each experiment, activity, project and demonstration suggested in this manual

have been tried out by the experts and teachers before incorporating them. We

sincerely hope that students and teachers will get motivated to perform these

experiments supporting various concepts of physics thereby enriching teaching

learning process and experiences.

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It may be recalled that NCER T brought out laboratory manual in physics for

senior secondary classes earlier in 1989. The write-ups on activities, projects,

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demonstrations and appendices included in physics manual published by

NCERT in 1989 have been extensively used in the development of the present

manual.

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We are grateful to the teachers and subject experts who participated in the

workshops organised for the review and refinement of the manuscript of this

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laboratory manual.

I acknowledge the valuable contributions of Prof. B.K. Sharma and other team

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members who contributed and helped in finalising this manuscript. I also

acknowledge with thanks the dedicated efforts of Sri R. Joshi who looked after

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2008.

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We warmly welcome comments and suggestions from our valued readers for

further improvement of this manual.

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HUKUM SINGH

Professor and Head

Department of Education in

Science and Mathematics

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DEVELOPMENT TEAM

MEMBERS

B.K. Sharma, Professor, DESM, NCERT, New Delhi

Gagan Gupta, Reader, DESM, NCER T, New Delhi

R. Joshi, Lecturer (S.G.), DESM, NCERT, New Delhi

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S.K. Dash, Reader, DESM, NCERT, New Delhi

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Shashi Prabha, Senior Lecturer, DESM, NCERT, New Delhi

V.P. Srivastava, Reader, DESM, NCERT, New Delhi

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MEMBER-COORDINATORS

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B.K. Sharma, Professor, DESM, NCERT, New Delhi

R. Joshi, Lecturer (S.G.), DESM, NCERT, New Delhi

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

The National Council of Educational Research and Training (NCERT)

acknowledges the valuable contributions of the individuals and the

organisations involved in the development of Laboratory Manual of Physics

for Class XI. The Council also acknowledges the valuable contributions of the

following academics for the reviewing, refining and editing the manuscript of

this manual : A.K. Das, PGT, St. Xavier’s Senior Secondary School, Raj Niwas

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Marg, Delhi; A.K. Ghatak, Professor (Retired), IIT, New Delhi; A.W. Joshi,

Hon. Visiting Scientist, NCRA, Pune; Anil Kumar, Principal, R.P.V.V., BT -

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Block, Shalimar Bagh, New Delhi; Anuradha Mathur, PGT, Modern School

Vasant Vihar, New Delhi; Bharthi Kukkal, PGT, Kendriya Vidyalaya, Pushp

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Vihar, New Delhi; C.B. Verma, Principal (Retired), D.C. Arya Senior Secondary

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School, Lodhi Road, New Delhi; Chitra Goel, PGT, R.P.V.V., Tyagraj Nagar, New

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Delhi; Daljeet Kaur Bhandari, Vice Principal, G.H.P.S., Vasant Vihar, New

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Delhi; Girija Shankar, PGT, R.P.V.V., Surajmal Vihar, New Delhi; H.C. Jain,

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Principal (Retired), Regional Institute of Education (NCERT), Ajmer; K.S.

Upadhyay, Principal, Jawahar Navodaya Vidyalaya, Farrukhabad, U.P.; M.N.

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Pachori, Maharaja Agrasen College, University of Delhi, New Delhi; P.C. Agarwal,

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(Retired), University of Delhi, Delhi; P.K. Chadha, Principal, St. Soldier Public

School, Paschim Vihar, New Delhi; Pragya Nopany, PGT, Birla Vidya Niketan,

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Chanakyapuri, New Delhi; R.P. Sharma, Education Officer (Science),

CBSE, New Delhi; R.S. Dass, Vice Principal (Retired), Balwant Ray Mehta

Vidya Bhawan, Lajpat Nagar, New Delhi; Rabinder Nath Kakarya, PGT, Darbari

Lal, DAVMS, Pitampura, New Delhi; Rachna Garg, Lecturer (Senior Scale),

CIET, NCERT; Rajesh Kumar, Principal, District Institute of Educational

Research and Training, Pitampura, New Delhi; Rajeshwari Prasad Mathur,

Professor, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh; Rakesh Bhardwaj, PGT, Maharaja

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PGT, Jaspal Kaur Public School, Shalimar Bagh, New Delhi; Rashmi Bargoti,

PGT, S.L.S. D.A.V. Public School, Mausam Vihar, New Delhi; S.N. Prabhakara,

PGT, Demonstration Multipurpose School, Mysore; S.R. Choudhury, Raja

Ramanna Fellow, Centre for Theoretical Physics, Jamia Millia Islamia, New

Delhi; S.S. Islam, Professor, Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi; Sher Singh, PGT,

Navyug School, Lodhi Road, New Delhi; Shirish R. Pathare, Scientific Officer;

Homi Bhabha Centre for Science Education (TIFR), Mumbai; Subhash

Chandra Samanta, Reader (Retired), Midnapur College, Midnapur (W.B.);

Sucharita Basu Kasturi, PGT, Sardar Patel Vidyalaya, New Delhi; Surajit

Chakrabarti, Reader, Maharaja Manindra Chandra College, Kolkata; Suresh

Kumar, PGT, Delhi Public School, Dwarka, New Delhi; V.K. Gautam, Education

Officer (Science), Kendriya Vidyalaya Sangathan, Shaheed Jeet Singh Marg,

New Delhi; Ved Ratna, Professor (Retired), DESM, NCERT, New Delhi; Vijay

H. Raybagkar, Reader, N. Wadia College, Pune; Vishwajeet D. Kulkarni,

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Smt. Parvatibai Chowgule College, Margo, Goa; Y.K. Vijay, CDPE University

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of Rajasthan, Jaipur, Rajasthan; Yashu Kumar, PGT, Kulachi Hansraj Model

School, New Delhi. We are thankful to all of them. Special thanks are due to

Hukum Singh, Professor and Head, DESM, NCERT for providing all academic

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and administrative support.

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The Council also acknowledges the support provided by the APC Office and

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administrative staff of DESM, Deepak Kapoor, Incharge, Computer Station;

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Bipin Srivastva, Rohit Verma and Mohammad Jabir Hussain, DTP Operators

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for typing the manuscript, preparing CRC and refining and drawing some of

the illustrations; Dr. K. T. Chitralekha, Copy Editor; Abhimanu Mohanty,

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Proof Reader. The efforts of the Publication Department are also highly

appreciated.

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ix

CONTENTS

FOREWORD iii

PREFACE v

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Major Skills in Physics Practical Work

I 1.1 Introduction 1

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I 1.2 Objectives of practical work 2

I 1.3 Specific objectives of laboratory work 4

I 1.4 Experimental errors 5

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I 1.5 Logarithms 10

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I 1.6 Natural sine/cosine table 14

I 1.7

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Plotting of graphs 14

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I 1.8 General instructions for performing experiments 19

I 1.9 General instructions for recording experiments 20

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EXPERIMENTS

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(i) measure diameter of a small spherical/cylindrical body,

(ii) measure the dimensions of a given regular body of known mass

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(iii) measure the internal diameter and depth of a given cylindrical object

like beaker/glass/calorimeter and hence to calculate its volume

E2 Use of screw gauge to 33

(a) measure diameter of a given wire,

(b) measure thickness of a given sheet and

(c) determine volume of an irregular lamina

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a spherometer

E4 To determine mass of two different objects using a beam balance 48

E5 Measurement of the weight of a given body (a wooden block) using 55

the parallelogram law of vector addition

E6 Using a simple pendulum plot L – T and L – T2 graphs, hence find 60

the effective length of second's pendulum using appropriate graph

E7 To study the relation between force of limiting friction and normal 68

reaction and to find the coefficient of friction between surface of a

moving block and that of a horizontal surface xi

E8 To find the downward force, along an inclined plane, acting on a 74

roller due to gravity and study its relationship with the angle of

inclination by plotting graph between force and sin θ

E9 To determine Young's modulus of the material of a given wire by 78

using Searle's apparatus

E10 To find the force constant and effective mass of a helical spring by 83

plotting T 2 - m graph using method of oscillation

E11 To study the variation in volume (V ) with pressure (P ) for a sample 89

of air at constant temperature by plotting graphs between P and V,

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and between P and

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E12 To determine the surface tension of water by capillary rise method 95

E13 To determine the coefficient of viscosity of a given liquid by measuring 99

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the terminal velocity of a spherical body

E14 To study the relationship between the temperature of a hot body 104

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and time by plotting a cooling curve

E15 (i) To study the relation between frequency and length of a given 109

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wire under constant tension using a sonometer

(ii) To study the relation between the length of a given wire and tension

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E16 To determine the velocity of sound in air at room temperature using 114

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a resonance tube

E17 To determine the specific heat capacity of a given (i) solid and (ii) a liquid 119

by the method of mixtures

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ACTIVITIES

A1 To make a paper scale of given least count: (a) 0.2 cm and (b) 0.5 cm 125

A2 To determine the mass of a given body using a metre scale by the 128

principle of moments

A3 To plot a graph for a given set of data choosing proper scale and 132

show error bars due to the precision of the instruments

A4 To measure the force of limiting rolling friction for a roller (wooden 137

block) on a horizontal plane

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A5 To study the variation in the range of a jet of water with the change 140

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A6 To study the conservation of energy of a ball rolling down an inclined 144

plane (using a double inclined plane)

A7 To study dissipation of energy of a simple pendulum with time 148

A8 To observe the change of state and plot a cooling curve for molten wax 152

A9 To observe and explain the effect of heating on a bi-metallic strip 155

xii

A10 To study the effect of heating on the level of a liquid in a container 158

and to interpret the observations

A11 To study the effect of detergent on surface tension of water by 160

observing capillary rise

A12 To study the factors affecting the rate of loss of heat of a liquid 163

A13 To study the effect of load on depression of a suitably clamped 167

metre scale loaded (i) at its end and (ii) in the middle

PROJECTS

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P1 To investigate whether the energy of a simple pendulum is conserved 173

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P2 To determine the radius of gyration about the centre of mass of a 181

metre scale used as a bar pendulum

P3 To investigate changes in the velocity of a body under the action 186

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of a constant force and to determine its acceleration

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P4 To compare the effectiveness of different materials as 190

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insulator of heat

P5

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To compare the effectiveness of different materials as absorbers 193

of sound

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P6 To compare the Young’s modules of elasticity of different 197

specimen of rubber and compare them by drawing their elastic

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hysteresis curve

P7 To study the collision of two balls in two-dimensions 200

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atmospheric pressure

P9 To study of the spring constant of a helical spring from its 208

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load-extension graph

P10 To study the effect of nature of surface on emission and absorption 213

of radiation

P11 To study the conservation of energy with a 0.2 pendulum 216

DEMONSTRATIONS

D1 To demonstrate uniform motion in a straight line 219

D2 To demonstrate the nature of motion of a ball on an 223

inclined track

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body with a uniform speed along a circle, and that magnitude of

this force increases with angular speed

D4 To demonstrate the principle of centrifuge 226

D5 To demonstrate interconversion of potential and kinetic energy 227

D6 To demonstrate conservation of momentum 228

D7 To demonstrate the effect of angle of launch on range of a projectile 229

xiii

D8 To demonstrate that the moment of inertia of a rod changes with the 230

change of position of a pair of equal weights attached to the rod

D9 To demonstrate the shape of capillary rise in a wedge-shaped gap 232

between two glass sheets

D10 To demonstrate affect of atmospheric pressure by making partial 233

vacuum by condensing steam

D11 To study variation of volume of a gas with its pressure at constant 235

temperature with a doctors’ syringe

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D12 To demonstrate Bernoulli’s theorem with simple illustrations 237

D13 To demonstrate the expansion of a metal wire on heating 240

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D14 To demonstrate that heat capacities of equal masses of aluminium, 241

iron, copper and lead are different

D15 To demonstrate free oscillations of different vibrating systems 243

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D16 To demonstrate resonance with a set of coupled pendulums 247

D17 To demonstrate damping of a pendulum due to resistance of 248

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the medium

D18 To demonstrate longitudinal and transverse waves 249

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D19 To demonstrate reflection and transmission of waves at the 251

boundary of two media

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of waves produced by two tuning forks of slightly different

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frequencies

D21 To demonstrate standing waves with a spring 254

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Bibliography 264–265

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xiv

I: MAJOR SKILLS IN

PHYSICS PRACTICAL

WORK

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I 1.1 INTRODUCTION

The higher secondary stage is the most crucial and challenging stage

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of school education because at this stage the general undifferentiated

curriculum changes into a discipline-based, content area-oriented

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course. At this stage, students take up physics as a discipline, with

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the aim of pursuing their future careers either in basic sciences or in

science-based professional courses like engineering, medicine,

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information technology etc.

Physics deals with the study of matter and energy associated with the

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science require experimentation, controlled laboratory experiments

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experiments in physics, in general, is to verify and validate the concepts,

principles and hypotheses related to the physical phenomena. Only

doing this does not help the learners become independent thinkers or

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required and encouraged in different ways.These may include not

only doing experiments but investigate different facets involved in doing

experiments. Many activities as well as project work will therefore

ensure that the learners are able to construct and reconstruct their

ideas on the basis of first hand experiences through investigation in the

laboratory. Besides, learners will be able to integrate experimental work

with theory which they are studying at higher secondary stage through

their environment.

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The history of science reveals that many significant discoveries have been

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experimental work is as important as the theoretical understanding of a

phenomenon. Performing experiments by one’s own hands in a laboratory

is important as it generates a feeling of direct involvement in the process

of generating knowledge. Carrying out experiments in a laboratory

personally and analysis of the data obtained also help in inculcating

scientific temper, logical thinking, rational outlook, sense of self-confidence,

ability to take initiative, objectivity, cooperative attitude, patience, self-

reliance, perseverance, etc. Carrying out experiments also develop

manipulative, observational and reporting skills.

LABORATORY MANUAL

LABORATORY MANUAL

for Secondary and Higher Secondary stages (NCERT, 2006) have

therefore, laid considerable emphasis on laboratory work as an integral

part of the teaching-learning process.

NCERT has already published Physics Textbook for Classes XII,

based on the new syllabus. In order to supplement the conceptual

understanding and to integrate the laboratory work in physics and

contents of the physics course, this laboratory manual has been

developed. The basic purpose of a laboratory manual in physics is to

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motivate the students towards practical work by involving them in

“process-oriented performance” learning (as opposed to ‘product-or

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result-oriented performance’) and to infuse life into the sagging practical

work in schools. In view of the alarming situation with regard to the

conduct of laboratory work in schools, it is hoped that this laboratory

manual will prove to be of considerable help and value.

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I 1.2 OBJECTIVES OF PRACTICAL WORK

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Physics deals with the understanding of natural phenomena and

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applying this understanding to use the phenomena for

development of technology and for the betterment of society.

Physics practical work involves ‘learning by doing’. It clarifies

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Careful and stepwise observation of sequences during an experiment

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team learning.

A practical physics course should enable students to do experiments

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a variety of measuring instruments. Practical work enhances basic

learning skills. Main skills developed by practical work in physics are

discussed below.

The learner develops manipulative skills in practical work if she/he

is able to

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(iii) set-up the apparatus in proper order,

(iv) check the suitability of the equipment, apparatus, tool

regarding their working and functioning,

(v) know the limitations of measuring device and find its least

count, error etc.,

(vi) handle the apparatus carefully and cautiously to avoid any

damage to the instrument as well as any personal harm,

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MAJOR SKILLS...

UNIT NAME

(viii) make precise observations,

(ix) make proper substitution of data in formula, keeping proper

units (SI) in mind,

(x) calculate the result accurately and express the same with

appropriate significant figures, justified by the degree of

accuracy of the instrument,

(xi) interpret the results, verify principles and draw conclusions; and

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(xii) improvise simple apparatus for further investigations by

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selecting appropriate equipment, apparatus, tools, materials.

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The learner develops observational skills in practical work if she/he

is able to

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(i) read about instruments and measure physical quantities,

keeping least count in mind,

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(ii) follow the correct sequence while making observations,

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(iv) minimise some errors in measurement by repeating every

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she/he is able to

(i) make schematic diagram of the apparatus,

(ii) draw ray diagrams, circuit diagrams correctly and label them,

(iii) depict the direction of force, tension, current, ray of light etc,

by suitable lines and arrows; and

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The learner develops reporting skills for presentation of observation

data in practical work if she/he is able to

(i) make a proper presentation of aim, apparatus, formula used,

principle, observation table, calculations and result for the

experiment,

3

LABORATORY MANUAL

LABORATORY MANUAL

appropriate symbols for components,

(iii) record observations systematically and with appropriate units

in a tabular form wherever desirable,

(iv) follow sign conventions while recording measurements in

experiments on ray optics,

(v) present the calculations/results for a given experiment

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alongwith proper significant figures, using appropriate symbols,

units, degree of accuracy,

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(vi) calculate error in the result,

(vii) state limitations of the apparatus/devices,

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(viii) summarise the findings to reject or accept a hypothesis,

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(ix) interpret recorded data, observations or graphs to draw

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conclusion; and

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(x) explore the scope of further investigation in the work performed.

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However, the most valued skills perhaps are those that pertain to the

realm of creativity and investigation.

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performance skills and product-oriented performance skills.

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work if she/he is able to

chemicals and handle them appropriately,

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diagram/circuit diagram wherever needed,

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MAJOR SKILLS...

UNIT NAME

(ix) identify the factors that will influence the observations and

take appropriate measures to minimise their effects,

speed, accuracy and precision,

appropriate scale and neatly, using proper scale,

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(xii) interpret recorded data, observations, calculation or graphs

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to draw conclusion,

followed in performing the experiment,

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(xiv) dismantle and reassemble the apparatus; and

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(xv) follow the standard guidelines of working in a laboratory.

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The learner develops product-oriented performance skills in practical

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(i) identify various parts of the apparatus and materials used in

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the experiment,

(ii) set-up the apparatus according to the plan of the experiment,

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facilitate graphical or numerical analysis,

(iv) present the observations systematically using graphs,

calculations etc. and draw inferences from recorded

observations,

(v) analyse and interpret the recorded observations to finalise the

results; and

(vi) accept or reject a hypothesis based on the experimental

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findings.

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The ultimate aim of every experiment is to measure directly or

indirectly the value of some physical quantity. The very process of

measurement brings in some uncertainties in the measured value.

THERE IS NO MEASUREMENT WITHOUT ERRORS. As such the value

of a physical quantity obtained from some experiments may be

different from its standard or true value. Let ‘a’ be the experimentally

5

LABORATORY MANUAL

LABORATORY MANUAL

‘a0’. The difference (a – a0) = e is called the error in the measurement.

Since a0, the true value, is mostly not known and hence it is not

possible to determine the error e in absolute terms. However, it is

possible to estimate the likely magnitude of e. The estimated value of

error is termed as experimental error. The error can be due to least

count of the measuring instrument or a mathematical relation involving

least count as well as the variable. The quality of an experiment is

determined from the experimental uncertainty of the result. Smaller

the magnitude of uncertainty, closer is the experimentally measured

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value to the true value. Accuracy is a measure of closeness of the

measured value to the true value. On the other hand, if a physical

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quantity is measured repeatedly during the same experiment again

and again, the values so obtained may be different from each other.

This dispersion or spread of the experimental data is a measure of the

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precision of the experiment/instrument. A smaller spread in the

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experimental value means a more precise experiment. Thus, accuracy

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and precision are two different concepts. Accuracy is a measure

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of the nearness to truth, while precision is a measure of the

dispersion in experimental data. It is quite possible that a high

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precision experimental data may be quite inaccurate (if there are large

systematic errors present). A rough estimate of the maximum spread

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Experimental errors may be categorised into two types:

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(a) systematic, and (b) random. Systematic errors may arise because

of (i) faulty instruments (like zero error in vernier callipers),

(ii) incorrect method of doing the experiment, and (iii) due to the

individual who is conducting the experiment. Systematic errors are

©

they can be removed. Some common systematic errors: (i) Zero error

in micrometer screw and vernier callipers readings. (ii) The ‘backlash’

error. When the readings on a scale of microscope are taken by rotating

the screw first in one direction and then in the reverse direction, the

reading is less than the actual distance through which the screw is

moved. To avoid this error all the readings must be taken while rotating

the screw in the same direction. (iii) The ‘bench error’ or ‘index

correction’. When distances measured on the scale of an optical bench

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values. (iv) If the relation is linear, and if the systematic error is constant,

the straight-line graph will get shifted keeping the slope unchanged,

but the intercept will include the systematic error.

In order to find out if the result of some experiments contains

systematic errors or not, the same quantity should be measured by a

different method. If the values of the same physical quantity obtained

by two different methods differ from each other by a large amount,

then there is a possibility of systematic error. The experimental value,

6

MAJOR SKILLS...

UNIT NAME

after corrections for systematic errors still contain errors. All such

residual errors whose origin cannot be traced are called random errors.

Random errors cannot be avoided and there is no way to find the

exact value of random errors. However, their magnitude may be

reduced by measuring the same physical quantity again and again

by the same method and then taking the mean of the measured values

(For details, see Physics Textbook for Class XI, Part I, Chapter 2;

NCERT, 2006).

While doing an experiment in the laboratory, we measure different

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quantities using different instruments having different values of their

least counts. It is reasonable to assume that the maximum error in

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the measured value is not more than the least count of the instrument

with which the measurement has been made. As such in the case of

simple quantities measured directly by an instrument, the least count

of the instrument is generally taken as the maximum error in the

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measured value. If a quantity having a true value A0 is measured as A

with the instrument of least count a, then

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A = ( A0 ± a )

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= A0 (1 ± a / A0 )

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= A0 (1 ± f a )

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B = B0 (1 ± f b )

and B, using the formula

Z = A.B

We now wish to calculate the expected total uncertainty (or the likely

maximum error) in the calculated value of Z. We may write

Z = A.B

t

no

= A 0 (1 ± f a ) .B 0 (1 ± f b )

= A0 B0 (1 ± f a ± f b ± f a f b )

or Z ≈ Z 0 [1 ± f z ]

7

LABORATORY MANUAL

LABORATORY MANUAL

where the fractional error f z in the value of Z may have the largest

value of fa + f b .

Y = A/B = A0 (1 ± f a ) / B0 (1 ± f b )

⎡ A0 ⎤

= Y0 (1 ± fa )(1 ± f b ) ;

–1

⎢ Y0 = B ⎥

d

⎣ 0⎦

he

(

= Y0 (1 ± fa ) 1 ± fb + f b2 )

= Y0 (1 ± f a ) (1 ± f b )

pu T

is

~ Y0 ⎡⎣1 ± ( f a + f b ) ⎤⎦

re R

bl ( )

or Y = Y0 1 ± f y , with fy = fa + fb , where the maximum fractional

E

uncertainty fy in the calculated value of Y is again f a + f b . Note that

be C

to N

it may be shown that the maximum fractional error fp in the calculated

value of P is given as

©

f p = a fx + b fy + c fz

the quantity P depends on the fractional errors fx , fy, fz etc. of each

measured quantity, as well as on the power a, b, c etc., of these

quantities which appear in the formula. As such, the quantity which

has the highest power in the formula, should be measured with the

least possible fractional error, so that the contribution of

a f x + b f y + c f z to the overall fraction error f p are of the same order

t

no

of magnitude.

Let us calculate the expected uncertainty (or experimental error) in a

quantity that has been determined using a formula which involves

several measured physical parameters.

A quantity Y, Young’s Modulus of elasticity is calculated using the formula

MgL3

Y=

4bd 3δ

8

MAJOR SKILLS...

UNIT NAME

length of a metallic bar of rectangular cross-section, with breadth b,

and thickness d, and δ is the depression (or sagging) from the horizontal

in the bar when a mass M is suspended from the middle point of the

bar, supported at its two ends (Fig. I 1.1).

Now in an actual experiment, mass M may be taken as 1 kg. Normally

the uncertainty in mass is not more than 1 g. It means that the least

count of the ordinary balance used for measuring mass is 1 g. As

such, the fractional error f M is 1g/1kg or fM = 1 × 10–3.

d

Let us assume that the value of acceleration due to gravity g is 9.8 m/

s 2 and it does not contain any significant error. Hence there will be no

he

fractional error in g, i.e., fg = 0. Further the length L of the bar is, say,

1 m and is measured by an ordinary metre scale of least count of 1

mm = 0.001 m. The fractional error fL in the length L is therefore,

pu T

is

f L = 0.001 m / 1m = 1 × 10 –3.

re R

Next the breadth b of the bar which is, say, 5 cm is measured by a

bl

vernier callipers of least count 0.01 cm. The fractional error fb is then,

E

f b = 0.01 cm / 5 cm = 0.002 = 2 × 10 –3 .

Similarly, for the thickness d of the bar, a screw gauge of least count

be C

f d = 0.001 cm / 0.2 cm = 0.005 = 5 × 10–3.

to N

count 0.001 cm, is about 5 mm, so that

f δ = 0.001 cm / 0.5 cm = 0.002 = 2 × 10–3.

©

calculate the fractional error in Y as

f Y = (1) fM + (1) f g + (3) f L + (1) fb + (3) fd + (1) f δ

= 1 × (1 × 10–3 ) + 1 × 0 + 3 × (1 × 10–3) + 1 × (2 × 10–3) + 3 × (5 × 10 –3) + 1 × (2 × 10–3)

= 1 × 10 –3 + 3 × 10–3 + 2 × 10–3 + 15 × 10–3 + 2 × 10–3

or, fY = 22 × 10–3 = 0.022.

t

no

contribution to the maximum fractional error f y in the calculated value

of Y contributed by various terms, i.e., fM, 3f L, fb , 3f d, and f δ should be

of the same order of magnitude. It should not happen that one of

these quantities becomes so large that the value of fy is determined by

that factor only. If this happens, then the measurement of other

quantities will become insignificant. It is for this reason that the length

L is measured by a metre scale which has a large least count (0.1 cm)

while smaller quantities d and δ are measured by screw gauge and

9

LABORATORY MANUAL

LABORATORY MANUAL

count (0.001 cm). Also those quantities which have

higher power in the formula, like d and L should be

measured more carefully with an instrument of

smaller least count.

The end product of most of the experiments is the

measured value of some physical quantity. This

measured value is generally called the result of the

experiment. In order to report the result, three main

d

things are required. These are – the measured value,

the expected uncertainty in the result (or

he

experimental error) and the unit in which the

quantity is expressed. Thus the measured value is

Fig. 1.1: A mass M is suspended from the

expressed alongwith the error and proper unit as the

metallic bar supported at its two

value ± error (units).

ends

pu T

is

Suppose a result is quoted as A ± a (unit).

re R

bl

This implies that the value of A is estimated to an accuracy of 1 part

in A/a, both A and a being numbers. It is a general practice to include

E

all digits in these numbers that are reliably known plus the first digit

that is uncertain. Thus, all reliable digits plus the first uncertain digit

together are called SIGNIFICANT FIGURES. The significant figures of

be C

the measured value should match with that of the errors. In the present

example assuming Young Modulus of elasticity, Y = 18.2 × 1010 N/

to N

m2; (please check this value by calculating Y from the given data) and

ΔY

error, = fy

Y

©

ΔY = fy .Y

= 0.022 × 18.2 × 1010 N/m2

= 0.39 × 1010 N/m2, where ΔY is experimental error.

I 1.5 LOGARITHMS

t

no

which the base must be raised to equal that number.

If a x = N then x is called logarithm of N to the base a, and is denoted by

loga N [read as log N to the base a]. For example, 2 4 = 16. The log of

16 to the base 2 is equal to 4 or, log2 16 = 4.

In general, for a number we use logarithm to the base 10. Here log 10

= 1, log 100 = log 102 and so on. Logarithm to base 10 is usually

written as log.

10

MAJOR SKILLS...

UNIT NAME

Logarithm of a number consists of two parts:

(i) Characteristic — It is the integral part [whole of natural

number]

(ii) Mantissa — It is the fractional part, generally expressed in

decimal form (mantissa is always positive).

d

(ii) HOW TO FIND THE CHARACTERISTIC OF A NUMBER?

he

The characteristic depends on the magnitude of the number and is

determined by the position of the decimal point. For a number greater

than 1, the characteristic is positive and is less than the number of

pu T

is

digits to the left of the decimal point.

re R

For a number smaller than one (i.e., decimal fraction), the characteristic

bl

is negative and one more than the number of zeros between the decimal

point and the first digit. For example, characteristic of the number

E

430700 is 5; 4307 is 3; 43.07 is 1;

be C

0.0004307 is –4 0.00004307 is –5.

to N

The negative characteristic is usually written as 1,2, 4,5 etc and read

as bar 1, bar 2, etc.

©

The value of mantissa depends on the digits and their order and is

independent of the position of the decimal point. As long as the digits

and their order is the same, the mantissa is the same, whatever be the

position of the decimal point.

only. They are usually meant for numbers containing four digits, and

t

no

are used in the following manner :

(i) The first two significant figures of the number are found at the

extreme left vertical column of the table wherein the number

lying between 10 and 99 are given. The mantissa of the figures

which are less than 10 can be determined by multiplying the

figures by 10.

(ii) Along the horizontal line in the topmost column the figures

11

LABORATORY MANUAL

LABORATORY MANUAL

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

the given number.

the fourth significant figures.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

d

Example 1 : Find the logarithm of 278.6.

he

Answer : The number has 3 figures to the left of the decimal point.

Hence, its characteristic is 2. To find the mantissa, ignore the

decimal point and look for 27 in the first vertical column. For 8,

pu T

look in the central topmost column. Proceed from 27 along a

is

horizontal line towards the right and from 8 vertically downwards.

The two lines meet at a point where the number 4440 is written.

re R

bl

This is the mantissa of 278. Proceed further along the horizontal

line and look vertically below the figure 6 in difference column.

E

You will find the figure 9. Therefore, the mantissa of 2786 is 4440

+ 9 = 4449.

be C

Example 2 : Find the logarithm of 278600.

to N

the same as in Example 1, above. We can find the mantissa of only

four significant figures. Hence, we neglect the last 2 zero.

©

Example 3 : Find the logarithm of 0.00278633.

zeros following the decimal point. We can find the mantissa of only

four significant figures. Hence, we neglect the last 2 figures (33) and

find the mantissa of 2786 which is 4449.

t

no

figures is equal to or more than 5, the figure next to the left of it is

raised by one and so on till we have only four significant figures and if

the last figure is less than 5, it is neglected as in the above example.

If we have the number 2786.58, the last figure is 8. Therefore, we

shall raise the next in left figure to 6 and since 6 is greater than 5, we

shall raise the next figure 6 to 7 and find the logarithm

of 2787.

12

MAJOR SKILLS...

UNIT NAME

I 1.5.2 ANTILOGARITHMS

The number whose logarithm is x is called antilogarithm and is denoted

by antilog x.

Answer : For this purpose, we use antilogarithms table which is used

d

for fractional part.

he

(i) In Example 1, fractional part is 0.8088. The first two figures

from the left are 0.80, the third figure is 8 and the fourth figure

is also 8.

pu T

(ii) In the table of the antilogarithms, first look in the vertical

is

column for 0.80. In this horizontal row under the column

re R

headed by 8, we find the number 6427 at the intersection. It

bl

means the number for mantissa 0.808 is 6427.

E

(iii) In continuation of this horizontal row and under the mean

difference column on the right under 8, we find the number

12 at the intersection. Adding 12 to 6427 we get 6439. Now

be C

(iv) The characteristic is 1. This is one more than the number of

to N

number of digits in the integral part of the required

number = 1 + 1 =2. The required number is 64.39 i.e., antilog

©

1.8088 = 64.39.

Properties of logarithms:

t

no

(iii) loga mn = n logam

The definition of logarithm:

loga 1 = 0 [since a0 = 1]

The log of 1 to any base is zero,

and loga a = 1 [since the logarithm of the base to itself is 1,

a 1 = a]

13

LABORATORY MANUAL

LABORATORY MANUAL

To find the sine or cosine of some angles we need to refer to Tables of

trignometric functions. Natural sine and cosine tables are given in the

DATA SECTION (Tables 3 and 4, Pages 270–273). Angles are given

usually in degrees and minutes, for example : 35°6′ or 35.1°.

d

Suppose we wish to know the value of sin 35°10′. You may proceed as follows:

he

(i) Open the Table of natural sines.

(ii) Look in the first column and locate 35°. Scan horizontally,

move from value 0.5736 rightward and stop under the column

is

(iii) But it is required to find for 10′.

re R

bl

The difference between 10′ and 6′ is 4′. So we look into the column of

mean difference under 4′ and the corresponding value is 10. Add 10

E

to the last digits of 0.5750 and we get 0.5760.

Thus, sin (35°10′) is 0.5760.

be C

to N

Natural cosine tables are read in the same manner. However, because

of the fact that value of cos θ decrease as θ increases, the mean

difference is to be subtracted. For example, cos 25° = 0.9063. To read

©

the value of cosine angle 25°40′, i.e., cos 25°40′, we read for cos 25°36′

= 0.9018. Mean difference for 4′ is 5 which is to be subtracted from

the last digits of 0.9018 to get 0.9013. Thus, cos 25°40′ = 0.9013.

Natural Tangents table are read the same way as the natural sine

table.

t

no

quantities. It also helps us to visualise experimental data at a glance

and shows the relation between the two quantities. If two physical

quantities a and b are such that a change made by us in a results in

a change in b, then a is called independent variable and b is called

dependent variable. For example, when you change the length of the

pendulum, its time period changes. Here length is independent variable

while time period is dependent variable.

14

MAJOR SKILLS...

UNIT NAME

A graph not only shows the relation between two variable quantities

in pictorial form, it also enables verification of certain laws (such as

Boyle’s law) to find the mean value from a large number of

observations, to extrapolate/interpolate the value of certain quantities

beyond the limit of observation of the experiment, to calibrate or

graduate a given instrument for measurement and to find the

maximum and minimum values of the dependent variable.

millimetre/centimetre squares. For plotting a graph, the following steps

d

are observed:

he

(i) Identify the independent variable and dependent variable.

Represent the independent variable along the x-axis and the

dependent variable along the y-axis.

(ii)

pu T

Determine the range of each of the variables and count the

is

number of big squares available to represent each, along the

re R

respective axis.

(iii)

bl

Choice of scale is critical for plotting of a graph. Ideally, the

E

smallest division on the graph paper should be equal to the

least count of measurement or the accuracy to which the

particular parameter is known. Many times, for clarity of the

be C

to the smallest division on the graph paper.

to N

judiciously. Generally, taking (0,0) as the origin serves the

purpose. But such a choice is to be adopted generally when

©

to find the zero position of one of the variables, if its actual

determination is not possible. However, in all other cases the

origin need not correspond to zero value of the variable. It is,

however, convenient to represent a round number nearest to

but less than the smallest value of the corresponding variable.

On each axis mark only the values of the variable in round

numbers.

(v) The scale markings on x-and y-axis should not be crowded.

t

Write the numbers at every fifth cm of the axis. Write also the

no

the numbers, i.e., write the number with decimal point following

the first digit and multiply the number by appropriate power

of ten. The scale conversion may also be written at the right or

left corner at the top of the graph paper.

(vi) Write a suitable caption below the plotted graph mentioning

the names or symbols of the physical quantities involved.

Also indicate the scales taken along both the axes on the

graph paper.

15

LABORATORY MANUAL

LABORATORY MANUAL

7 readings are enough. Time should not be wasted in taking a

very large number of observations. The observations must be

covering all available range evenly.

(viii) If the graph is a curve, first explore the range by covering the

entire range of the independent variable in 6 to 7 steps. Then

try to guess where there will be sharp changes in the curvature

of the curve. Take more readings in those regions. For example,

when there is either a maximum or minimum, more readings

d

are needed to locate the exact point of extremum, as in the

determination of angle of minimum deviation (δ m) you may

he

need to take more observations near about δm.

(ix) Representation of “data” points also has a meaning. The size

of the spread of plotted point must be in accordance with the

is

plotted point is represented as , a point with a circle around

re R

it. The central dot is the value of measured data. The radius of

bl

circle of ‘x’ or ‘y’ side gives the size of uncertainty. If the circle

radius is large, it will mean as if uncertainty in data is more.

E

Further such a representation tells that accuracy along x- and

y-axis are the same. Some other representations used which

be C

In case, uncertainty along the x-axis and y-axis are different,

to N

more than that on y-axis); (accuracy along x-axis is less

than that on y-axis). , , , , are some of such other

©

(x) After all the data points are plotted, it is customary to fit a

smooth curve judiciously by hand so that the maximum

number of points lie on or near it and the rest are evenly

distributed on either side of it. Now a days computers are also

used for plotting graphs of a given data.

The slope m of a straight line graph AB is defined as

t

Δy

no

m=

Δx

where Δy is the change in the value of the quantity plotted on the

y-axis, corresponding to the change Δx in the value of the quantity

plotted on the x-axis. It may be noted that the sign of m will be positive

when both Δx and Δy are of the same sign, as shown in Fig. I 1.2. On

the other hand, if Δy is of opposite sign (i.e., y decreases when x

increases) than that of Δx, the value of the slope will be negative. This

is indicated in Fig. I 1.3.

16

MAJOR SKILLS...

UNIT NAME

d

he

pu T

Fig. 1.2 Value of slope is positive Fig. 1.3 Value of slope is negative

is

Further, the slope of a given straight line has the same value, for all

re R

bl

points on the line. It is because the value of y changes by the same

amount for a given change in the value of x, at every point of the

E

straight line, as shown in Fig. I 1.4. Thus, for a given straight line, the

slope is fixed.

be C

to N

t©

no

length and see that it represents a round number of the variable. The

corresponding interval of the variable on y-segment is then measured

and the slope is calculated. Generally, the slope should not have more

than two significant digits. The values of the slope and the intercepts,

if there are any, should be written on the graph paper.

17

LABORATORY MANUAL

LABORATORY MANUAL

Do not show slope as tanθ . Only when scales along both the axes are

identical slope is equal to tanθ. Also keep in mind that slope of a graph

has physical significance, not geometrical.

Often straight-line graphs expected to pass through the origin are

found to give some intercepts. Hence, whenever a linear relationship

is expected, the slope should be used in the formula instead of the

mean of the ratios of the two quantities.

d

As has been indicated, the slope of a straight line has the same value

he

at each point. However, it is not true for a curve. As shown in Fig. I 1.5, the

slope of the curve CD may have different values of slope at points A′,

A, A′′, etc.

pu T

is

re R

bl

E

be C

to N

©

a particular point. The slope of the curve at a particular point, say

point A in Fig. I 1.5, is the value of the slope of the line EF which is the

tangent to the curve at point A. As such, in order to find the slope of a

t

curve at a given point, one must draw a tangent to the curve at the

no

desired point.

In order to draw the tangent to a given curve at a given point, one may

use a plane mirror strip attached to a wooden block, so that it stands

perpendicular to the paper on which the curve is to be drawn. This is

illustrated in Fig. I 1.6 (a) and Fig. I 1.6 (b). The plane mirror strip

MM′ is placed at the desired point A such that the image D′A of the

part DA of the curve appears in the mirror strip as continuation of

18

MAJOR SKILLS...

UNIT NAME

d

he

pu T

is

(a), (b)

re R

bl

Fig. 1.6 (a), (b): Drawing tangent at point A using a plane mirror

E

DA. In general, the image D′ A will not appear to be smoothly

joined with the part of the curve DA as shown in Fig. I 1.6 (a).

be C

Next rotate the mirror strip MM′, keeping its position at point A fixed.

to N

The image D′Α in the mirror will also rotate. Now adjust the position

of MM′ such that DAD′ appears as a continuous, smooth curve as

shown in Fig. I 1.6 (b). Draw the line MAM′ along the edge of the mirror

©

the line MAM′ at point A.

GAH is the line, which is the required tangent to the curve DAC at

point A. The slope of the tangent GAH (i.e., Δy /Δ x) is the slope of the

curve CAD at point A. The above procedure may be followed for finding

the slope of any curve at any given point.

t

no

experiment. The objective of the experiment and procedure to be

followed should be clear before actually performing the experiment.

2. The apparatus should be arranged in proper order. To avoid

any damage, all apparatus should be handled carefully and

cautiously. Any accidental damage or breakage of the

apparatus should be immediately brought to the notice of the

concerned teacher.

19

LABORATORY MANUAL

LABORATORY MANUAL

while performing it.

4. Repeat every observation, a number of times, even if measured

value is found to be the same. The student must bear in mind the

proper plan for recording the observations. Recording in tabular

form is essential in most of the experiments.

desired). The degree of accuracy of the measurement of each

d

quantity should always be kept in mind, so that final result does

not reflect any fictitious accuracy. The result obtained should be

he

suitably rounded off.

the help of a graph.

pu T

is

7. Always mention the result in proper SI unit, if any, along with

experimental error.

re R

bl

I1.9 GENERAL INSTRUCTIONS FOR RECORDING EXPERIMENTS

E

A neat and systematic recording of the experiment in the practical file

be C

experimental investigations. The following heads may usually be

to N

DATE:-------- EXPERIMENT NO:---------- PAGE NO.-------

AIM

©

performed.

Mention the apparatus and material used for performing the experiment.

t

no

the experiment.

Various important terms and definitions or concepts used in the

experiment are stated clearly.

20

MAJOR SKILLS...

UNIT NAME

PRINCIPLE / THEORY

Mention the principle underlying the experiment. Also, write the

formula used, explaining clearly the symbols involved (derivation not

required). Draw a circuit diagram neatly for experiments/activities

related to electricity and ray diagrams for light.

d

Mention various steps followed with in-built precautions actually

he

observed in setting the apparatus and taking measurements in a

sequential manner.

OBSERVATIONS

pu T

is

re R

Record the observations in tabular form as far as possible, neatly

bl

and without any overwriting. Mention clearly, on the top of the

observation table, the least counts and the range of each measuring

E

instrument used.

be C

conditions like temperature, pressure etc., then mention the values

of these factors.

to N

©

and do the computations systematically and neatly with the help of

logarithm tables. Calculate experimental error.

Wherever possible, use the graphical method for obtaining

the result.

RESULT

State the conclusions drawn from the experimental observations.

t

no

of numerical value along with appropriate SI units and probable error].

Also mention the physical conditions like temperature, pressure etc.,

if the result happens to depend upon them.

PRECAUTIONS

Mention the precautions actually observed during the course of the

experiment/activity.

21

LABORATORY MANUAL

LABORATORY MANUAL

SOURCES OF ERROR

Mention the possible sources of error that are beyond the control of

the individual while performing the experiment and are liable to affect

the result.

DISCUSSION

d

The special reasons for the set up etc., of the experiment are to be

mentioned under this heading. Also mention any special inferences

he

which you can draw from your observations or special difficulties faced

during the experimentation. These may also include points for making

the experiment more accurate for observing precautions and, in

general, for critically relating theory to the experiment for better

pu T

is

understanding of the basic principle involved.

re R

bl

E

be C

t to N

©

no

22

EXPERIMENTS

EXPERIMENT 1

AIM

d

Use of Vernier Callipers to

he

(i) measure diameter of a small spherical/cylindrical body,

(ii) measure the dimensions of a given regular body of known mass

and hence to determine its density; and

pu T

is

(iii) measure the internal diameter and depth of a given cylindrical object

like beaker/glass/calorimeter and hence to calculate its volume.

re R

APPARATUS AND MATERIAL REQUIRED

bl

E

Vernier Callipers, Spherical body, such as a pendulum bob or a glass

marble, rectangular block of known mass and cylindrical object like

be C

a beaker/glass/calorimeter

to N

scale, which slides along the main scale. The main scale and Vernier

©

magnitudes.

The main scale is graduated in cm and mm. It has two fixed jaws, A

and C, projected at right angles to the scale. The sliding Vernier scale

has jaws (B, D) projecting at right angles to it and also the main scale

and a metallic strip (N). The zero of

main scale and Vernier scale coincide

when the jaws are made to touch each

other. The jaws and metallic strip are

t

no

slide the vernier scale on the main

scale. Screw S is used to fix the vernier

scale at a desired position.

is 1mm. It is difficult to further Fig. E 1.1 Vernier Calliper

subdivide it to improve the least

count of the scale. A vernier scale

enables this to be achieved.

LABORATORY MANUAL

LABORATORY MANUAL

P

RINCIPLE

The difference in the magnitude of one main scale division (M.S.D.)

and one vernier scale division (V.S.D.) is called the least count of the

instrument, as it is the smallest distance that can be measured using

the instrument.

n V.S.D. = (n – 1) M.S.D.

Formulas Used

d

(a) Least count of vernier callipers

he

the magnitude of the smallest division on the main scale

=

the total number of small divisions on the vernier scale

pu T

is

m ass m m

(b) Density of a rectangular body = = = where m is

re R

volume V l.b.h

bl

its mass, l its length, b its breadth and h the height.

E

π D ′2

(c) The volume of a cylindrical (hollow) object V = πr2h' = . h'

4

be C

where h' is its internal depth, D' is its internal diameter and r is

its internal radius.

P

to N

ROCEDURE

(a) Measuring the diameter of a small spherical or cylindrical

©

body.

1. Keep the jaws of Vernier Callipers closed. Observe the zero mark of

the main scale. It must perfectly coincide with that of the vernier

scale. If this is not so, account for the zero error for all observations to

be made while using the instrument as explained on pages 26-27.

2. Look for the division on the vernier scale that coincides with a

division of main scale. Use a magnifying glass, if available and

note the number of division on the Vernier scale that coincides

t

with the one on the main scale. Position your eye directly over the

no

3. Gently loosen the screw to release the movable jaw. Slide it enough

to hold the sphere/cylindrical body gently (without any undue

pressure) in between the lower jaws AB. The jaws should be perfectly

perpendicular to the diameter of the body. Now, gently tighten the

screw so as to clamp the instrument in this position to the body.

4. Carefully note the position of the zero mark of the vernier scale

against the main scale. Usually, it will not perfectly coincide with

24

EXPERIMENT 1

UNIT NAME

any of the small divisions on the main scale. Record the main scale

division just to the left of the zero mark of the vernier scale.

5. Start looking for exact coincidence of a vernier scale division with

that of a main scale division in the vernier window from left end

(zero) to the right. Note its number (say) N, carefully.

6. Multiply 'N' by least count of the instrument and add the product

to the main scale reading noted in step 4. Ensure that the product

is converted into proper units (usually cm) for addition to be valid.

d

7. Repeat steps 3-6 to obtain the diameter of the body at different

positions on its curved surface. Take three sets of reading in

he

each case.

proper units. Apply zero correction, if need be.

pu T

is

9. Find the arithmetic mean of the corrected readings of the diameter

re R

of the body. Express the results in suitable units with appropriate

bl

number of significant figures.

E

(b) Measuring the dimensions of a regular rectangular body to

determine its density.

be C

1. Measure the length of the rectangular block (if beyond the limits

of the extended jaws of Vernier Callipers) using a suitable ruler.

Otherwise repeat steps 3-6 described in (a) after holding the block

to N

2. Repeat steps 3-6 stated in (a) to determine the other dimensions

©

positions.

rectangular block in tabular form [Table E 1.1 (b)] with proper

units and significant figures. Apply zero corrections wherever

necessary.

4. Find out the arithmetic mean of readings taken for length, breadth

and height separately.

t

[c] Measuring the internal diameter and depth of the given beaker

no

1. Adjust the upper jaws CD of the Vernier Callipers so as to touch

the wall of the beaker from inside without exerting undue pressure

on it. Tighten the screw gently to keep the Vernier Callipers in this

position.

2. Repeat the steps 3-6 as in (a) to obtain the value of internal diameter

of the beaker/calorimeter. Do this for two different (angular)

positions of the beaker.

25

LABORATORY MANUAL

LABORATORY MANUAL

the depth of the beaker, on its peripheral edge. This should be

done in such a way that the tip of the strip is able to go freely

inside the beaker along its depth.

4. Keep sliding the moving jaw of the Vernier Callipers until the strip

just touches the bottom of the beaker. Take care that it does so

while being perfectly perpendicular to the bottom surface. Now

tighten the screw of the Vernier Callipers.

d

5. Repeat steps 4 to 6 of part (a) of the experiment to obtain depth of

the given beaker. Take the readings for depth at different positions

he

of the breaker.

6. Record the observations in tabular form [Table E 1.1 (c)] with

proper units and significant figures. Apply zero corrections, if

pu T

required.

is

7. Find out the mean of the corrected readings of the internal diameter

re R

and depth of the given beaker. Express the result in suitable units

O bl

and proper significant figures.

E

BSERVATIONS

be C

1 main scale division (MSD) = 1 mm = 0.1 cm

to N

10 vernier scale divisions = 9 main scale divisions

©

Vernier constant = 1 main scale division – 1 vernier scale division

= 0.1 main scale division

Vernier constant (VC) = 0.1 mm = 0.01 cm

Alternatively,

t

no

1MSD 1 mm

Vernier constant = =

N 10

When the jaws A and B touch each other, the zero of the Vernier

should coincide with the zero of the main scale. If it is not so, the

instrument is said to possess zero error (e). Zero error may be

26

EXPERIMENT 1

UNIT NAME

Fig. E 1.2: Zero error (i) no zero error (ii) positive zero error

(iii) negative zero error

d

positive or negative, depending upon whether the zero of vernier

scale lies to the right or to the left of the zero of the main scale. This

he

is shown by the Fig. E1.2 (ii) and (iii). In this situation, a correction

is required to the observed readings.

(iii) Positive zero error

pu T

is

Fig E 1.2 (ii) shows an example of positive zero error. From the

figure, one can see that when both jaws are touching each other,

re R

zero of the vernier scale is shifted to the right of zero of the main

bl

scale (This might have happened due to manufacturing defect or

E

due to rough handling). This situation makes it obvious that while

taking measurements, the reading taken will be more than the

actual reading. Hence, a correction needs to be applied which is

be C

In ideal case, zero of vernier scale should coincide with zero of

to N

main scale. But in Fig. E 1.2 (ii), 5th vernier division is coinciding

with a main scale reading.

∴ Zero Error = + 5 × Least Count = + 0.05 cm

©

Hence, the zero error is positive in this case. For any measurements

done, the zero error (+ 0.05 cm in this example) should be

‘subtracted’ from the observed reading.

∴ True Reading = Observed reading – (+ Zero error)

(iv) Negative zero error

Fig. E 1.2 (iii) shows an example of negative zero error. From this

figure, one can see that when both the jaws are touching each

t

other, zero of the vernier scale is shifted to the left of zero of the

no

measurements, the reading taken will be less than the actual

reading. Hence, a correction needs to be applied which is

proportional to the left shift of zero of vernier scale.

In Fig. E 1.2 (iii), 5th vernier scale division is coinciding with a

main scale reading.

∴ Zero Error = – 5 × Least Count

= – 0.05 cm

27

LABORATORY MANUAL

LABORATORY MANUAL

For any measurements done, the negative zero error, ( –0.05 cm in

this example) is also substracted ‘from the observed reading’,

though it gets added to the observed value.

∴ True Reading = Observed Reading – (– Zero error)

Table E 1.1 (a): Measuring the diameter of a small spherical/

cylindrical body

d

S. Main Scale Number of Vernier scale Measured

No. reading, M coinciding reading, V = N × V C diameter, M + V

(cm/mm) vernier (cm/mm)

he

(cm/mm)

division, N

1

2

pu T

is

3

re R

4

E

Mean observed diameter = ... cm

be C

Table E 1.1 (b) : Measuring dimensions of a given regular body

to N

(rectangular block)

No. reading, M coinciding V = N × VC (cm/mm) dimension

©

division, N

1

Length (l) 2

3

1

Breadth (b) 2

3

t

1

2

no

Height ( h)

3

Mean observed length = ... cm, Mean observed breadth = ... cm

Mean observed height = ... cm

Corrected length = ... cm; Corrected breath = ... cm;

Corrected height = ...cm

28

EXPERIMENT 1

UNIT NAME

given beaker/ calorimeter/ cylindrical glass

No. reading, M coinciding V = N × VC (cm/mm) diameter depth,

(cm/mm) vernier M + V (cm/mm)

division, N

Internal 1

diameter 2

d

(D′) 3

he

1

Depth (h′) 2

3

pu T

is

Mean diameter = ... cm

re R

bl

Mean depth= ... cm

Corrected diameter = ... cm

E

Corrected depth = ... cm

be C

C ALCULATION

to N

D1 + D2 + ... + D6

Mean measured diameter, Do = cm

©

6

Do = ... cm = ... × 10–2 m

Corrected diameter of the given body, D = Do – ( ± e ) = ... × 10–2 m

(b) Measurement of length, breadth and height of the rectangular

block

l1 + l2 + l 3

Mean measured length, l o = cm

3

t

no

b1 + b 2 + b 3

Mean observed breadth, b o =

3

Mean measured breadth of the block, b0 = ... cm = ... × 10–2 m

Corrected breadth of the block,

b = bO – ( ± e ) cm = ... × 10–2 m

29

LABORATORY MANUAL

LABORATORY MANUAL

h1 + h 2 + h 3

Mean measured height of block h o =

3

V = lbh = ... cm3 = ... × 10–6 m3

Density ρ of the block,

d

m

ρ= =... kgm –3

he

V

pu T D1 + D2 + D3

is

Mean measured internal diameter, Do =

3

re R

bl

Do = ... cm = ... × 10–2 m

E

Corrected internal diameter,

D = Do – ( ± e ) = ... cm = ... × 10–2 m

be C

h1 + h2 + h3

Mean measured depth of the beaker, ho =

to N

©

h = h o – ( ± e ) ... cm = ... × 10–2 m

Internal volume of the beaker

π D2 h

V= =...×10 –6 m 3

4

R

ESULT

t

no

D = ... × 10 –2m

(b) Density of the given rectangular block,

ρ = ... kgm–3

(c) Internal volume of the given beaker

V'= ... m3

30

EXPERIMENT 1

UNIT NAME

P RECAUTIONS

1. If the vernier scale is not sliding smoothly over the main scale,

apply machine oil/grease.

2. Screw the vernier tightly without exerting undue pressure to avoid

any damage to the threads of the screw.

3. Keep the eye directly over the division mark to avoid any error

due to parallax.

d

4. Note down each observation with correct significant figures

he

and units.

SOURCES OF ERROR

pu T

is

Any measurement made using Vernier Callipers is likely to be

incorrect if-

re R

bl

(i) the zero error in the instrument placed is not accounted for; and

E

(ii) the Vernier Callipers is not in a proper position with respect to the

body, avoiding gaps or undue pressure or both.

D

be C

ISCUSSION

to N

types of measurement where the required dimension of the object

is freely accessible. It cannot be used in many situations. e.g.

©

If the diameter d is small - say 2 mm, neither the diameter nor

the depth of the hole can be measured with a Vernier Callipers.

2. It is also important to realise that use of Vernier Callipers for

measuring length/width/thickness etc. is essential only when

the desired degree of precision in the result (say determination

of the volume of a wire) is high. It is meaningless to use it where

precision in measurement is not going to affect the result much.

For example, in a simple pendulum experiment, to measure

t

S

no

ELF ASSESSMENT

1. One can undertake an exercise to know the level of skills developed

in making measurements using Vernier Callipers. Objects, such

as bangles/kangan, marbles whose dimensions can be measured

indirectly using a thread can be used to judge the skill acquired

through comparison of results obtained using both the methods.

2. How does a vernier decrease the least count of a scale.

31

LABORATORY MANUAL

LABORATORY MANUAL

ADDITIONAL EXERCISE

coincide with 19 MSD (each division of length 1 mm). Find the least

count of the vernier.

d

2. In vernier scale (angular) normally provided in spectrometers/sextant,

60 VSD coincide with 59 MSD (each division of angle 1°). Find the least

he

count of the vernier.

affected by increasing the number of divisions on its vernier scale?

pu T How can you find the value of π using a given cylinder and a pair of

is

4.

Vernier Callipers?

re R

[Hint : Using the Ver nier Callipers, - Measure the diameter D and find

bl

the circumference of the cylinder using a thread. Ratio of circumference

to the diameter (D) gives π.]

E

5. How can you find the thickness of the sheet used for making of a steel

tumbler using Ver nier Callipers?

be C

the tumbler. Then, thickness of the sheet Dt = (D o – Di )/2.]

t to N

©

no

32

EXPERIMENT 2

AIM

d

Use of screw gauge to

(a) measure diameter of a given wire,

he

(b) measure thickness of a given sheet; and

(c) determine volume of an irregular lamina.

pu T

APPARATUS AND MATERIAL REQUIRED

is

re R

bl

Wire, metallic sheet, irregular lamina, millimetre graph paper, pencil

and screw gauge.

E

D ESCRIPTION OF APPARATUS

be C

accurately up to 0.1 mm. More accurate measurement of length, up

to N

such a Screw Gauge is an

instrument of higher precision than

©

observed an ordinary screw [Fig E2.1

(a)]. There are threads on a screw. The

separation between any two

consecutive threads is the same. The

screw can be moved backward or

forward in its nut by rotating it anti-

Fig.E 2.1 A screw (a) without nut (b) with nut

clockwise or clockwise [Fig E2.1(b)].

The distance advanced by the screw

t

no

two consecutive threads. This

distance is called the Pitch of the

screw. Fig. E 2.1(a) shows the pitch

(p) of the screw. It is usually 1 mm

or 0.5 mm. Fig. E 2.2 shows a

screw gauge. It has a screw ’S’

which advances forward or

backward as one rotates the head Fig.E 2.2: View of a screw gauge

C through rachet R. There is a linear

LABORATORY MANUAL

LABORATORY MANUAL

the linear scale is 1 mm (in one type of screw gauge). There is a circular

scale CS on the head, which can be rotated. There are 100 divisions

on the circular scale. When the end B of the screw touches the surface

A of the stud ST, the zero marks on the main scale and the circular

scale should coincide with each other.

ZERO ERROR

When the end of the screw and the surface of the

d

stud are in contact with each other, the linear scale

and the circular scale reading should be zero. In

he

case this is not so, the screw gauge is said to have

an error called zero error.

Fig. E 2.3 shows an enlarged view of a screw gauge

is

mark of the LS and the CS are coinciding with each

other.

re R

bl When the reading on the circular scale across the

linear scale is more than zero (or positive), the

E

instrument has Positive zero error as shown in

Fig.E 2.3: A screw gauge with no zero error Fig. E 2.4 (a). When the reading of the circular scale

be C

the instrument is said to have negative zero error

as shown in Fig. E 2.4 (b).

to N

©

t

no

reading. For example, the linear scale reading as

shown in Fig. E 2.5, is 0.5 cm.

TAKING CIRCULAR SCALE READING

The division of circular scale which coincides with

Fig.E 2.5: Measuring thickness with a screw the main scale line is the reading of circular scale.

guage For example, in the Fig. E 2.5, the circular scale

reading is 2.

34

EXPERIMENT 2

UNIT NAME

TOTAL READING

Total reading

= linear scale reading + circular scale reading × least count

= 0.5 + 2 × 0.001

= 0.502 cm

PRINCIPLE

d

The linear distance moved by the screw is directly proportional to the

rotation given to it. The linear distance moved by the screw when it is

he

rotated by one division of the circular scale, is the least distance that

can be measured accurately by the instrument. It is called the least

count of the instrument.

pu T

is

pitch

Least count =

No. of divisions on circular scale

re R

bl

For example for a screw gauge with a pitch of 1mm and 100 divisions

on the circular scale. The least count is

E

1 mm/100 = 0.01 mm

be C

This is the smallest length one can measure with this screw gauge.

In another type of screw gauge, pitch is 0.5 mm and there are 50

to N

divisions on the circular scale. The least count of this screw gauge

is 0.5 mm/50 = 0.01 mm. Note that here two rotations of the

circular scale make the screw to advance through a distance of 1

©

mm. Some screw gauge have a least count of 0.001 mm (i.e. 10–6

m) and therefore are called micrometer screw.

(a) Measurement of Diameter of a Given Wire

PROCEDURE

1. Take the screw gauge and make sure that the rachet R on the

head of the screw functions properly.

t

2. Rotate the screw through, say, ten complete rotations and observe

no

reading on the linear scale marked by the edge of the circular

scale. Then, find the pitch of the screw, i.e., the distance moved by

the screw in one complete rotation. If there are n divisions on the

circular scale, then distance moved by the screw when it is rotated

through one division on the circular scale is called the least count

of the screw gauge, that is,

pitch

Least count =

n

35

LABORATORY MANUAL

LABORATORY MANUAL

3. Insert the given wire between the screw and the stud of the screw

gauge. Move the screw forward by rotating the rachet till the wire

is gently gripped between the screw and the stud as shown in

Fig. E 2.5. Stop rotating the rachet the moment you hear a click

sound.

4. Take the readings on the linear scale and the circular scale.

5. From these two readings, obtain the diameter of the wire.

6. The wire may not have an exactly

d

circular cross-section. Therefore. it is

necessary to measure the diameter of the

he

wire for two positions at right angles to

each other. For this, first record the

reading of diameter d1 [Fig. E 2.6 (a)]

is

the same cross-sectional position.

Record the reading for diameter d2 in this

re R

bl

position [Fig. E 2.6 (b)].

7. The wire may not be truly cylindrical.

E

Fig.E 2.6 (a): Two magnified views (a) and (b) of a wire

Therefore, it is necessary to measure the

showing its perpendicular diameters d1

and d2. d2 is obtained after the rotating diameter at several different places and

be C

the wire in the clockwise direction obtain the average value of diameter. For

through 90°. this, repeat the steps (3) to (6) for three

more positions of the wire.

to N

9. Substract zero error, if any, with proper sign to get the corrected

©

The length of the smallest division on the linear scale = ... mm

Distance moved by the screw when it is rotated

through x complete rotations, y = ... mm

y

t

no

Least Count (L.C.) of screw guage

pitch

= = ... mm

No. of divisions on the circular scale

36

EXPERIMENT 2

UNIT NAME

No. one direction along diameter

(d1 ) perpendicular

direction (d2) d1 + d2

d=

2

Linear Circular Diameter Linear Circular Diameter

scale scale d1 = M + n × L.C. scale scale d = M + n × L.C.

reading reading reading reading 2

d

M (mm) (n) (mm) M (mm) (n) (mm)

he

1

pu T

is

4

re R

bl

Mean diameter = ... mm

E

Mean corrected value of diameter

be C

R

to N

ESULT

The diameter of the given wire as measured by screw gauge is ... m.

P

©

RECAUTIONS

1. Rachet arrangement in screw gauge must be utilised to avoid undue

pressure on the wire as this may change the diameter.

2. Move the screw in one direction else the screw may develop “play”.

3. Screw should move freely without friction.

4. Reading should be taken atleast at four different points along the

t

no

5. View all the reading keeping the eye perpendicular to the scale to

avoid error due to parallax.

SOURCES OF ERROR

1. The wire may not be of uniform cross-section.

2. Error due to backlash though can be minimised but cannot be

completely eliminated.

37

LABORATORY MANUAL

LABORATORY MANUAL

BACKLASH ERROR

In a good instrument (either screw gauge or a spherometer) the

thread on the screw and that on the nut (in which the screw moves),

should tightly fit with each other. However, with repeated use,

the threads of both the screw and the nut may get worn out. As

a result a gap develops between these two threads, which is called

“play”. The play in the threads may introduce an error in

measurement in devices like screw gauge. This error is called

backlash error. In instruments having backlash error, the screw

d

slips a small linear distance without rotation. To prevent this, it

is advised that the screw should be moved in only one direction

he

while taking measurements.

3. The divisions on the linear scale and the circular scale may not be

evenly spaced.

D pu T

is

ISCUSSION

re R

bl

1. Try to assess if the value of diameter obtained by you is realistic

or not. There may be an error by a factor of 10 or 100 . You can

E

obtain a very rough estimation of the diameter of the wire by

measuring its thickness with an ordinary metre scale.

be C

S

to N

ELF ASSESSMENT

1. Is the screw gauge with smaller least count always better? If you

©

are given two screw gauges, one with 100 divisions on circular

scale and another with 200 divisions, which one would you prefer

and why?

2. Is there a situation in which the linear distance moved by the screw

is not proportional to the rotation given to it?

3. Is it possible that the zero of circular scale lies above the zero line

of main scale, yet the error is positive zero error?

4. For measurement of small lengths, why do we prefer screw gauge

t

no

2. Compare the ‘pitch’ of an ordinary screw with that of a screw guage.

In what ways are the two different?

3. Measure the diameters of petioles (stem which holds the leaf) of

different leaf and check if it has any relation with the mass or surface

area of the leaf. Let the petiole dry before measuring its diameter by

screw gauge.

38

EXPERIMENT 2

UNIT NAME

various make and relate it to their price structure.

5. Measure the pitch of the ‘screw’ end of different types of hooks and

check if it has any relation with the weight each one of these hooks

are expected to hold.

6. Measure the thickness of different glass bangles available in the

Market. Are they made as per some standard?

their diameters and relate the two. Find out various uses of wires of

each gauge number.

d

(b) Measurement of Thickness of a Given Sheet

he

PROCEDURE

pu T

1. Insert the given sheet between the studs of the screw gauge and

is

determine the thickness at five different positions.

re R

2. Find the average thickness and calculate the correct thickness by

bl

applying zero error following the steps followed earlier.

O

E

BSERVATIONS AND CALCULATION

be C

Zero error of screw gauge = ... mm

to N

©

t = M + n × L.C.

(mm) n

(mm)

1

4

t

5

no

Mean corrected thickness of the given sheet

= observed mean thickness – (zero error with sign) = ... mm

RESULT

The thickness of the given sheet is ... m.

39

LABORATORY MANUAL

LABORATORY MANUAL

S

OURCES OF ERROR

1. The sheet may not be of uniform thickness.

2. Error due to backlash though can be minimised but cannot be

eliminated completely.

D ISCUSSION

d

1. Assess whether the thickness of sheet measured by you is realistic

or not. You may take a pile of say 20 sheets, and find its thickness

he

using a metre scale and then calculate the thickness of one sheet.

2. What are the limitations of the screw gauge if it is used to measure

the thickness of a thick cardboard sheet?

pu T

is

SUGGESTED ADDITIONAL EXPERIMENTS/ACTIVITIES

re R

bl

1. Find out the thickness of different wood ply boards available in the

market and verify them with the specifications provided by the

supplier.

E

2. Measure the thickness of the steel sheets used in steel almirahs

manufactured by different suppliers and compare their prices. Is it

be C

sheets used?

3. Design a cardboard box for packing 144 sheets of paper and give

to N

its dimensions.

the stud and measure its thickness to find the thickness of one

©

sheet.

5. Find the thickness of plastic ruler/metal sheet of the geometry box.

P ROCEDURE

1. Find the thickness of lamina as in Experiment E 2(b).

2. Place the irregular lamina on a sheet of paper with mm graph.

Draw the outline of the lamina using a sharp pencil. Count the

t

no

total number of squares and also more than half squares within

the boundary of the lamina and determine the area of the lamina.

3. Obtain the volume of the lamina using the relation

mean thickness × area of lamina.

Same as in Experiment E 2(b). The first section of the table is now for

readings of thickness at five different places along the edge of the

40

EXPERIMENT 2

UNIT NAME

lamina. Calculate the mean thickness and make correction for zero

error, if any.

From the outline drawn on the graph paper:-

Total number of complete squares = ... mm2 = ... cm2

Volume of the lamina = ... mm3 = ... cm3

RESULT

d

Volume of the given lamina = ... cm3

he

SUGGESTED ADDITIONAL EXPERIMENTS/ACTIVITIES

pu T

2. Find the volume of a leaf (neem, bryophyte).

is

3. Find the volume of a cylindrical pencil.

re R

bl

E

be C

tto N

©

no

41

LABORATORY MANUAL

LABORATORY MANUAL

EXPERIMENT 3

AIM

d

To determine the radius of curvature of a given spherical surface by a

spherometer.

he

APPARATUS AND MATERIAL REQUIRED

pu T

A spherometer, a spherical surface such as a watch glass or a convex

is

mirror and a plane glass plate of about 6 cm × 6 cm size.

D

re R

bl

ESCRIPTION OF APPARATUS

E

A spherometer consists of a metallic triangular frame F supported on

three legs of equal length A, B and C (Fig. E 3.1). The lower tips of the

be C

and lie on the periphery of a base circle of known radius,

r. The spherometer also consists of a central leg OS (an

to N

through a threaded hole V (nut) at the centre of the frame

F. The lower tip of the central screw, when lowered to

©

the centre of triangle ABC. The central screw also carries

a circular disc D at its top having a circular scale divided

into 100 or 200 equal parts. A small vertical scale P

marked in millimetres or half-millimetres, called main

scale is also fixed parallel to the central screw, at one end

of the frame F. This scale P is kept very close to the rim of

disc D but it does not touch the disc D. This scale reads

the vertical distance which the central leg moves through

Fig. E 3.1: A spherometer the hole V. This scale is also known as pitch scale.

t

T

no

Pitch: It is the vertical distance moved by the central screw in one

complete rotation of the circular disc scale.

Commonly used spherometers in school laboratories have

graduations in millimetres on pitch scale and may have100 equal

divisions on circular disc scale. In one rotation of the circular scale,

the central screw advances or recedes by 1 mm. Thus, the pitch of

42 the screw is 1 mm.

EXPERIMENT 3

UNIT NAME

the spherometer screw when it is turned through one division on the

circular scale, i.e.,

Least count of the spherometer =

Number of divisions on the circular scale

However, some spherometers have least count as small as

d

0.005 mm or 0.001 mm.

he

RINCIPLE

FORMULA FOR THE RADIUS OF CURVATURE OF A SPHERICAL

SURFACE

pu T

is

Let the circle AOBXZY (Fig. E 3.2) represent the vertical section of

re R

sphere of radius R with E as its centre (The given spherical surface is

bl

a part of this sphere). Length OZ is the diameter (= 2R ) of this vertical

section, which bisects the chord AB. Points A and B are the positions

E

of the two spherometer legs on the given spherical surface. The position

of the third spherometer leg is not shown in Fig. E 3.2. The point O is

be C

the point of contact of the tip of central screw with the spherical surface.

Fig. E 3.3 shows

to N

equilateral triangle

ABC formed by the

tips of the three

©

spherometer legs.

From this figure, it

can be noted that the

point M is not only

the mid point of line

AB but it is the

centre of base circle

and centre of the

equilateral triangle

t

no

the spherometer (Fig.

E 3.1).

In Fig. E 3.2 the

distance OM is the

height of central Fig. E 3.2: Measurement of radius Fig. E 3.3: The base circle of

screw above the plane of curvature of a spheri- the spherometer

of the circular section cal surface

ABC when its lower

43

LABORATORY MANUAL

LABORATORY MANUAL

tip just touches the spherical surface. This distance OM is also called

sagitta. Let this be h. It is known that if two chords of a circle, such

as AB and OZ, intersect at a point M then the areas of the rectangles

described by the two parts of chords are equal. Then

AM.MB = OM.MZ

(AM)2 = OM (OZ – OM) as AM = MB

Let EZ (= OZ/2) = R, the radius of curvature of the given spherical

surface and AM = r, the radius of base circle of the spherometer.

d

r2 = h (2R – h)

he

r2 h

Thus, R= +

2h 2

pu T

is

Now, let l be the distance between any two legs of the spherometer or

re R

the side of the equilateral triangle ABC (Fig. E 3.3), then from geometry

bl

we have

E

l

Thus, r = , the radius of curvature (R) of the given spherical surface

be C

3

can be given by

to N

l2 h

R= +

6h 2

©

P

ROCEDURE

1. Note the value of one division on pitch scale of the given

spherometer.

2. Note the number of divisions on circular scale.

3. Determine the pitch and least count (L.C.) of the spherometer. Place

the given flat glass plate on a horizontal plane and keep the

t

no

note book) and press it lightly and take the impressions of the tips

of its three legs. Join the three impressions to make an equilateral

triangle ABC and measure all the sides of ΔABC. Calculate the

mean distance between two spherometer legs, l.

In the determination of radius of curvature R of the given spherical

surface, the term l 2 is used (see formula used). Therefore, great

care must be taken in the measurement of length, l.

44

EXPERIMENT 3

UNIT NAME

5. Place the given spherical surface on the plane glass plate and then

place the spherometer on it by raising or lowering the central screw

sufficiently upwards or downwards so that the three spherometer

legs may rest on the spherical surface (Fig. E 3.4).

6. Rotate the central screw till it gently touches the spherical surface.

To be sure that the screw touches the surface one can observe its

image formed due to

reflection from the surface

beneath it.

d

7. Take the spherometer

he

reading h 1 by taking the

reading of the pitch scale.

Also read the divisions of

the circular scale that is in

pu T

is

line with the pitch scale.

Record the readings in

re R

Table E 3.1.

bl

Fig.E 3.4: Measurement of sagitta h

8. Remove the spherical

E

surface and place the spherometer on plane glass plate. Turn the

central screw till its tip gently touches the glass plate. Take the

spherometer reading h 2 and record it in Table E 3.1. The difference

be C

9. Repeat steps (5) to (8) three more times by rotating the spherical

to N

OBSERVATIONS

©

(i) Value of smallest division on the vertical pitch scale = ... mm

circular disc = ... mm

(iii) Pitch of the screw ( = q / p ) = ... mm

t

no

Pitch of the spherometer screw

=

Number of divisionson the circu lar scale

N

45

LABORATORY MANUAL

LABORATORY MANUAL

(i) Distance AB = ... cm

(ii) Distance BC = ... cm

(iii) Distance CA = ... cm

AB + BC +CA

Mean l = = ... cm

3

d

Table E 3.1 Measurement of sagitta h

he

S. Spherometer readings (h1 – h2 )

No.

With Spherical Surface Horizontal Plane Surface

pu T

is

Pitch Circular Circular Spherometer Pitch Circular Circular Spherometer

Scale scale scale reading with Scale scale scale reading with

re R

reading division reading spherical reading division reading spherical

x (cm) coinciding

with pitch

bl z =y × L.C. surface

(cm) h1 = x + z

x1 (cm) coinciding

with pitch

surface

z ′=y × L.C. h =x′ + z ′

E

2

scale y (cm) scale y ′ (cm) (cm)

be C

to N

©

Mean h = ... cm

C ALCULATIONS

A. Using the values of l and h, calculate the radius of curvature R

from the formula:

l2 h

R=

t

+ ;

6h 2

no

the term h/2 may safely be dropped in case of surfaces of large radii

⎛ 2⎞

of curvature (In this situation error in ⎜ l ⎟ is of the order of h/2).

⎜⎝ 6h ⎟⎠

R ESULT

The radius of curvature R of the given spherical surface is ... cm.

46

EXPERIMENT 3

UNIT NAME

P RECAUTIONS

1. The screw may have friction.

2. Spherometer may have backlash error.

SOURCES OF ERROR

1. Parallax error while reading the pitch scale corresponding to the

d

level of the circular scale.

he

2. Backlash error of the spherometer.

3. Non-uniformity of the divisions in the circular scale.

4. While setting the spherometer, screw may or may not be touching

pu T

is

the horizontal plane surface or the spherical surface.

D

re R

ISCUSSION

bl

E

Does a given object, say concave mirror or a convex mirror, have the

same radius of curvature for its two surfaces? [Hint: Does the thickness

be C

to N

using a spherometer.

©

a card sheet – a screw gauge or a spherometer?

t

no

47

LABORATORY MANUAL

LABORATORY MANUAL

EXPERIMENT 4

A

IM

d

To determine mass of two different objects using a beam balance.

he

A

PPARATUS AND MATERIAL REQUIRED

Physical balance, weight box with a set of milligram masses and

pu T

is

forceps, spirit level and two objects whose masses are to be determined.

D

re R

bl

ESCRIPTION OF PHYSICAL BALANCE

E

A physical balance is a device that measures the weight (or gravitational

mass) of an object by comparing it with a standard weight (or standard

be C

gravitational mass).

The most commonly used two-pan beam

to N

of a rigid uniform bar (beam), two pans

suspended from each end, and a pivotal point

in the centre of the bar (Fig. E 4.1). At this pivotal

©

angles to the beam. This beam balance works

on the principle of moments.

For high precision measurements, a physical

balance (Fig. E 4.2) is often used in laboratories.

Like a common beam balance, a physical

balance too consists of a pair of scale pans P1

and P2, one at each end of a rigid beam B. The

pans P1 and P2 are suspended through stirrups

t

no

Fig. E 4.1: A beam balance and set of weights E 1 and E2, respectively, provided symmetrically

near the end of the beam B. The beam is also

provided with a hard material (like agate) knife-

edge (E) fixed at the centre pointing downwards

and is supported on a vertical pillar (V) fixed on a wooden baseboard

(W). The baseboard is provided with three levelling screws W1, W2 and

W3. In most balances, screws W1 and W2 are of adjustable heights and

through these the baseboard W is levelled horizontally. The third screw

W3, not visible in Fig. E 4.2, is not of adjustable height and is fixed in

48 the middle at the back of board W. When the balance is in use, the

EXPERIMENT 4

UNIT NAME

knife-edge E rests on a

plane horizontal plate

fixed at the top of pillar

V. Thus, the central

edge E acts as a pivot

or fulcrum for the beam

B. When the balance is

not in use, the beam

rests on the supports

X 1 and X 2, These

d

supports, X 1 and X 2,

are fixed to another

he

horizontal bar attached

with the central pillar V.

Also, the pans P1 and

pu T

P 2 rest on supports A1

is

and A2, respectively,

Fig. E 4.2: A physical balance and a weight box

re R

fixed on the wooden

bl

baseboard. In some

balances, supports Al and A2 are not fixed and in that case the pans

E

rest on board W, when the balance is not in use.

At the centre of beam B, a pointer P is also fixed at right angles to it. A

be C

attached from outside with the board W. With the help of this knob,

to N

simultaneously. Thus, at the 'ON' position of the knob K, the beam

B also gets raised and is then suspended only by the knife-edge E

and oscillates freely. Along with the beam, the pans P1 and P2 also

©

can be observed by the motion of the pointer P with reference to a

scale (G) provided at the base of the pillar V. When the knob K is

turned back to 'OFF' position, the beam rests on supports X1 and X2

keeping the knife-edge E and plate T slightly separated; and the

pans P1 and P2 rest on supports A1 and A2 respectively. In the 'OFF'

position of the knob K, the entire balance is said to be arrested.

Such an arresting arrangement protects the knife-edges from undue

wear and tear and injury during transfer of masses (unknown and

t

no

On turning the knob K slowly to its ‘ON’ position, when there are no

masses in the two pans, the oscillatory motion (or swing) of the

pointer P with reference to the scale G must be same on either side

of the zero mark on G. And the pointer must stop its oscillatory

motion at the zero mark. It represents the vertical position of the

pointer P and horizontal position of the beam B. However, if the

swing is not the same on either side of the zero mark, the two

balancing screws B1 and B2 at the two ends of the beam are adjusted.

The baseboard W is levelled horizontal1y to make the pillar V vertical.

49

LABORATORY MANUAL

LABORATORY MANUAL

This setting is checked with the help of plumb line (R) suspended by

the side of pillar V. The appartus is placed in a glass case with two

doors.

For measuring the gravitational mass of an object using a physical

balance, it is compared with a standard mass. A set of standard

masses (100 g, 50 g, 20 g, 10g, 5 g, 2 g, and 1 g) along with a pair of

forceps is contained in a wooden box called Weight Box. The masses

are arranged in circular grooves as shown in Fig. E 4.2. A set of

milligram masses (500 mg, 200 mg, 100 mg, 50 mg, 20 mg 10 mg,

d

5 mg, 2 mg, and 1 mg) is also kept separately in the weight box. A

physical balance is usually designed to measure masses of bodies

he

up to 250 g.

P

RINCIPLE

pu T

is

The working of a physical balance is based on the principle of

re R

moments. In a balance, the two arms are of equal length and the two

bl

pans are also of equal masses. When the pans are empty, the beam

remains horizontal on raising the beam base by using the lower knob.

E

When an object to be weighed is placed in the left pan, the beam

turns in the anticlockwise direction. Equilibrium can be obtained

be C

Since, the force arms are equal, the weight (i.e., forces) on the two

pans have to be equal.

to N

A physical balance compares forces. The forces are the weights (mass

× acceleration due to gravity) of the objects placed in the two pans of

the physical balance. Since the weights are directly proportional to

©

is used for the comparison of gravitational masses. Thus, if an object

O having gravitational mass m is placed in one pan of the physical

balance and a standard mass O′ of known gravitational mass ms is

put in the other pan to keep the beam the horizontal, then

Weight of body O in one pan = Weight of body O′ in other pan

Or, mg = msg

where g is the acceleration due to gravity, which is constant. Thus,

t

no

m = ms

That is,

the mass of object O in one pan = standard mass in the other pan

P

ROCEDURE

1. Examine the physical balance and recognise all of its parts. Check

that every part is at its proper place.

50

EXPERIMENT 4

UNIT NAME

2. Check that set of the weight, both in gram and milligram, in the

weight box are complete.

4. Check the functioning of arresting mechanism of the beam B by

means of the knob K.

horizontally with the help of the levelling screws W1 and W2. In

levelled position, the lower tip of the plumb line R should be

d

exactly above the fixed needle point N. Use a spirit level for this

purpose.

he

6. Close the shutters of the glass case provided for covering the

balance and slowly raise the beam B using the knob K.

pu T

7. Observe the oscillatory motion of the pointer P with reference to

is

the small scale G fixed at the foot of the vertical pillar V. In case,

re R

the pointer does not start swinging, give a small gentle jerk to

bl

one of the pans. Fix your eye perpendicular to the scale to avoid

parallax. Caution: Do not touch the pointer.

E

8. See the position of the pointer P. Check that it either stops at the

central zero mark or moves equally on both sides of the central

be C

and B2 placed at the two ends of the beam B so that the pointer

to N

the central zero mark. Caution: Arrest the balance before

adjusting the balancing screws.

©

9 . Open the shutter of the glass case of the balance. Put the

object whose mass (M) is to be measured in the left hand

pan and add a suitable standard mass say M1, (which may

be more than the rough estimate of the mass of the object)

in the right hand pan of the balance in its rest (or arrested)

position, i.e., when the beam B is lowered and allowed to

rest on stoppers X l and X2. Always use forceps for taking

out the standard mass from the weight box and for putting

them back.

t

no

ease in handling the standard masses. A left handed person may

prefer to keep the object on right hand pan and standard masses

on left hand pan. It is also advised to keep the weight box near

the end of board W on the side of the pan being used for putting

the standard masses.

10. Using the knob K, gently raise the beam (now the beam’s knife

edge E will rest on plate T fixed on the top of the pillar V) and

observe the motion of the pointer P. It might rest on one side of

51

LABORATORY MANUAL

LABORATORY MANUAL

to the central zero mark on the scale G.

Note: Pans should not swing while taking the observations. The

swinging of pans may be stopped by carefully touching the pan

with the finger in the arresting position of the balance.

11. Check whether M1 is more than M or less. For this purpose, the

beam need to be raised to the full extent.

d

12. Arrest the physical balance. Using forceps, replace the standard

masses kept in the right pan by another mass (say M2). It should

he

be lighter if M1 is more than the mass M and vice versa.

13. Raise the beam and observe the motion of the pointer P and check

whether the standard mass kept on right hand pan is still heavier

pu T

(or lighter) than the mass M so that the pointer oscillates more in

is

one direction. If so, repeat step 12 using standard masses in gram

till the pointer swings nearly equal on both sides of the central

re R

bl

zero mark on scale G. Make the standard masses kept on right

hand pan to be slightly lesser than the mass of object. This would

E

result in the measurement of mass M of object with a precision of

1 g. Lower the beam B.

be C

in the right hand pan in descending order until the pointer

to N

central zero mark on scale G (use forceps to pick the milligram

or fractional masses by their turned-up edge). In the

equilibrium position (i.e., when the masses kept on both the

©

pans are equal), the pointer will rest at the centre zero mark.

Close the door of the glass cover to prevent disturbances due

to air draughts.

Note: The beam B of the balance should not be raised to the full

extent until milligram masses are being added or removed.

Pointer’s position can be seen by lifting the beam very gently and

for a short moment.

15. Arrest the balance and take out masses from the right hand pan

t

no

their proper slot in the weight box. Also remove the object from

the left hand pan.

16. Repeat the step 9 to step 15 two more times for the same object.

17. Repeat steps 9 to 15 and determine the mass of the second given

object.

Record the observations for the second object in the table similar to

Table E 4.1.

52

EXPERIMENT 4

UNIT NAME

O BSERVATIONS

TABLE E 4.1: Mass of First Object

No.

Gram weights, x Milligram weights, y

(g) (mg) (g)

d

1

2

he

3

pu T

is

TABLE E 4.2: Mass of Second Object

re R

S. Standard mass Mass of the object (x + y)

bl

No.

E

Gram weights, x Milligram weights, y

(g) (mg) (g)

1

be C

2

to N

R

©

ESULT

The mass of the first given object is ... g and that of the second

object is ... g.

PRECAUTIONS

1. The correctness of mass determined by a physical balance depends

on minimising the errors, which may arise due to the friction between

t

no

plate is smooth. The friction between other parts of the balance may

be minimised by keeping all the parts of balance dry and clean.

2. Masses should always be added in the descending order of

magnitude. Masses should be placed in the centre of the pan.

3. The balance should not be loaded with masses more than

capacity. Usually a physical balance is designed to measure

masses upto 250 g.

53

LABORATORY MANUAL

LABORATORY MANUAL

be avoided. Similarly, active substances like chemicals, liquids

and powders should not be kept directly on the pan.

S

OURCES OF ERROR

1. There is always some error due to friction at various parts of the

balance.

2. The accuracy of the physical balance is 1 mg. This limits the

d

possible instrumental error.

he

D ISCUSSION

The deviation of experimental value from the given value may be due

pu T

is

to many factors.

1. The forceps used to load/unload the weights might contain dust

re R

bl

particles sticking to it which may get transferred to the weight.

2. Often there is a general tendancy to avoid use of levelling and

E

balancing screws to level the beam/physical balance just before

using it.

be C

S

ELF ASSESSMENT

to N

accurate measurement?

©

2. There are two physical balances: one with equal arms and other

with unequal arms. Which one should be preferred? What

additional steps do you need to take to use a physical balance

with unequal arms.

3. The minimum mass that can be used from the weight box is 10 g.

Find the possible instrumental error.

4. Instead of placing the mass (say a steel block) on the pan, suppose

it is hanged from the same hook S1 on which the pan P1 is hanging.

t

no

verification of Archimedes principle:

Hint: First hang the small block (say steel block) from hook S1 and

determine its mass in air. Now put the hanging block in a half water -

filled measuring cylinder. Measure the mass of block in water. Will it

be same, more or less? Also detemine the volume of steel block.

Find the density of the material of the block. From the measured

masses of the steel block in air and water, verify Archimedes principle.

54

EXPERIMENT

UNIT NAME

EXPERIMENT 5

AIM

d

Measurement of the weight of a given body (a wooden block) using

he

the parallelogram law of vector addition.

pu T

is

The given body with hook, the parallelogram law of vector apparatus

(Gravesand's apparatus), strong thread, slotted weights (two sets),

re R

bl

white paper, thin mirror strip, sharp pencil.

D

E

ESCRIPTION OF MATERIAL

be C

vertically on two wooden pillars as shown in Fig. E 5.1 (a). Two pulleys

P1 and P2 are provided on its two sides near the upper edge of the

to N

made to pass over the pulleys so that two forces P and Q can be applied

by adding weights in the hangers. By suspending the given object,

©

force X is applied.

t

no

55

LABORATORY MANUAL

LABORATORY MANUAL

P

RINCIPLE

Working of this apparatus is based on the parallelogram law of

vector addition. The law states that "when two forces act

simultaneously at a point and are represented in magnitude and

direction by the two adjacent sides of a parallelogram, then the

resultant of forces can be represented both in magnitude and

direction by the diagonal of the parallelogram passing through the

point of application of the two forces.

d

Let P and Q be the magnitudes of the two forces and θ the angle be-

he

tween them. Then the resultant R of P and Q is given by

R = P 2 + Q2 + 2 PQ cosθ

pu T

is

If two known forces P and Q and a third unknown force due to the

weight of the given body are made to act at a point O [Fig. 5.1 (a)]

re R

such that they are in equilibrium, the unknown force is equal to

bl

the resultant of the two forces. Thus, the weight of a given body

can be found.

E

P

ROCEDURE

be C

to N

smoothly. Fix a sheet of white paper on the wooden board with

drawing pins.

©

2. Take a sufficiently long piece of string and tie the two hangers at

its ends. Tie another shorter string in the middle of the first string

to make a knot at 'O'. Tie the body of unknown weight at the

other end of the string. Arrange them on the pulley as shown in

Fig. E 5.1 (a) with slotted weights on the hangers.

3. Add weights in the hangers such that the junction of the threads

is in equilibrium in the lower half of the paper. Make sure that

neither the weights nor the threads touch the board or

the table.

t

no

this, first bring the knot to a point rather wide off its position of

no-friction. On leaving there, it moves towards the position of

no-friction because it is not in equilibrium. While it so moves,

tap the board gently. The point where the knot thus come to rest

is taken as the position of no-friction, mark this point. Repeat

the procedure several times. Each time let the knot approach the

position of no-friction from a different direction and mark the

point where it comes to rest. Find by judgement the centre of

those points which are close together. Mark this centre as O.

56

EXPERIMENT 5

UNIT NAME

mirror strip below the string on the paper . Adjust the position of

the eye such that there is no parallax between the string and its

image. Mark the two points A1 and A2 at the edges of the mirror

where the image of the string leaves the mirror [Fig E 5.1 (b)].

Similarly, mark the directions of other two forces by points B1 and

B2 and by points X 1 and X2 along the strings OB and OX

respectively.

d

6. Remove the hangers and note the weight of each hanger and slotted

weights on them.

he

7. Place the board flat on the table with paper on it. Join the three

pairs of points marked on the paper and extend these lines to

meet at O. These three lines represent the directions of the three

pu T

forces.

is

8. Choose a suitable scale, say 0.5 N (50 g wt) = 1cm and cut off

re R

length OA and OB to represent forces P and Q respectively acting

bl

at point O. With OA and OB as adjacent sides, complete the

parallelogram OACB. Ensure that the scale chosen is such that

E

the parallelogram covers the maximum area of the sheet.

be C

the given body. See whether OC is along the straight line XO. If

not, let it meet BC at some point C′. Measure the angle COC′.

to N

and calculate the mean value of the unknown weight.

O

©

BSERVATIONS

Weight of each hanger = ... N

Scale, 1cm = ... N

No. of (hanger + of (hanger + = L weight X =

t

no

weight)

P OA Q OB (cm) (N)

(N) (cm) (N) (cm)

1

2

3

57

LABORATORY MANUAL

LABORATORY MANUAL

R ESULT

The weight of the given body is found to be ... N.

P RECAUTIONS

1. Board of Gravesand's apparatus is perpendicular to table on which

it is placed, by its construction. Check up by plumb line that it is

d

vertical. If it is not, make table top horizontal by putting packing

below appropriate legs of table.

he

2. Take care that pulleys are free to rotate, i.e., have little friction

between pulley and its axle.

S pu T

is

OURCES OF ERROR

re R

bl

1. Friction at the pulleys may persist even after oiling.

E

3. Slight inaccuracy may creep in while marking the position of

be C

thread.

D

to N

ISCUSSION

1. The Gravesand's apparatus can also be used to verify the

parallelogram law of vector addition for forces as well as

©

same procedure by replacing the unknown weight by a

standard weight.

2. The method described above to find the point of no-friction for the

junction of three threads is quite good experimentally. If you like

to check up by an alternative method, move the junction to

extreme left, extreme right, upper most and lower most positions

where it can stay and friction is maximum. The centre of these

t

no

In addition to the three forces due to weight, there is a fourth

force due to friction. These four are in equilibrium. Thus, the

resultant of P and Q may not be vertically upwards, i.e., exactly

opposite to the direction of X.

balance as slotted weights may have large error in their marked

value. Also check up the result for X by spring balance.

58

EXPERIMENT 5

UNIT NAME

SELF ASSESSMENT

1. State parallelogram law of vector addition.

2. Given two forces, what could be the

(a) Maximum magnitude of resultant force.

(b) Minimum magnitude of resultant force.

d

3. In which situation this parallelogram can be a rhombus.

4. If all the three forces are equal in magnitude, how will the

he

parallelogram modify?

5. When the knot is in equilibrium position, is any force acting on

the pulleys?

pu T

is

SUGGESTED ADDITIONAL EXPERIMENTS/ACTIVITIES

re R

bl 1. Interchange position of the body of unknown weight with either of

the forces and then find out the weight of that body.

E

2. Keeping the two forces same and by varying the unknown weight,

study the angle between the two forces.

be C

given cylinder using parallelogram law of vectors.

to N

(d) Kite (e) Cycle pedalling

t ©

no

59

LABORATORY MANUAL

LABORATORY MANUAL

EXPERIMENT 6

AIM

d

Using a Simple Pendulum plot L – T and L – T2 graphs, hence find the

he

effective length of second's pendulum using appropriate graph.

pu T

is

Clamp stand; a split cork; a heavy metallic (brass/iron) spherical bob

re R

with a hook; a long, fine, strong cotton thread/string (about 2.0 m);

D bl

stop-watch; metre scale, graph paper, pencil, eraser.

E

ESCRIPTION OF TIME MEASURING DEVICES IN A SCHOOL LABORATORY

be C

laboratory is a stop-watch or a stop-clock (analog). As the names

to N

desired by the experimenter.

(a) Stop-Watch

©

Analog

A stop-watch is a special kind of watch. It has a multipurpose knob

or button (B) for start/stop/back to zero position [Fig. E 6.1(b)]. It has

two circular dials, the bigger one for a longer second’s hand

and the other smaller one for a shorter minute’s hand. The

second’s dial has 30 equal divisions, each division repre-

senting 0.1 second. Before using a stop-watch you should

find its least count. In one rotation, the seconds hand covers

30 seconds (marked by black colour) then in the second

t

no

(b) Stop-Clock

The least count of a stop-watch is generally about 0.1s [Fig.

E 6.1(b)] while that of a stop-clock is 1s, so for more accurate

measurement of time intervals in a school laboratory, a

stop-watch is preferred. Digital stop-watches are also

available now. These watches may be started by pressing

Fig.E 6.1(a): Stop - Watch

the button and can be stopped by pressing the same button

60

EXPERIMENT 6

UNIT NAME

displayed by the watch.

1. Second's pendulum: It is a pendulum which

takes precisely one second to move from one

extreme position to other. Thus, its times period

is precisely 2 seconds.

d

2. Simple pendulum: A point mass suspended by

an inextensible, mass less string from a rigid

he

Fig.E 6.1(b): Stop - Clock

point support. In practice a small heavy

spherical bob of high density material of radius

r, much smaller than the length of the suspension, is suspended

pu T

by a light, flexible and strong string/thread supported at the other

is

end firmly with a clamp stand. Fig. E 6.2 is a good approximation

re R

to an ideal simple pendulum.

bl

3. Effective length of the pendulum: The distance L between the

E

point of suspension and the centre of spherical bob (centre of

gravity), L = l + r + e, is also called the effective length where l is the

length of the string from the top of the bob to the hook, e, the

be C

P

to N

RINCIPLE

The simple pendulum executes Simple Harmonic Motion (SHM)

©

its displacement from the mean position and is always directed

towards it.

The time period (T) of a simple pendulum for oscillations of small

amplitude, is given by the relation

T = 2π L / g (E 6.1)

to gravity at the place of experiment.

t

no

4 π2 L (E 6.2)

T2 =

P

g

ROCEDURE

1. Place the clamp stand on the table. Tie the hook, attached to

the pendulum bob, to one end of the string of about 150 cm in

length. Pass the other end of the string through two half-pieces

of a split cork.

61

LABORATORY MANUAL

LABORATORY MANUAL

2. Clamp the split cork firmly in the clamp stand such that the line of

separation of the two pieces of the split cork is at right angles to

the line OA along which the pendulum oscillates [Fig. E 6.2(a)].

Mark, with a piece of chalk or ink, on the edge of the table a vertical

line parallel to and just behind the vertical thread OA, the position

of the bob at rest. Take care that the bob hangs vertically (about

2 cm above the floor) beyond the edge of the table so that it is free

to oscillate.

3 . Measure the effective length of simple pendulum as shown

d

in Fig. E 6.2(b).

he

pu T

is

re R

bl

E

be C

to N

©

Fig.E 6.2 (a): A simple pendulum; B and C show Fig.E 6.2 (b): Effective length of a

the extreme positions simple pendulum

4. Displace the bob to one side, not more than 15 degrees angular

displacement, from the vertical position OA and then release it gently.

In case you find that the stand is shaky, put some heavy object on

its base. Make sure that the bob starts oscillating in a vertical plane

t

about its rest (or mean) position OA and does not (i) spin about its

no

own axis, or (ii) move up and down while oscillating, or (iii) revolve

in an elliptic path around its mean position.

5. Keep the pendulum oscillating for some time. After completion of

a few oscillations, start the stop-watch/clock as the thread attached

to the pendulum bob just crosses its mean position (say, from left

to right). Count it as zero oscillation.

6. Keep on counting oscillations 1,2,3,…, n, everytime the bob crosses

the mean position OA in the same direction (from left to right).

62

EXPERIMENT 6

UNIT NAME

oscillations, i.e., just when n oscillations are complete. For better

results, n should be chosen such that the time taken for n

oscillations is 50 s or more. Read, the total time (t) taken by the

bob for n oscillations. Repeat this observation a few times by noting

the time for same number (n) of oscillations. Take the mean of

these readings. Compute the time for one oscillation, i.e., the time

period T ( = t/n) of the pendulum.

7. Change the length of the pendulum, by about 10 cm. Repeat the

d

step 6 again for finding the time (t) for about 20 oscillations or

more for the new length and find the mean time period. Take 5 or

he

6 more observations for different lengths of penduLum and find

mean time period in each case.

8. Record observations in the tabular form with proper units and

pu T

is

significant figures.

9. Take effective length L along x-axis and T 2 (or T) along y-axis,

re R

bl

using the observed values from Table E 6.1. Choose suitable scales

on these axes to represent L and T 2 (or T ). Plot a graph between

E

L and T 2 (as shown in Fig. E 6.4) and also between L and T (as

shown in Fig. E 6.3). What are the shapes of L –T 2 graph and L –T

graph? Identify these shapes.

be C

OBSERVATIONS

to N

Length of the hook (given) (e) = ... cm

©

Least count of the stop-watch/clock = ... s

L of the simple pendulum

No. string from the length, L = oscillations t (s) period T

t

no

the point of

suspension l

t (s)

63

LABORATORY MANUAL

LABORATORY MANUAL

P

LOTTING GRAPH

(i) L vs T graphs

Plot a graph between L versus T from observations recorded in

Table E 6.1, taking L along x-axis and T along y-axis. You will

find that this graph is a curve, which is part of a parabola as

shown in Fig. E 6.3.

(ii) L vs T 2 graph

d

Plot a graph between L versus T 2 from observations recorded in

he

Table E 6.1, taking L along x-axis and T 2 along y-axis. You will

find that the graph is a straight line passing through origin as shown

in Fig. E. 6.4.

pu T

(iii) From the T 2 versus L graph locate the effective length of second's

is

pendulum for T 2 = 4s2.

re R

bl

E

be C

to N

©

R ESULT

1. The graph L versus T is curved, convex upwards.

2. The graph L versus T 2 is a straight line.

t

no

is ... cm.

Note : The radius of bob may be found from its measured

diameter with the help of callipers by placing the pendulum bob

between the two jaws of (a) ordinary callipers, or (b) Ver nier

Callipers, as described in Experiment E 1.1 (a). It can also be

found by placing the spherical bob between two parallel card

boards and measuring the spacing (diameter) or distance between

them with a metre scale.

64

EXPERIMENT 6

UNIT NAME

D ISCUSSION

1. The accuracy of the result for the length of second's pendulum

depends mainly on the accuracy in measurement of effective length

(using metre scale) and the time period T of the pendulum (using

stop-watch). As the time period appears as T 2 in Eq. E 6.2, a small

uncertainty in the measurement of T would result in appreciable

error in T 2, thereby significantly affecting the result. A stop-watch

with accuracy of 0.1s may be preferred over a less accurate

d

stop-watch/clock.

he

2. Some personal error is always likely to be involved due to stop-watch

not being started or stopped exactly at the instant the bob crosses

the mean position. Take special care that you start and stop the

stop-watch at the instant when pendulum bob just crosses the

pu T

is

mean position in the same direction.

re R

3. Sometimes air currents may not be completely eliminated. This

bl

may result in conical motion of the bob, instead of its motion in

vertical plane. The spin or conical motion of the bob may cause a

E

twist in the thread, thereby affecting the time period. Take special

care that the bob, when it is taken to one side of the rest position,

be C

4. To suspend the bob from the rigid support, use a thin, light, strong,

to N

string is likely to cause some error in the effective length of the

pendulum.

©

5. The simple pendulum swings to and fro in SHM about the mean,

equilibrium position. Eq. (E 6.1) that expresses the relation

between T and L as T = 2π L / g , holds strictly true for small

amplitude or swing θ of the pendulum.

Remember that this relation is based on the assumption that sin

θ ≈ θ, (expressed in radian) holds only for small angular

displacement θ .

6. Buoyancy of air and viscous drag due to air slightly increase the

t

no

(such as iron/ steel/brass).

SELF ASSESSMENT

1. Interpret the graphs between L and T 2, and also between L and T

that you have drawn for a simple pendulum.

2. Examine, using Table E 6.1, how the time period T changes as the

65

LABORATORY MANUAL

LABORATORY MANUAL

and so on.

3. How can you determine the value of 'g', acceleration due to gravity,

from the T 2 vs L graph?

from the L – T 2 graph, for a simple pendulum.

d

2. Studying the effect of size of the bob on the time period of the

simple pendulum.

he

[Hint: With the same experimental set-up, take a few spherical

bobs of same material (density) but of different sizes (diameters).

Keep the length of the pendulum the same for each case. Clamp

the bobs one by one, and starting from a small angular displacement

of about 10o, each time measure the time for 50 oscillations. Find

pu T

is

out the time period of the pendulum using bobs of different sizes.

Compensate for difference in diameter of the bob by adjusting the

re R

length of the thread.

bl

Does the time period depend on the size of the pendulum bob? If

yes, see the order in which the change occurs.]

E

3. Studying the effect of material (density) of the bob on the time

period of the simple pendulum.

be C

bobs (balls) of different materials, but of same size. Keep the

length of the pendulum the same for each case. Find out, in each

to N

time period of the pendulum using bobs of different materials,

©

pendulum bob? If yes, see the order in which the change occurs.

If not, then do you see an additional reason to use the pendulum

for time measurement.]

4. Studying the effect of mass of the bob on the time period of the

simple pendulum.

different materials (different masses) but of same size. Keep the

length of the pendulum same for each case. Starting from a small

angular displacement of about 10° find out, in each case, the time

period of the pendulum, using bobs of different masses.

t

Does the time period depend on the mass of the pendulum bob? If

no

yes, then see the order in which the change occurs. If not, then

do you see an additional reason to use the pendulum as a time

measuring device.]

the simple pendulum.

[Hint: With the same experimental set-up, keep the mass of the

bob and length of the pendulum fixed. For measuring the angular

amplitude, make a large protractor on the cardboard and have a

scale marked on an arc from 0° to 90° in units of 5°. Fix it on the

edge of a table by two drawing pins such that its 0°- line coincides

66

EXPERIMENT 6

UNIT NAME

pendulum oscillating with a very large angular amplitude (say 70°)

and find the time period T of the pendulum. Change the amplitude

of oscillation of the bob in small steps of 5° or 10° and determine

the time period in each case till the amplitude becomes small (say

5°). Draw a graph between angular amplitude and T. How does

the time period of the pendulum change with the amplitude of

oscillation?

How much does the value of T for A = 10° differ from that for A=

50° from the graph you have drawn?

d

Find at what amplitude of oscillation , the time period begins to vary?

he

pendulum.]

varying mass (e.g. by filling the hollow bob with sand, sand being

drained out in steps)

pu T

is

[Hint: The change in T, if any, in this experiment will be so small

that it will not be possible to measure it due to the following reasons:

re R

bl

The centre of gravity (CG) of a hollow sphere is at the centre of the

sphere. The length of this simple pendulum will be same as that of

E

a solid sphere (same size) or that of the hollow sphere filled

completely with sand (solid sphere).

Drain out some sand from the sphere. The situation is as shown in

be C

Fig. E. 6.5. The CG of bob now goes down to point say A. The

effective length of the pendulum increases and therefore the T A

increases (TA > TO), some more sand is drained out, the CG goes

to N

increasing T .

©

(increasing), until finally the entire sand is drained out. The bob is

now a hollow sphere with CG shifting back to centre C. The time

period will now become T0 again.]

C

t

A

no

Sand

B

hollow bob on time period of the pendulum;

sand being drained out of the bob in steps.

67

LABORATORY MANUAL

LABORATORY MANUAL

EXPERIMENT 7

AIM

d

To study the relation between force of limiting friction and normal

he

reaction and to find the coefficient of friction between surface of a

moving block and that of a horizontal surface.

pu T

is

re R

A wooden block with a hook, a horizontal plane with a glass or

bl

laminated table top (the table top itself may be used as a horizontal

plane), a frictionless pulley which can be fixed at the edge of the

E

horizontal table/plane, spirit level, a scale, pan, thread or string, spring

balance, weight box and five masses of 100 g each.

be C

to N

surfaces in contact is called friction.

©

surfaces in contact at rest but having a tendency to move (slide) with

respect to each other.

Limiting Friction: It is the maximum value of force of static friction

when one body is at the verge of sliding with respect to the other body

in contact.

Kinetic (or Dynamic) Friction: It is the frictional force acting between

two solid surfaces in contact when they are in relative motion.

P

t

no

RINCIPLE

The maximum force of

static friction, i.e., limiting

friction, FL, between two

dry, clean and unlubricated

solid surfaces is found to

obey the following empirical

laws:

Fig. E 7.1: The body is at rest due to

(i) The limiting friction is static friction

68

EXPERIMENT 7

UNIT NAME

the total weight W of the body (Fig. E 7.1). The line of action is

same for both W and R for horizontal surface,

F L ∝ R ⇒ F L = μL R

FL

i.e. μL =

R

Thus, the ratio of the magnitude of the limiting friction, F L, to the

d

magnitude of the normal force, R, is a constant known as the

coefficient of limiting friction (μL ) for the given pair of surfaces in

he

contact.

(ii) The limiting friction depends upon the nature of surfaces in contact

and is nearly independent of the surface area of contact over wide

pu T

is

limits so long as normal reaction remains constant.

re R

Note that FL = μLR is

bl

R = (M+p)g

an equation of a

straight line passing

E

through the origin.

Pulley

Thus, the slope of the F

be C

between F l (along Y- wood mica) top

axis) and R (along X-

to N

value of coefficient of Pan

limiting friction μL.

©

the relationship Fig. E 7.2: Experimental set up to study limiting friction

between the limiting

friction and normal

reaction is studied for a wooden block. The wooden block is made

to slide over a horizontal surface (say glass or a laminated surface)

(Fig. E 7.2).

PROCEDURE

t

no

2. Measure the mass (M) of the given wooden block with hooks on its

sides and the scale pan (m) with the help of the spring balance.

horizontal, if required, by inserting a few sheets of paper or

cardboard below it. To ensure that the table-top surface is

horizontal use a spirit level. Take care that the top surface must

be clean and dry.

69

LABORATORY MANUAL

LABORATORY MANUAL

E 7.2. Lubricate the pulley if need be.

5. Tie one end of a string of suitable length (in accordance with the

size and the height of the table) to a scale pan and tie its other end

to the hook of the wooden block.

6. Place the wooden block on the horizontal plane and pass the string

over the pulley (Fig. E7.2). Ensure that the portion of the string

between pulley and the wooden block is horizontal. This can be

d

done by adjusting the height of the pulley to the level of hook of

block.

he

7. Put some mass (q) on the scale pan. Tap the table-top gently with

your finger. Check whether the wooden block starts moving.

8. Keep on increasing the mass (q) on the scale pan till the wooden

pu T

is

block just starts moving on gently tapping the glass top. Record

the total mass kept on the scale pan in Table E 7.1.

re R

bl

9. Place some known mass (say p ) on the top of wooden block and

adjust the mass (q′) on the scale pan so that the wooden block

E

alongwith mass p just begins to slide on gently tapping the table

top. Record the values of p′ and q′ in Table E 7.1.

be C

10.Repeat step 9 for three or four more values of p and record the

corresponding values of q in Table E 7.1. A minimum of five

to N

R.

O

©

BSERVATIONS

1. Range of spring balance = ... to ... g

2. Least count of spring balance = ... g

3. Mass of the scale pan, (m) = ... g

4. Mass of the wooden block (M) = ... g

5. Acceleration due to gravity (g) at the place of experiment= ... m/s2

t

S. Mass on the Normal Mass on Force of Coefficient Mean μ L

no

(p) (g) to mass (q) g friction FL FL

(M+p) μL =

R

(g) (kg) N (g) (kg) (N)

1

2

3

4

5

70

EXPERIMENT 7

UNIT NAME

Reaction

G RAPH

Plot a graph between the limiting friction (FL ) and

normal force (R) between the wooden block and the

horizontal surface, taking the limiting friction F L

along the y-axis and normal force R along the x-

d

axis. Draw a line to join all the points marked on it

(Fig. E 7.3). Some points may not lie on the straight-

he

line graph and may be on either side of it. Extend

the straight line backwards to check whether the

graph passes through the origin. The slope of this

pu T

straight-line graph gives the coefficient of limiting

is

friction (μL ) between the wooden block and the

horizontal surface. To find the slope of straight line, Fig. E 7.3: Graph between force of

re R

bl

choose two points A and B that are far apart from limiting friction FL and

each other on the straight line as shown in Fig. E normal reaction, R

E

7.3. Draw a line parallel to x-axis through point A

and another line parallel to y-axis through point B.

Let point Z be the point of intersection of these two lines. Then, the

be C

F L BZ

to N

μL = =

R AZ

R ESULT

©

block and the table-top (laminated sheet/glass) is:

(i) From calculation (Table E 7.1) = ...

(ii) From graph = ...

P RECAUTIONS

t

no

3. Friction of the pulley should be reduced by proper oiling.

4. Table top should always be tapped gently.

SOURCES OF ERROR

1. Always put the mass at the centre of wooden block.

71

LABORATORY MANUAL

LABORATORY MANUAL

3. The thread must be unstretchable and unspun.

D

ISCUSSION

1. The friction depends on the roughness of the surfaces in contact.

If the surfaces in contact are ideally (perfactly) smooth, there

d

would be no friction between the two surfaces. However, there

cannot be an ideally smooth surface as the distribution of atoms

he

or molecules on solid surface results in an inherent roughness.

has been neglected, therefore, as far as possible, the pulley, should

pu T

is

have minimum friction as it cannot be frictionless.

re R

3. The presence of dust particles between the wooden block and

bl

horizontal plane surface may affect friction and therefore lead

to errors in observations. Therefore, the surface of the

E

horizontal plane and wooden block in contact must be clean

and dust free.

be C

and the plane horizontal surface would change the nature of

to N

the surface. Thus, while studying the friction between the surface

of the moving body and horizontal plane these must be kept

dry.

©

Therefore, a thin, light, strong and unspun cotton thread must

be used as a string to join the scale pan and the moving block.

6. The portion of string between the pulley and wooden block must

be horizontal otherwise only a component of tension in the string

would act as the force to move the block.

and set of masses for this experiment. If the block is too light, its

t

force of limiting friction may be even less than the weight of empty

no

the block alone. Similarly, the maximum mass on the block, which

can be obtained by putting separate masses on it, should not be

very large otherwise it would require a large force to make the

block move.

wooden block.

72

EXPERIMENT 7

UNIT NAME

Δ F L ΔR

= F + R = ...

L

SELF ASSESSMENT

d

1. On the basis of your observations, find the relation between

limiting friction and the mass of sliding body.

he

2. Why do we not choose a spherical body to study the limiting

friction between the two surfaces?

3. Why should the horizontal surfaces be clean and dry?

pu T

is

4. Why should the portion of thread between the moving body and

re R

pulley be horizontal?

bl

5. Why is it essential in this experiment to ensure that the surface

E

on which the block moves should be horizontal?

6. Comment on the statement: “The friction between two surfaces

be C

7. In this experiment, usually unpolished surfaces are preferred,

to N

why?

8. What do you understand by self-adjusting nature of force of

friction?

©

friction and normal reaction, a body just starts sliding on applying

a force of 3 N. What will be the magnitude of force of friction

acting on the body when the applied forces on it are 0.5 N, 1.0 N,

2.5 N, 3.5 N, respectively.

t

carpet etc. Or repeat the experiment after putting oil or powder on

no

the surface.]

[Hint: Place the wooden block vertically and repeat the experiment.

Discuss whether the readings and result of the experiment are same.]

inclined plane.

73

LABORATORY MANUAL

LABORATORY MANUAL

EXPERIMENT 8

AIM

d

To find the downward force, along an inclined plane, acting on a roller

he

due to gravity and study its relationship with the angle of inclination

by plotting graph between force and sin θ.

pu T

is

re R

Inclined plane with protractor and pulley, roller, weight box, spring

bl

balance, spirit level, pan and thread.

E

Pulley

be C

Constant v

M1

Roller

to N

v

Mass, M3 Pan, M2

Protractor

W= (M2+M3)

©

force along an inclined plane

P RINCIPLE

Consider the set up shown in Fig. E 8.1. Here a roller of

mass M1 has been placed on an inclined plane making

t

no

adjusting the weights on the pan suspended with a string

while its other end is attached to the mass through a

pulley fixed at the top of the inclined plane. The force on

the the mass M1 when it is moving with a constant velocity

v will be

W = M1g sin θ – f r

Fig. E 8.2: Free body diagram

where f r is the force of friction due to rolling, M 1 is

mass of roller and W is the total tension in the string

74

EXPERIMENT 8

UNIT NAME

the pulley and the string.

P ROCEDURE

1. Arrange the inclined plane, roller and the masses in the pan as

shown in Fig. E. 8.1. Ensure that the pulley is frictionless. Lubricate

it using machine oil, if necessary.

2. To start with, let the value of W be adjusted so as to permit the

d

roller to stay at the top of the inclined plane at rest.

he

3. Start decreasing the masses in small steps in the pan until the

roller just starts moving down the plane with a constant velocity.

Note W and also the angle θ . Fig. E 8.2 shows the free body diagram

for the situation when the roller just begins to move downwards.

pu T

is

4. Repeat steps 2 and 3 for different values of θ. Tabulate your

re R

observations.

O bl

E

BSERVATIONS

Acceleration due to gravity, g = ... N/m2

be C

Mass of the pan = (M2) g

to N

Table E 8.1

S. No. θ° sinθ Mass added to pan Force

M3 W = (M2 + M3 ) g (N)

©

1

2

3

PLOTTING GRAPH

Plot graph between sin θ and

the force W (Fig. E 8.3). It

should be a straight line.

t

no

and sin θ

75

LABORATORY MANUAL

LABORATORY MANUAL

R ESULT

Therefore, within experimental error, downward force along inclined

plane is directly proportional to sin θ, where θ is the angle of inclination

of the plane.

P RECAUTIONS

d

1. Ensure that the inclined plane is placed on a horizontal surface

using the spirit level.

he

2. Pulley must be frictionless.

3. The weight should suspend freely without touching the table or

other objects.

pu T

is

4. Roller should roll smoothly, that is, without slipping.

re R

5. Weight, W should be decreased in small steps.

S bl

E

OURCES OF ERROR

be C

2. Pulley may not be frictionless.

to N

begins to slide with constant velocity.

4. The inclined surface may not be of uniform smoothness/roughness.

©

D ISCUSSION

As the inclination of the plane is increased, starting from zero,

the value of mg sinθ increases and frictional force also increases

accordingly. Therefore, till limiting friction W = 0, we need not apply

any tension in the string.

t

When we increase the angle still further, net tension in the string is

no

downwards.

It is difficult to determine exact value of W. What we can do is we find

tension W 1 (< W) at which the roller is just at the verge of rolling

down and W 2 (> W) at which the roller is just at the verge of moving

up. Then we can take

W =

(W1 + W2 )

2

76

EXPERIMENT 8

UNIT NAME

SELF ASSESSMENT

1. Give an example where the force of friction is in the same direction

as the direction of motion.

2. How will you use the graph to find the co-efficient of rolling friction

between the roller and the inclined plane?

3. What is the relation between downward force and angle of

inclination of the plane?

d

4. How will you ensure that the roller moves upward/downward with

he

constant velocity?

pu T

is

1. From the graph, find the intercept and the slope. Interpret them

using the given equation.

re R

2. Allow the roller to move up the inclined plane by adjusting the mass

bl

in the pan. Interpret the graph between W ′ and sin θ where W ′ is

the mass in pan added to the mass of the pan required to allow the

E

roller to move upward with constant velocity.

be C

tto N

©

no

77

LABORATORY MANUAL

LABORATORY MANUAL

EXPERIMENT 9

AIM

d

To determine Young's modulus of the material of a given wire by using

he

Searle's apparatus.

pu T

is

Searle's apparatus, slotted weights, experimental

re R

wire, screw gauge and spirit level.

bl SEARLE'S APPARATUS

E

It consists of two metal frames P and Q hinged

together such that they can move relative to each

be C

A spirit level is supported on a rigid crossbar

to N

screw C at one end and a fixed knife edge K at

the other. Screw C can be moved vertically. The

micrometer screw has a disc having 100 equal

©

it is a linear scale S, attached vertically. If there

is any relative displacement between the two

frames, P and Q, the spirit level no longer remains

horizontal and the bubble of the spirit level is

displaced from its centre. The crossbar can again

be set horizontal with the help of micrometer

screw and the spirit level. The distance through

which the screw has to be moved gives the

t

no

wires of the same material, from the same rigid

horizontal support. Wire B is called the

experimental wire and wire A acts as a reference

Fig. E 9.1: Searle's apparatus for wire. The frames, P and Q, are provided with

determination of Y hooks H 1 and H 2 at their lower ends from which

weights are suspended. The hook H 1 attached

to the reference wire carries a constant weight

78 W to keep the wire taut.

EXPERIMENT 9

UNIT NAME

be placed to apply force on the experimental wire.

PRINCIPLE

The apparatus works on the principle of Hookes’ Law. If l is the

extension in a wire of length L and radius r due to force F (=Mg), the

Young's modulus of the material of the given wire, Y, is

MgL

d

Y =

πr 2l

he

ROCEDURE

1. Suspend weights from both the hooks so that the two wires are

pu T

stretched and become free from any kinks. Attach only the constant

is

weight W on the reference wire to keep it taut.

re R

bl

2. Measure the length of the experimental wire from the point of its

support to the point where it is attached to the frame.

E

3. Find the least count of the screw gauge. Determine the diameter of

the experimental wire at about 5 places and at each place in two

be C

hence the radius of the wire.

to N

4. Find the pitch and the least count of the miocrometer screw

attached to the frame. Adjust it such that the bubble in the

spirit level is exactly in the centre. Take the reading of the

micrometer.

©

increase it in steps of 0.5 kg. For each load, bring the bubble of the

spirit level to the centre by adjusting the micrometer screw and

then note its reading. Take precautions to avoid backlash error.

6. Take about 8 observations for increasing load.

7. Decrease the load in steps of 0.5 kg and each time take reading on

micrometer screw as in step 5.

t

O

no

BSERVATIONS

Length of the wire (L) = ...

Pitch of the screw gauge = ...

No. of divisions on the circular scale of the screw gauge = ...

Least count (L.C.) of screw gauge = ...

Zero error of screw gauge = ...

79

LABORATORY MANUAL

LABORATORY MANUAL

No. direction dicular direction d1 + d2

d =

2

(cm)

Main Circu- Diameter Main Circu- Diameter

scale lar d1 = scale lar d2 =

read- scale S + n × L.C. read- scale S + n × L.C.

ing S read- ing S read- (cm)

d

(cm) ing n (cm) ing n

1

he

2

pu T

is

4

5

re R

bl

Mean diameter (corrected for zero error) = ...

E

Mean radius = ...

be C

MEASUREMENT OF EXTENSION l

to N

©

No. wire ⎛ x + y ⎞

M ⎜ ⎟

⎝ 2 ⎠

(cm)

Load increasing Load decreasing

(kg)

x y

t

(cm) (cm)

no

1 0.5 a

2 1.0 b

3 1.5 c

4 2.0 d

5 2.5 e

6 3.0 f

7 3.5 g

8 4.0 h

80

EXPERIMENT 9

UNIT NAME

C ALCULATION

Observations recorded in Table E 9.2 can be utilised to find extension

of experimental wire for a given load, as shown in Table E 9.3.

Table E 9.3: Calculating extension for a given load

No. (cm) (kg) 1.5 kg

d

0.5 2.0 d–a

he

1.0 2.5 e–b

pu T

is

1.5 3.0 f–c

re R

bl

E

(a – d) +(b – c) + (c – f)

∴ Mean l =

3

be C

MgL

Young’s modulus, Y, of experimental wire Y = = ... N / m2

πr 2l

to N

G RAPH

©

and Mg. Draw a graph with load on the x-axis and extension on

Δl

the y-axis. It should be a straight line. Find the slope = of the

ΔM

line. Using this value, find the value of Y.

R ESULT

The Young's modulus Y of the material of the wire

t

no

(using graph) = Y ± ΔY N/m2

ERROR

Uncertainty, ΔM, in the measurement of M can be determined by a

beam/physical balance using standard weight box/or by using water

bottles of fixed capacity.

81

LABORATORY MANUAL

LABORATORY MANUAL

Find the variation in M for each slotted weight of equal mass say

ΔM1 and ΔM2. Find the mean of these ΔM. This is the uncertainity

(ΔM) in M.

ΔL – the least count of the scale used for measuring L.

Δr – the least count of the micrometer screw gauge used for measuring r.

Δl – least count of the device used for measuring extension.

d

RECAUTION

he

1. Measure the diameter of the wire at different positions, check for

its uniformity.

2. Adjust the spirit level only after sufficient time gap following each

pu T loading/unloading.

is

S

re R

OURCES OF ERROR

bl

1. The diameter of the wire may alter while loading.

E

2. Backlash error of the device used for measuring extension.

be C

D

to N

ISCUSSION

Which of the quantities measured in the experiment is likely to have

maximum affect on the accuracy in measurement of Y (Young's

©

modulus).

S

ELF ASSESSMENT

1. If the length of the wire used is reduced what will be its effect on

(a) extension on the wire and (b) stress on the wire.

2. Use wire of different radii (r1, r2, r 3) but of same material in the

above experimental set up. Is there any change in the value of

t

no

study its ef fect on the Young’s modulus of elasticity of the material.

82

EXPERIMENT 10

AIM

d

To find the force constant and effective mass of a helical spring by

he

plotting T 2 - m graph using method of oscillation.

pu T

is

Light weight helical spring with a pointer attached at the lower

end and a hook/ring for suspending it from a hanger, (diameter

re R

bl

of the spring may be about 1-1.5 cm inside or same as that in a

spring balance of 100 g); a rigid support, hanger and five slotted

E

weights of 10 g each (in case the spring constant is of high value

one may use slotted weight of 20 g), clamp stand, a balance, a

measuring scale (15-30 cm) and a stop-watch (with least count

be C

of 0.1s).

P

to N

RINCIPLE

Spring constant (or force constant) of a spring is given by

©

Spring constant, K =

Extension

Thus, spring constant is the restoring force per unit extension in the

spring. Its value is determined by the elastic properties of the spring.

A given object is attached to the free end of a spring which is suspended

from a rigid point support (a nail, fixed to a wall). If the object is

pulled down and then released, it executes simple harmonic

oscillations.

t

no

K is given by the relation T,

m

T = 2π where m is the load that is the mass of the object. If the

K

spring has a large mass of its own, the expression changes to

mo + m (E 10.2)

T = 2π

K

LABORATORY MANUAL

LABORATORY MANUAL

where mo and m define the effective mass of the spring system (the

spring along with the pointer and the hanger) and the suspended

object (load) respectively. The time period of a stiff spring (having

large spring constant) is small.

One can easily eliminate the term mo of the spring system appearing

in Eq. (E 10.2) by suspending two different objects (loads) of masses

m1 and m2 and measuring their respective periods of oscillations T1

and T2. Then,

d

(E 10.3) m0 + m1

T1 = 2π

he

K

(E 10.4) m0 + m 2

and T2 = 2 π

pu T

is

K

re R

Eliminating mo from Eqs. (E 2.3) and (E 2.4), we get

bl

E

(E 10.5) 4 π2 (m 1 – m 2 )

K =

(T 21 – T 22 )

be C

Using Eq. (E 10.5), and knowing the values of m1, m 2, T1 and T2, the

spring constant K of the spring system can be determined.

to N

P

ROCEDURE

©

P and the hanger H at its free end A), from a

rigid support, as shown in Fig. E 10.1.

vertically. Take care that the pointer P moves

freely over the scale without touching it.

t

no

stop-watch and find its least count.

m1 on the hanger gently. Wait till the pointer

comes to rest. This is the equilibrium position

Fig. E 10.1: Experimental arrangement for for the given load. Pull the load slightly

studying spring constant of a downwards and then release it gently so that

helical spring it is set into oscillations in a vertical plane

84

EXPERIMENT 1 0

UNIT NAME

about its rest (or equilibrium) position. The rest position (x) of

the pointer P on the scale is the reference or mean position for

the given load. Start the stop-watch as the pointer P just crosses

its mean position (say, from upwards to downwards) and

simultaneously begin to count the oscillations.

mean position (x) in the same direction. Stop the watch after

n (say, 5 to 10) oscillations are complete. Note the time (t)

taken by the oscillating load for n oscillations.

d

7. Repeat this observation alteast thrice and in each occasion

he

note the time taken for the same number (n) of oscillations.

Find the mean time (t 1), for n oscillations and compute the

time for one oscillation, i.e., the time period T 1 (= t 1/n) of

oscillating helical spring with a load m 1.

pu T

is

8. Repeat steps 5 and 6 for two more slotted weights.

re R

bl

t

9. Calculate time period of oscillation T = for each weight and

n

E

tabulate your observations.

be C

and find out the mean value of spring constant K of the given

helical spring.

to N

m with T 2 on y-axis and m on x-axis.

©

keep the error minimum in measurement of time. One convenient

method to decide on the number n is based on the least count of

the stop-watch. If the least count of the stop-watch is 0.1 s. Then

to have 1% error in measurement, the minimum time measured

should be 10.0 s. Hence, the number n for oscillations should be

so chosen that oscillating mass takes more than 10.0 s to

complete them.]

O

t

no

BSERVATIONS

Least count of the measuring scale = ... mm = ... cm

85

LABORATORY MANUAL

LABORATORY MANUAL

helical spring with load

No. the load, position of tions, (n) oscillations, T = t/n (s)

m (kg) pointer, x t (s)

(cm)

1 2 3 Mean

t (s)

d

1

he

C

ALCULATION

pu T

is

Substitute the values of m1, m 2, m3 and T1, T 2,

T3, in Eq. (E 10.5):

re R

bl

K1 = 4π2 (m1 – m 2)/(T12 – T22);

K2 = 4π2 (m2 – m 3)/(T22 – T32);

E

K3 = 4π2 (m1 – m3) / (T12 – T32)

be C

the mean value of spring constant K of the given

helical spring. Express the result in proper SI

to N

Alternately one can also find the spring constant

and effective mass of the spring from the graph

©

straight line as shown in Fig. E 10.2.

2

Fig. E 10.2: Expected graph between T and m

The value of spring constant K ( = 4π2/m′) of the

for a helical spring

helical spring can be calculated from the slope

m′ of the straight line graph.

From the knowledge of intercept c on y-axis and the slope m, the

value of effective mass mo (= c/m′ ) of the helical spring can be

computed. Alternatively, the effective mass m o (= –c′ ) of the helical

spring can be directly computed from the knowledge of the

t

R

no

ESULT

Spring constant of the given helical spring = ... N/m-1

Effective mass of helical spring = ... g = ... kg

Error in K, can be calculated from the error in slope

ΔK Δslope

=

K slope

86

EXPERIMENT 1 0

UNIT NAME

and the error in slope. Once the error is calculated the result may be

stated indicating the error.

D ISCUSSION

1. The accuracy in determination of the spring constant depends

mainly on the accuracy in measurement of the time period T

of oscillation of the spring. As the time period appears as T 2 in

d

Eq. (E 10.5), a small uncertainty in the measurement of T would

result in appreciable error in T 2, thereby significantly affecting

he

the result. A stop-watch with accuracy of 0.1s may be

preferred.

2. Some personal error is always likely to occur in measurement of

pu T

time due to delay in starting or stopping the watch.

is

3. Sometimes air currents may affect the oscillations thereby affecting

re R

the time period. The time period of oscillation may also get affected

bl

if the load is released with a jerk. Take special care that the load

E

while being taken to one side (upwards or downwards) of the rest

(or mean) position, is released very gently.

be C

4. The load attached to the spring executes to and fro motion (in

SHM) about the mean, equilibrium position. Eqs. (E 10.1)

and (E 10.2) hold true for small amplitude of oscillations or

to N

law). Take care that initially the load is pulled only through a

small distance before being released gently to let it oscillate

©

vertically.

5. Oscillations of the helical spring are not likely to be absolutely

undamped. Buoyancy of air and viscous drag due to it may slightly

increase the time period of the oscillations. The effect can be greatly

reduced by taking a small and stiff spring of high density material

(such as steel/brass).

6. A rigid support is required for suspending the helical spring. The

slotted weights may not have exactly the same mass as engraved

on them. Some error in the time period of its oscillation is likely to

t

no

SELF-ASSESSMENT

1. Two springs A (soft) and B (stiff), loaded with the same mass on

their hangers, are suspended one by one from the same rigid

support. They are set into vertical oscillations at different times,

and the time period of their oscillations are noted. In which spring

will the oscillations be slower?

87

LABORATORY MANUAL

LABORATORY MANUAL

spring and a stop-watch. You are asked to measure time

periods (T 1, T 2, ..., T 6) of oscillations corresponding to each

mass when it is suspended from the given helical spring.

(a) What is the shape of the curve you would expect by using

Eq. (E 10.2) and plotting a graph between load of mass m

along x-axis and T 2 on y-axis?

(b) Interpret the slope, the x-and y-intercepts of the above graph,

and hence find (i) spring constant K of the helical spring, and

d

(ii) its effective mass m o.

he

[Hint: (a) Eq. (E 10.2), rewritten as: T 2 =(4π2/K) m + (4π2/K) mo , is

similar to the equation of a straight line: y = mx + c, with m as the

slope of the straight line and c the intercept on y–axis. The graph

between m and T 2 is expected to be a straight line AB, as shown in

pu T

is

Fig. E 10.2. From the above equations given in (a):

Intercept on y–axis (OD), c = (4π2/K) mo ; (x = 0, y = c)

re R

bl Intercept on x-axis (OE), c′=-c/m′ = –mo ; (y = 0, x = –c/m′)

E

Slope, m′ = tan θ = OD/OE = c/c′ = –c/m o = (4π2/K)]

be C

1. Take three springs with different spring constants K1, K2, K3 and join them in series

to N

as shown in Fig. E. 10.3. Determine the time period of oscillation of combined spring

and check the relation between individual spring constant and combined system.

2. Repeat the above activity with the set up shown in Fig. E. 10.4 and find out

whether there is any difference in the time period and spring constant between

©

3. What is the physical significance of spring constant 20.5 Nm–1?

4. If possible, measure the mass of the spring. Is this related to the effective mass m o?

t

no

Fig. E 10.3: Springs joined in series Fig. E 10.4: Springs joined in parallel

88

EXPERIMENT

UNIT NAME

EXPERIMENT 11

AIM

d

To study the variation in volume (V) with pressure (P) for a sample of

he

air at constant temperature by plotting graphs between P and V, and

1

between P and .

V

pu T

is

APPARATUS AND MATERIAL REQUIRED

re R

bl

Boyle’s law apparatus, Fortin’s Barometer, Vernier Callipers,

E

thermometer, set square and spirit level.

be C

to N

and 0.5 cm in diameter (Fig. E11.1).

One tube AB is closed at one end

©

tubes are drawn into a fine opening

at the other end (B and D). The ends

B and D are connected by a thick

walled rubber tubing. The glass

tube AB is fixed vertically along the

metre scale. The other tube CD can

be moved vertically along a vertical

rod and may be fixed to it at any

height with the help of screw S.

t

no

are filled with mercury. The closed

tube AB traps some air in it. The

volume of air is proportional to the

length of air column as it is of

uniform cross section.

The apparatus is fixed on a

horizontal platform with a vertical Fig. E11.1: Boyle’s law apparatus

stand. The unit is provided with

levelling screws. 89

LABORATORY MANUAL

LABORATORY MANUAL

P

ROCEDURE

(a) Measurement of Pressure:

The pressure of the enclosed air in tube AB is measured by noting the

difference (h) in the mercury levels (X and Y) in the two tubes AB and

CD (Fig. E11.2). Since liquid in interconnected vessels have the same

pressure at any horizontal level,

(E 11.1)

P (Pressure of enclosed air) = H ± h

d

where H is the atmospheric pressure.

he

pu T

is

re R

bl

E

be C

to N

Fig. E 11.2 : Pressure of air in tube AB = H + h Fig. E 11.3 : Volume of trapped air in tube AB

©

Volume of air in tube

= Volume of air in length PR – Volume of air in curved

portion PQ

Let r be the radius of the tube

Volume of curved portion = volume of the hemisphere of radius r

t

1 4 3 2 3

= × πr = πr

no

2 3 3

2 3 1 3

error in volume = πr 3 – πr = πr

3 3

1 3 1

resulting error in length = πr / π r 2 = r

3 3

90

EXPERIMENT 1 1

UNIT NAME

1 1 (E 11.2)

correction in length = – r = – PQ

3 3

This should be subtracted from the measured length l .

Boyle’s law: At a constant temperature, the pressure exerted by an

enclosed mass of gas is inversely proportional to its volume.

1

Pα

V

d

(E 11.3)

or PV = constant

he

Hence the P – V graph is a curve while that of P – 1 is a straight line.

V

(c) Measurement of volume of air for a given pressure.

pu T

is

1. Note the temperature of the room with a thermometer.

re R

2. Note the atmospheric pressure using Fortin’s Barometer

bl

(Project P-9).

E

3. Set the apparatus vertically using the levelling screws and

spirit level.

be C

4. Slide the tube CD to adjust the mercury level at the same level as

in AB. Use set square to read the upper convex meniscus of

mercury.

to N

5. Note the reading of the metre scale corresponding to the top end

of the closed tube P and that of level Q where its curvature just

©

1

ends. Calculate PQ and note it.

3

6. Raise CD such that the mercury level in tubes AB and CD is

different. Use the set square to carefully read the meniscus X

and Y of mercury in tube AB and CD. Note the difference h in the

mercury level.

7. Repeat the adjustment of CD for 5 more values of ‘h’. This should

be done slowly and without jerk. Changing the position of CD

t

no

8. Use the Vernier Callipers to determine the diameter of the closed

1 1

tube AB and hence find ‘r’, its radius PQ = r.

3 3

9. Record your observations in the Table E 11.1.

10. Plot graphs (i) P versus V and (ii) P versus 1 , interpret the graphs.

V

91

LABORATORY MANUAL

LABORATORY MANUAL

1. Room temperature = ... °C.

2. Atmospheric pressure as observed from the Fortins Barometer

= ... cm of Hg.

3. For correction in level l due to curved portion of tube AB

(a) Reading for the top of the closed tube AB (P) = ... cm.

d

Reading where the uniform portion of the tube AB begins (or the

curved portion ends) (Q) = ... cm.

he

Difference (P – Q) = r = ... cm.

1

Correction = r = ...

pu T

is

3

OR

re R

bl

(b) Diameter of tube AB = d = ... cm.

1

E

radius r = d = ... cm.

2

be C

1

correction for level l = r

3

R

to N

ESULT

1. Within experimental limits, the graph between P and V is a curve.

©

calculation).

No. mercury mercury difference air in of air P ×l or

in closed in open h = X–Y AB = H ± h XA

1

tube AB tube (cm of (cm of Hg)

X (cm of CD Hg) ⎛ 1 ⎞ l

⎝⎜l – r⎟

3 ⎠

t

HG) Y (cm

no

of Hg)

1

2

3

4

into account whether the pressure of air in AB will be more than

atmospheric pressure or less.

92

EXPERIMENT 1 1

UNIT NAME

d

he

1

pu T

Fig. E11.4 : Graph between Volume, V Fig. E11.5 : Graph between and pressure P

is

and pressure, P V

re R

bl

Note that Fig. E 11.4 shows that the graph between P and V is a curve

E

1

and that between P and is a straight line (Fig. E 11.5).

V

be C

1

3. The graph P and is a straight line showing that the pressure of

V

to N

at constant temperature.

P

©

RECAUTIONS

1. The apparatus should be kept covered when not in use.

2. The apparatus should not be shifted in between observations.

3. While measuring the volume of the air, correction for the curved

portion of the closed tube should be taken into account.

4. Mercury used should be clean and not leave any trace on the glass.

The open tube should be plugged with cotton wool when not in

t

use.

no

of the mercury for determining its level.

SOURCES OF ERROR

1. The enclosed air may not be dry.

2. Atmospheric pressure and temperature of the laboratory may

change during the course of the experiment.

93

LABORATORY MANUAL

LABORATORY MANUAL

4. The mercury may be oxidised due to exposure to atmosphere.

D ISCUSSION

1. The apparatus should be vertical to ensure that the difference in

level (h) is accurate.

2. The diameter of the two glass tubes may or may not be the same

d

but the apparatus should be vertical.

he

3. The open tube CD should be raised or lowered gradually to ensure

that the temperature of the enclosed air remains the same.

4. The readings should be taken in order (above and below the

is

also if they are taken slowly the atmospheric pressure and

re R

temperature over the duration of observation remain the same. So

bl

time should not be wasted.

E

5. Why should the upper meniscus of mercury in the two tubes

recorded carefully using a set square?

S

be C

ELF ASSESSMENT

to N

1 1

1. Plot versus ‘h’ graph and determine the value of when h = 0.

V V

Compare this to the value of atmospheric pressure. Give a suitable

©

2. Comment on the two methods used for estimation of the volume

of the curved portion of the closed tube. What are the assumptions

made for the two methods?

3. If the diameter of tube AB is large, why would the estimation of

the curved portion be unreliable?

4. The apparatus when not in use should be kept covered to avoid

contamination of mercury in the open tube. How will oxidation of

t

no

1. Tilt apparatus slightly and note the value of ‘h’ for two or three

values of X and Y.

2. Take a glass U tube. Fill it with water. Pour oil in one arm. Note the

difference in level of water, level of oil and water in the two arms.

Deduce the density of oil. What role does atmospheric pressure

play in this experiment?

94

EXPERIMENT

UNIT NAME

EXPERIMENT 12

AIM

d

To determine the surface tension of water by capillary rise method.

he

A glass/plastic capillary tube, travelling microscope, beaker, cork with

pu T

pin, clamps and stand, thermometer, dilute nitric acid solution, dilute

is

caustic soda solution, water, plumb line.

P

re R

RINCIPLE

bl

E

When a liquid rises in a capillary tube

[Fig. E 12.1], the weight of the column of the

be C

supported by the upward force of surface

tension acting around the circumference of the

to N

©

h ρgr

or T =

2

where T = surface tension of the liquid,

r = inner radius of the capillary tube Fig.E 12.1: Rise of liquid in a capil-

lary tube

P

t

ROCEDURE

no

or use an incandescent bulb.

2. Clean the capillary tube and beaker successively in caustic soda

and nitric acid and finally rinse thoroughly with water.

3. Fill the beaker with water and measure its temperature.

4. Clamp the capillary tube near its upper end, keeping it above the

beaker. Set it vertical with the help of a plumbline held near it.

95

LABORATORY MANUAL

LABORATORY MANUAL

Move down the tube so that its lower end dips into the water in

the beaker.

5. Push a pin P through a cork C, and fix it on another clamp such

that the tip of the pin is just above the water surface as shown in

Fig. E 12.1. Ensure that the pin does not touch the capillary

tube. Slowly lower the pin till its tip just touches the water

surface. This can be done by coinciding the tip of the pin with its

image in water.

d

6 . Now focus the travelling microscope M on the meniscus of

the water in capillary A, and move the microscope until the

he

horizontal crosswire is tangential to the lowest point of the

meniscus, which is seen inverted in M. If there is any

difficulty in focussing the meniscus, hold a piece of paper

at the lowest point of the meniscus outside the capillary tube

pu T

is

and focus it first, as a guide. Note the reading of travelling

microscope.

re R

bl

7. Mark the position of the meniscus on the capillary with a pen.

Now carefully remove the capillary tube from the beaker, and then

E

the beaker without disturbing the pin.

8. Focus the microscope on the tip of the pin and note the microscope

be C

reading.

9. Cut the capillary tube carefully at the point marked on it. Fix the

to N

the transverse cross section of the tube and take readings to

measure the internal diameter of the tube in two mutually

perpendicular directions.

©

O BSERVATIONS

Determination of h

Least count (L.C.) of the microscope = ... mm

t

no

S. Reading of meniscus h1 h = h1 – h2

(cm) surface of water h2 (cm)

No.

S (cm) n n × L.C.) S′ (cm) n′ (cm)

1

2

3

96

EXPERIMENT 1 2

UNIT NAME

diameter (cm) d1 (x2 – x1) perpendicular d2 (y 2 – y1) diameter

No.

diameter d

=

end end end end 2

1 x1 x2 y1 y2

d

2

3

he

Mean radius r = ... cm; Temperature of water θ = ... °C;

Density of water at 0° C = ... g cm–3

pu T

is

C

re R

ALCULATION

bl

Substitute the value of h and r and ρ g in the formula for T and calculate

E

the surface tension.

R

be C

ESULT

The surface tension of water at ... °C = ... ± ... Nm–1

to N

P RECAUTIONS

1. To make capillary tube free of contamination, it must be rinsed

©

first in a solution of caustic soda then with dilute nitric acid and

finally cleaned with water thoroughly.

2. The capillary tube must be kept vertical while dipping it in water.

3. To ensure that capillary tube is sufficiently wet, raise and lower

water level in container by lifting or lowering the beaker. It should

have no effect on height of liquid level in the capillary tube.

4. Water level in the capillary tube should be slightly above the edge

of the beaker/dish so that the edge does not obstruct observations.

t

no

6. Height of liquid column should be measured from lowest point of

concave meniscus.

SOURCES OF ERROR

1. Inserting dry capillary tube in the liquid can cause gross error in

the measurement of surface tension as liquid level in capillary tube

may not fall back when the level in container is lowered.

97

LABORATORY MANUAL

LABORATORY MANUAL

liquid.

3. Non-vertical placement of the capillary tube may introduce error

in the measurement of height of the liquid column in the tube.

4. Improper focussing of meniscus in microscope could cause an

error in measurement of the height of liquid column in the

capillary tube.

d

ISCUSSION

he

1. In a fine capillary tube, the meniscus surface may be considered

to be semispherical and the weight of the liquid above the lowest

1 3

point of the meniscus as ρr πg . Taking this into account, the

pu T

is

3

ρ gr ⎛⎜h + ⎞⎟ . More

1 r

formula for surface tension is modified to T =

re R

⎝ 3⎠

bl

2

precise calculation of surface tension can be done using this

E

formula.

2. If the capillary is dry from inside the water that rises to a certain

be C

height in it will not fall back, so the capillary should be wet from

inside. To wet the inside of the capillary tube thoroughly, it is first

dipped well down in the water and raised and clamped.

to N

S

ELF ASSESSMENT

©

1. Suppose the length of capillary tube taken is less than the height

upto which liquid could rise. What do you expect if such a tube is

inserted inside the liquid? Explain your answer.

2. Two match sticks are floating parallel and quite close to each other.

What would happen if a drop of soap solution or a drop of hot

water falls between the two sticks? Explain your answer.

t

no

of temperature on surface tension can be studied.

of change in impurity concentration (like adding NaCl or sugar) on

surface tension can be studied.

rise in the capillary tube.

98

EXPERIMENT

UNIT NAME

EXPERIMENT 13

AIM

d

To determine the coefficient of viscosity of a given liquid by measuring

the terminal velocity of a spherical body.

he

APPARATUS AND MATERIAL REQUIRED

pu T

is

A wide bore tube of transparent glass/acrylic (approximately 1.25 m

long and 4 cm diameter), a short inlet tube of about 10 cm length and

re R

1 cm diameter (or a funnel with an opening of 1 cm), steel balls of known

bl

diameters between 1.0 mm to 3 mm, transparent viscous liquid (castor

oil/glycerine), laboratory stand, forceps, rubber bands, two rubber

E

stoppers (one with a hole), a thermometer (0-50 °C), and metre scale.

P

be C

RINCIPLE

to N

a viscous liquid of density ρ and viscosity η, with terminal velocity v,

then the sum of the upward buoyant force and viscous drag, force F,

©

= Buoyant force on the ball + viscous force

4 3 4

πr σ g = πr 3 ρ g + 6 π ηrv (E 13.1)

3 3

4 3

3 πr ( σ − ρ ) g 2 r 2 ( σ − ρ ) g (E 13.2)

4/3 r g or υ= 3 =

6 πη r q η

t

no

6 rv

through viscous fluid under application of

v constant force.

3

4/3 r g

The terminal velocity depends directly on the

square of the size (diameter) of the spherical

Fig.E 13.1: Forces acting on a

spherical body falling

ball. Therefore, if several spherical balls of

through a viscous different radii are made to fall freely through

liquid with terminal the viscous liquid then a plot of v vs r2 would

velocity be a straight line as illustrated in Fig. E 13.2. 99

LABORATORY MANUAL

LABORATORY MANUAL

υ

The shape of this line will give an average value of r 2 which may be

used to find the coefficient of viscosity η of the given liquid. Thus

η=

2 r2 2

g (σ − ρ ) . =

( σ − ρ) g

(E 13.3) 9 v 9 ( slope of line )

d

The relation given by Eq. (E 13.3) holds good if

he

the liquid through which the spherical body falls

freely is in a cylindrical vessel of radius R >> r

and the height of the cylinder is sufficient enough

to let the ball attain terminal velocity. At the same

pu T

is

time the ball should not come in contact with

the walls of the vessel.

re R

P

bl ROCEDURE

E

Fig.E 13.2: Graph between terminal velocity v, and

square of radius of ball, r2

be C

to N

©

3.Take a wide bore tube of transparent glass/acrylic (of diameter

about 4 cm and of length approximately1.25 m). Fit a rubber

stopper at one end of the wide tube and ensure that it is airtight.

Fill it with the given transparent viscous liquid (say glycerine).

Fix the tube vertically in the clamp stand as shown in Fig. E

13.3. Ensure that there is no air bubble inside the viscous liquid

in the wide bore tube.

t

4.Put three rubber bands A, B, and C around the wide bore tube

no

each about 30 cm. The rubber band A should be around 40 cm

below the mouth of the wide bore tube (length sufficient to allow

the ball to attain terminal velocity).

5.Separate a set of clean and dry steel balls of different radii. The

set should include four or five identical steel balls of same known

radii (r1). Rinse these balls thoroughly with the experimental

viscous liquid (glycerine) in a petridish or a watch glass. Otherwise

100

EXPERIMENT 1 3

UNIT NAME

their surfaces as they enter the liquid

column.

6.Fix a short inlet tube vertically at the

open end of the wide tube through a

rubber stopper fixed to it. Alternately one

can also use a glass funnel instead of an

inlet tube as shown in Fig. E 13.3. With

the help of forceps hold one of the balls

d

of radius r 1 near the top of tube. Allow

the ball to fall freely. The ball, after

he

passing through the inlet tube, will fall

along the axis of the liquid column.

7.Take two stop watches and start both of

pu T

is

them simultaneously as the spherical

ball passes through the rubber band A.

re R

bl

Stop one the watches as the ball passes

through the band B. Allow the second

E

stop-watch to continue and stop it when

the ball crosses the band C.

be C

8.Note the times t 1 and t 2 as indicated by Fig.E 13.3: Steel ball falling along the

axis of the tube filled with

the two stop watches, t1 is then the time

a viscous liquid.

to N

to B and t2 is the time taken by it in falling from A to C. If terminal

velocity had been attained before the ball crosses A, then t2 = 2 t1.

If it is not so, repeat the experiment with steel ball of same radii

©

9.Repeat the experiment for other balls of different diameters.

10.Obtain terminal velocity for each ball.

11.Plot a graph between terminal velocity, v and square of the radius

of spherical ball, r2. It should be a straight line. Find the slope of

the line and hence determine the coefficient of viscosity of the

liquid using the relation given by Eq. (E 13.3).

t

O

no

BSERVATIONS

1. Temperature of experimental liquid (glycerine) θ = ...°C.

101

LABORATORY MANUAL

LABORATORY MANUAL

6. Length of wide bore tube = ... cm = ... m

7. Distance between A and B = ... cm = ... m

8. Distance between B and C = ... cm = ... m

Average distance h between two consecutive rubber bands

= ... cm = ... m

9. Acceleration due to gravity at the place of experiment, = ... gms–2

d

10.Least count of stop-watch = ... s

he

Table E 13.1: Measurement of time of fall of steel balls

Time taken for covering distance

S.

pu T

spherical the Velocity

is

balls radius of h = ... cm between rubber bands

No. h

the balls v =

re R

d r =d/2 A and B A and C B and C Mean time t

r2

bl

(m–1)

(cm) (m) (m2 ) t1 t2 t3 = t2–t1 t 1 + t3

t=

E

2

(s) (s) (s) (s)

1

be C

2

3

to N

G RAPH

©

y-axis. This graph will be similar to that shown in Fig. E 13.2.

v RT

Slope of line 2 =

r ST

2 r (σ − ρ ) g

2

η=

So 9 ( slope of line )

t

Δη 2Δ r Δslope

= +

no

Error η r slope

Standard value of η = ... Nsm–2

% error in η = ... %

R ESULT

The coefficient of viscosity of the given viscous liquid at temperature

θ °C = ... ± ... Nsm–2

102

EXPERIMENT 1 3

UNIT NAME

1. In order to minimise the effects, although small, on the value of

terminal velocity (more precisely on the value of viscous drag, force

F), the radius of the wide bore tube containing the experimental

viscous liquid should be much larger than the radius of the falling

spherical balls.

2. The steel balls should fall without touching the sides of the tube.

d

3. The ball should be dropped gently in the tube containing viscous/

liquid.

he

D ISCUSSION

pu T

is

1. Ensure that the ball is spherical. Otherwise formula used for

terminal velocity will not be valid.

re R

bl

2. Motion of falling ball must be translational.

E

3. Diameter of the wide bore tube should be much larger than that

of the spherical ball.

S

be C

ELF ASSESSMENT

to N

1. Do all the raindrops strike the ground with the same velocity

irrespective of their size?

2. Is Stokes’ law applicable to body of shapes other than spherical?

©

a liquid?

and compared with that obtained from the experiment.

t

no

tube].

tube. Take an eye dropper, fill milk in it. Drop one drop of

milk in the oil at the top of the wide bore tube and find its

terminal velocity. Use the knowledge of coefficient of viscosity

of mustard oil to calculate the density of milk].

bubble [Hint: Use the bubble maker used in an aquarium.

Place it in the wide bore tube. Find the terminal velocity of

rising air bubble].

103

LABORATORY MANUAL

LABORATORY MANUAL

EXPERIMENT 14

d

AIM

he

To study the relationship between the temperature of a hot body and

time by plotting a cooling curve.

pu T

is

Newton’s law of cooling apparatus that includes a copper calorimeter

re R

bl

with a wooden lid having two holes for inserting a thermometer and a

stirrer and an open double – walled vessel, two celsius thermometers

E

(each with least count 0.5 oC or 0.1 oC), a stop clock/watch, a heater/

burner, liquid (water), a clamp stand, two rubber stoppers with holes,

be C

DESCRIPTION OF APPARATUS

to N

T2 T1

100

100

90

90

80

80

Stirrer

70

70

60

60

50

50

Lid

40

40

30

30

20

20

10

10

0

-10

-10

of container is recorded by two thermometers.

THEORY

Calorimeter

t

no

proportional to the difference between the

temperature of the hot body and that of its

Fig.E 14.1: Newton's law of cooling apparatus surroundings and depends on the nature of

material and the surface area of the body. This is

Newton’s law of cooling.

higher than its surrounding’s temperature θo , the rate of loss of heat

104

EXPERIMENT 1 4

UNIT NAME

dQ

is , where dQ is the amount of heat lost by the hot body to its

dt

surroundings in a small interval of time.

Following Newton’s law of cooling we have

dQ

Rate of loss of heat, = – k (θ – θ o) (E 14.1)

dt

dQ ⎛ dθ ⎞

d

Also = ms ⎜⎝ dt ⎟⎠ (E 14.2)

dt

he

Using Eqs. (E 14.1) and (E 14.2), the rate of fall of temperature is given by

dθ k

=– (θ – θ o) (E 14.3)

dt ms

pu T

is

where k is the constant of proportionality and k ′ = k/ms is another

constant (The term ms also includes the water equivalent of the

re R

bl

calorimeter with which the experiment is performed). Negative sign

appears in Eqs. (E 14.2) and (E 14.3) because loss of heat implies

E

temperature decrease. Eq. (E 14.3) may be re written as

d θ = - k′ (θ – θo) dt

be C

On integrating, we get

dθ

to N

∫θ – θ o

= − k ' ∫ dt

©

Eq. (E 14.4) shows that the shape of a plot between log10 (θ – θo ) and t

will be a straight line.

PROCEDURE

1. Find the least counts of thermometers T1 and T 2. Take some water

t

no

2. Examine the working of the stop-watch/clock and find its least count.

3. Pour water into the double- walled container (enclosure) at room

temperature. Insert the other thermometer T2 in water contained

in it, with the help of the clamp stand.

4. Heat some water separately to a temperature of about 40 oC above

the room temperature θo. Pour hot water in calorimeter up to its top.

105

LABORATORY MANUAL

LABORATORY MANUAL

5. Put the calorimeter, with hot water, back in the enclosure and

cover it with the lid having holes. Insert the thermometer T1 and

the stirrer in the calorimeter through the holes provided in the

lid, as shown in Fig. E14.1.

6. Note the initial temperature of the water between enclosure of

double wall with the thermometer T2, when the difference of

readings of two thermometers T1 and T2 is about 30 oC. Note the

initial reading of the thermometer T1.

d

7. Keep on stirring the water gently and constantly. Note the

reading of thermometer T1, first after about every half a minute,

he

then after about one minute and finally after two minutes

duration or so.

8. Keep on simultaneously noting the reading of the stop-watch and

is

constantly, till the temperature of water in the calorimeter falls to

a temperature of about 5 oC above that of the enclosure. Note the

re R

bl

temperature of the enclosure, by the thermometer T2.

9. Record observations in tabular form. Find the excess of

E

temperature (θ − θο ) and also log10 ( θ − θο) for each reading, using

logarithmic tables. Record these values in the corresponding

be C

10.Plot a graph between time t, taken along x-axis and log10 (θ – θo )

to N

O BSERVATIONS

©

Least count of stop-watch/clock = ... s

Initial temperature of water in the enclosure θ1 = ... °C

Final temperature of water in the enclosure θ 2 = ... oC

Mean temperature of the water in the enclosure θ ο = (θ1 + θ 2)/2 = ... oC

Table E 14.1: Measuring the change in temperature of water with time

t

no

No. (s) of hot water of hot water (θ – θ0)

θ °C °C

1

2

.

.

20

106

EXPERIMENT 1 4

UNIT NAME

P LOTTING GRAPH

(i) Plot a graph between (θ – θo) and t as shown in Fig. E 14.2 taking t

along x-axis and (θ – θo ) along y-axis. This is called cooling curve.

(ii) Also plot a graph between log10 (θ - θo ) and time t, as shown in Fig.

E 14.3 taking time t along x-axis and log10 (θ - θo ) along y-axis.

Choose suitable scales on these axes. Identify the shape of the

cooling curve and the other graph.

d

he

pu T

is

re R

bl

E

be C

Fig.E 14.2: Graph between (θ – θo) and t for Fig.E 14.3: Graph between log10 (θ – θo) and t

cooling

R

to N

ESULT

The cooling curve is an exponential decay curve (Fig. E 14.2). It is

observed from the graph that the logarithm of the excess of temperature

©

of hot body over that of its surroundings varies linearly with time as

the body cools.

P RECAUTIONS

1. The water in the calorimeter should be gently stirred continuously.

2. Ideally the space between the double walls of the surrounding

vessel should be filled with flowing water to make it an enclosure

having a constant temperature.

t

3. Make sure that the openings for inserting thermometers are air

no

4. The starting temperature of water in the calorimeter should be

about 30°C above the room temperature.

S OURCES OF ERROR

1. Some personal error is always likely to be involved due to delay in

starting or stopping the stop-watch. Take care in starting and

stopping the stop-watch.

107

LABORATORY MANUAL

LABORATORY MANUAL

measurement of temperature of hot water (decrease in

temperature being fast in the beginning and then comparatively

slower afterwards) and the time. Take special care while reading

the stop-watch and the thermometer simultaneously.

3. If the opening for the thermometer is not airtight, some loss of heat

can occur.

4. The temperature of the water in enclosure is not constant.

d

D ISCUSSION

he

Each body radiates heat and absorbs heat radiated by the other. The

warmer one (here the calorimeter) radiates more and receives less.

Radiation by surface occurs at all temperatures. Higher the

pu T

is

temperature difference with the surroundings, higher is rate of heat

radiation. Here the enclosure is at a lower temperature so it radiates

re R

bl

less but receives more from the calorimeter. So, finally the calorimeter

dominates in the process.

E

S

ELF ASSESSMENT

be C

to N

2. Does the Newton’s law of cooling hold good for all temperature

differences?

3. How is Newton's law of cooling different from Stefan's law of heat

©

radiation?

4. What is the shape of cooling curve?

5. Find the specific heat of a solid/liquid using Newton's law of

cooling apparatus.

1. Find the slope and intercept on y-axis of the straight line graph (Fig.

E 14.2) you have drawn. Determine the value of constant k and the

t

no

m ′ x + c′ , with m ′ as the slope of the straight line and c′ the

intercept on y-axis. It is clear m′ = k′/2.303 and c′ = c' × 2.303 .]

2. The cooling experiment is perfor med with the calorimeter, filled with

same volume of water and turpentine oil successively, by maintaining

the same temperature difference between the calorimeter and the

surrounding enclosure. What ratio of the rates of heat loss would

you expect in this case?

108

EXPERIMENT

UNIT NAME

EXPERIMENT 15

AIM

d

(i) To study the relation between frequency and length of a given

wire under constant tension using a sonometer.

he

(ii) To study the relation between the length of a given wire and tension

for constant frequency using a sonometer.

pu T

is

re R

Sonometer, six tuning forks

bl

of known frequencies, metre

E

scale, rubber pad, paper

rider, hanger with half-

kilogram weights, wooden

be C

bridges.

SONOMETER

to N

It consists of a long

sounding board or a hollow Fig. E 15.1: A Sonometer

wooden box W with a peg G

©

the other end as shown in Fig E 15.1. One end of a metal wire S is

attached to the peg and the other end passes over the pulley P. A

hanger H is suspended from the free end of the wire. By placing slotted

weights on the hanger tension is applied to the wire. By placing two

bridges A and B under the wire, the length of the vibrating wire can be

fixed. Position of one of the bridges, say bridge A is kept fixed so that

by varying the position of other bridge, say bridge B, the vibrating

length can be altered.

t

PRINCIPLE

no

given by

1 T (E 15.1)

n=

2l m

where m = mass per unit length of the string

l = length of the string between the wedges 109

LABORATORY MANUAL

LABORATORY MANUAL

hanger) = Mg

M = mass suspended, including the mass of the hanger

(a) For a given m and fixed T,

1

nα or n l = constant.

l

(b) If frequency n is constant, for a given wire (m is

d

constant),

he

T

is constant. That is l 2 ∝ T.

l

Fig. E 15.2: Variation of resonant length

pu T

is

with frequency of tuning fork

re R

PROCEDURE

bl

E

1. Set up the sonometer on the table and clean the groove on the

be C

placing a suitable load on the hanger.

2. Set a tuning fork of frequency n 1 into vibrations by striking it

to N

against the rubber pad and hold it near one of your ears. Pluck

the sonometer wire and compare the two sounds, one produced

by the tuning fork and the other by the plucked wire. Make a note

©

3. Adjust the vibrating length of the wire by sliding the bridge B till

the two sounds appear alike.

4. For final adjustment, place a small paper rider R in

the middle of wire AB. Sound the tuning fork and

place its shank stem on the bridge A or on the

sonometer box. Slowly adjust the position of bridge

B till the paper rider is agitated violently, which

indicates resonance.

t

no

fundamental mode equals the frequency of the tuning

fork. Measure this length with the help of a metre scale.

5. Repeat the above procedures for other five tuning

forks keeping the load on the hanger unchanged. Plot

a graph between n and l (Fig. E 15.2)

6. After calculating frequency, n of each tuning fork, plot

Fig. E 15.3: Variation of 1/l with n a graph between n and 1/l where l is the resonating

length as shown in Fig. E 15.3.

110

EXPERIMENT 1 5

UNIT NAME

O BSERVATIONS (A)

Tension (constant) on the wire (weight suspended from the hanger

including its own weight) T = ... N

Table E 15.1: Variation of frequency with length

Frequency n o f

n1 n2 n3 n4 n5 n6

tuning fork (Hz)

d

Resonating

length l (cm)

he

1

(cm –1 )

l

pu T

is

nl (Hz cm)

C

re R

bl

ALCULATIONS AND GRAPH

1

E

Calculate the product nl for each fork. and, calculate the reciprocals,

l

1 1

be C

l l

along y axis, starting from zero on both axes. See whether a straight

to N

line can be drawn from the origin to lie evenly between the plotted points.

RESULT

©

1

Check if the product n l is found to be constant and the graph of vs n

l

is also a straight line. Therefore, for a given tension, the resonant length

of a given stretched string varies as reciprocal of the frequency.

D ISCUSSION

1. Error may occur in measurement of length l. There is always an

uncertainty in setting the bridge in the final adjustment.

t

no

2. Some friction might be present at the pulley and hence the tension

may be less than that actually applied.

3. The wire may not be of uniform cross section.

(ii) Variation of resonant length with tension for constant

frequency

1. Select a tuning fork of a certain frequency (say 256 Hz) and hang

a load of 1kg from the hanger. Find the resonant length as before.

111

LABORATORY MANUAL

LABORATORY MANUAL

time find the resonating length with the same tuning fork.

Do it for at least four loads.

3. Record your observations.

4. Plot graph between l 2 and T as shown in Fig. E 15.4.

O BSERVATIONS (B)

d

Frequency of the tuning fork = ... Hz

he

Fig. E 15.4: Graph between l2 Table E 15.2: Variation of resonant length with tension

and T

Tension applied T

(including weight of

is

Resonating length l

re R

of the wire

bl l2 (cm2)

E

T/l2 ( N cm–2)

be C

C

to N

Calculate the value of T l 2 for the tension applied in each case.

Alternatively, plot a graph of l 2 vs T taking l 2 along y-axis and T

©

R ESULT

It is found that value of T/l 2 is constant within experimental error.

The graph of l 2 vs T is found to be a straight line. This shows that

l 2 α T or l α T .

Thus, the resonating length varies as square root of tension for a

t

no

P

RECAUTIONS

1. Pulley should be frictionless ideally. In practice friction at the pulley

should be minimised by applying grease or oil on it.

2. Wire should be free from kinks and of uniform cross section,

ideally. If there are kinks, they should be removed by stretching

as far as possible.

112

EXPERIMENT 1 5

UNIT NAME

adjustes so that a node is formed at the bridge.

4. Tuning fork should be vibrated by striking its prongs against a

soft rubber pad.

5. Load should be removed after the experiment.

SOURCES OF ERROR

d

1. Pulley may not be frictionless.

2. Wire may not be rigid and of uniform cross section.

he

3. Bridges may not be sharp.

D

pu T

ISCUSSION

is

1. Error may occur in measurement of length l. There is always an

re R

uncertainty in setting the bridge in the final adjustment.

bl

2. Some friction might be present at the pulley and hence the tension

E

may be less than that actually applied.

3. The wire may not be of uniform cross section.

be C

4. Care should be taken to hold the tuning fork by the shank only.

S

to N

ELF ASSESSMENT

1. What is the principle of superposition of waves?

©

3. Under what circumstances are stationary waves formed?

4. Identify the nodes and antinodes in the string of your sonometer.

5. What is the ratio of the first three harmonics produced in a stretched

string fixed at two ends?

6. Keeping material of wire and tension fixed, how will the resonant

length change if the diameter of the wire is increased?

t

no

and find the value of l for each of these for a given frequency, n

and tension, T .

1

2. Plot a graph between the value of m and obtained, in 1 above,

l2

with m along X axis.

3. Pluck the string of an stringed musical instrument like a sitar, voilin

or guitar with different lengths of string for same tension or same

length of string with different tension. Observe how the frequency

of the sound changes.

113

LABORATORY MANUAL

LABORATORY MANUAL

EXPERIMENT 16

AIM

d

To determine the velocity of sound in air at room temperature using a

resonance tube.

he

APPARATUS AND MATERIAL REQUIRED

pu T

is

Resonance tube apparatus, a tuning fork of known frequency

(preferably of 480 Hz or 512 Hz), a rubber pad, a thermometer, spirit

re R

level, a set-square, beaker and water.

P bl

E

RINCIPLE

When a vibrating tuning fork of known frequency ν is

be C

A E 16.1), a standing wave pattern could be formed in the

A

tube. Under the right conditions, a superposition between

to N

cause resonance. This gives a very noticeable rise in the

amplitude, or loudness, of the sound. In a closed organ

©

at the closed end (Fig. E 16.2). For resonance to occur, a

node must be formed at the closed end and an antinode

must be formed at the open end. Let the first loud sound

be heard at length l1 of the air column [Fig. E 16.2(a)].

That is, when the natural frequency of the air column of

length l1 becomes equal to the natural frequency of the

B B

tuning fork, so that the air column vibrates with the

(a) (b) maximum amplitude. In fact the length of air column

t

Fig. E 16.1 : Formation of standing

no

in tube AB. Thus,

closed at one end

λ (E 16.1)

= l1 + e

4

where e (= 0.6 r, where r = radius of the glass tube) is the end correction

for the resonance tube and λ is the wave-length of the sound produced

by the tuning fork.

Now on further lowering the closed end of the tube AB, let the second

114 resonance position be heard at length l2 of the air column in the tube

EXPERIMENT 1 6

UNIT NAME

approximately be equal to three quarters of

the wavelength. That is, l1

3λ

(E 16.2) = l2 + e

4 l2

gives

d

(E. 16.3) λ = 2 (l2–l1 )

T hu s, the velo city o f s o u n d i n a i r a t

he

r o o m t e m p e r a t u r e (v = ν λ ) w o u l d b e

v = 2 ν ( l 2 – l 1) . (a) (b)

P

Fig. E 16.2: Vibrations in a resonance tube

pu T

is

ROCEDURE

re R

ADJUSTMENT OF RESONANCE TUBE

bl

The apparatus usually consists of a narrow glass tube about a metre

E

long and 5 cm in diameter, rigidly fixed in its vertical position with a

wooden stand. The lower end of this tube is attached to a reservoir by

a rubber tube. Using a clamp, the reservoir can be made to slide up

be C

or down along a vertical rod. A pinch cock is provided with the rubber

tube to keep the water level (or the length of air column) fixed in the

to N

tube. A metre scale is also fixed along the tube. The whole apparatus

is fixed on a horizontal wooden base that can be levelled using the

screws provided at the bottom. Both the reservoir and tube contain

water. When reservoir is raised the length of the air column in the

©

tube goes down, and when it is lowered the length of the air column in

the tube goes up. Now:–

1. Set the resonance tube vertical with the help of a spirit level and

levelling screws provided at the bottom of the wooden base of the

apparatus.

2. Note the room temperature with a thermometer.

3. Note the frequency ν of given tuning fork.

t

4. Fix the reservoir to the highest point of the vertical rod with the

no

help of clamp.

De--termination of First Resonance Position

5. Fill the water in the reservoir such that the level of water in the

tube reaches up to its open end.

6. Close the pinch cock and lower down the position of reservoir on

the vertical rod.

7. Gently strike the given tuning fork on a rubber pad and put

it nearly one cm above the open end of the tube. Keep both the

115

LABORATORY MANUAL

LABORATORY MANUAL

prongs of the tuning fork parallel to the ground and lying one

above the other so that the prongs vibrate in the vertical plane.

Try to listen the sound being produced in the tube. It may not

be audible in this position.

8. Slowly loosen the pinch cock to let the water level fall in the

tube very slowly. Keep bringing the tuning fork near the open

end of the resonance tube, notice the increasing loudness of

the sound.

d

9. Repeat steps 7 and 8 till you get the exact position of water

level in the tube for which the intensity of sound being produced

he

in the tube is maximum. This corresponds to the first resonance

position or fundamental node, if the length of air column is

minimum. Close the pinch cock at this position and note the

position of water level or length l 1 of air column in the tube

pu T

is

[Fig. E 16.2]. This is the determination of first resonance

position while the level of water is falling in the tube.

re R

bl

10. Repeat steps (5) to (9) to confirm the first resonance position.

E

11. Next find out the first resonance position by gradually raising

the level of water in resonance tube, and holding the vibrating

tuning fork continuously on top of its open end. Fix the tube

be C

to N

12. Lower the position of the water level further in the resonance tube

by sliding down the position of reservoir on the vertical stand and

©

opening the pinch cock till the length of air column in the tube

increases about three times of the length l1.

13. Find out the second resonance position and determine the length

of air column l2 in the tube with the same tuning fork having

frequency ν1 and confirm the length l2 by taking four readings,

two when the level of water is falling and the other two when the

level of water is rising in the tube.

14. Repeat steps (5) to (13) with a second tuning fork having frequency

ν2 and determine the first and second resonance positions.

t

no

O

BSERVATIONS

1. Temperature of the room θ = ... o C

2. Frequency of first tuning fork , ν 1 = ... Hz

116

EXPERIMENT 1 6

UNIT NAME

tuning fork No. resonance position of second resonance

used the tube position of the tube

Water Water Mean Water Water Mean

level is level is length, level is level is length,

falling rising l 1 cm falling rising l 2 cm

1

ν1 = ... Hz 2

d

1

ν2 = ... Hz

2

he

C ALCULATIONS

pu T

is

(i) For first tuning fork having frequency ν1 = ... Hz

Velocity of sound in air v1 = 2 ν 1 (l2– l1) = ... ms–1

re R

bl

(ii) For second tuning fork having frequency ν 2 = ... Hz

E

Velocity of sound in air v2 = 2ν 2 (l2– l1) = ... ms–1

Obtain the mean velocity v of sound in air.

be C

R ESULT

to N

v1 + v 2

= ... ms –1

©

PRECAUTIONS

1. The resonance tube should be kept vertical using the levelling

screws.

2. The experiment should be performed in a quiet atmosphere so

that the resonance positions may be identified properly.

3. Striking of tuning fork on rubber pad must be done very gently.

t

no

4. The lowering and raising of water level in the resonance tube should

be done very slowly.

5. The choice of frequencies of the tuning forks being used should be

such that the two resonance positions may be achieved in the air

column of the resonance tube.

6. The vibrating tuning fork must be kept about 1 cm above the top

of the resonance tube. In any case it should not touch the walls of

the resonance tube.

117

LABORATORY MANUAL

LABORATORY MANUAL

the ground and keeping one over the other so that the vibrations

reaching the air inside the tube are vertical.

8. Room temperature during the performance of experiment should

be measured two to three times and a mean value should be taken.

S

OURCES OF ERROR

1. The air inside the tube may not be completely dry and the presence

d

of water vapours in the air column may exhibit a higher value of

velocity of sound.

he

2. Resonance tube must be of uniform area of cross-section.

3. There must be no wind blowing in the room.

D pu T

is

ISCUSSION

re R

bl

1. Loudness of sound in second resonance position is lower than the

loudness in first resonance. We determine two resonance positions

E

in this experiment to apply end correction. But the experiment

can also be conducted by finding first resonance position only

be C

2. For a given tuning fork, change in the resonating length of air

to N

wavelength or velocity of sound. Thus, the second resonance is

not the overtone of first resonance.

S

©

ELF ASSESSMENT

1. Is the velocity of sound temperature dependent? If yes, write the

relation.

2. What would happen if resonance tube is not vertical?

3. Name the phenomenon responsible for the resonance in this

experiment.

t

no

day life.

different diameters and study the relation between the end correction

and the diameter of the tube.

118

EXPERIMENT

UNIT NAME

EXPERIMENT 17

AIM

d

To determine the specific heat capacity of a given (i) and solid

(ii) a liquid by the method of mixtures.

he

APPARATUS AND MATERIAL REQUIRED

pu T

is

Copper calorimeter with lid, stirrer and insulating cover (the lid

should have provision to insert thermometer in addition to the

re R

stirrer), two thermometers (0 °C to 100 °C or 110 °C with a least

bl

count of 0.5 °C), a solid, preferably metallic (brass/copper/steel/

aluminium) cylinder which is insoluble in given liquid and water,

E

given liquid, two beakers (100 mL and 250 mL), a heating device

(heater/hot plate/gas burner); physical balance, spring balance with

be C

flexible thread (25-30 cm long), water, laboratory stand, tripod stand

and wire gauze.

to N

P RINCIPLE / THEORY

©

lost/gained by it when its temperature falls/rises by Δt is given by

(E 17.1)

ΔQ = ms Δt

Specific heat capacity: It is the amount of heat required to raise the

temperature of unit mass of a substance through 1°C. Its S.I unit is

Jkg–1 K –1.

Principle of Calorimetry: If bodies of different temperatures are

brought in thermal contact, the amount of heat lost by the body at

t

no

to the surrounding.

(a) Specific heat capacity of given solid by method of mixtures

P ROCEDURE

1. Set the physical balance and make sure there is no zero error.

2. Weigh the empty calorimeter with stirrer and lid with the physical

balance/spring balance. Ensure that calorimeter is clean and dry. 119

LABORATORY MANUAL

LABORATORY MANUAL

Note the mass m 1 of the calorimeter. Pour the given water in the

calorimeter. Make sure that the quantity of water taken would be

sufficient to completely submerge the given solid in it. Weigh the

calorimeter with water along with the stirrer and the lid and note

its mass m2. Place the calorimeter in its insulating cover.

3. Dip the solid in water and take it out. Now shake it to remove

water sticking to its surface. Weigh the wet solid with the physical

balance and note down its mass m3.

4. Tie the solid tightly with the thread at its middle. Make sure that it

d

can be lifted by holding the thread without slipping.

he

Place a 250 mL beaker on the wire gauze kept on a tripod stand as

shown in the Fig. E 17.1(a). Fill the beaker up to the half with

water. Now suspend the solid in the beaker containing water by

tying the other end of the thread to a laboratory stand. The solid

pu T

is

should be completely submerged in water and should be atleast

0.5 cm below the surface. Now heat the water with the solid

re R

bl

suspended in it [Fig. E 17.1 (a)].

E

be C

t to N

©

Fig. E 17.1: Experimental setup for determining specific heat of a given solid

no

of the water taken in the calorimeter. Record the temperature t 1 of

the water.

6. Let the water in the beaker boil for about 5-10 minutes. Now

measure the temperature t2 of the water with the other thermometer

and record the same. Holding the solid with the thread tied to it,

120

EXPERIMENT 1 7

UNIT NAME

on it and quickly put it in the water in the calorimeter and replace

the lid immediately (Fig. E 17.1 (b)). Stir the water with the stirrer.

Measure the temperature of the water once equilibrium is attained,

that is, temperature of the mixture becomes constant. Record this

temperature as t 3.

O BSERVATIONS

d

Mass of the empty calorimeter with stirrer (m1) = ... g

Mass of the calorimeter with water (m 2) = ... g

he

Mass of solid (m3) = ... g

Initial temperature of the water (t 1) = ... °C = ... K

pu T

is

Temperature of the solid in boiling water (t 2) = ... °C = ... K

re R

Temperature of the mixture (t3) = ... °C

bl

Specific heat capacity of material of calorimeter s 1 = ... Jkg–1 °C–1 (Jkg–1 K–1)

E

Specific heat capacity of water (s) = ... Jkg–1 K–1

C

be C

ALCULATIONS

to N

2. Change in temperature of liquid and calorimeter (t3 – t1) = ... °C

©

Heat given by solid in cooling from t 2 to t 3.

= Heat gained by liquid in raising its temperature from t1 to t 3 +

heat gained by calorimeter in raising its temperature from t 1 to t 3.

m3s o (t 2 – t3) = (m 2 – m 1) s (t 2 – t1) + m1s 1 (t3 – t 1)

so =

(m 2 – m 1 ) s ( t2 − t1 ) + m1s1 ( t3 − t1 )

= ... J kg–1 °C–1

m 3 ( t2 − t3 )

t

no

PROCEDURE

1. Set the phyiscal balance and make sure there is no zero error.

2. Weigh the empty calorimeter with stirrer and lid with the

physical balance/spring balance. Ensure that calorimeter is

clean and dry. Note the mass m 1 of the calorimeter. Pour the

121

LABORATORY MANUAL

LABORATORY MANUAL

liquid taken would be sufficient to completely submerge the

solid in it. Weigh the calorimeter with liquid along with the

stirrer and the lid and note its mass m2. Place the calorimeter

in its insulating cover.

3. Take a metallic cylinder whose specific heat capacity is known.

Dip it in water in a container and shake it to remove the water

sticking to its surface. Weigh the wet solid with the physical balance

and note down its mass m3.

d

4. Tie the solid tightly with the thread at its middle. Make sure that it

he

can be lifted by holding the thread without slipping.

Place a 250 mL beaker on the wire gauze kept on a tripod stand

as shown in Fig. E 17.1(a). Fill the beaker up to half with water.

pu T

Now suspend the solid in the beaker containing water by tying

is

the other end of the thread to a laboratory stand. The solid should

be completely submerged in water and should be atleast 0.5 cm

re R

bl

below the surface. Now heat the water with the solid suspended in

it [Fig. E 17.1(a)].

E

5. Note the least count of the thermometer. Measure the temperature

of the water taken in the calorimeter. Record the temperature t 1 of

be C

the water.

6. Let the liquid in the beaker boil for about 5-10 minutes. Now

to N

and record the same. Holding the solid with the thread tied to it

remove it from the boiling water, shake it to remove water sticking

on it and quickly put it in the liquid in the calorimeter and replace

©

the lid immediately [Fig. E 17.1(b)]. Stir it with the stirrer. Measure

the temperature of the liquid once equilibrium is attained, that is,

temperature of the mixture becomes constant. Record this

temperature as t 3.

O

BSERVATIONS

Mass of the empty calorimeter with stirrer (m1) = ... g

t

no

Initial temperature of the liquid (t1) = °C = ... K

Temperature of the solid in boiling water (t 2) = °C = ... K

Temperature of the mixture (t3) = °C = ... K

Specific heat capacity of material of calorimeter s 1 = ... Jkg–1 °C–1 (Jkg–1 K–1)

Specific heat capacity of solid (s 0) = ... Jkg–1 K–1

122

EXPERIMENT 1 7

UNIT NAME

C ALCULATIONS

1. Mass of the liquid in calorimeter (m2 – m 1) = ... g = ... kg

2. Change in temperature of liquid and calorimeter (t 3 – t1) = ... °C

3. Change in temperature of solid (t 2 – t3) = ... °C

Heat given by solid in cooling from t 2 to t 3.

= Heat gained by liquid in raising its temperature from t1 to t 3 +

d

heat gained by calorimeter in raising its temperature from t 1 to t 3.

he

m3s o (t 2 – t3) = (m 2 – m 1) s (t 2 – t1) + m1s 1 (t3 – t 1)

m 3 s 0 ( t 2 − t 3 ) – m 1s 1 ( t 3 − t1 )

s= = ... J kg–1 °C–1

( m 2 − m1 ) (t 2 − t 1 )

pu T

is

R

re R

ESULT

bl

E

(a) The specific heat of the given solid is ... Jkg –1 K –1 within

experimental error.

be C

(b) The specific heat of the given liquid is ... Jkg–1 K –1 within

experimental error.

to N

PRECAUTIONS

1. Physical balance should be in proper working condition and ensure

©

2. The two thermometers used should be of the same range and least

count.

3. The solid used should not be chemically reactive with the liquid

used or water.

4. The calorimeter should always be kept in its insulated cover and at

a sufficient distance from the source of heat and should not be

t

no

same as recorded when it is dropped in the liquid.

6. Liquid should not be allowed to splash while dropping the solid

in it in the calorimeter. It is advised that the solid should be lowered

gently into the liquid with the help of the thread tied to it.

7. While measuring the temperature, the thermometers should always

be held in vertical position. The line of sight should be

perpendicular to the mercury level while recording the temperature.

123

LABORATORY MANUAL

LABORATORY MANUAL

S

OURCES OF ERROR

1. Radiation losses cannot be completely eliminated.

2. Heat loss that takes place during the short period while transferring

hot solid into calorimeter, cannot be accounted for.

3. Though mercury in the thermometer bulb has low specific heat, it

absorbs some heat.

d

4. There may be some error in measurement of mass and temperature.

he

ISCUSSION

1. There may be some heat loss while transferring the solid, from

boiling water to the liquid kept in the calorimeter. Heat loss may

pu T

is

also occur due to time lapsed between putting of hot solid in

calorimeter and replacing its lid.

re R

bl

2. The insulating cover of the calorimeter may not be a perfect

insulator.

E

3. Error in measurement of mass of calorimeter, calorimeter with liquid

and that of the solid may affect the calculation of specific heat

be C

4. Calculation of specific heat capacity of the liquid may also be

to N

5. Even though the metal piece is kept in boiling water, it may not

have exactly the same temperature as that of boiling water.

©

S

ELF ASSESSMENT

1. What is water equivalent?

2. Why do we generally use a calorimeter made of copper?

3. Why is it important to stir the contents before taking the

temperature of the mixture?

t

no

solid and the liquid are known.

124

ACTIVITIES

ACTIVITY 1

AIM

d

To make a paper scale of given least count: (a) 0.2 cm and (b) 0.5 cm

he

APPARATUS AND MATERIAL REQUIRED

pu T

Thick ivory/drawing sheet; white paper sheet; pencil; sharpener;

is

eraser; metre scale (ruler); fine tipped black ink or gel pen.

re R

P RINCIPLE

bl

E

Least count of a measuring instrument is the smallest measurement

that can be made accurately with the given measuring instrument.

be C

as the smallest division on its scale. You cannot measure lengths

with this scale with accuracy better than 1mm (or 0.1 cm).

to N

You can make paper scale of least count (a) 0.2 cm (b) 0.5 cm, by

dividing one centimetre length into smaller divisions by a simple

method, without using mm marks.

©

P ROCEDURE

(a) Making Paper Scale of Least Count 0.2 cm

1. Fold a white paper sheet in the middle along its length.

2. Using a sharp pencil, draw a line AB, of length 30 cm in either

half of the white paper sheet [Fig. A1.1(a)].

3. Starting with the left end marked A as zero,

t

no

successive dots.

4. Draw thin, sharp straight lines, each 5 cm

in length, perpendicular to the line AB at

the position of each dot mark.

5. Draw 5 thin, sharp lines parallel to the line

AB at distances of 1.0 cm, 2.0 cm, 3.0

cm, 4.0 cm and 5.0 cm respectively. Let Fig. A1.1(a): Making a paper scale

the line at 5 cm be DC while those at 1 cm, of least count 0.2 cm

LABORATORY MANUAL

LABORATORY MANUAL

[Fig A 1.1(a)].

6. Join point D with the dot at 1 cm on line AB. Intersection of this

line with lines parallel to AB at A4, A3, A2 and A 1 are respectively

0.2 cm, 0.4 cm, 0.6 cm and 0.8 cm in length.

7. Use this arrangement to measure length of a pencil or a knitting

needle with least count of 0.2 cm.

(b) Making Paper Scale of Least Count 0.5 cm

d

1. Using a sharp pencil, draw a line AB of length 30 cm

he

in the other half of the white paper sheet [Fig. A1.1(b)].

2. Repeat steps 3 to 6 as in the above Activity 1.1(a), but

draw only two lines parallel to AB at distances 1.0 cm

is

3. Join diagonal 1-D by fine tipped black ink pen [Fig. A

re R

Fig. A1.1(b): 1.1 (b)].

4.

E

least count of 0.5 cm. Fractional part of length 0.5 cm is measured

on line A1B1.

be C

(c) Measuring the Length of a Pencil Using the Paper Scales A and B

1. Place the pencil PP’ along the length of the paper scale A (least

to N

count 0.2 cm) such that its end P is on a full mark (say 1.0 cm or

2.0 cm etc. mark). The position of the other end P′ is on diagonal

1–D. If P′ goes beyond the diagonal, place it on next upper line, in

©

Fig. A 1.1 (a), length of the pencil = 3 cm + .2 × 2 cm = 3.4 cm. Take

care that you take the reading with one eye closed and the other

eye directly over the required graduation mark. The reading is

likely to be incorrect if the eye is inclined to the graduation mark.

2. Repeat preceding step 1, using the paper scale B having least

count 0.5 cm and record your observation in proper units.

O

BSERVATIONS

t

no

Least count of the paper scale B = 0.5 cm

R

ESULT

(i) Scale of least count 0.2 cm and 0.5 cm have been made; and

(ii) Length of pencil as measured by using the scales made above is

(a) ... cm and (b) ... cm.

126

ACTIVITY 1

UNIT NAME

P RECAUTIONS

(i) Very sharp pencil should be used.

(ii) Scale should be cut along the boundary by using a sharp paper

cutter.

(iii) Observation should be recorded showing accuracy of the scale.

(iv) While measuring lengths, full cm mark should be made to

d

coincide with one end of the object and other end should be read

on the scale.

he

SOURCES OF ERROR

pu T

is

The line showing the graduations may not be as sharp as required.

re R

D ISCUSSION

bl

E

1. The accuracy of measurement of length with the scale so formed

depends upon the accuracy of the graduation and thickness of

be C

line drawn.

2. Some personal error is likely to be involved e.g. parallax error.

t to N

©

no

127

LABORATORY MANUAL

LABORATORY MANUAL

ACTIVITY 2

AIM

d

To determine the mass of a given body using a metre scale by the

he

principle of moments.

pu T

is

A wooden metre scale of uniform thickness (a wooden strip of one

metre length having uniform thickness and width can also be used);

re R

bl

load of unknown mass, wooden or metal wedge with sharp edge, weight

box, thread (nearly 30 cm long), a spirit level, and a raised platform of

E

about 20 cm height (such as a wooden or metal block).

P

be C

RINCIPLE

For a body free to rotate about a fixed axis, in equilibrium, the sum of

to N

moments.

If M1 is the known mass, suspended at a distance l1 on one side from

©

at a distance l2 on the other side from the centre of gravity, and the

beam is in equilibrium, then M2 l2 = M1 l1.

P ROCEDURE

1. Make a raised platform on a table. One can use a wooden or a

metal block to do so. However, the platform should be a sturdy,

place a wedge having a sharp edge on it. Alternately one can fix

t

no

top. With the help of a spirit level set the level of the wedge

horizontal.

2. Make two loops of thread to be used for suspending the unknown

mass and the weights from the metre scale (beam). Insert the loops

at about 10 cm from the edge of the metre scale from both sides.

3. Place the metre scale with thread loops on the wedge and adjust

it till it is balanced. Mark two points on the scale above the wedge

where the scale is balanced. Join these two points with a straight

128 line which would facilitate to pin point the location of balance

ACTIVITY 2

UNIT NAME

position even if the scale topples over from the wedge due to some

reason. This line is passing through the centre of gravity of scale.

4. Take the unknown mass in one hand. Select a weight from the

weight box which feels nearly equal to the unknown mass when

it is kept on the other hand.

5. Suspend the unknown mass from

either of the two loops of thread Wedge

attached to the metre scale. A G B

d

Suspend the known weight from

the other loop (Fig. A 2.1). x y

he

Unknown

6. Adjust the position of the known Mass, m m Known standard

weight by moving the loop till the W = mg mass

metre scale gets balanced on the

pu T

sharp wedge. Make sure that in Fig. A 2.1: Experimental set up for determination

is

balanced position the line drawn in of mass of a given body

Step 3 is exactly above the wedge

re R

bl

and also that the thread of two loops passing over the scale is

parallel to this line.

E

7. Measure the distance of the position of the loops from the line

drawn in Step 3. Record your observations.

be C

8. Repeat the activity atleast two times with a slightly lighter and a

heavier weight. Note the distances of unknown mass and weight

to N

OBSERVATIONS

©

Table A 2.1: Determination of mass of unknown object

S. Mass M1 Distance of Distance of Mass of Average

No. suspended the mass solid of unknown mass of

from the from the unknown load M 2 (g) unknown

thread wedge l 1 mass from load (g)

loop to (cm) the wedge

M1l1

=

balance l 2 (cm) l2

t

the metre

no

scale (g)

5

129

LABORATORY MANUAL

LABORATORY MANUAL

C ALCULATIONS

In balanced position of the metre scale, moment of the force on one

side of the wedge will be equal to the moment of the force on the other

side.

Moment of the force due to known weight = (M1l1) g

Moment of the force due to unknown weight = (M2l2) g

d

In balanced position

he

M1l1 = M2l2

M1l1

pu T

is

or M2 = l

2

re R

Average mass of unknown load = ... g

R bl

E

ESULT

be C

P

to N

RECAUTIONS

1. Wedge should be sharp and always perpendicular to the length of the

scale.

©

3. Thread used for loops should be thin, light and strong.

4. Air currents should be minimised.

S

OURCES OF ERROR

1. Mass per unit length may not be uniform along the length of the

t

no

2. The line marked on the scale may not be exactly over the wedge

while balancing the weights in subsequent settings.

3. The thread of the loops may not be parallel to the wedge when the

weights are balanced, which in turn would introduce some error

in measurement of weight-arm.

4. It may be difficult to adjudge balance position of the scale exactly.

A tilt of even of the order of 1° may affect the measurement of

mass of the load.

130

ACTIVITY 2

UNIT NAME

DISCUSSION

1. What is the name given to the point on the scale at which it is

balanced horizontally on the wedge?

2. How does the least count of the metre scale limit the accuracy in

the measurement of mass?

3. What is the resultant torque on the metre scale, due to gravitational

force, when the scale is perfectly horizontal?

d

4. Explain, how a physical balance works on the principle of

he

moments.

5. What problems would air currents cause in this activity?

SUGGESTED ADDITIONAL EXPERIMENTS/ACTIVITIES

pu T

is

1. We can determine the accuracy of various weights available in

the laboratory, by finding out their mass by the above method

re R

and comparing with their marked values.

E

balancing the metre scale at its centre of gravity, suspend

masses M 1 and M 2 at distances l1 and l2 respectively, from the

centre of gravity, on either side. Adjust the distances l 1 and l2

be C

M1 l1 and M2 l2. Repeat with other combinations of masses M1

and M2.

tto N

©

no

131

LABORATORY MANUAL

LABORATORY MANUAL

ACTIVITY 3

AIM

d

To plot a graph for a given set of data choosing proper scale and show

he

error bars due to the precision of the instruments.

pu T

is

Graph paper, a pencil, a scale and a set of data

re R

P

bl

RINCIPLE

E

Graphical representation of experimentally obtained data helps in

interpreting, communicating and understanding the interdependence

be C

values of variables have some error or expected uncertainty. For this

reason each data point on the graph cannot have a unique position.

to N

That means depending upon the errors, the x-axis coordinate and y-

axis coordinate of every point plotted on the graph will lie in a range

known as an error bar.

©

depending on the precision of the device used. For example, in the

measurement of diameter of a spherical bob, the correct way is to

represent it d + Δd, where Δd is the uncertainty in measurement of d

given by the least count of the vernier/screw gauze used.

Representation of d + Δd in a graph is shown as a line having a length

of + Δd about point ‘d’. This is known as the error bar of d.

We take an example where the diameters of objects, circular in shape,

are measured using a vernier calipers of least count 0.01 cm. These

t

no

round off the digits in the radius to the value consistent with the least

count of the measuring instrument, in this case, the vernier calipers.

We also estimate the maximum possible fractional uncertainty (or

error) in the values of radius. Next, the area A of each object is then

calculated using the formula.

πd 2

Area, A =

4

132 where π is the well-known constant.

ACTIVITY 3

UNIT NAME

way to look for interdependence or patterns between various

parameters associated with a given experiment or phenomenon or an

event. Graphs also provide a useful tool to communicate a given data

in pictorial form. We are often required to graphically represent the

data collected during an experiment in the laboratory, to verify a given

relation or to infer inter-relationships between the variables. It is,

therefore, imperative that we must know the method for representing

a given set of data on a graph, develop skill to draw most appropriate

curve to represent the plotted data and learn as to how to interpret a

d

given graph to infer relevant information.

he

Basic ideas about the steps involved in plotting a line graph for a

given data and finding the slope of the curve have already been

discussed in Chapter I. The steps involved in plotting a graph include

pu T

choice of axes (independent variable versus dependent variable), choice

is

of scale, marking the points on the graph for each pair of data and

drawing a smooth curve/line by joining maximum number of points

re R

bl

corresponding to the given data. Interpretation of the graph usually

involves finding the slope of the curve/line, inferring nature of

E

dependence between variables/parameters, interpolating/

extrapolating the graph to find desired value of the dependable variable

corresponding to a given value of independent variable or vice versa.

be C

However, so far you have learnt to graphically represent the data for

which uncertainty or error is either ignored or is presumed not to

to N

exist. As you know every data has some uncertainty/error due lack

of precision in measurement or some other factors inherent in the

process/method of data collection. It is possible to plot a graph that

depicts the extent of uncertainty/error in the given data. Such a

©

allow us to graphically illustrate actual errors, the statistical probability

of errors in the measurement or typical data points in comparison to

the rest of the data.

quantity like length, mass, temperature and time on the basis of the

least count of the measuring instruments used. For example, the

diameter of a wire measured with a screw gauge having least count

0.001cm is expressed as 0.181 cm ± 0.001 cm. The figure ± 0.001 cm

t

no

wire may lie between 0.180 and 0.182 cm. However, the error in

measurement may also be due to many other factors, such as personal

error, experimental error etc. In some cases the error in data may be

due to factors other than those associated with measurement. For

example, angles of scattering of charge particles in an experiment on

scattering of α–particles or opinion collected from a section of a

population on a social issue. The uncertainty due to such errors is

estimated through a variety of statistical methods about which you will

learn in higher classes. Here we shall consider uncertainty in

133

LABORATORY MANUAL

LABORATORY MANUAL

so as to learn how uncertainty for a given data is shown in a line graph.

Let us take the example of the graph between time period, T, and the

length, l, of a simple pendulum. The uncertainty in measurement of

time period will depend on the least count of the stop watch/clock

while that in measurement of length of the pendulum will depend on

the least count of the device(s) used to measure length. Table A 3.1

gives the data for the time period of simple pendulum measured in an

experiment along with the uncertainty in measurement of the length

d

and time period of the pendulum.

Table A 3.1 Time period of simple pendulums of different lengths

he

S. Length of the pendulum Time period

No.

pu T

is

Length as Length with Average time Time period Square of

measured with uncertainty in L period as with time period

re R

metre scale, L (least count of scale measured uncertainty in T 2 with

(cm)

of stop watch

uncertainty

E

(cm) watch, T

(s) 0.1 s)

(s)

be C

to N

©

7 140.0 140±0.1 2.4 2.4±0.1 5.76±0.2

P

t

no

1. Draw x- and y- axes on a graph sheet and select an appropriate

scale for plotting of the graph. In order to show uncertainty/error

in given data, it is advisable that the scale chosen should be such

that the lowest value of uncertainty/error on either axes could be

shown by at least the smallest division on the graph sheet.

2. Mark the points on the graph for each pair of data without taking

into account the given uncertainty/error.

134

ACTIVITY 3

UNIT NAME

the value shown on either the x-axis or the y-axis or both. For

example, let us consider the

case for the point

corresponding to (80, 1.8)

marked on the graph. If we

take into account the

uncertainty in measurement

for this case, the actual length

of the pendulum may lie

d

between 79.9 cm and 80.1

cm. This uncertainty in the

he

data is shown in the graph by

a line of length 0.2 cm drawn

parallel to x-axis with its

pu T

midpoint at 80.0 cm, in

is

accordance with the scale

re R

chosen. The line of length 0.2

bl

cm parallel to x-axis shows

the error bar for the pendulum

E

of length 80.0 cm. One can

similarly draw error bar for

each length of the pendulum. Fig. A 3.1: Error bars corresponding to uncertainty

be C

4. Repeat the procedure explained (uncertainty in length is not shown due to

to N

uncertainty in measurement of

time period. However, the error

bars in this case will be parallel

©

to the y-axis.

5. Once the error bars showing

the uncertainty for data in both

the axes of the graph have been

marked, each pair of data on

the graph will be marked with

a + or <% or <% sign,

depending on the extent of

uncertainty and the scale

t

no

drawing line graph (Fig. A 3.1).

6. A smooth curve drawn

passing as close as possible

through all the + marks

marked on the graph, instead

of points, gives us the plot Fig. A 3.2: Graph showing variation in time period

between the two given of a simple pendulum with its length

along with error bars

variables (Fig. A 3.2).

135

LABORATORY MANUAL

LABORATORY MANUAL

R ESULT

A given set of data gives unique points. However, when plotted, a curve

representing that data may not physically pass through these points.

It must, however, pass through the area enclosed by the error bars

around each point.

P RECAUTIONS

d

1. In this particular case the point of intersection of the two x-axis

and y-axis represent the origin of O at (0, 0). However, this is not

he

always necessary to take the values of physical quantities being

plotted as zero at the intersection of the x-axis and y-axis. For a

given set of data, try to maximize the use of the graph paper area.

pu T

is

2. While deciding on scale for plotting the graph, efforts should be

made to choose a scale which would enable to depict uncertainty

re R

by at least one smallest division on the graph sheet.

bl

3. While joining the data points on the graph sheet, enough care

E

should be taken to join them smoothly. The curve or line should

be thin.

be C

written on top of the graph.

to N

S

OURCES OF ERROR

1. Improper choice of origin and the scale.

©

how error bars in the graphs plotted for the data obtained while doing

Experiment Nos. 6, 9, 10, 11, 14 and 15.

t

Note:

no

As the aim of the Activity is to choose proper scale while plotting a graph

alongwith uncertainty only due to the measuring devices, the calculation in

the activity should be avoided.

Suggested alternate Activity for plotting cooling curve with error bars

(Experiment No. 14) where temperature and time are measured using a

thermometer and a stop-clock (stop-watch) with complete set of data /

Δθ ΔT

observations with LC of the measuring devices and and values

θ T

be given.

Additionally the same curve along with error bar be asked to be drawn using

two different scales and the discussion may be done using them.

136

ACTIVITY

UNIT NAME

ACTIVITY 4

AIM

d

To measure the force of limiting rolling friction for a roller (wooden

he

block) on a horizontal plane.

pu T

is

Wooden block with a hook on one side, set of weights, horizontal plane

re R

fitted with a frictionless pulley at one end, pan, spring balance, thread,

bl

spirit level, weight box and lead shots (rollers).

E

P RINCIPLE

be C

Rolling friction is the least force required to make a body start rolling

over a surface. Rolling friction is less than the sliding friction.

to N

P ROCEDURE

©

reduce friction.

2. Check the horizontal surface with a spirit level and spread a layer

of lead shots on it as shown in Fig. A 4.1.

Tie one end of the thread to

the pan and let it hang over

t

the pulley.

no

layer of lead shots and tie the

other end of the thread to its

hook.

and observe whether the

wooden block kept on rollers Fig. A 4.1: Setup to study rolling friction

begin to move.

137

LABORATORY MANUAL

LABORATORY MANUAL

7. If the block does not start rolling, put some more weights on the

pan from the weight box increasing weights in the pan gradually

till the block just starts rolling.

8. Note the total weight put in the pan, including the weight of the

pan and record them in the observation table.

9. Put a 100 g weight over the wooden block and repeat Steps (7) to (9).

10. Increase the weights in steps over the wooden block and repeat

Steps (7) to (9).

d

O

he

BSERVATIONS

Mass of wooden block m = ... g = ... kg

Weight of wooden block, W (mg) = ... N

pu T

is

Weight on the pan

re R

bl

= (Mass of the pan + weight) × acceleration due to gravity (g)

= ... N

E

Table A 4.1: Table for additional weights

be C

No. standard being pulled pan (p) (kg) pulling the block and

weights on = (W + w) × g standard weights (P+p) g

to N

wooden = Normal

block, W Reaction, R

(N)

©

R ESULT

t

no

friction increases/decreases.

P

RECAUTIONS

1. The pulley should be frictionless. It should be lubricated, if

necessary.

2. The portion of the string between the pulley and the hook should

be horizontal.

138

ACTIVITY 4

UNIT NAME

3. The surfaces of lead shots as well as the plane and the block

should be clean, dry and smooth.

4. The weights in the pan should be placed carefully and very gently.

SOURCES OF ERROR

1. Friction at the pulley tends to give larger value of limiting friction.

2. The plane may not be exactly horizontal.

d

D ISCUSSION

he

1. The two segments of the thread joining the block and the pan

passing over the pulley should lie in mutually perpendicular

planes.

pu T

is

2. The total weight pulling the block (including that of pan) should

re R

be such that the system just rolls without acceleration.

3.

bl

While negotiating a curve on a road, having sand spread over it, a

E

two wheeler has to be slowed down to avoid skidding, why?

be C

friction μr by plotting the

to N

F and normal reaction, R.

greasing the lead shots, and

©

which they are placed.

a roller as shown in Fig. A

4.2 and compare it with the

motion in the arrangement

for the above Activity. Fig. A 4.2:

t

no

139

LABORATORY MANUAL

LABORATORY MANUAL

ACTIVITY 5

d

AIM

he

To study the variation in the range of a jet of water with the change in

the angle of projection.

pu T

APPARATUS AND MATERIAL REQUIRED

is

re R

PVC or rubber pipe, a nozzle, source of water under pressure (i.e., a

bl

tap connected to an overhead water tank or water supply line), a

E

measuring tape, large size protractor.

P

be C

RINCIPLE

The motion of water particles in a jet of water could be taken as an

to N

Its range R is given by

v 02 sin 2 θ0

R=

©

P ROCEDURE

1. Making a large protractor: Take a circular plyboard or thick

circular cardboard sheet of radius about 25 cm. Draw a diameter

through its centre. Cut it along the diameter to form two dees. On

t

one of the dees, draw angles at an interval of 15° starting with 0°.

no

2. Attach one end of pipe to a tap. At the other end of the pipe fix a

nozzle to obtain a jet of water. Ensure that there is no leakage in

the pipe.

3. Fix the protractor vertically on the ground with its graduated–face

towards yourself, as shown in Fig. A 5.1.

4. Place the jet at the centre O of the protractor and direct the nozzle

of the jet along 15° mark on the protractor.

5. Open the tap to obtain a jet of water. The water coming out of the

140

ACTIVITY 5

UNIT NAME

v02/2g

R (cm)

d

x

he

0 15 30 45 60 75

θ (Degrees)

Fig. A 5.1: Setup for studying the variation in Fig. A 5.2: Variation of range with angle

pu T

is

the range of a jet of water with the of projection

angle of projection

re R

bl jet would strike the ground after completing its parabolic

trajectory. Ask your friend to mark the point (A) where the water

E

falls. Close the tap.

be C

6. Measure the distance between point O and A. This gives the range

R corresponding to the angle of projection, 15°.

Now, vary θ 0 in steps of 15° upto 75° and measure the

to N

7.

corresponding range for each angle of projection.

8. Plot a graph between the angle of projection θ0 and range R

©

(Fig. A 5.2).

O BSERVATIONS

Least count of measuring tape = ... cm

Table A 5.1: Measurement of range

t

no

1 15°

2 30°

3 45°

4 60°

5 75°

141

LABORATORY MANUAL

LABORATORY MANUAL

G RAPH

Plot a graph between angle of projection (on x-axis) and range

(on y-axis).

R ESULT

The range of jet of water varies with the angle of projection as shown

in Fig. A 5. 2.

d

The range of jet of water is maximum when θ0 = ... °

he

P RECAUTIONS

pu T1. There should not be any leakage in the pipe and the pressure

is

with which water is released from the jet should not vary during

re R

the experiment.

bl2. The jet of water does not strike the ground at a point but gets

E

spread over a small area. The centre of this area should be

considered for measurement of the range.

be C

S

to N

OURCES OF ERROR

1. The pressure of water and hence the projection velocity of water

may not remain constant, particularly if there is leakage in

©

the pipe.

2 . The markings on the protractor may not be accurate

or uniform.

D ISCUSSION

1. Why do you get same range for angles of projection 15° and 75°?

2. Why has a big protractor been taken? Would a protractor of radius

t

no

S

ELF ASSESSMENT

1. This Activity requires the pressure of inlet water be kept constant

to keep projection velocity of water constant. How can this be

achieved?

2. How would the range change if the velocity of projection is

increased or decreased?

142

ACTIVITY 5

UNIT NAME

for different angles of projection.

2. Study the variation in range of water stream by varying the height at

which the water supply tank is kept.

3, Take a toy gun which shoots plastic balls and repeat the Activity

using this gun.

4. Calculate velocity of projection by using maximum value of horizontal

range measured as above.

d

he

pu T

is

re R

bl

E

be C

to N

t©

no

143

LABORATORY MANUAL

LABORATORY MANUAL

ACTIVITY 6

AIM

d

To study the conservation of energy of a ball rolling down an inclined

he

plane (using a double inclined plane).

pu T

is

A double inclined plane having hard surface, (for guided motion of

re R

the ball on the double inclined plane it is suggested that an aluminium

bl

channel or rails of two steel wires be used for it), a steel ball of about

2.5 cm diameter, two wooden blocks, spirit level, tissue paper or cotton,

E

and a half metre scale.

P

be C

RINCIPLE

to N

be created nor destroyed but can only be changed from one form

to another’.

©

rolling of a steel ball on a perfactly

smooth inclined plane, the energy of

ball remains in the form of its kinetic

and potential energies and during the

course of motion, a continuous

transformation between these energies

takes place. The sum of its kinetic and

potential energies remains constant

t

Fig.A 6.1: Set up for studying the conservation of provided there is no dissipation of

no

energy using double inclined tracks energy due to air resistance, friction etc.

In this experiment, the law of

conservation of energy is illustrated by the motion of a steel ball rolling

on a double inclined plane. A steel ball rolling on a hard surface of

inclined plane is an example of motion with low friction. When the ball

is released from point A on inclined plane AO, it will roll down the

slope and go up the opposite side on the plane OB to about the same

height h from which it was released. If the angle of the slope on right

hand plane is changed, the ball will still move till it reaches the same

144 vertical height from which it was released.

ACTIVITY 6

UNIT NAME

At point of release, A, say on the right hand inclined plane, the steel

ball possesses only potential energy that is proportional to the vertical

height, h, of the point of release and has a zero kinetic energy. This

potential energy transfers completely into kinetic energy when the

steel ball rolls down to the lowest point O on the double inclined plane.

It then starts rolling up on the second inclined plane during which its

kinetic energy changes into potential energy. At point B where it stops

on the left hand inclined plane OB, it again has only potential energy

and zero kinetic energy. The law of conservation of mechanical energy

can be verified by the equality of two vertical heights AA′ and BB′.

d

ROCEDURE

he

1. Adjust the experimental table horizontally with the help of spirit

level.

2. Clean the steel ball and inclined planes with cotton or tissue paper.

pu T

is

Even a minute amount of dust or stain on the ball or on the

plane can cause much friction.

re R

bl

3. Keep the clean double inclined plane on a horizontal table.

Note: In order to reduce friction and thereby reduce loss of energy

E

due to it one can also design an unbreakable double inclined

track apparatus, in which the steel ball rolls on stainless steel

be C

wire track. In a try outs with such an inclined plane it has been

observed that the rolling friction is extremely low and it is very

good for this Activity. It also does not develop a kink in the centre,

to N

4. Insert identical wooden blocks W1 and W2 underneath each plane

at equal distance from point O. The two planes will be inclined

©

be stable on horizontal table otherwise there would be energy

losses due to the movement of inclined plane as well.

5. Release the steel ball from A, on either of the two inclined.

6. Find the vertical height AA′ (x) of the point A from the table

using a scale.

7. Note the point B up to which the ball reaches the inclined plane

on the other side and find the vertical height BB′ (y) (Fig. A. 6.1).

t

no

the steel ball on other plane, observer has to be very alert as the

ball stays at the highest position only for an instant.

8. Shift the wooden block W1 and W2, kept under either of the two planes,

towards the centre point O by a small distance. Now the angle of the

slope of one of the planes would be larger than that of the other.

9. Release the ball again from point A on one of the two planes and

mark the point B on the other plane up to which the steel ball

rolls up. Also find the vertical height BB′.

145

LABORATORY MANUAL

LABORATORY MANUAL

10. Repeat Steps (8) and (9) for one more angle of the slope of the

inclined plane.

11. Repeat the observations for another point of release on the same

inclined plane.

O BSERVATIONS

Table A 6.1:

d

S. Reading on inclined Reading on the inclined Difference

No. plane from which the plane in which the ball (x – y)

he

ball is rolled down rolls up (cm)

mark A height mark up to height, (cm)

pu T

is

AA′, x which the y

(cm) ball rolls (cm)

re R

up

bl

1 B =

E

2 C =

3 D=

be C

1 B =

to N

2 C =

3 D=

R

©

ESULT

It is observed that initial vertical height and final vertical height upto

which the ball rolls up are approximately same. Thus, the rolling steel

ball has same initial and final potential energies, though during the

motion, the form of energy changes. The total mechanical energy (sum

of kinetic and potential energies) remains same. This is the verification

of law of conservation of energy.

P

t

RECAUTIONS

no

cotton/tissue paper.

2. Both wings of the inclined plane must lie in the same vertical plane.

3. Both the planes must be stable and should not have any movement

due to rolling of the ball or otherwise.

4. The position of the ball at the highest point while climbing up the

plane must be noted quickly and carefully.

146

ACTIVITY 6

UNIT NAME

SOURCES OF ERROR

1. Some energy is always lost due to friction.

2. Due to lack of continuity at junction of two inclined planes, rolling

ball usually suffers a collision with second plane and hence

results in some loss of energy.

D ISCUSSION

d

1. The key to the success of this Activity for the verification of law

he

of conservation of energy is in keeping the rolling friction between

the steel ball and inclined plane as low as possible. Therefore,

the ball and inclined plane surfaces should be smooth, clean

pu T

and dry.

is

2. The dissipation of energy due to friction can be minimised by

re R

minimising the area of contact between the steel ball and inclined

bl

plane. Therefore, it is advised that the inclined planes should be

made of polished aluminium channels having narrow grooves.

E

3. The surface of inclined planes should be hard and smooth so

be C

4. If the inclination of the planes is large then the dissipation of

to N

should be kept small.

S

©

ELF ASSESSMENT

1. Can this Activity be performed successfully with a steel ball of

smaller diameter?

2. If the ball is not reaching exactly up to the same height on the

other wing, comment on the observations?

1. Study of the effects of mass and size of the ball on rolling down an

t

inclined plane.

no

friction.

147

LABORATORY MANUAL

LABORATORY MANUAL

ACTIVITY 7

AIM

d

To study dissipation of energy of a simple pendulum with time.

he

APPARATUS AND MATERIAL REQUIRED

pu T

is

A heavy metallic spherical ball with a hook; a rigid support; a long

fine strong cotton thread (1.5 m to 2m); metre scale; weighing balance;

re R

sheet of paper; cotton; cellophane sheet.

P bl

E

RINCIPLE

be C

storing force F is given by

(A 7.1)

to N

Where x (t) is the displacement at time t and k = mg/L, the symbols k,

m, g and L have been explained in Experiment E 6. The displacement

©

is given by

(A 7.2) x (t) = A0 cos (ωt – θ )

where ω is the (angular) frequency and θ is a constant. A0 is the maxi-

mum displacement in each oscillation, which is called the amplititude.

The total energy of the pendulum is given as

(A 7.3) 1

E° = k A 20

2

t

no

But in a real pendulum, the amplitude never remains constant. It

decreases with time due to several factors like air drag, some play at

the point of suspension, imperfection in rigidity of the string and sus-

pension, etc. Therefore, the amplitude of A0 falls with time at each

successive oscillation. The amplitude becomes a function of time and

is given by

(A 7.4) A(t) = A 0e –λ t/2

148 where A0 is the initial amplitude and λ is a contant which depends on

ACTIVITY 7

UNIT NAME

damping and the mass of the bob. The total energy of the pendulum

at time t is then given by

1

E (t) = kA2(t)

2

= E0 e –λ t (A 7.5)

Thus, the energy falls with time, because some of the energy is being

lost to the surroundings.

d

The frequency of a damped oscillator does not depend much on the

he

amplitude. Therefore, instead of measuring the time, we can also

measure the number of oscillations n. At the end of n oscillations,

t = nT, where T is the time period. Then Eq. (A 7.5) can be written in

the form En = E0 e–α n

pu T

is

(A 7.6)

where α = λt

re R

bl

and En is the energy of the oscillator at the end of n oscillations.

P

E

ROCEDURE

be C

to N

plane of oscillations of the pendulum, and such that the zero mark

of the scale is just below the bob at rest.

©

the scale above which the bob rises at its maximum displace-

ment. In doing this, do not worry about millimetre marks. Take

observations only upto 0.5 cm.

the initial amplitude will be A 0 = 15 cm at n = 0. Leave the bob

gently so that it starts oscillating.

6. Keep counting the number of oscillations when the bob is at its

t

no

15, ..., that is at the end of every five oscillations. You may even

note An after every ten oscillations.

increase the damping, and repeat the experiment.

149

LABORATORY MANUAL

LABORATORY MANUAL

A2n

2

(m )

d

Fig. A 7.1: Graph between A2n and n

he

for a simple pendulum

O

BSERVATIONS

pu T

is

Least count of the balance = ... g

re R

bl

Least count of the metre scale = ... cm

Mass of the pendulum bob. m = ... g

E

Radius (r) of the pendulum bob (given) = ... cm

be C

Effective length of the pendulum (from the tip of the bob to the point

of suspension), L = ... cm

to N

Initial amplitude of oscillation, A0 = ... cm

©

energy of simple pendulum

No. A n (cm) oscillations, oscillater, E n of energy,

n (J) (En –Eo) (J)

1

t

no

2

3

4

R

ESULT

From the graphs, we may conclude that the energy of a simple

pendulum dissipates with time.

150

ACTIVITY 7

UNIT NAME

P RECAUTIONS

1. The experiment should be performed in a section of the laboratory

where air flow is minimum.

2. The pendulum must swing for atleast a couple of oscillations

before recording its amplitude, this will ensure that the pendulum

is moving in the same plane.

d

OURCES OF ERROR

he

1. Some movement of air is always there in the laboratory.

2. Accurate measurement of amplitude is difficult.

D pu T

is

ISCUSSION

re R

bl

1. Which graph among the A – n and A2 – n graph would you prefer

for studying the dissipation of energy of simple pendulum with

E

time and why?

2. How would the amplitude of oscillation change with time with

be C

the variation in (a) size and (b) mass of the pendulum bob; and

(c) length of the pendulum?

to N

SELF ASSESSMENT

1. Interpret the graph between A 2 and n you have drawn for a sim-

©

ple pendulum.

2. Examine how the amplitude of oscillations changes with time.

3. What does the decreasing amplitude of oscillation with time indi-

cate in terms of variations in energy of simple pendulum with time.

4. In what way does graph between A and n differ from that between

the A 2 and n graph, you have drawn.

5. Compare the A 2 – n plots for

t

no

diameter. Fill it with sand. Use the sand filled ball to make a pendulum

of 100 cm length.

Swing the pendulum allowing the sand to drain out of the hole.

Find the rate at which the amplitude of pendulum falls and compare

it with the case when mass of the bob is constant.

151

LABORATORY MANUAL

LABORATORY MANUAL

ACTIVITY 8

AIM

d

To observe the change of state and plot a cooling curve for

he

molten wax.

pu T

is

A 500 mL beaker, tripod stand, wire gauge, clamp stand, hard glass

re R

boiling tube, celsius thermometer of least count 0.5 °C, a stop-watch/

bl stop-clock, burner, parraffin wax, cork with a hole to fit the boiling

tube and hold a thermometer vertically.

E

P

be C

RINCIPLE

Matter exists in three states – solid, liquid and gas.

to N

continue to heat the solid, it changes its state.

The process of conversion of solid to a liquid state is called melting.

©

point. Melting does not take place instantaneously throughout

the bulk of a solid, the temperature of solid-liquid remains

y

constant till the whole solid changes into

liquid. The time for melting depends upon the

nature and mass of solid.

A liquid when cooled freezes to solid state at the

same temperature as its melting point. In this case

Temperature (°C)

TM

also the temperature of liquid-solid remains

t

no

determine the melting point of wax by plotting

a cooling curve. The temperature of molten

wax is recorded at equal intervals of time. First

x

0 the temperature of wax falls with time then

Time (min)

becomes constant at T M, the melting point,

when it solidifies. On further cooling the

Fig. A 8.1: Cooling curve

temperature of solid wax falls to room

152 temperature T R as shown in Fig. A 8.1.

ACTIVITY 8

UNIT NAME

PROCEDURE

1. Note the least count and range of the thermometer.

2. Note the least count of the stop-clock.

3. Record the room temperature.

4. Set up the tripod, burner, heating

arrangement as shown in Fig A 8.2.

d

5. Adjust the boiling tube and the thermometer

such that the graduation marks could be

he

easily read by you.

6. Heat the water and observe the state of wax.

Continue to heat till all the wax melts, note

pu T

is

the approximate melting point.

re R

7. Continue to heat the wax in the water bath Fig. A 8.2: Experimental set up

bl

till the temperatue is atleast 20°C above the

approximate melting point as observed in Step 6.

E

8. Turn off the burner, and carefully raise the clamp to remove the

boiling tube from the water bath.

be C

to N

y – axis).

11. From the graph

©

(ii) mark the time interval for which the wax is in liquid state/solid state.

O BSERVATIONS

Least count of thermometer = ... °C

Thermometer range ... °C to ... °C

t

no

Table A 8.1: Change in temperature of molten wax with time

S. time temperature

No. s °C

1

2

3

4

153

LABORATORY MANUAL

LABORATORY MANUAL

R ESULT

The cooling curve of molten wax is shown in the graph. From the

graph (i) the melting point of wax is ... °C and (ii) the wax remains in

liquid state for ... s and in solid state for ... s.

P RECAUTIONS

d

1. The boiling tube with wax should never be heated directly on

a flame.

he

2. The stop clock should be placed on the right hand side of the

apparatus as it may be easy to see.

3. Wax should not be heated more than 20°C above its melting point.

pu T

is

S

re R

OURCES OF ERROR

bl

Simultaneous recording of temperature and time may give rise to

E

some errors.

S

be C

ELF ASSESSMENT

to N

2. Why is water bath used to melt the wax and heat it further?

3. What is the maximum temperature to which molten wax can be

©

4. Would this method be suitable to determine the melting point of

plastics? Give reason for your answer.

5. Will the shape of the curve for coding of hot water be different

than that for wax?

t

no

of a given sample of colour less wax. Find the change in melting

point of wax by adding colour/fragrance in different proportions.

154

ACTIVITY

UNIT NAME

ACTIVITY 9

AIM

d

To observe and explain the effect of heating on a bi-metallic strip.

he

APPARATUS AND MATERIAL REQUIRED

pu T

A iron-brass bi-metallic strip with an insulating (wooden) handle;

is

heater/burner.

re R

D

bl

ESCRIPTION OF THE DEVICE

E

A bi-metallic strip is made of

two bars/strips of different

be C

dimensions. These metallic

bars/strips (A and B) are

to N

firmly rivetted. An insulating

(wooden) handle is also fixed

©

strip. A bi-metallic strip can

be made by selecting metals

(materials) with widely

different values of coefficients

of linear thermal expansion.

The bi-metallic strip is

straight at room temperature, Fig. A 9.1: A bi-metallic strip in (a) straight, and (b)

as shown in position (a) of bent positions

t

no

because of their different linear thermal expansivities, as shown

in position (b) of Fig. A 9.1. As a result, the bimetallic strip

appears to bend.

P RINCIPLE

The linear thermal expansion is the change in length of a bar on

heating. If L1 and L2 are the lengths of rod/bar of a metal at

temperatures t 1°C and t2°C (such that t 2 > t 1), the change in length 155

LABORATORY MANUAL

LABORATORY MANUAL

in temperature (t 2 – t 1).

d

where α is the coefficient of linear thermal expansion of the material

he

of the bar/rod.

The coefficient of linear thermal expansion (α) is the increase in length

per unit length for unit degree rise in temperature of the bar. It is

pu T

expressed in SI units as K–1.

is

P

re R

ROCEDURE

1.

bl

Light a burner or switch on the electric heater.

E

2. Keep the bi-metallic strip in the horizontal position by holding it

with the insulated handle and heat it with the help of burner/

be C

of heat source.

to N

3. Observe the effect of heating the strip. Note carefully the direction

of the bending of the free end of the bi-metallic strip, whether it is

upwards or downwards?

©

bi-metallic strip and also the one which is on its concave side.

Which one of the two metals/materials strips have a larger

thermal expansion? (The one on the convex side of the bi-

metallic strip will expand more and hence have larger linear

thermal expansion).

5. Note down the known values of coefficient of linear thermal

expansion of two metals (A and B) of the bi-metallic strip. Verify

whether the direction of bending (upward or downward) is on

t

no

thermal expansion.

6. Take the bi-metallic strip away from the heat source. Allow the

strip to cool to room temperature.

7 . Repeat the Steps 1 to 6 to heat the other side of the bi-metallic

strip. Observe the direction of bending of the bi-metallic strip.

What change, if any, do you observe in the direction of

bending of the strip in this case relative to that observed

earlier in Step 3?

156

ACTIVITY 9

UNIT NAME

R ESULT

The bending of a bi-metallic strip on heating is due to difference in

coefficient of linear expansion of the two metals of the strip.

P RECAUTIONS

The two bars (strips) should be firmly rivetted near their ends.

d

D ISCUSSION

he

The direction of bending of the bi-metallic strip is towards the side of

the metal which has lower value of linear thermal expansion.

S pu T

is

ELF ASSESSMENT

re R

1.

bl

You have been given bars of identical dimensions of following

metals/materials along with their α - values, for making a bi-

E

metallic strip:

Aluminium (α = 23 × 10–6 K–1); Nickel (α = 13 × 10–6 K–1)

be C

to N

which pair of metals/materials would you select as best choice

for making a bi-metallic strip for pronounced effect of bending?

©

Why?

2. What would be the effect on the bending of the bi-metallic strip if

it is heated to a high temperature?

3. Name a few devices in which bi-metallic strips are generally used

as a thermostat?

t

no

157

LABORATORY MANUAL

LABORATORY MANUAL

ACTIVITY 10

AIM

d

To study the effect of heating on the level of a liquid in a container and

he

to interpret the observations.

pu T

is

A round bottom flask of 500 mL capacity, a narrow tube about 20 cm

re R

long and of internal diameter 2mm, a rubber cork, glycerine, hot water,

P bl

a stand for holding the flask, a strip of graph paper, a thermometer.

E

RINCIPLE

be C

A container is required to keep the liquid. When we heat the liquid, the

container also gets heated. On being heated, liquid and container both

to N

expansion, i.e. (the expansion of the liquid) – (the expansion of the

container). For finding the real expansion of the liquid, we must take

into account the expansion of the container. Real expansion = apparent

©

P ROCEDURE

1. Fill the flask with glycerine upto the brim. Close

its mouth with a tight fitting cork having a long

narrow tube fixed in it. Glycerine will rise in

the tube; mark the level of the glycerine in

the tube as A. Set the apparatus as shown in

t

Fig. A 10.1.

no

and hold the flask in position with the help of a

stand as shown.

O BSERVATION

It is observed that as the flask is immersed in hot

Fig.A 10.1: Expansion of liquid (glycerine)

water, the level of glycerine in the tube first falls down

to a point, say B, and then rises up to a level C.

158

ACTIVITY 10

UNIT NAME

D ISCUSSION

The level falls from A to B on account of expansion of the flask on

coming in contact with hot water. This fall is equal to the expansion

of the container. After some time glycerine also gets heated and

expands. Finally, the glycerine level attains a stationary level C.

Obviously the glycerine has expanded from B to C. B C gives the real

expansion and A C is the apparent expansion.

d

ELF ASSESSMENT

he

Water in a flask is heated in one case from 25°C to 45°C and in another

case, from 50°C to 70°C. Will the apparent expansion/real expansion

be the same in the two cases?

pu T

is

re R

SUGGESTED ADDITIONAL EXPERIMENTS/ACTIVITIES

bl Take equal volume of water in a glass tumbler and a steel tumbler having

similar shape and size. Cover them both with thermocol sheet and insert

E

a narrow bore tube in each. Heat both from 25°C to 50°C and study the

apparent/real expansion in both cases. Are they equal? Give reason for

your answer.

be C

t to N

©

no

159

LABORATORY MANUAL

LABORATORY MANUAL

ACTIVITY 11

AIM

d

To study the effect of detergent on surface tension of water by

he

observing capillary rise.

pu T

is

A capillary tube, a beaker of 250 mL, small quantity of solid/liquid

re R

detergent, 15/30 cm plastic scale, rubber band, stand with clamp

P bl

and water.

E

RINCIPLE

be C

sticking to a surface are called detergents. When added to water

to N

intermolecular interactions.

The lowering of surface tension by addition of

©

method.

a water - filled shallow vessel, the rise of water in

capillary tube h (Fig. A11.1) is given by:

2 S cosθ

h =

ρgr

Or

t

h ρ gr

no

2cosθ

where S is the surface tension of the water vapour

film; θ is the contact angle (Fig. A11.1), ρ is the

density of water and g is the acceleration due to gravity. For pure

or distilled water in contact with a clean glass capillary tube θ ≈ 8°

or cos θ ≈ 1. Thus,

1

S= h ρgr

160 2

ACTIVITY 11

UNIT NAME

(colloidal) in water can be compared. In a detergent solution, the

capillary rise (or the surface tension) would be lower than that for

pure and distilled water. And an increase in detergent’s concentration

would result in a further lowering the rise of solution in the capillary.

A detergent for which the capillary rise is minimum (or the one that

causes maximum lowering of surface tension), is said to have better

cleansing effect.

d

ROCEDURE

he

1. Take a capillary tube of uniform bore. Clean and rinse it with

distilled water. Also clean and rinse the beaker with water. Pour

water to fill the beaker up to half. Make sure that the capillary

pu T

tube is dry and free from grease, oil etc. Also check that the top

is

of the capillary tube is open and not blocked by anything.

re R

2. Take a plastic scale and mount the capillary tube on it using

bl

rubber bands.

E

3. Hold the scale with capillary in vertical position with the help of a

clamp stand.

be C

4. Place the half filled beaker below the lower end of the scale and

gradually lower down the scale till its lower end get immersed

to N

5. Read the position of the water level inside and outside the capillary

tube on the scale. Let the positions be h 2 and h1 respectively. The

©

6. Rinse the capillary thoroughly in running water and dry it.

7. Take a little quantity of the given

detergent and mix it with water in Rubber

the beaker. band

Capillary tube

8. Repeat the experiment with

Scale

detergent solution and find h2

capillary rise again. Let it be h′.

t

h

Rubber

no

Note band

h1

The concentration of detergent must

not be made high, otherwise the

density of solution (colloidal) will Water with

change substantially as compared detergent

angle of contact between the surface

Fig. A 11.2: To study capillary rise in water

of glass and solution may also

and detergent mixed in it

change substantially.

161

LABORATORY MANUAL

LABORATORY MANUAL

O BSERVATIONS

The height to which water rose in the capillary h = ... cm

The height to which the detergent solution rose in the capillary

h′ = ... cm.

R ESULT

d

The capillary rise of detergent solution h′ is less than the capillary rise

of water, h.

he

P RECAUTIONS

pu T

is

1. The inner surface of the beaker and the part of capillary tube to

be immersed in water or solution in the beaker should not be

re R

touched by hand after cleaning them. This is essential to avoid

bl

contamination by the hand.

E

2. To wet the inside of the capillary tube freely, it is first dipped well

down in the water and then raised and clamped. Alternatively,

the beaker may be lifted up and then put down.

be C

S

to N

OURCES OF ERROR

1. Contamination of liquid surface as also of the capillary tube cannot

be completely ruled out.

©

2. The tube may not be at both ends or its one end may be open

blocked.

D ISCUSSION

Can you also think of materials, which have a property of increasing

the surface tension of a liquid? If yes, what are these?

[Hint: There are some polymeric materials which can increase the

t

no

These have immense use in pumping out oil from the ground with

less power.]

162

ACTIVITY

UNIT NAME

ACTIVITY 12

AIM

d

To study the factors affecting the rate of loss of heat of a liquid.

he

APPARATUS AND MATERIAL REQUIRED

pu T

is

Two copper calorimeters of different sizes (one small and another

big); two copper calorimeters of same size (one painted black and

re R

the other highly polished), two tumblers of same size (one metallic

bl

and another plastic); two thermometers having a range of - 10° C to

110° C and least count 0.5 °C, stop watch/clock, cardboard lids for

E

calorimeters, two laboratory stands, a pan to heat water; a measuring

cylinder, a plastic mug.

be C

P RINCIPLE

to N

dQ

©

ds

dQ dθ

= ms

dt dt

hence rate of loss of heat is proportional to rate of change of

temperature.

t

The rate of loss of heat of a body depends upon (a) the difference in

no

temperature of the hot body and its surroundings, (b) area of the

surface losing heat, (c) nature of the surface losing heat and (d) material

of the container.

P ROCEDURE

(A). Effect of area of surface on rate of loss of heat.

1. Note the room temperature, least count of the two thermometers

(TA and T B).

163

LABORATORY MANUAL

LABORATORY MANUAL

calorimeters.

nearly 80°C (no need to boil

the water).

calorimeter (A) and also in

calorimeter (B). This should be

d

done carefully and with least time

loss. One can use a plastic mug

he

to pour 100 mL of hot water in a

measuring cylinder.

5. Insert a thermometer in each

is

stands to keep the thermometers

re R

Fig. A 12.1: Experimental set up for studying the

vertical. Also ensure that the

bl

effect of surface area on cooling thermometer bulb is well

inside the hot water in the

E

calorimeters (Fig. A 12.1).

be C

initially at an interval of 1

to N

water in the calorimeter is about

40–30°C above the room

temperature and thereafter at

©

temperature of hot water is

about 20–10°C above room

temperature.

Table A 12.1. Plot graphs

between θ A versus time and θB

Fig. A 12.2: Cooling curve for water cooled versus time for both the

in calorimeters A and B.

calorimeters on the same graph

t

paper (Fig. A 12.2).

no

calorimeter A 8. Determine the slope of θ versus t

graph after 5 minute interval.

OBSERVATIONS

Least count of thermometer = ... °C

Room temperature = ... °C

164

ACTIVITY 12

UNIT NAME

No. No.

d

he

B. Effect of nature of surface of container on rate of cooling of

pu T

a liquid

is

1. Use the two identical small calorimeters; one with black (A)

re R

and the other with highly polished (B) surfaces.

bl

2. Repeat Steps 3 to 8 as in part A.

E

Table A 12.2: Effect of nature of surface on rate of cooling

be C

to N

No. No.

©

1. Use the metallic tumbler (A) and the plastic tumbler (B) instead of

t

calorimeters.

no

table similar to Table A 12.1.

RESULT

From the six graphs plotted on 3 graph sheets complete the following:

1. The rate of cooling is ... °C/min in the larger calorimeter as

compared to the smaller calorimeter.

165

LABORATORY MANUAL

LABORATORY MANUAL

A/B/C.

3. Black surfaces radiate ... heat as compared to white or polished

surface in the same time when heated to the same temperature.

4. Plastic mugs are preferred for drinking tea, as the rate of cooling

of a liquid in them is ...

P

RECAUTIONS

d

1. θA, θ B and time recordings are to be done simultaneously so a set-

he

up that allows both thermometers could be read quickly and at

the same time should be planned.

2. The lid of the calorimeter should be covered with insultating

pu T material to make sure that the heat is lost (cooling takes place)

is

only from the calorimeter surface.

re R

3. All three activities should be performed under similar conditions

E

on the rate of cooling.

D

be C

ISCUSSION

1. The rate of cooling in summers is lower than in winters. Give a

to N

2. Surface of metallic kettles are often polished to keep the tea warm

for a long time.

©

liquid is closer to the room temperature?

that of glass for taking tea.

teapot and a ceremic teapot.

t

no

166

ACTIVITY

UNIT NAME

ACTIVITY 13

AIM

d

To study the effect of load on depression of a suitably clamped metre

he

scale loaded (i) at its end; and (ii) in the middle.

A. Bending of a metre scale loaded at its end

pu T

is

re R

bl

Metre scale (or a thick wooden strip of about 1 m length), thread,

slotted weights with hanger (10 g, 20 g, 50 g, 100 g), another

E

graduated scale to be used to measure depression, a pin, cellotape

and clamp.

be C

T HEORY

to N

The depression 'y' of a cantilever of length 'L' clamped at one end and

loaded at the free end with a load M (weight Mg) is given by relation

MgL3

©

y=

3Y ( bd 3 /12 )

cantilever respectively and Y is the modulus of elasticity of the material

of the rod.

4 MgL3

or y = Y bd 3

t

variation of load suspended at the other end, are taken. The variation

no

P ROCEDURE

1. Clamp the metre scale firmly to the edge of the table. As shown in

Fig. A 13.1 ensure that the length and breadth of the scale are in

horizontal plane and 90 cm of the length of the scale is projected

out. Fix a pin with a tape at the free end of the metre scale along

its length to act as a pointer. 167

LABORATORY MANUAL

LABORATORY MANUAL

Rigid but

1 free end of the clamped metre scale and

adjustable

G clamp Beam 2 note its least count. Ensure that the pointed

3 end of the pin is just above the graduation

y

4 marks of the scale but do not touch it.

5 3. Read the pointer 'p' when metre scale

6 cantilever is without any load.

Load (Mg)

4. Suspend a hanger of known mass for

d

keeping slotted weights to depress the free

end of the cantilever.

he

5. Read the pointer on vertical scale and record

Fig. A 13.1: Experimental set up to study the observation.

depression of metre scale (used as

cantilever) with load suspended at 6. Keep on adding 20 g masses to the hanger

pu T

is

free end of the cantilever and record the reading of the pointer

everytime when it stops vibrating.

re R

bl

7. After taking 6-7 observations with increasing load, gradually

remove the slotted weights one by one and record the reading

E

while unloading.

8. Plot a graph between the depression and the load.

be C

O

BSERVATIONS

to N

©

No. (g) cantilever y = lm – l o

l 1 (cm) when l 2 (cm) when Mean

t

load is load is l1 + l2

no

increasing decreasing lm =

2

(cm)

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

168

ACTIVITY 13

UNIT NAME

R ESULT

The depression 'y' is directly proportional to the load M.

P RECAUTIONS

1. The beam should be rigidly clamped at one end.

2 . Loading and unloading of the slotted weights should be done

d

carefully without disturbing the position of the hanger on

the beam.

he

3. The vertical scale should be adjusted close to the pointer in such

a way that the pointer moves along it freely.

S pu T

is

OURCES OF ERROR

re R

bl

1. The scale should not be loaded beyond its elastic limit.

E

(This can be easily checked by comparing the zero load reading

after removing the maximum suspended load with that taken at

the beginning of the experiment).

be C

recorded.

to N

the tip of the pin and the graduated scale.

©

Metre scale, two wedges to rest the ends of the metre scale, thread,

slotted weights 200 g each, hanger for slotted weights, a graduated

scale with a stand to hold the scale vertical, a plane mirror, a pointer

t

and plasticine.

no

Fig. A 13.2 shows the arrangement. A horizontal metre scale is held

on two wedges, a hanger is provided at the middle of the metre scale

for applying load. A pointer is fixed at the mid point to measure the

dipression. A graduated (least count 1 mm) scale with a plane mirror

strip attached to it is held in vertical position in a stand behind the

horizontal metre scale.

169

LABORATORY MANUAL

LABORATORY MANUAL

Scale 1 without any parallex

2

3 Depression Beam

4

5

Wedge 6 Wedge

W

Hanger with weights

d

in middle of beam

he

i.e., sag of a beam with load in the middle

T

HEORY

pu T

is

Let a beam be loaded at the centre and supported near its ends as

re R

shown in Fig A 13.2. A bar of length 'L', breadth 'b' and thickness 'd'

bl

when loaded at the centre by a load 'W' sags by an amount given by

E

W l3

y=

4b d 3 Y

be C

where 'Y' is the Young’s modulus of the material of the rod/ beam, W,

the load (= mg), where 'm' is the mass of the hanger with weights.

to N

P

©

ROCEDURE

1. Place the metre scale on two wedges with (5–10 cm) length

projecting out on either side. Metre scale supported at both ends

is like a beam.

2. Tie a loop of thread in the middle of the load such that a hanger

to support slotted weights each of 200 g can be suspended on

it. Ensure that the thread is tied tightly with the rod and does

not slip.

t

no

stand at the centre of the metre scale used as beam. To facilitate

readings the vertical scale should be kept on the far side of the

metre scale. Fix a pin to the hanger such that its pointed end is

close to the edge of the vertical scale which has graduation marks

on it.

4. Suspend the hanger of mass 200 g and record the position of the

pointer fixed to the hanger. The mirror strip on the vertical scale

should be used to remove any parallax.

170

ACTIVITY 13

UNIT NAME

the readings of the pointer each time.

6. Take about six observations.

7. Now, remove masses of 200g one by one recording the position of

the pointer each time while unloading.

8. Calculate the depression for the load M gram and hence depression

per unit load.

d

9. Plot a graph between the values of depression y against

corresponding values of load and interpret the result.

he

BSERVATIONS

Width of the beam, b =

pu T

is

Thickness of the beam, d =

re R

Length of the beam between the wedges, L =

bl

Table A 13.2 Depression of the beam for different loads

E

S. Load Reading of the centre of Depression Depression Mean y/M

No. M (g) cantilever for load M per unit (cm/g)

be C

(cm/g)

to N

increasing decreasing reading

r′1 (cm) r′2 (cm) r1′ + r2′

r=

2

©

(cm)

1 0 r0 0

2 200 r1 r1 – r0

3 400 r2 r2 – r0

4

5

6

t

R

no

ESULT

The depression of the metre scale at its middle is ... mm/g. The

depression 'y' is directly proportional to the load M.

SOURCES OF ERROR

1. The rod should not be loaded beyond elastic limit.

171

LABORATORY MANUAL

LABORATORY MANUAL

recorded.

3. While taking readings, the eye should be normal to tip of the

pointer and the metre scale.

4. The beam should be of uniform thickness and density throughout

its length.

5. The masses used must have standard value as engraved on them.

d

RECAUTIONS

he

1. The beam should be symmetrical on the knife edges.

2. Loading and unloading of the slotted weights should be done

pu T

carefully without disturbing the centre point.

is

3. Mirror strip used to eliminate parallax error should not disturb

re R

the experimental setup.

bl

E

be C

t to N

©

no

172

PROJECT

UNIT NAME

PROJECTS

PROJECT 1

AIM

d

To investigate whether the energy of a simple pendulum is conserved.

he

APPARATUS AND MATERIAL REQUIRED

pu T

is

A tall laboratory clamp stand with clamps, a split cork, a brick (or

any heavy metallic weight) to be used as bob, strong cotton thread/

re R

string (about 1.5 m to 2.0 m), stop-watch, ticker timer, paper tape,

P bl

balance, wooden block, cellotape, metre scale and graph paper.

E

RINCIPLE

be C

transformed from one form to another, and the sum of all forms

to N

of energies in the

universe remains O

constant (Law of

©

conservation of

energy). In any

isolated mechanical

L–h

system with practically

negligible/no

dissipation of energy to

D

overcome viscous x x

F E

drag/air resistance / h

t

a pendulum), the

no

potential energies

Fig. P 1.1: An oscillating pendulum

remains constant.

For small angular

amplitude (θ ≤ 15°), the pendulum executes simple harmonic motion

(SHM) with insignificant damping, i.e., loss of energy. Hence, an oscillating

simple pendulum provides a convenient arrangement to investigate/

validate the law of conservation of energy for a mechanical system.

173

LABORATORY MANUAL

LABORATORY MANUAL

position at point A and extreme positions at points B and C, are shown

in Fig. P 1.1. In the extreme positions, i.e., at B and C the oscillating

bob is raised to a certain height h ( = AD) above the mean position

where it possesses maximum potential energy but minimum kinetic

energy. In the mean position, at A, it possesses maximum kinetic

energy and minimum potential energy. At any intermediate position

i.e., at E and F the bob will possess energy in the form of both kinetic

and potential energies. The effective length L ( = l + r ) of the pendulum

is taken from the point of suspension O to the centre of gravity of the

d

bob (Fig P 1.1; also refer Experiment E 6). For small angular amplitudes

(θ ) (about 8° to 10°) the arc length EA = (FA) is about the same as

he

linear distance ED = (FD) = x, the points E and F are symmetrically

above point D.

From the geometry of the Fig. P 1.1, it follows

pu T

is

DF. DE = OD. DA

re R

x × x = (L – h ) h

bl

For small values of x and h (and x << L and h << x)

E

x2

h =

be C

(P 1.1)

L

Then the potential energy of the bob (brick) of mass m at point E (or F)

to N

mg 2

(P 1.2) = mgh = x

L

©

1

(P 1.3) point E (or F) is = mv 2

2

1 mg 2

(P 1.4) E= mv 2 + x

2 L

t

Using this relation, now investigate whether the total energy E of the

no

LABORATORY: TICKER TIMER

Ticker-timer is a device used for the measurement of short time-

intervals in the laboratory. It can measure short time intervals of

about 0.02s to much higher degree of accuracy as compared to that

of a stop-watch (with least count of 0.1s). Ticker-timers are available

in different designs.

174

PROJECT 1

UNIT NAME

as s h o w n i n F i g . P 1 . 2 ,

consists of a steel/metallic

strip T which can be made

to vib rate at a k n o w n

frequency with the help of an

electromagnet. The pointed

hammer of the vibrating

steel strip, T strikes a small

carbon paper disc C under

d

which a paper tape, is

pulled by the oscillating

he

object. The dot marks are

marked on the paper tape Fig. P1.2: Ticker-timer

by the pointed hammer

when the strip vibrates.

pu T

is

The dot marks are obtained on the paper tape at regular (or equal)

intervals of time. Each dot mark refers to a complete vibration of the

re R

bl

vibrating steel strip. The time interval between the two consecutive dot

marks can be taken as a unit of time for a tick. The time period of the

E

vibrating strip is obtained from its given (known) frequency of vibration.

When it is run on 6V step-down ac supply, its frequency is the same as

that of ac mains (50 Hz, in India).

be C

In this way, the measured time interval for one tick (between the two

consecutive dot marks) can be converted into the basic unit, second,

to N

accurately time interval of the order of 0.02 s in the laboratory.

P

©

ROCEDURE

1. Find the mass of the pendulum bob.

2. Determine r and l by metre scale.

The length of the pendulum

L = l + r.

3. Take the ticker-timer and place it at

about the same level as the centre of

the bob as shown in Fig. P 1.3. Fix

t

no

is not disturbed when tape is pulled

through it.

4. Attach the tip of the paper tape of

the ticker-timer to the bob with the

help of cellotape such that it is Fig. P 1.3: Experimental setup for studying

horizontal and lies in the plane in conservation of energy

which centre of gravity of the bob lies

in its rest position.

175

LABORATORY MANUAL

LABORATORY MANUAL

5. Pull the bob towards the timer such that its angular

displacement (θ < 10o ) is about one tenth of its length from the

vertical position. Take care that the ticker tape is sufficiently

light and is so adjusted that it easily moves by the pull of bob

as soon as it begins to move.

6. Start the ticker-timer carefully and let the bob oscillate. While

the bob moves towards the other side, it pulls the paper tape

through the ticker-timer. Ticker timer, thus, records the positions

of the bob at successive time intervals.

d

7. Switch off the ticker-timer when the brick reaches the other

he

extreme end. Take out the paper tape and examine it.

Extreme dot marks on the record of the tape represent the

extreme positions B and C of the pendulum. The centre

pu T

point A of this half oscillation is the centre of the two

is

extreme dot marks, and may be marked by the half metre

scale, as in Fig. P1.4.

re R

B

bl A C

E

r

be C

to N

©

each dot (about 10 to 12) on either sides from the centre

marked A as x 1, x 2, x 3, ... Find the time t 1, t 2, t 3, ... when

each selected dot was made by counting the number of dots

from the central point A, representing the mean position of

the pendulum. If central point A is not coinciding with a

dot marked by the ticker -timer, appropriate fraction of

time-period of ticker-timer has to be added for finding

correct t 1, t 2, t 3, ...

t

no

significant figures.

of the dot as v i (= Δx i / Δt i ). For this take one earlier and one

later dot. The distance between these two dots is Δx i and Δt i is

time to cover this distance. Then find magnitude of

1 ⎡ m ⎛ Δx ⎞ 2 ⎤

kinetic energy mv 2 ⎢= ⎜ i ⎟ ⎥ and potential energy

2 ⎢⎣ 2 ⎝ Δt i ⎠ ⎥⎦

176

PROJECT 1

UNIT NAME

and potential energies in each case. Express the result in SI

units and proper significant figures.

(distance of dots from the central dot) against the time.

12. Find the velocity (v) from the slope of the graph at five or six

points on the left and also on the right of the mean position.

Calculate the corresponding kinetic energy (mv2/2 ) for each

d

position of the points on the graph.

13. Plot another graph between kinetic energy and the position (x) of

he

the bob. Find out the position of the point for which kinetic energy

is minimum.

⎛ x2⎞

pu T

14. Calculate also the potential energy, PE ⎜ = mg i ⎟ , at the

is

⎝ L ⎠

re R

corresponding points at which you have calculated the kinetic

bl

energy. Plot the graph of potential energy (PE) against the

displacement position (x) on the same graph on which you have

E

plotted kinetic energy versus position graph.

15. Find the total mechanical energy E as the sum of kinetic energy

be C

positions x. Express the result in SI units with proper significant

to N

against displacement position (x) of the pendulum on the same

graph on which you have plotted the graphs in Steps 13 and 14,

i.e., for K.E. and P.E.

©

OBSERVATIONS

Measuring the mass of bob and effective length of simple

pendulum

(a) Effective length of the simple pendulum

Least count of the metre scale = ... mm = ... cm

Length of the top of the brick from the point of suspension,

t

l = ... cm = ... m

no

Effective length of the simple pendulum L = ( l + r ) = ... cm = ... m

(b) Mass of the ... g

Time period (T) of ticker-timer = ... s

Fraction of T to be added for finding corrected Ti on left = ...

Fraction of T to be added for finding corrected Ti on right = ...

177

LABORATORY MANUAL

LABORATORY MANUAL

ticker-timer and the recorded tape

on tape (i) (Distance of vibrations of (m s–1 )

dot from ticker -timer

centre, xi ) between

(cm) central and

ith point

d

1 2nd left

2 4th left

he

3 6th left

------

2nd right

pu T

is

4th right

6th right

re R

bl

------

E

(c) Plotting a graph between displacement and time

Take time t along x-axis and displacement x along y-axis, using the

be C

observed values from Table P1.1. Choose suitable scales on these axes

to represent t and x. Plot a graph between t and x as shown in Fig. P1.5.

What is the shape of x-t graph?

to N

C ALCULATION

©

velocity of bob at five or six different

Variation of d vs t points on the either side of the mean

position O of the graph.

using Eq. (P1.3), corresponding to

each value of velocity obtained from

d (cm)

Table P1.2.

t

no

(distance) x along x-axis and kinetic

energy (K.E.) along y-axis using the

t (s) values from Table P1.2 as shown in

Fig. P1.6.

Fig. P1.5: Graph between displacement and

time of the oscillating bob (iii) Compute the values of potential energy

using Eq. (P1.2), for each value of

displacement in Step (ii) above.

178

PROJECT 1

UNIT NAME

oscillating bob

No. (ms–1)

1 x2 Potential Energy

mv 2 (J) mg L (J) + Kinetic Energy

2 (J)

d

2

3

he

4

pu T

displacement (distance) x

is

Total energy

along x-axis and potential

ET

re R

energy (P.E.) along y-axis on

bl

the same graph (Fig. P1.6). P.E

E

(v) Compute the total energy K.E

Energy

ET as the sum of the kinetic

energy and potential

be C

displacement positions, x.

to N

displacement along x-axis

x

and total energy ET along O

y-axis on the same graph Displacement, x

©

Fig. P1.6).

Fig. P 1.6: Graph between displacement and

RESULT

energy of the oscillating bob

The total energy, as the sum of kinetic and potential energies, of the

bob of the simple pendulum is conserved (remains the same) at all the

points along its path.

D ISCUSSION

t

no

on page 65.

2. Eq. P1.1 that expresses the relation between x, h and L for a simple

pendulum, holds true under the conditions h << x << L for small

angular amplitudes (θ < 10°) of the pendulum.

3. Linear displacement x of the bob, about (1/8)th to (1/10)th of

the effective length of the pendulum corresponds to angular

displacement (θ ) of about 8° to 10° for small angular amplitudes,

179

LABORATORY MANUAL

LABORATORY MANUAL

the central point/position truly represent corresponding

displacement of the pendulum bob from its central (mean)

position.

4. The shape of the graphs shown in Fig. P1.5 and Fig. P1.6

correspond to ideal conditions in which no energy is lost due to

friction and air drag. The graph drawn on the basis of observed

data may differ due to error in data collection and friction.

d

ELF ASSESSMENT

he

1. Identify the shape of displacement time graph, you have drawn

for the oscillating simple pendulum. Interpret the graph.

2. Identify the shape of kinetic energy-displacement and potential

pu T

is

energy-displacement graphs, you have drawn for the simple

pendulum.

re R

bl

Study the change in potential energy and kinetic energy at each

of the displacement positions. Interpret these graphs and see how

E

these compare.

3. What is the shape of the graph between the total (mechanical)

be C

pendulum? Interpret the graph to show what it reveals?

t to N

©

no

180

PROJECT

UNIT NAME

PROJECT 2

AIM

d

To determine the radius of gyration about the centre of mass of a

he

metre scale used as a bar pendulum.

pu T

is

A metre scale with holes at regular intervals, knife edge shaped axle,

re R

a rigid support, two glass plates (to be used for suspension plane),

bl

spring balance, spirit level, telescope fixed on a stand, stop-watch

and graph paper.

E

P

be C

RINCIPLE

A rigid body oscillating in a vertical plane about a horizontal axis

to N

the body through which the axis of rotation passes is known as centre

of suspension.

©

I

T = 2π (P 2.1)

mgl

where m is the mass of the rigid body, l is the distance of the point of

suspension from the centre of gravity, I is the moment of inertia of

the body about the axis of oscillation and g is the acceleration due

t

to gravity.

no

centre of gravity, then the moment of inertia about the centre of

suspension is

I = m (K2 + l2)

⎛ K2 ⎞

= m l ⎜l + (P 2.2)

⎝ l ⎟⎠

181

LABORATORY MANUAL

LABORATORY MANUAL

⎛ K2 ⎞ ⎛ K2 ⎞

ml ⎜l + ⎟ ⎜l + ⎟

T = 2π ⎝ l ⎠

= 2π ⎝

l ⎠

Hence

mgl g

(P 2.3) L

or T = 2π

g

(P 2.4)

where L = (l + K2/l)

Eq. (P 2.4) can be written as

d

(P 2.5) l . L = (l2 + K 2) ⇒l2 – l L + K 2 = 0

he

Eq. (P 2.5) is quadratic in l and therefore has two roots, say l1 and

l2 then

l1 + l2 = L and l1 l2 = K 2

pu T

is

or K = l1 l 2

re R

P

ROCEDURE

bl

E

1. Take a metre scale. Draw a line in the

middle along its length. Drill holes of

be C

separated by a distance of 2 cm,

to N

2 . Determine the centre of gravity

of the scale by balancing it over

a wedge.

©

the hole near one of the ends of the

metre scale and let it rest on the

suspension base having glass plates

at its top.

4. Ensure that the glass plates fixed

on the suspension plane be

horizontal and in the same level so

t

no

may be sure that the scale hangs

vertically (Fig. P2.1).

5. Make a reference line, drawn on the

paper strip, near the lower end of the

pendulum and focus it with a

telescope. Adjust the telescope until

its vertical crosswire focuses on the

Fig. P 2.1: A metre scale oscillating about a point

close to C.G.

reference line.

182

PROJECT 2

UNIT NAME

distance from its equilibrium position and then release it. The

pendulum (metre scale) will begin to oscillate. Take care that the

angular amplitude of oscillation is within 5° or 6° and pendulum

oscillates in a vertical plane without any jerk.

7. Count zero when the reference mark on oscillating pendulum

passes across the vertical crosswire of telescope and start the stop-

watch at that instant (The counting of oscillations could be done

visually, in case a telescope is not available).

d

8. Continue counting 2, 3, 4,... successively when the reference line

he

progressively passes the vertical crosswire from the same side and

note the time for 20 oscillations. Repeat the observations at least

three times.

pu T

9. Measure from the lower end, the distance of the point

is

of suspension.

re R

10.Repeat Steps 7 and 9 after shifting the knife edge to the successive

bl

holes leaving two holes on either side of the centre of gravity of the

pendulum. Take length of pendulum on one side of C. G. as positive

E

while on the other side as negative. Record your observations in

tabular form.

be C

OBSERVATIONS

to N

Hole Hole

©

No. No.

Distance T ime for 20 T ime period Distance Time for 20 Time period

from C.G., oscillations from C.G., oscillations

t1 + t 2 + t 3 t1′ + t2′ + t ′3

l1 t1 t2 t3 T= l2 t ′1 t′2 t′3 T′ =

3 3

(cm) (cm)

(s) (s)

t

no

CALCULATION

1 . Plot a graph between l and T by taking the l along x-axis

and T along y-axis. The graph will consist of two symmetrical

curves Fig. P 2.2. The point on the x-axis about which the

graph is symmetrical is the centre of gravity of the metre

scale pendulum.

183

LABORATORY MANUAL

LABORATORY MANUAL

at points, P, Q, R and S

(a) From the graph, CP= ... cm, CS= ... cm

CP +CS

l1 = = ...cm

2

x

O

(b) From the graph, CQ = ... cm, CR = ... cm

d

P Q C R S CQ +CR

l2 = = ...cm

2

he

Fig. P 2.2: Graph between distance from

C.G. and time period

(c) The radius of gyration K = l1 l2

R pu T

is

ESULT

re R

The radius of gyration about the axis passing through the centre of

E

P RECAUTIONS

be C

horizontal so that the pendulum oscillates in a vertical plane.

to N

so that effect of any irregularities in the oscillations get subsided.

©

pendulum if time for 20 oscillations is to be measured without

using a telescope.

4. Keep the fans off or else air droughts will shift the position of the

scale and its oscillations will not remain in the same plane.

S OURCES OF ERROR

1. The metre scale may not have uniform mass distribution.

t

no

3. The holes drilled may not be colinear or have equally smooth inner

surface.

D ISCUSSION

1. If a metallic bar is used in place of wooden scale we would have

better results as its inertia will hold it in position in a better way.

184

PROJECT 2

UNIT NAME

cross-section can be easily made.

2. To draw smooth symmetrical graphs, we may make use of curved

surface on the inside of set squares or by suitably bending plastic

tongue cleaners or broomsticks.

SELF ASSESSMENT

1. How would you establish that the compound pendulum executes

d

SHM?

he

2. By knowing the radius of gyration of the metre scale about its

centre of mass, determine the moment of inertia of the same scale

about an axis passing through the centre of mass.

pu T

is

3. Why do we get two L – T plots symmetrical about y-axis?

re R

bl

SUGGESTED ADDITIONAL EXPERIMENTS/ACTIVITIES

E

1. Increase the angular amplitude slowly and see how your result

changes.

be C

appreciable. How will you explain the changes?

tto N

©

no

185

LABORATORY MANUAL

LABORATORY MANUAL

PROJECT 3

AIM

d

he

To investigate changes in the velocity of a body under the action of a

constant force and to determine its acceleration.

pu T

is

Ticker-timer, a horizontal table, a bumper (a heavy rectangular

re R

block of wood), a trolley, three G-clamps, long paper tape, a pulley,

bl

strong thread, a few bricks, hanger, slotted weights, plug-key and

P

a spring balance.

E

RINCIPLE

be C

is kept constant. The principle and working of a ticker-timer has

to N

arrangment allows you to mark the position of a moving object as a

dot on the tape of the ticker-timer. The time interval between two

successive dots is the same but the dots may not be necessarily equally

©

unequally spaced dots would represent non-uniform motion.

For calculation of speed of a given object from the tape, take one of the

tapes used in the experiment. Let S1, S2, S3, ..... be the distances

between two successive dots, say of ten dots, on the tape measured

from point A by a metre scale as shown in the Fig. P 3.1.

t

no

= Frequency of the A.C. supply

= 50 Hz.

186

PROJECT 3

UNIT NAME

1

The time interval between two successive dots = s

50

The time taken for covering 10 dots i.e., for displacements S1, S2, S3, ...

1

= × 10 = 0.2 s

50

S (cm)

The average speed v 1 over the distance S1 = 1 = ... cm s –1

0.2s

d

S2(cm)

The average speed v 2 over the distance S2 = = ... cm s –1

0.2s

he

So, the increase in speed in the time interval of 0.2 s

= S2 – S1 = ... cm s –1

pu T 0.2s 0.2s

is

The average acceleration = ( S2 – S1 ) = ... cm s–2

re R

0.2 × 0.2

P bl

E

ROCEDURE

1. Setup the ticker-timer at one end of a long horizontal table and

be C

fix the bumper at its other end with the help of G-clamps as shown

in Fig. P 3.2.

to N

2. Place the trolley between the timer and the bumper. Attach one

end of a strong thread of suitable length to the trolley and pass it

over a frictionless pulley fixed on the bumber. Attach a hanger at

©

3. Adjust the length of the thread in such a manner that when the

trolley is brought near the timer, the hanger stands at its highest

position near the pulley.

4 . Bring the trolley near the ticker-timer and release it, observe

its motion.

5. Place one or two small bricks on the trolley if it moves too fast.

Adjust the weights on the hanger so that the trolley moves with a

t

moderate speed.

no

6 . Hold the trolley in position near the timer. Check that the

tape is passing under the carbon paper disc. Switch the

ticker-timer on and release the trolley. Ensure that the trolley

gains speed till the pan touches the ground, thereafter it is

stopped by the bumper.

7. Encircle the mark on the tape which was under the point of

the vibrator of the timer at the instant when the pan touches

the ground because there after the force ceases to act on the

187

LABORATORY MANUAL

LABORATORY MANUAL

P is the limiting position upto which the

trolley was accelerated by constant force

before it touched the ground.

8. Remove the part of tape where dots are marked,

from the timer.

9. Choose a dot, close to the starting point, mark it

as A and take it as the reference point for

measurement of displacements.

d

10. Divide the entire motion of the trolley in about

he

10 equal intervals of time. To do this, count the

total number of dots marked on the tape during

the motion of trolley. From A, mark the positions

Fig. P 3.3: Graph between speed and time as B, C, D etc. at the end of 10 ticks on the paper.

pu T

under a constant force

is

11. Measure the distance AB, BC, CD etc. and record them as shown

in Table P 3.1. Compute average speed between different time

re R

bl

intervals (Table P 3.1). This can be taken as instantaneous

velocity at the mid point of the time interval tabulate. The

E

computed values of the average speeds against the mid point of

the time intervals.

be C

12. The instantaneous speed at the mid point of time intervals would

be nearly the same as the average speed during the interval in

each case.

to N

13. Plot a graph showing the values of speed against time which

depicts the motion of the trolley under a constant force. Find the

slope of speed-time graph to calculate the instantaneous

©

O BSERVATIONS

(a) Mass of the pan ... g.

(b) Mass of the pan + Mass of the weights in the pan = ... g.

(c) Mass of the trolley + mass placed in the trolley = ... g.

Table P 3.1: Instantaneous speed of the body

t

no

No. units of tick (cm) vav = s/t (cm s–1 ) of interval), t

interval) (s) (tick

interval) (s)

1 0 – 10 S1 ... 5

2 10 – 20 S2 ... 15

3 20 – 30 S3 ... 25

188

PROJECT 3

UNIT NAME

ML

Slope, =

No. ticks) NM

ML (cm/ NM acceleration

tick) (tick) cm/ tick–2

d

R

he

ESULT

1. The speed of the trolley increases with time as constant force acts

pu T

on it.

is

2. The acceleration of the trolley is found to be ... roughly constant

re R

within the limitations of the experiment.

P bl

E

RECAUTIONS

1. Make sure that the ticker-timer and bumper are rigidly fixed.

be C

2. The ticks in the beginning when the trolley just begins to move

and at the time when the force ceases to act, be encircled properly

to N

velocity and acceleration.

S

©

ELF ASSESSMENT

Is the acceleration calculated equal to ‘g’ ? If not, why? With increase

in mass in the pan, does the acceleration approach to acceleration

due to gravity?

t

no

the mass placed on the pan.

189

LABORATORY MANUAL

LABORATORY MANUAL

PROJECT 4

AIM

d

To compare the effectiveness of different materials as insulators of heat.

he

APPARATUS AND MATERIAL REQUIRED

A cylindrical metallic container, a cylindrical plastic container (with

pu T

is

height same as that of metal container but having a much larger

radius), a thermometer, an insulating lid for plastic container with a

re R

hole for inserting a thermometer, different insulating materials in

bl

powder or liquid forms.

T

E

ERMS AND DEFINITIONS

be C

Insulators of heat are those substances, which do not allow the flow

of heat through them easily.

to N

P RINCIPLE

©

materials as insulators of heat is to compare their thermal

Thermometer

B Insulating lid

t

no

Insulating material

A

Plastic container

C

Water

Metal container

D

Fig. P 4.1:

190

PROJECT 4

UNIT NAME

more effective as an insulator.

PROCEDURE

1. Place the metal container A inside the plastic container B leaving

equal gap all around it. Fill the gap, between the two containers

with the insulating material you want to study (Fig P4.1).

d

2. Pour in container A hot water (having temperature nearly 60 °C).

3. Cover both the containers with a non-conducting lid.

he

4. Fix a thermometer, in a hole provided in the lid, in such a way

that the thermometer bulb is well within the water.

pu T

is

5. Record time for every 5 °C fall in temperature.

re R

6. Repeat the above procedure for different insulating materials.

7.

bl

Plot temperature v/s time graph for different materials on the

E

same graph paper.

O

be C

BSERVATIONS

Least count of the thermometer = ... °C

to N

materials as insulators

©

Name of

S. No. the Variation of temparature with time

Material

Temparature

1.

Time

Temparature

2.

t

no

Time

Temparature

3.

Time

Temparature

4.

Time

191

LABORATORY MANUAL

LABORATORY MANUAL

P

LOTTING OF GRAPH AND INTERPRETATION

Plot a graph between time t and temperature θ for different materials

on the same graph paper, taking time on x-axis and temperature

on y-axis.

Steeper the graph, faster the rate of cooling of water thereby implying

lower efficiency of the material used as thermal insulator.

d

ESULT

he

From the cooling curves of water drawn for different insulating

materials surrounding it can be inferred that the effectiveness of

different materials as insulators of heat in decreasing order is

pu T

is

(a)

(b)

re R

bl

(c)

E

(d)

P

be C

RECAUTIONS

1. Make sure that the gaps C and D are kept the same for all the

to N

materials.

2. This method can be used only for the insulating materials available

in the powdered/liquid form as the effect of trapped air can be

©

3. Packing of insulating material in the gaps C and D should be equally

uniform in all the cases.

4. Insulating lid should fit tightly to minimise heat loss.

t

1. Repeat the same procedure with the cold water (instead of hot water).

no

than the ones you have used in this Activity.

192

PROJECT

UNIT NAME

PROJECT 5

AIM

d

To compare the effectiveness of different materials as absorbers

he

of sound.

pu T

is

An audio frequency oscillator, cathode ray oscilloscope (CRO),

two transformers, a microphone, a speaker (8 Ω), absorbing

re R

bl

materials such as glass sheet, cardboard, plywood and fibre

board having roughly the same thickness, 4 cardboard sheets of

E

different thicknesses, screw gauge, vernier calipers and

a metre scale.

be C

P RINCIPLE

to N

energy is absorbed by the material. The degree of absorption of sound

energy by a material depends upon

©

(ii) the thickness of the material through which sound waves are made

to pass.

P ROCEDURE

1. Take sheets of different absorbing materials such as glass sheet,

cardboard, plywood and fibre board sheets.

t

no

gauge/vernier calipers/metre scale.

Fig. P 5.1. High impedence coils L1 and L4 of the two transformers

are to be connected to an audio frequency oscillator and a CRO

respectively. Speaker and the microphone are to be connected to

the low resistance coils L2 and L3 of the two transformers in order

to achieve impedence-matching of the coils.

193

LABORATORY MANUAL

LABORATORY MANUAL

d

Fig. P. 5.1: Circuit arrangement for comparing effectiveness of different

he

materials as absorbers of sound

the screen.

pu T

is

5. Feed an audio signal of known frequency from the audio oscillator

re R

to the speaker and note the amplitude of the corresponding audio

bl

signal on the CRO, without any sheet between the speaker and

microphone.

E

6. Without changing the distance between speaker and microphone,

insert one by one sheets of different materials, i.e., glass, cardboard,

be C

speaker and the microphone and each time note the amplitude of

to N

7. Record the observations in tabular form to analyse the relation

between the degree of absorption of sound energy and the nature

©

8. Insert four sheets of different thicknesses of the same material (say

cardboard) one by one in between the speaker and the microphone.

9. Repeat Steps 5 and 6 of the experiment.

10.Record the observations in tabular form to analyse the degree of

absorption of sound with the thickness of the absorbing material.

O

BSERVATIONS

t

no

2. Thickness of cardboard = ... mm

Thickness of glass sheet = ... mm

Thickness of fireboard = ... mm

Thickness of plywood = ... mm

3. Frequency of the audio signal used = ... Hz

194

PROJECT 5

UNIT NAME

absorbing materials of same thickness.

No. of Name of

absorbing Amplitude of wave on CRO (mm)

observations

material

Before insertion After insertion A1

of absorbing of absorbing A0

material A0 material A 1

d

1. Glass

2. Card board

he

3. Fibre board

4. Plywood

pu T

is

Table P 5.2: Variation in degree of absorption of sound for

re R

different thicknesses of the same absorbing material

bl

E

No. of Thickness

of Amplitude of wave on CRO (mm)

observations

absorbing

be C

of absorbing of absorbing A0

material A0 material A 1

to N

1.

2.

©

3.

4.

CALCULATION

1. Find the ratio of amplitude of the waveform before and after

insertion of the absorbing material from the experiment data

t

no

insertion of the absorbing material of different thicknesses and

infer its dependence on absorption of sound.

RESULT

1. Degree of absorption of sound waves is maximum in .... (material)

and minimum in ... (material).

195

LABORATORY MANUAL

LABORATORY MANUAL

increase in the thickness of absorbing material (cardboard).

P

RECAUTIONS

1. The amplitude of the input audio signal is kept constant while

performing the experiment, with different absorbing materials of

same thickness.

2. The thickness of absorbing material should not be so high

d

that the corresponding output signal on the screen of CRO is no

longer measurable.

he

3. The respective positions of the speaker, microphone and

absorbing material sheets for all sets of experiment should be

kept unchanged.

pu T

is

re R

bl

SUGGESTED ADDITIONAL EXPERIMENTS/ACTIVITIES

1. Plot a graph between the density (along x-axis) and the ratio of the

E

amplitudes of the waveform (along y-axis) after and before insertion

of the absorbing material (Table P 2.1). Study the nature of the

graph and interpret it.

be C

absorbing material and the ratio of the amplitude of the wave

to N

material (Table P 5.2). Study the nature of the graph and

interpret it.

t ©

no

196

PROJECT

UNIT NAME

PROJECT 6

AIM

d

he

To compare the Young’s modules of elasticity of different specimen of

rubber and compare them by drawing their elastic hysteresis curve.

pu T

is

Two samples of rubber bands of about 10 cm length, a rigid support,

re R

number of slotted weights (10 g), a hanger (10 g), a scale and a fine pointer.

T bl

E

ERMS AND DEFINITIONS

be C

reversing the strain, the phenomenon is known as elastic hysteresis.

to N

the specimen does not reduce to its original length, this results in

residual strain.

P

©

RINCIPLE

1. The graph of stress versus strain (or elongation) for rubber is not

a straight line. Hence, the Young’s modules of elasticity for rubber

cannot be defined uniquely. For a given stress, it is defined as the

slope of the stress-strain curve at particular stress-strain point.

2. The area enclosed by the hysteresis curve is a measure of energy

loss during the loading and unloading cycle.

t

P

no

ROCEDURE

1. Suspend a rubber band from a rigid support and attach a hanger

of mass (10 g) along with a fixed pointer at the lower end.

2. Fix a scale S vertically such that the pointer moves freely on the

scale and note the reading on the scale.

3. Place 10g slotted weight in the hanger and wait till the rubber

band becomes stationary. Read the position of the pointer.

197

LABORATORY MANUAL

LABORATORY MANUAL

weight is 80-100 g.

corresponding reading of the pointer (Give time for the rubber to

stabilise before taking the reading).

d

BSERVATIONS

(i) Least count of the scale = ... cm

he

(ii) Original length of unstreched rubber band, L = ... cm

pu T

is

re R

S. Load Reading of pointer r (cm) Extension

bl

No. suspended =

applied force =

E

F (N) Loading Unloading Loading Unloading

1

be C

Specimen A 2

3

to N

1

Specimen B 2

©

C ALCULATIONS

1. Plot a graph between the load and extension by taking

extension along x-axis and load along y-axis for loading

and unloading.

t

no

(This can be done by counting the squares enclosed in the

hysteresis loop).

R ESULT

Hysteresis of specimen A ... is (greater or less than the) hysteresis of

specimen B.

198

PROJECT 6

UNIT NAME

P RECAUTIONS

1. The weights must be added or removed gently.

2. One should wait for some time after adding or removing the weights

before reading is taken.

EVALUATION

d

1. What does the area of hysteresis curve depict?

he

2. Interpret the hysteresis curves obtained for the specimen A and B.

3. When do the curves obtained while loading and unloading

coincide?

pu T

is

4. When do the curves obtained while loading and unloading

not coincide?

re R

bl

5. For which purpose is the rubber with large hysteresis loop used?

E

6. For which purpose is the rubber with small hysteresis loop used?

7 . Is the stress-strain graph for rubber a straight line as

be C

limit is exceeded?

to N

8. How would you known that elastic limit has been crossed?

t ©

no

199

LABORATORY MANUAL

LABORATORY MANUAL

PROJECT 7

AIM

d

To study the collision of two balls in two-dimensions.

he

APPARATUS AND MATERIAL REQUIRED

pu T

is

Apparatus for collision in two dimensions, metre scale, tracing paper,

carbon paper, G-clamp, a screw, cellotape, protractor, two identical

re R

steel spheres or marble spheres and a plumbline.

D bl

E

ESCRIPTION OF APPARATUS

be C

aluminium channel) which is bent

A

Table to act as a ramp so that a steel ball

to N

Wooden

support

can be rolled from the top. At the

B

Aluminium lower end of the ruler a set screw is

channel Depression fixed that has a depression on its

top. This is the resting place for the

©

Plumb line

target steel ball. The ruler rests on

a metal base which can be clamped

at the edge of a laboratory table.

Carbon paper

From the set screw, a plumbline is

Fig. P 7.1: Setup to study the collision of two suspended as shown in Fig. P 7.1.

balls in two-dimensions

P RINCIPLE

t

no

their velocities after collision are v and v′ respectively, then according

to the law of conservation of momentum

mu + mu′ = mv + mv′

the apparatus described above and verify the law of conservation of

momentum in two-dimensions. We allow one steel ball to roll down

200

PROJECT 7

UNIT NAME

the ramp and collide with a target ball (at rest) placed at the lower end

of the ramp. For simplicity, we take two identical balls.

After collision the two balls moving in different directions fall down

and strike the ground. The horizontal velocity of each sphere is

proportional to the horizontal distance travelled by each sphere (Why

this should be so?). The horizontal distance is the distance from point

on the floor just below the initial position of the stationary ball to the

point where it lands. This same horizontal distance can also be used

to represent the magnitude of the momentum of each ball as they

d

have the same mass.

he

ROCEDURE

1. Arrange the apparatus as shown in Fig. P 7.1. Adjust the set screw

pu T

is

so that the depression in it is directly in front of the groove and

about one radius of the steel ball away from the groove end. Roll a

re R

steel ball down the ramp and adjust the set screw by moving

bl

upward/downward so that the ball just clears it as it falls freely.

Place the target ball on the depression in the screw. Suspend the

E

plumb line with it.

be C

2. Next adjust the position of the set screw so that the bullet ball will

collide with the target ball at an angle. Mark the incident and target

balls as 1 and 2. Ensure that the two balls are exactly at the same

to N

3. Spread on the floor a large sheet of tracing paper on a similar

sized carbon paper. The steel balls would be falling on this

©

paper or plain paper are not available tape together their pieces

(A-4 size) to make a large sheet.

4 . Put the carbon paper on the floor, with its inked side facing

up. Place the tracing paper directly over it. Place the sheets

such that the centre of one end of the paper lies just below

the plumb line.

5. Without placing a target ball on the set screw, roll the ball marked

t

1. Mark the point on the tracing paper where the ball lands (P0).

no

Find the centre of the cluster and mark it P0.

6. Using identical steel ball (2) to act as a target ball, try a few

collisions. Ensuring that the incident ball (1) is always released

from the same height. Circle and label the clusters of points where

the incident ball and the target ball hit the paper.

(You can find the centre of cluster points, by drawing a quadrilateral

and intersecting diagonals to find the location of mean point.)

201

LABORATORY MANUAL

LABORATORY MANUAL

d

he

Fig. P 7.2: To find location of mean print

7. Mark point ‘O’ on the paper where the plumb line touches the paper.

Draw vectors from the point O to the mean point P0, P1 and P2.

pu T

is

uuur uuur

8. (a) Add the two vectors OP1 and OP 2 representing the

re R

bl

momentum of the incident ball and target ball to determine

the total momentum P after the collision (Fig. P7.2).

E

(b) Relate the total momentum P after the collision with the initial

uuur

be C

and the target ball.

R

to N

ESULT

The total momentum of the two ball after collision is ... g cms–1 which

is almost equal to the initial momentum of the incident ball.

©

P RECAUTIONS

1. Adjust the set screw and ensure that the two balls are exactly at

the same height from the floor at the time of collision.

2. In each trial, the incident ball should be rolled down from the

same height.

S

t

OURCES OF ERROR

no

S

ELF ASSESSMENT

1. For each trial, measure the angle between the two final momentum

vectors. Can you make any generalisation?

2. Suppose the target ball is replaced by a glass marble of same size

and we carry out the experiment using the same incident ball. In

202

PROJECT 7

UNIT NAME

vectors? Do they still represent momentum vectors? How will you

draw momentum vectors in this case and verify the law of

conservation of momentum?

3. What happens to the momentum components corresponding to

OP1 and OP2 in Fig. P7.2 in the direction perpendicular to OP0?

d

SUGGESTED ADDITIONAL EXPERIMENTS/ACTIVITIES

he

This experiment can also be used to verify the law of conservation of

momentum quantitatively, the momentum of a ball can be calculated

knowing its mass and velocity. Measure the mass of each ball with a

balance. The horizontal velocity is equal to the horizontal distance travelled

pu T

is

divided by the time taken. Note that this time is equal to the time taken

by the ball to hit the floor. This time can be determined by measuring the

re R

distance (d) from the top of the set screw to the floor and using the

bl

equation d = (gt2)/2. Further, note that t will be the same for all calculations.

Calculate the original momentum of the incident ball and final momenta

E

of the incident and target balls for the case with balls of (1) equal mass

and (2) unequal mass. Find the resultant of the two final momenta in

each case and compare it with the initial momentum.

be C

to N

Take plastic pipe having internal diameter slightly more than the diameter

of the balls.

Cut the pipe lengthwise into two equal parts (two halves). Bend slightly

one part of the cut pipe by gently warming it and fix it on a table top as

©

Make a small depression near end B of the pipe with the help of a heated

thick nail/rod for resting the target ball.

t

no

203

LABORATORY MANUAL

LABORATORY MANUAL

PROJECT 8

A

d

IM

To study Fortin’s Barometer and use it to measure the

he

atmospheric pressure.

pu T

is

Fortin’s Barometer and a thermometer.

re R

D

bl

ESCRIPTION OF APPARATUS

E

Fortins’s Barometer

be C

long, open at one end. It is filled with mercury

to N

of mercury C. The lower part of the trough is

made of leather and the level of mercury in the

trough can be adjusted by means of screw A

©

closed by a leather patch L in such a way that the

contact is maintained between the outside air and

the mercury in the trough. There is a small ivory

pin P fixed with its pointed tip touching the

mercury in the trough. The function of the pin P

is to adjust the zero of the scale at the same level

as the mercury in the trough. The glass tube is

enclosed in a brass tube for protection. There are

t

no

seen [Fig. P 8.1 (b)]. A scale graduated in

centimetre is engraved on the brass tube on both

sides along the edges of the front slit. The scale

graduation does not start from zero but from 68

cm to 85 cm, as the atmospheric pressureremains

within these limits. A brass vernier scale slides

along the front slit and can be adjusted using

Fig. P 8.1: Fortin’s barometer

screw B.

204

PROJECT 8

UNIT NAME

PRINCIPLE

When a completely filled mercury tube is turned upside down in the

trough C, some mercury flows out of the tube in the trough leaving a

vacuum on the top.

on the surface of mercury in the trough equalises that due to the

mercury column in the tube. The height of the mercury column in

the tube is proportional to atmospheric pressure under normal

d

conditions, Column of mercury in the glass tube stands at a height of

about 76 cm at sea level.

he

From theoretical point of view, a barometer could be made of any

liquid. Mercury is chosen for many reasons mainly it is so dense

(13600 kg/m 3) that column supported by air pressure is of a

pu T

is

managable height.

re R

A water barometer would be more than 10 m in height.

P bl

E

ROCEDURE

be C

to N

t ©

no

205

LABORATORY MANUAL

LABORATORY MANUAL

with the help of screw A and by looking at the ivory pin and

its image on the mercury surface in the trough (Fig. P 8.2).

Vernier V 5. Adjust the vernier using screw B such that the zero of the vernier

touches the convex meniscus of mercury in the tube. The eye

should be kept at the level of the meniscus (Fig. P 8.3).

6. Note the reading on the main scale and the vernier.

d

Correct 8. Repeat the procedure two more times and determine the

adjustment average atmospheric pressure.

of Vernier Scale

he

Fig. P 8.3: Eye should be at the level of

meniscus of mercury in the tube

pu T

is

O

re R

BSERVATIONS

(i)

E

No. of divisions on the vernier = ...

be C

Least count of main scale (1 MSD) = ... cm

to N

1 MSD

= = ... cm

©

(ii) Room Temperature = ... °C

Table P 8.1: Measuring height of mercury column

in a barometer

S. Main scale reading Ver nier scale Height of mercury

No. below zero mark of reading n column

vernier scale, S (cm) h = (S + n × least count)

t

1

no

2

3

R

ESULT

Atmospheric pressure in the laboratory on dd/mm/yr (date) at ... am/

pm at room temperature ...°C was measured as ...cm of Hg.

Atmospheric pressure = ...N/m2

206

PROJECT 8

UNIT NAME

P RECAUTIONS

1. The barometer is a fragile instrument and should be handled

carefully.

2. The wall mount should be firm in a room of a laboratory and not

in any passage.

3. Adequate light must fall on the ivory pin and the vernier scale.

4. Least count should be calculated with care.

d

5. Screw A should be moved slowly and gently.

he

SOURCES OF ERROR

pu T

1. There may be air bubbles in the barometer tube.

is

2. Ivory pin may not be fixed properly.

re R

bl

3. Room temperature may change, affecting the observations.

D

E

ISCUSSION

be C

1. The barometer should be placed in such a way on the wall that screw

A can easily be adjusted by viewing the ivory pin P. A suitable platform

to N

can be used to stand and see the vernier reading at eye level.

2. Why does the barometer require adjustment everytime one has to

use it?

©

SELF ASSESSMENT

1. What effect would there be of the following:

(a) Ivory pin not adjusted as advised?

(b) Barometer is not vertical but tilted?

(c) The pin P and scale S not viewed at eye level?

t

no

encounter?

during school hours. Study the pattern for the change in atmospheric

pressure over a week.

in the newspaper) for a month. Can we relate humidity to atmospheric

pressure?

207

PROJECT

UNIT NAME

PROJECT 10

AIM

To study the effect of nature of surface on emission and absorption

d

of radiation.

he

Two identical calorimeters with wooden lids having holes for

thermometers, two thermometers, clamp stands for holding

pu T

is

thermometer, arrangement to coat one calorimeter black and the other

shining white, stop-clock, ice.

re R

P RINCIPLE

bl

E

Black surfaces are good emitters and good absorbers of heat radiation.

Bright surfaces are poor emitters and poor absorbers of heat radiation.

be C

P

to N

ROCEDURE

A. For emission of radiation

1. Note the range and least count of both the thermometers.

©

3. Paint one of the calorimeters with black paint or lamp black as

shown in Fig. P 10.1(a) and the other calorimeter white with

aluminium paint or by wrapping shining silver foil around the

calorimeter as shown in Fig. P 10.1(b).

4. Fill hot water in each calorimeter and insert a thermometer in each.

Let them stand 30 cm apart.

5. Start the stop-clock and keep it in the middle.

t

no

of one minute.

B. For absorption of radiation

1. Use the two calorimeters used for Activity (A) above.

2. Fill them with cold water taken from the refrigerator or made by

adding ice to tap water.

3. Insert thermometers in the calorimeters and place them in front of

an electric heater so that they receive the same amount of heat. 213

LABORATORY MANUAL

LABORATORY MANUAL

A B

Calorimeter A Calorimeter B

Coated with silver

Coated black paint paint or wrapped

with silver foil

d

Hot water

Hot water

he

Stand

Stand

Fig. P 10.1(a): Experimental setup for studying Fig. P 10.1(b): Experimental setup for studying

pu T

is

emission of heat radiation from emission of heat radiation from

black surface shining surface

re R

bl

Alternatively, place them in the sun, if there is bright sunlight

coming from a window.

E

4. With the help of a stop-clock, take temperature vs. time data as in

Activity (A).

be C

O

BSERVATIONS AND CALCULATIONS

to N

Least count of thermometer A = ... °C

©

Least count of thermometer B = ... °C

Table P 10.1(a) : For emission of radiation

T ime (t) Temperature of T ime (t) Temperature of

(minutes) water (°C) (minutes) water (°C)

1

2

t

3

no

T ime (t) Temperature of T ime (t) Temperature of

(minutes) water (°C) (minutes) water (°C)

1

2

3

214

PROJECT 10

UNIT NAME

G RAPH

Plot a graph between time (on x-axis) and temperature (on y-axis) for

both the calorimeters and for both, emission and absorption, as shown

in Fig. P 10.2 (a) and (b).

y y

d

90 °C

40 °C ened)

(Black

rA

he

mete

Calori ed)

ilver

B (s

Temperature (°C)

ter

rime

Calo

Temperature (°C)

pu T

is

Ca

lor

ime

ter

B

re R

(silvere

d)

bl

Cal

orim

ete

rA

E

(Bla

cke

ned

)

25 °C x 25 °C x

be C

0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20

Time (min) Time (min)

to N

Fig. P 10.2(a): Temperature vs. time graph for Fig. P 10.2(b): Temperature vs. time graph for

emission of heat radiation absorption of heat radiation

©

C ONCLUSION

1. Compare the rates of cooling in Activity (A) in both cases for the

same temperature range. It is found that the (blackened/silvered)

calorimeter is a better emitter of heat.

2. Compare the rise in temperatures of the two calorimeters in Activity

(B). It is found that the ... calorimeter is a better absorber of

radiation.

t

S

no

OURCES OF ERROR

1. Perfectly black and perfectly shining surfaces may not be available.

2. Variations in surrounding temperature during the period of

Activity may take place.

215

LABORATORY MANUAL

LABORATORY MANUAL

PROJECT 11

AIM

To study conservation of energy with a 0.2 pendulum.

d

APPARATUS AND MATERIAL REQUIRED

he

A heavy spherical, bob with a hook, thread, metre scale, a peg (a pencil

or a 15 cm scale), a rigid support and a stand with a clamp.

pu T

is

P

re R

RINCIPLE

bl

A simple pendulum of length l, mass m oscillates due to the

E

restoring force expressed as F = – mg sin θ for small displacement

(less than 15°)

be C

x

sinθ = θ =

l

to N

mg

The force constant k can be written as k =

l

©

D ESCRIPTION

When the oscillation of a simple pendulum is restricted into two

parts using a peg P at any point on its string, it becomes a two-

length pendulum. During one half of the journey, the bob of mass

m, has length l1 and dispalcement x 1 at position A and for other half

it has a length l2 and displacement x 2. At position B, the bob of mass

t

no

demands that

1 1

k x2 = k x2

2 1 1 2 2 2

(P 11.1)

2

or l1 = x12

l2 x 2

216 of peg P.

PROJECT 1 1

U N

NIT AME

θ

l

l1

Peg ,P

d

x1 A l2

x1

x2

he

B A

mg C B

pu T

is

P

re R

ROCEDURE

bl

1. Setup a simple pendulum using a heavy bob. Release the bob

E

gently from position A and measure the maximum displacement

x 1, using a metre scale (Fig. P 11.1).

be C

stand and bring it in contact with the string of the oscillating

to N

pendulum when its sting is vertical, that is, along its mean

position (Fig. P 11.2).

©

3. The effective length of the pendulum would get reduced for a part

of its oscillation after it is held by the peg (Fig. P 11.2).

the bob reaches at position C.

2

l1

6. Record these observations in a table and calculate and x 12 for

t

l2 x2

no

each case.

2

7. Establish the equality, l1 = x 12 .

l2 x 2

Length of a simple pendulum, l = ... cm

217

LABORATORY MANUAL

LABORATORY MANUAL

l1 x 12

S. No. Displacement of bob Length of the pendulum

l2 x 22

In position In position In position In position

A B A B

x1 (cm) x2(cm) l 1 (cm) l 2 (cm)

1

2

d

3

he

4

R pu T

is

ESULT

re R

2

Relationship l1 = x 1 , based on the conservation of energy is verified.

bl l2 x 22

E

be C

t to N

©

no

218

LABORATORY MANUAL

LABORATORY MANUAL

PROJECT 9

AIM

d

To study of the spring constant of a helical spring from its

load-extension graph.

he

APPARATUS AND MATERIAL REQUIRED

Helical spring with a pointer attached at its lower end and a hook/

pu T

is

ring for suspending a hanger; a rigid support/clamp stand; five or six

slotted masses (known) for hanger; a metre scale.

re R

P bl

RINCIPLE

E

Rigid support

When an external force is applied to a body,

be C

occurs in the body. Restoring forces (having

0

to N

10

Helical

spring

to oppose this change. On removing

the applied force, the body regains its

20

original shape.

30

P

A For small changes in length (or shape/

Pointer

dimensions) of a body (wire), within the elastic

50 40

Hanger H

limit, the magnitude of the elongation or

extension is directly proportional to the applied

Load (m)

force (Hooke’s law).

Fig. P 9.1: Measurement of extension of Following Hooke’s law, the spring constant (or

a helical spring due to a load force constant) of a spring is given by

t

Restoring force, F

no

Extension, x

Thus, the spring constant is the restoring force per unit extension in

the spring. Its value is determined by the elastic properties of the spring.

A given load is attached to the free end of the spring which is suspended

from a rigid point support (a nail fixed to a wall). A load (slotted weight)

is placed in the hanger and the spring gets extended/elongated due

to the applied force. By measuring the extensions, produced by the

forces applied by different loads (slotted mass) in the spring and

208

PROJECT 9

UNIT NAME

plotting the load (force) extension graph, the spring constant of the

spring can be determined.

PROCEDURE

1. Suspend the helical spring, SA, having a pointer, P, at its

lower free end, A, freely from a rigid point support, as shown

in Fig. P 9.1.

d

2. Set the metre scale close to the spring vertically. Take care that

the pointer moves freely over the scale without touching it and

he

the tip of the pointer is in front of the graduations on the scale.

3. Find out the least count of the metre scale. It is usually 1 mm or

0.1 cm.

pu T

is

4. Record the initial position of the pointer on the metre scale,

without any slotted mass suspended from the hook.

re R

bl

5. Suspend the hanger, H (of known mass, say 20 g) from the lower

free end, A, of the helical spring and record the position of the

E

pointer, P on the metre scale.

6. Put a slotted mass on the hanger gently. Wait for some time for

be C

position, or even hold it to stop. Record the position of the pointer

on the metre scale. Record observations in a table with proper

to N

7. Put another slotted mass on the hanger and repeat Step 6.

©

Record the position of the pointer on the metre scale every time.

9. Compute the load/force F ( = mg ) applied by the slotted mass,

M and the corresponding extension (or stretching), x in the

helical spring. Here g is the acceleration due to gravity at the

place of the experiment.

10. Plot a graph between the applied force F along x-axis and the

corresponding extension x (or stretching) on the y-axis. What is

t

no

11. If you find that the force-extension graph is a straight line, find

the slope (F/x) of the straight line. Find out the spring constant

K of helical spring from the slope of the straight line graph.

O BSERVATIONS

Least count of the metre scale= ... mm= ... cm

Mass of the hanger = ... g

209

LABORATORY MANUAL

LABORATORY MANUAL

No. suspended F = mg the pointer x constant, K

from the (= F/x)

spring, M

1 0

d

2 20

he

3 .

4 .

5 .

pu T

6 .

is

. .

re R

. .

bl

.

.

.

.

E

be C

Plotting load - extension graph for a helical spring

to N

Take force, F along the x-axis and extension, x along the y-axis.

Choose suitable scales to represent F and x. Plot a graph between F

and x (as shown in Fig. P 9.2). Identify the shape of the load-extension

graph OA.

©

CALCULATIONS

Choose two points, O and A, wide apart on the straight line OA

obtained from load extension graph, as shown in Fig. P 9.2. From

the point A, draw a perpendicular AB on x-axis. Then, from

y the graph,

AB

Slope of the straight line graph = tan θ = = x/F

t

OB

no

A

Extension (m)

1

Spring constant, K = F =

x (slope of the graph)

OB F B − F O

Spring constant, K = = = ... Nm–1

B

AB x A − x B

x

O F (N)

where x A and x B are the corresponding extensions at points

Fig. P 9.2: Load-extension graph A and B (or O) respectively where FB and FO are the loads

for a helical spring (forces) at points B and O.

210

PROJECT 9

UNIT NAME

R ESULT

The spring constant of the given helical spring = ... Nm–1

P RECAUTIONS

1. The spring should be suspended from a rigid support and it

should hang freely so that it remains vertical.

d

2. Slotted weights should be chosen according to elastic limit of

the spring.

he

3. After adding or removing the slotted weight on the hanger, wait

for sometime before noting the position of the pointer on the

scale because the spring takes time to attain equilibrium position.

pu T

is

S

re R

OURCES OF ERROR

bl

1. If support is not perfectly rigid, some error may creep in due to

E

the yielding of the support.

2. The slotted weights may not be standard weights.

be C

D ISCUSSION

to N

load (or slotted mass) from it. The slotted masses may not have

©

likely to creep in due to the yielding (sometimes) of the support

and inaccuracy in the values of the masses of loads.

2. The accuracy of the result depends mainly on the measurement

of extension produced by the force (load) within the elastic limit.

Take special care that the slotted mass is put gently on the hanger

as the wire of the helical spring takes sometime to attain its new-

equilibrium position.

3. If the elastic limit is crossed slightly, what changes will you expect

t

S

no

ELF ASSESSMENT

1. Two springs A (of thicker wire) and B (of thinner wire) of the same

material, loaded with the same mass on their hangers, are

suspended from a rigid support. Which spring would have more

value of spring constant?

2. Soft massive spring of mass Ms and spring constant K has

extension under its own weight. What mass correction factor for

211

LABORATORY MANUAL

LABORATORY MANUAL

attached at its lower end?

[Hint: Extension Xm of the spring of mass Ms with the mass M

F M g

attached at its lower end would be X m = ( M + s )( ) ]

K 2 K

d

SUGGESTED ADDITIONAL EXPERIMENTS/ACTIVITIES

he

1. Take spring of the same material but of different diameters of the

wires. See how the spring contant varies.

materials. See how the spring constant varies. What inference do

pu T

is

you draw from your result?

re R

bl

E

be C

t to N

©

no

212

LABORATORY MANUAL

LABORATORY MANUAL

NATURAL SINES

TABLE I

0' 6' 12' 18' 24' 30' 36' 42' 48' 54' Mean

0°.0 0°.1 0°.2 0°.3 0°.4 0°.5 0°.6 0°.7 0°.8 0°.9 Differences

0 .0000 0017 0035 0052 0070 0087 0105 0122 0140 0157 3 6 9 12 15

d

1 .0175 0192 0209 0227 0244 0262 0279 0297 0314 0332 3 6 9 12 15

2 .0349 0366 0384 0401 0419 0436 0454 0471 0488 0506 3 6 9 12 15

3 .0523 0541 0558 0576 0593 0610 0628 0645 0663 0680 3 6 9 12 15

he

4 .0698 0715 0732 0750 0767 0785 0802 0819 0837 0854 3 6 9 12 15

5 .0872 0889 0906 0924 0941 0958 0976 0993 1011 1028 3 6 9 12 14

6 .1045 1063 1080 1097 1115 1132 1149 1167 1184 1201 3 6 9 12 14

7 .1219 1236 1253 1271 1288 1305 1323 1340 1357 1374 3 6 9 12 14

8 .1392 1409 1426 1444 1461 1478 1495 1513 1530 1547 3 6 9 12 14

pu T

is

9 .1564 1582 1599 1616 1633 1650 1668 1685 1702 1719 3 6 9 12 14

10 .1736 1754 1771 1788 1805 1822 1840 1857 1874 1891 3 6 9 12 14

re R

11 .1908 1925 1942 1959 1977 1994 2011 2028 2045 2062 3 6 9 11 14

12 .2079 2096 2113 2130 2147 2164 2181 2198 2215 2232 3 6 9 11 14

bl

13 .2250 2267 2284 2300 2317 2334 2351 2368 2385 2402 3 6 8 11 14

14 .2419 2436 2453 2470 2487 2504 2521 2538 2554 2571 3 6 8 11 14

E

15 .2588 2605 2622 2639 2656 2672 2689 2706 2723 2740 3 6 8 11 14

16 .2756 2773 2790 2807 2823 2840 2857 2874 2890 2907 3 6 8 11 14

17 .2924 2940 2957 2974 2990 3007 3024 3040 3057 3074 3 6 8 11 14

be C

18 .3090 3107 3123 3140 3156 3173 3190 3206 3223 3239 3 6 8 11 14

19 .3256 3272 3289 3305 3322 3338 3355 3371 3387 3404 3 5 8 11 14

20 .3420 3437 3453 3469 3486 3502 3518 3535 3551 3567 3 5 8 11 14

to N

21 .3584 3600 3616 3633 3649 3665 3681 3697 3714 3730 3 5 8 11 14

22 .3746 3762 3778 3795 3811 3827 3843 3859 3875 3891 3 5 8 11 14

23 .3907 3923 3939 3955 3971 3987 4003 4019 4035 4051 3 5 8 11 14

24 .4067 4083 4099 4115 4131 4147 4163 4179 4195 4210 3 5 8 11 13

25 .4226 4242 4258 4274 4289 4305 4321 4337 4352 4368 3 5 8 11 13

©

26 .4384 4399 4415 4431 4446 4462 4478 4493 4509 4524 3 5 8 10 13

27 .4540 4555 4571 4586 4602 4617 4633 4648 4664 4679 3 5 8 10 13

28 .4695 4710 4726 4741 4756 4772 4787 4802 4818 4833 3 5 8 10 13

29 .4848 4863 4879 4894 4909 4924 4939 4955 4970 4985 3 5 8 10 13

30 .5000 5015 5030 5045 5060 5075 5090 5105 5120 5135 3 5 8 10 13

31 .5150 5165 5180 5195 5210 5225 5240 5255 5270 5284 2 5 7 10 12

32 .5299 5314 5329 5344 5358 5373 5388 5402 5417 5432 2 5 7 10 12

33 .5446 5461 5476 5490 5505 5519 5534 5548 5563 5577 2 5 7 10 12

34 .5592 5606 5621 5635 5650 5664 5678 5693 5707 5721 2 5 7 10 12

35 .5736 5750 5764 5779 5793 5807 5821 5835 5850 5864 2 5 7 10 12

36 .5878 5892 5906 5920 5934 5948 5962 5976 5990 6004 2 5 7 9 12

37 .6018 6032 6046 6060 6074 6088 6101 6115 6129 6143 2 5 7 9 12

t

38 .6157 6170 6184 6198 6211 6225 6239 6252 6266 6280 2 5 7 9 11

39 .6293 6307 6320 6334 6347 6361 6374 6388 6401 6414 2 4 7 9 11

no

40 .6428 6441 6455 6468 6481 6494 6508 6521 6534 6547 2 4 7 9 11

41 .6561 6574 6587 6600 6613 6626 6639 6652 6665 6678 2 4 7 9 11

42 .6691 6704 6717 6730 6743 6756 6769 6782 6794 6807 2 4 6 9 11

43 .6820 6833 6845 6858 6871 6884 6896 6909 6921 6934 2 4 6 8 11

44 .6947 6959 6972 6984 6997 7009 7022 7034 7046 7059 2 4 6 8 10

270

DATA SECTION

U NIT NAME

NATURAL SINES

TABLE I (Continued)

0' 6' 12' 18' 24' 30' 36' 42' 48' 54' Mean

0°.0 0°.1 0°.2 0°.3 0°.4 0°.5 0°.6 0°.7 0°.8 0°.9 Differences

45 .7071 7083 7096 7108 7120 7133 7145 7157 7169 7181 2 4 6 8 10

46 .7193 7206 7218 7230 7242 7254 7266 7278 7290 7302 2 4 6 8 10

47 .7314 7325 7337 7349 7361 7373 7385 7396 7408 7420 2 4 6 8 10

d

48 .7431 7443 7455 7466 7478 7490 7501 7513 7524 7536 2 4 6 8 10

49 .7547 7558 7570 7581 7593 7604 7615 7627 7638 7649 2 4 6 8 9

he

50 .7660 7672 7683 7694 7705 7716 7727 7738 7749 7760 2 4 6 7 9

51 .7771 7782 7793 7804 7815 7826 7837 7848 7859 7869 2 4 5 7 9

52 .7880 7891 7902 7912 7923 7934 7944 7955 7965 7976 2 4 5 7 9

53 .7986 7997 8007 8018 8028 8039 8049 8059 8070 8080 2 3 5 7 9

54 .8090 8100 8111 8121 8131 8141 8151 8161 8171 8181 2 3 5 7 8

pu T

is

55 .8192 8202 8211 8221 8231 8241 8251 8261 8271 8281 2 3 5 7 8

56 .8290 8300 8310 8320 8329 8339 8348 8358 8368 8377 2 3 5 6 8

57 .8387 8396 8406 8415 8425 8434 8443 8453 8462 8471 2 3 5 6 8

re R

58 .8480 8490 8499 8508 8517 8526 8536 8545 8554 8563 2 3 5 6 8

bl

59 .8572 8581 8590 8599 8607 8616 8625 8634 8643 8652 1 3 4 6 7

60 .8660 8669 8678 8686 8695 8704 8712 8721 8729 8738 1 3 4 6 7

E

61 .8746 8755 8763 8771 8780 8788 8796 8805 8813 8821 1 3 4 6 7

62 .8829 8838 8846 8854 8862 8870 8878 8886 8894 8902 1 3 4 5 7

63 .8910 8918 8926 8934 8942 8949 8957 8965 8973 8980 1 3 4 5 6

be C

64 .8988 8996 9003 9011 9018 9026 9033 9041 9048 9056 1 3 4 5 6

65 .9063 9070 9078 9085 9092 9100 9107 9114 9121 9128 1 2 4 5 6

66 .9135 9143 9150 9157 9164 9171 9178 9184 9191 9198 1 2 3 5 6

to N

67 .9205 9212 9219 9225 9232 9239 9245 9252 9259 9265 1 2 3 4 6

68 .9272 9278 9285 9291 9298 9304 9311 9317 9323 9330 1 2 3 4 5

69 .9336 9342 9348 9354 9361 9367 9373 9379 9385 9391 1 2 3 4 5

70 .9397 9403 9409 9415 9421 9426 9432 9438 9444 9449 1 2 3 4 5

71 .9455 9461 9466 9472 9478 9483 9489 9494 9500 9505 1 2 3 4 5

©

72 .9511 9516 9521 9527 9532 9537 9542 9548 9553 9558 1 2 3 3 4

73 .9563 9568 9573 9578 9583 9588 9593 9598 9603 9608 1 2 3 3 4

74 .9613 9617 9622 9627 9632 9636 9641 9646 9650 9655 1 2 2 3 4

75 .9659 9664 9668 9673 9677 9681 9686 9690 9694 9699 1 1 2 3 4

76 .9703 9707 9711 9715 9720 9724 9728 9732 9736 9740 1 1 2 3 3

77 .9744 9748 9751 9755 9759 9763 9767 9770 9774 9778 1 1 2 3 3

78 .9781 9785 9789 9792 9796 9799 9803 9806 9810 9813 1 1 2 2 3

79 .9816 9820 9823 9826 9829 9833 9836 9839 9842 9845 1 1 2 2 3

80 .9848 9851 9854 9857 9860 9863 9866 9869 9871 9874 0 1 1 2 2

81 .9877 9880 9882 9885 9888 9890 9893 9895 9898 9900 0 1 1 2 2

82 .9903 9905 9907 9910 9912 9914 9917 9919 9921 9923 0 1 1 2 2

83 .9925 9928 9930 9932 9934 9936 9938 9940 9942 9943 0 1 1 1 2

t

84 :9945 9947 9949 9951 9952 9954 9956 9957 9959 9960 0 1 1 1 2

85 .9962 9963 9965 9966 9968 9969 9971 9972 9973 9974 0 0 1 1 1

no

86 .9976 9977 9978 9979 9980 9981 9982 9983 9984 9985 0 0 1 1 1

87 .9986 9987 9988 9989 9990 9990 9991 9992 9993 9993 0 0 0 1 1

88 .9994 9995 9995 9996 9996 9997 9997 9997 9998 9998 0 0 0 0 0

89 .9998 9999 9999 9999 9999 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000 0 0 0 0 0

90 1.000

271

LABORATORY MANUAL

LABORATORY MANUAL

NATURAL COSINES

TABLE II

0' 6' 12' 18' 24' 30' 36' 42' 48' 54' Mean

0°.0 0°.1 0°.2 0°.3 0°.4 0°.5 0°.6 0°.7 0°.8 0°.9 Differences

0 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000 .9999 9999 9999 9999 0 0 0 0 0

d

1 .9998 9998 9998 9997 9997 9997 9996 9996 9995 9995 0 0 0 0 0

2 .9994 9993 9993 9992 9991 9990 9990 9989 9988 9987 0 0 0 1 1

3 .9986 9985 9984 9983 9982 9981 9980 9979 9978 9977 0 0 1 1 1

he

4 .9976 9974 9973 9972 9971 9969 9968 9966 9965 9963 0 0 1 1 1

5 .9962 9960 9959 9957 9956 9954 9952 9951 9949 9947 0 1 1 1 2

6 .9945 9943 9942 9940 9938 9936 9934 9932 9930 9928 0 1 1 1 2

7 .9925 9923 9921 9919 9917 9914 9912 9910 9907 9905 0 1 1 2 2

8 .9903 9900 9898 9895 9893 9890 9888 9885 9882 9880 0 1 1 2 2

pu T

is

9 .9877 9874 9871 9869 9866 9863 9860 9857 9854 9851 0 1 1 2 2

10 .9848 9845 9842 9839 9836 9833 9829 9826 9823 9820 1 1 2 2 3

11 .9816 9813 9810 9806 9803 9799 9796 9792 9789 9785 1 1 2 2 3

re R

12 .9781 9778 9774 9770 9767 9763 9759 9755 9751 9748 1 1 2 3 3

bl

13 .9744 9740 9736 9732 9728 9724 9720 9715 9711 9707 1 1 2 3 3

14 .9703 9699 9694 9690 9686 9681 9677 9673 9668 9664 1 1 2 3 4

E

15 .9659 9655 9650 9646 9641 9636 9632 9627 9622 9617 1 2 2 3 4

16 .9613 9608 9603 9598 9593 9588 9583 9578 9573 9568 1 2 2 3 4

17 .9563 9558 9553 9548 9542 9537 9532 9527 9521 9516 1 2 3 3 4

be C

18 .9511 9505 9500 9494 9489 9483 9478 9472 9466 9461 1 2 3 4 5

19 .9455 9449 9444 9438 9432 9426 9421 9415 9409 9403 1 2 3 4 5

20 .9397 9391 9385 9379 9573 9367 9361 9354 9348 9342 1 2 3 4 5

to N

21 .9336 9330 9323 9317 9311 9304 9298 9291 9285 9278 1 2 3 4 5

22 .9272 9265 9259 9252 9245 9239 9232 9225 9219 9212 1 2 3 4 6

23 .9205 9198 9191 9184 9178 9171 9164 9157 9150 9143 1 2 3 5 6

24 .9135 9128 9121 9114 9107 9100 9092 9085 9078 9070 1 2 4 5 6

25 .9063 9056 9048 9041 9033 9026 9018 9011 9003 8996 1 3 4 5 6

©

26 .8988 8980 8973 8965 8957 8949 8942 8934 8926 8918 1 3 4 5 6

27 .8910 8902 8894 8886 8878 8870 8862 8854 8838 1 3 4 5 7

28 .8829 8821 8813 8805 8796 8788 8780 8771 8763 8755 1 3 4 6 7

29 .8746 8738 8729 8721 8712 8704 8695 8686 8678 8669 1 3 4 6 7

30 .8660 8652 8643 8634 8625 8616 8607 8599 8590 8581 1 3 4 6 7

31 .8572 8563 8554 8545 8536 8526 8517 8508 8499 8490 2 3 5 6 8

32 .8480 8471 8462 8453 8443 8434 8425 8415 8406 8396 2 3 5 6 8

33 .8387 8377 8368 8358 8348 8339 8329 8320 8310 8300 2 3 5 6 8

34 .8290 8281 8271 8261 8251 8241 8231 8221 8211 8202 2 3 5 7 8

3S .8192 8181 8171 8161 8151 8141 8131 8121 8111 8100 2 3 5 7 8

36 .8090 8080 8070 8059 8049 8039 8028 8018 8007 7997 2 3 5 7 8

37 .7986 7976 7965 7955 7944 7934 7923 7912 7902 7891 2 4 5 7 9

t

38 .7880 7869 7859 7848 7837 7826 7815 7804 7793 7782 2 4 5 7 9

39 .7771 7760 7749 7738 7727 7716 7705 7694 7683 7672 2 4 6 7 9

no

40 .7660 7649 7638 7627 7615 7604 7593 7581 7570 7559 2 4 6 8 9

41 .7547 7536 7524 7513 7501 7490 7478 7466 7455 7443 2 4 6 8 10

42 .7431 7420 7408 7396 7385 7373 7361 7349 7337 7325 2 4 6 8 10

43 .7314 7302 7290 7278 7266 7254 7242 7230 7218 7206 2 4 6 8 10

44 .7193 7181 7169 7157 7145 7133 7120 7108 7096 7083 2 4 6 8 10

272

DATA SECTION

U NIT NAME

NATURAL COSINES

TABLE II (Continued)

0' 6' 12' 18' 24' 30' 36' 42' 48' 54' Mean

0°.0 0°.1 0°.2 0°.3 0°.4 0°.5 0°.6 0°.7 0°.8 0°.9 Differences

45 .7071 7059 7046 7034 7022 7009 6997 6984 6972 6959 2 4 6 8 10

46 .6947 6934 6921 6909 6896 6884 6871 6858 6845 6833 2 4 6 8 11

47 .6820 6807 6794 6782 6769 6756 6743 6730 6717 6704 2 4 6 9 11

d

48 .6691 6678 6665 6652 6639 6626 6613 6600 6587 6574 2 4 7 9 11

49 .6561 6547 6534 6521 6508 6494 6481 6468 6455 6441 2 4 7 9 11

he

50 .6428 6414 6401 6388 6374 6361 6347 6334 6320 6307 2 4 7 9 11

51 .6293 6280 6266 6252 6239 6225 6211 6198 6184 6170 2 5 7 9 11

52 .6157 6143 6129 6115 6]01 6088 6074 6060 6046 6032 2 5 7 9 11

53 .6018 6004 5990 5976 5962 5948 5934 5920 5906 5892 2 5 7 9 12

54 .5878 5864 5850 5835 5821 5807 5793 5779 5764 5750 2 5 7 9 12

pu T

is

55 .5736 5721 5707 5693 5678 5664 5650 5635 5621 5606 2 5 7 10 12

56 .5592 5577 5563 5548 5534 55]9 5505 5490 5476 5461 2 5 7 10 12

57 .5446 5432 5417 5402 5388 5373 5358 5344 5329 5314 2 5 7 10 12

re R

58 .5299 5284 5270 5255 5240 5225 5210 5195 5180 5165 2 5 7 10 12

bl

59 .5150 5135 5120 5105 5090 5075 5060 5045 5030 5015 3 5 8 10 13

60 .5000 4985 4970 4955 4939 4924 4909 4894 4879 4863 3 5 8 10 13

E

61 .4848 4833 4818 4802 4787 4772 4756 4741 4726 4710 3 5 8 10 13

62 .4695 4679 4664 4648 4633 4617 4602 4586 4571 4555 3 5 8 10 13

63 .4540 4524 4509 4493 4478 4462 4446 4431 4415 4399 3 5 8 10 13

be C

64 .4384 4368 4352 4337 4321 4305 4289 4274 4258 4242 3 5 8 11 13

65 .4226 4210 4195 4179 4163 4147 4131 4115 4099 4083 3 5 8 11 13

66 .4067 4051 4035 4019 4003 3987 3971 3955 3939 3923 3 5 8 11 14

67 .3907 3891 3875 3859 3843 3827 3811 3795 3778 3762 3 5 8 11 14

to N

68 .3746 3730 3714 3697 3681 3665 3649 3633 3616 3600 3 5 8 11 14

69 .3584 3567 3551 3535 3518 3502 3486 3469 3453 3437 3 5 8 11 14

70 .3420 3404 3387 3371 3355 3338 3322 3305 3289 3272 3 5 8 11 14

71 .3256 3239 3223 3206 3190 3173 3156 3140 3123 3107 3 6 8 11 14

©

72 .3090 3074 3057 3040 3024 3007 2990 2974 2957 2940 3 6 8 11 14

73 .2924 2907 2890 2874 2857 2840 2823 2807 2790 2773 3 6 8 11 14

74 .2756 2740 2723 2706 2689 2672 2656 2639 2622 2605 3 6 8 11 14

75 .2588 2571 2554 2538 2521 2504 2487 2470 2453 2436 3 6 8 11 14

76 .2419 2402 2385 2368 2351 2334 2317 2300 2284 2267 3 6 8 11 14

77 .2250 2233 2215 2198 2181 2164 2147 2130 2113 2096 3 6 9 11 14

78 .2079 2062 2045 2028 2011 1994 1977 1959 1942 1925 3 6 9 11 14

79 .1908 1891 1874 1857 1840 1822 1805 1788 1771 1754 3 6 9 11 14

80 .1736 1719 1702 1685 1668 1650 1633 1616 1599 1582 3 6 9 12 14

81 .1564 1547 1530 1513 1495 1478 1461 1444 1426 1409 3 6 9 12 14

82 .1392 1374 1357 1340 1323 1305 1288 1271 1253 1236 3 6 9 12 14

83 .1219 1201 1184 1167 1149 1132 1115 1097 1080 1063 3 6 9 12 14

84 .1045 1028 1011 0993 0976 0958 0941 0924 0906 0889 3 6 9 12 14

t

85 .0872 0854 0837 0819 0802 0785 0767 0750 0732 0715 3 6 9 12 15

no

86 .0698 0680 0663 0645 0628 0610 0593 0576 0558 0541 3 6 9 12 15

87 .0523 0506 0488 0471 0454 0436 0419 0401 0384 0366 3 6 9 12 15

88 .0349 0332 0314 0297 0279 0262 0244 0227 0209 0192 3 6 9 12 15

89 .0175 0157 0140 0122 0105 0087 0070 0052 0035 0017 3 6 9 12 15

90 .0000

273

LABORATORY MANUAL

LABORATORY MANUAL

NATURAL TANGENTS

TABLE III

0' 6' 12' 18' 24' 30' 36' 42' 48' 54' Mean

0°.0 0°.1 0°.2 0°.3 0°.4 0°.5 0°.6 0°.7 0°.8 0°.9 Differences

0 .0000 0017 0035 0052 0070 0087 0105 0122 0140 0157 3 6 9 12 15

d

1 .0175 0192 0209 0227 0244 0262 0279 0297 0314 0332 3 6 9 12 15

2 .0349 0367 0384 0402 0419 0437 0454 0472 0489 0507 3 6 9 12 15

3 .0524 0542 0559 0577 0594 0612 0629 0647 0664 0682 3 6 9 12 15

he

4 .0699 0717 0734 0752 0769 0787 0805 0822 0840 0857 3 6 9 12 15

5 .0875 0892 0910 0928 0945 0963 0981 0998 1016 1033 3 6 9 12 15

6 .1051 1069 1086 1104 1122 1139 1157 1175 1192 1210 3 6 9 12 15

7 .1228 1246 1263 1281 1299 1317 1334 1352 1370 1388 3 6 9 12 15

8 .1405 1423 1441 1459 1477 1495 1512 1530 1548 1566 3 6 9 12 15

pu T

is

9 .1584 1602 1620 1638 1655 1673 1691 1709 1727 1745 3 6 9 12 15

10 .1763 1781 1799 1817 1835 1853 1871 1890 1908 1926 3 6 9 12 15

re R

11 .1944 1962 1980 1998 2016 2035 2053 2071 2089 2107 3 6 9 12 15

12 .2126 2144 2162 2180 2199 2217 2235 2254 2272 2290 3 6 9 12 15

bl

13 .2309 2327 2345 2364 2382 2401 2419 2438 2456 2475 3 6 9 12 15

14 .2493 2512 2530 2549 2568 2586 2605 2623 2642 2661 3 6 9 12 16

E

15 .2679 2698 2717 2736 2754 2773 2792 2811 2830 2849 3 6 9 13 16

16 .2867 2886 2905 2924 2943 2962 2981 ‘3000 3019 3038 3 6 9 13 16

17 .3057 3076 3096 3115 3134 3153 3172 3191 3211 3230 3 6 10 13 16

be C

18 .3249 3269 3288 3307 3327 3346 3365 3385 3404 3424 3 6 10 13 16

19 .3443 3463 3482 3502 3522 3541 3561 3581 3600 3620 3 7 10 13 16

20 .3640 3659 3679 3699 3719 3739 3759 3779 3799 3819 3 7 10 13 17

to N

21 .3839 3859 3879 3899 3919 3939 3959 3979 4000 4020 3 7 10 13 17

22 .4040 4061 4081 4101 4122 4142 4163 4183 4204 4224 3 7 10 14 17

23 .4245 4265 4286 4307 4327 4348 4369 4390 4411 4431 3 7 10 14 17

24 .4452 4473 4494 4515 4536 4557 4578 4599 4621 4642 4 7 11 14 18

25 .4663 4684 4706 4727 4748 4770 4791 4813 4834 4856 4 7 11 14 18

©

26 .4877 4899 4921 4942 4964 4986 5008 5029 5051 5073 4 7 11 15 18

27 .5095 5117 5139 5161 5184 5206 5228 5250 5272 5295 4 7 11 15 18

28 .5317 5340 5362 5384 5407 5430 5452 5475 5498 5520 4 8 11 15 19

29 .5543 5566 5589 5612 5635 5658 5681 5704 5727 5750 4 8 12 15 19

30 .5774 5797 5820 5844 5867 5890 5914 5938 5961 5985 4 8 12 16 20

31 .6009 6032 6056 6080 6104 6128 6152 6176 6200 6224 4 8 12 16 20

32 .6249 6273 6297 6322 6346 6371 6395 6420 6445 6469 4 8 12 16 20

33 .6494 6519 6544 6569 6594 6619 6644 6669 6694 6720 4 8 13 17 21

34 .6745 6771 6796 6822 6847 6873 699 6924 6950 6976 4 9 13 17 21

35 .7002 7028 7054 7080 7107 7133 7159 7186 7212 7239 4 9 13 18 22

36 .7265 7292 7319 7346 7373 7400 7427 7454 7481 7508 5 9 14 18 23

37 .7536 7563 7590 7618 7646 7673 7701 7729 7757 7785 5 9 14 18 23

t

38 .7813 7841 7869 7898 7926 7954 7983 8012 8040 8069 5 9 14 19 24

39 .8008 8127 8156 8185 8214 8243 8273 8302 8332 8361 5 10 15 20 24

no

40 .8391 8421 8451 8481 8511 8541 8571 8601 8632 8662 5 10 15 20 25

41 .8693 8724 8754 8785 8816 8847 8878 8910 8941 8972 5 10 16 21 26

42 .9004 9036 9067 9099 9131 9163 9195 9228 9260 9293 5 11 16 21 27

43 .9325 9358 9391 9424 9457 9490 9523 9556 9590 9623 6 11 17 22 28

44 .9657 9691 ‘ 9725 9759 9793 9827 9861 9896 9930 9965 6 11 17 23 29

274

DATA SECTION

U NIT NAME

NATURAL TANGENTS

TABLE III (Continued)

0' 6' 12' 18' 24' 30' 36' 42' 48' 54' Mean

0°.0 0°.1 0°.2 0°.3 0°.4 0°.5 0°.6 0°.7 0°.8 0°.9 Differences

45 1.0000 0035 0070 0105 0141 0176 0212 0247 0283 0319 6 12 18 24 30

d

46 1.0355 0392 0428 0464 0501 0538 0575 0612 0649 0686 6 12 18 25 31

47 1-0724 0761 0799 0837 0875 0913 0951 0990 1028 1067 6 13 19 25 32

48 1-1106 1145 1184 1224 1263 1303 1343 1383 1423 1463 7 13 20 27 33

he

49 1.1504 1544 1585 1626 1667 1708 1750 1792 1833 1875 7 14 21 28 34

50 1-1918 1960 2002 2045 2088 2131 2174 2218 2261 2305 7 14 22 29 35

51 1.2349 2393 2437 2482 2527 2572 2617 2662 2708 2753 8 15 23 30 38

52 1.2799 2846 2892 2938 2985 3032 3079 3127 3175 3222 8 16 24 31 39

53 1.3270 3319 3367 3416 3465 3514 3564 3613 3663 3713 8 16 25 33 41

pu T

is

54 1.3764 3814 3865 3916 3968 4019 4071 4124 4176 4229 9 17 26 34 43

55 1-4281 4335 4388 4442 4496 4550 4605 4659 4715 4770 9 18 27 36 45

re R

56 1-4826 4882 4938 4994 5051 5108 5166 5224 5282 5340 10 19 29 38 48

bl

57 1.5399 5458 5517 5577 5637 5697 5757 5818 5880 5941 10 20 30 40 50

58 1.6003 6066 6128 6191 6255 6319 6383 6447 6512 6577 11 21 32 43 53

59 1.6643 6709 6775 6842 6909 6977 7045 7113 7182 7251 11 23 34 45 56

E

60 1-7321 7391 7461 7532 7603 7.675 7747 7820 7893 7966 12 24 36 48 60

61 1.8040 8115 8190 8265 8341 8418 8495 8572 8650 8728 13 26 38 51 64

62 1.8807 8887 8967 9047 9128 9210 9292 9375 9458 9542 14 27 41 55 68

be C

63 1.9626 9711 9797 9883 9970 2.0057 2.0145 2.0233 2.0323 2.0413 15 29 44 58 73

64 2.0503 0594 0686 0778 0872 0965 1060 1155 1251 1348 16 31 47 63 78

65 2.1445 1543 1642 1742 1842 1943 2045 2148 2251 2355 17 34 51 68 85

to N

66 2.2460 2566 2673 2781 2889 2998 3109 3220 3332 3445 18 37 55 73 92

67 2.3559 3673 3789 3906 4023 4142 4262 4383 4504 4627 20 40 60 79 99

68 2.4751 4876 5002 5129 5257 5386 5517 5649 5782 5916 22 43 65 87 108

69 2.6051 6187 6325 6464 6605 6746 6889 7034 7179 7326 24 47 71 95 119

70 2.7475 7625 7776 7929 8083 8239 8397 8556 8716 8878 26 52 78 104 131

©

71 2.9042 9208 9375 9544 9714 9887 3.0061 3.0237 3.0415 3.0595 29 58 87 116 145

72 3.0777 0961 1146 1334 1524 1716 1910 2106 2305 2500 32 64 96 129 161

73 3.2709 2914 3122 3332 3544 3759 3977 4197 4420 4646 36 72 108 144 180

74 3.4874 5105 5339 5576 5816 6059 6305 6554 6806 7062 41 811 22 163 204

75 3.7321 7583 7848 8118 8391 8667 8947 9232 9520 9812 46 93 139 186 232

76 4.0108 0408 0713 1022 1335 i653 1976 2303 2635 2972 53 107 160 213 267

77 4.3315 3662 4015 4374 4737 5107 5483 5864 6252 6646

78 4.7046 7453 7867 8288 8716 9152 9594 5.0045 5.0504 5.0970 Mean differences cease

79 5.1446 1929 2422 2924 3435 3955 4486 5026 5578 6140 to be sufficiently accurate.

80 5.6713 7297 7894 8502 9124 9758 6.0405 6.1066 6.1742 6.2432

81 6.3138 3859 4596 5350 6122 6912 7720 8548 9395 7.0264

82 7.1154 2066 3002 3%2 4947 5958 6996 8062 9158 8.0285

t

83 8.1443 2636 3863 5126 6427 7769 9152 9.0579 9.2052 9.3572

84 9.5144 9.677 9.845 10.02 10.20 10.39 10.58 10.78 10.99 11-20

no

85 1143 11.66 11.91 12.16 12.43 12.71 13.00 13.30 13.62 13.95

86 14.30 14.67 15.06 15.46 15.89 16.35 16.83 17.34 17.89 18.46

87 19.08 19.74 20.45 21.20 22.02 22.90 23.86 24.90 26.03 27.27

88 28.64 30.14 31.82 33.69 35.80 38.19 40.92 44.07 47.74 52.08

89 57.29 63.66 71.62 81.85 95.49 114.6 143.2 191.0 286.5 573.0

90 not defined

275

LABORATORY MANUAL

LABORATORY MANUAL

NOTES

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276

DATA SECTION

UNIT NAME

NOTES

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277

LABORATORY MANUAL

LABORATORY MANUAL

NOTES

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278

DEMONSTRATION

UNIT NAME

DEMONSTRATIONS

DEMONSTRATION 1

d

To demonstrate uniform motion in a straight line

It is rather difficult to demonstrate uniform motion of a freely

he

moving body due to the inherent force of friction. However, it is

possible to demonstrate uniform motion if a body of the forces

acting on it are balanced.

pu T

is

(a) Demonstration of uniform motion of a body in glycerine or caster

oil in a glass or a plastic tube

re R

bl

Take a glass or plastic tube one metre long and about 10 mm end

diameter. Close one end of it with a cork. Fill the tube with glycerine

E

(white) or castar oil upto the brim. Insert a steel ball or lead shot of

three mm diameter in it and close it with a cork such that no air

be C

bubble is left in the tube. Take a wooden base 7.5 – 10.0 cm broad

having metallic brackets near its ends. Paint the board with white

paint or fix a sheet of white paper on it. Mount the tube on the wooden

to N

base with the help of metallic brackets (to rest the tube like the base of

a fluorescent tube). Put marks on the base with black/blue paint or

ink at regular intervals of 10 cm each [Fig. D 1.1(a)]. To demonstrate

t ©

no

two balancing forces: (a) A demonstration apparatus 1 m

long (b) A low cost apparatus 50 cm long 219

LABORATORY MANUAL

LABORA TORY MANUAL

uniform motion keep the tube vertical and ask a student to note the

time taken by the ball to travel successive segments of 10 cm. Repeat

the experiment by inverting the tube a couple of times. It may be

emphasised that if a 10 cm segment is further sub-divided into

segments of 1 or 2 cm length, then the ball should travel successive

smaller segments also is equal intervals of time*.

This demonstration can also be done with a half metre long glass tube

and a half metre scale. It may be clamped vertical in a laboratory stand

[Fig. D 1.1(b)]. In this case students can also be asked to note the time

taken by the ball to travel successive segments of one cm.

d

The tube may be inclined slightly, say, at about 5° to the vertical. The

advantages of this are:

he

(i) The ball moves closer to the scale which reduces the parallax

error in observing its position on the scale.

pu T (ii) The ball moving in contact with the wall of the tube is under

is

identical conditions throughout its motion. If you wish it to

re R

move in the centre of the tube, i.e., along the axis of the tube,

bl

then the vertical adjustment of the tube has to done with

greater precision.

E

In order to perform this demonstration with the half metre tube

more effectively, students may be encouraged to devise their own

be C

and the time taken to do so. For example, let one student watch the

to N

falling ball at close distance and give signals by tapping the table as

the ball passes successive equidistant marks at a

pre-decided distance from each other.

100

A second student may start the stop-watch at the

©

90

sound of any tap. Thereafter, he observes and speaks

80

out the time shown by the watch at each successive

(cm)

70

60

tap, without stopping the watch. A third student may

keep noting the data of distance covered by the ball

50

40

and time elapsed since the measurement was started.

Ask students to plot the distance versus time graph

d

30

20

of the motion of the ball on the basis of this data and

10

discuss the nature of this graph [Fig. D 1.1(c)].

In this coordinated activity of three students, it is

t

0

2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30

likely that the first one may happen to miss giving

no

t (s)

signal at a mark when the ball passes it. He should

Fig. D 1.1(c): Distance–time graph for motion only indicate this by saying “missed” and a few

of metal ball in glycerine points less on the graph made with about 15 to 20

points are of no significance. Similarly, any tapping which he

subsequently feels, was not made at the right instant, he may indicate

* In this experiment, the ball accelerates for some time initially and approaches the

ter minal velocity u0 according to relation u = u 0 = (1-e -t/T). For a typical terminal

velocity u0 = 3 cms –1, the time constant T = 0.003s. Thus, the duration of accelerated

motion is so small that one may not at all bother for it.

220

DEMONSTRATION 1

U N

NIT AME

by saying “wrong”. Two students can also record this data, if there

is sufficient time between successive readings, the second one taking

over the task of the third. With some practice and by keeping the

watch in the left hand close to the ball, even one student can record

the data and take it up as an individual activity.

By mixing water with glycerine in a suitable ratio one can make

adjust the speed of motion of the ball such that it is neither too

slow as to cause boredom to the class nor so fast that the data is

difficult to record.

d

(b) By using a burette

he

The above demonstration may also be performed by using a long

burette. It has its own scale too. However, it may be difficult for

students sitting at the back in the classroom to see the scale. Also,

the upper end is open, which implies that several balls of the same

pu T

is

size should be available. In fact, in the demonstration (a) above, the

upper end of the tube may be kept open, if several balls of the same

re R

size are available, since the most tricky part of it is to close the upper

bl

end leaving no air bubbles inside the tube.

E

The demonstration with the burette can also be made more effective

in the same manner as discussed above.

be C

Note:

1. In the class discussion following the demonstration of a steel

to N

will be “what are the two balancing forces under which it moves

with uniform velocity?” One is the net weight of the ball acting

downwards due to which its speed increases in the beginning.

©

to the motion increases till it balances the weight. Then

onwards, the ball acquires terminal velocity and the speed

remains nearly constant.

2. There are a number of situations in everyday life where an object

falls down with uniform velocity in exactly the same manner as

the ball in a liquid.

(a) When a paratrooper descends from an aeroplane with the

t

no

vertically down with uniform speed, except for some

horizontal drift due to the wind (Fig. D 1.2).

(b) Many children play with a toy parachute which is first thrown

up. Then it moves down in exactly the same manner as the

paratrooper with a parachute.

(c) A shuttle cock, which is used in the game of badminton,

may be shot vertically upwards, when it comes down,

221

LABORATORY MANUAL

LABORA TORY MANUAL

d

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E

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to N

©

downward speed (if there is no wind) after a small initial

period of increasing speed.

3. This demonstration may also be done by the apparatus used for

finding the viscosity of liquid by Stoke’s law. However, for

demonstrating uniform motion in a straight line, the

t

no

the position of the ball, and (b) keeping the tube slightly inclined

towards the horizontal.

222

DEMONSTRATION

UNIT NAME

DEMONSTRATION 2

d

To demonstrate the nature of motion of a ball on an

inclined track

he

Make an inclined plane of about 50 cm length with 2 – 3 cm height at

the raised end. Alternately, one can use a double inclined track

apparatus and make the inclined plane by joining its two arms at the

pu T

is

base strip so that these form a single plane. Give it a low inclination

by raising one end of the base strip by about two cm with the help of

re R

a wooden block, or a book, etc. (Fig. D 2.1). Now let a metronome

bl

produce sound signals at intervals of ½ seconds. Keep the ball at the

E

higher end of one of the inclined planes. Release it at any signal (which

may be called 0th signal) and let students observe its position at 1st,

2nd, 3rd and 4th signals after the release. For this purpose, divide the

be C

class into four groups. Explain to them in advance, with the help of a

diagram on the blackboard, that group I will observe the 1st position

to N

of the ball, group II the 2nd position of the ball, and so on.

©

B′ A′

position of the ball as the number of students in each group. Let one

student in each group collect the observation in his/her group,

calculate the mean value and record it on the blackboard. Then it

can be shown that distances covered by the ball in successive intervals

t

no

Note:

1. In the absence of a metronome, let a person tap on the table at a

steady pace which synchronises with extreme positions of the

pendulum of a clock, or a simple pendulum of 25 cm length on

a laboratory stand.

2. If a strobe-light is available, use it illuminate the ball moving

down the track. Then students can visually see successively

longer distances moved by the ball in equal intervals of time. 223

LABORATORY MANUAL

LABORA TORY MANUAL

DEMONSTRATION 3

d

To demonstrate that a centripetal force is necessary for moving

a body with a uniform speed along a circle, and that magnitude

he

of this force increases with angular speed

(a) Using a glass tube and slotted weights

pu T

Take a glass tube about 15 cm long and 10 mm outside diameter.

is

Make its ends smooth by heating them over a flame. Now pass a

re R

strong silk or nylon thread about 1.5 m long through the tube. At

bl

one end of the thread tie a packet of sand or a rubber stopper and

at the other a weight (W) (about three to 10 times the weight of the

E

sand/cork). First, demonstrate that on lifting the glass tube, the

weight stays on the table while the packet of sand or the stopper

be C

Now by holding the glass tube firmly in one hand and the weight (W)

to N

in the other, rotate the packet of sand in a horizontal circle. When the

speed of motion is sufficiently fast, the weight (W) can hang freely

without the support of your hand. Adjust the speed of rotation such

that the position of the weight (W) does not change. In this situation,

©

weight (W) provides the centripetal force necessary to keep the packet

or stopper moving along a circular path (Fig. D 3.2). If the speed of

motion is increased further, the weight (W) even moves up and vice

versa. Why?

t

no

down the glass tube is much heavier

than the packet of sand

224

DEMONSTRATION 3

U N NIT AME

the packet to be rotated in a horizontal circle in a horizontal

should be a packet of sand, or a packet of a circle

few fine lead shots, or a rubber stopper, etc.,

lest it breaks off and strikes someone. Again,

the glass tube should be wrapped with two Glass tube

layers of tape, lest it breaks and hurt the hand held in hand

of the person demonstrating the experiment.

(b) Using a roller and a turn table

d

If a turn table (as you might have seen in a Nylon thread

gramophone) or a potter’s wheel is available,

he

it can also be used to demonstrate centripetal

force. A small roller is placed on the turn Weight

table and its frame is attached to the control

peg by a rubber band (Fig. D 3.3). The roller Fig. D 3.2: On revolving the packet of

pu T

is

is free to roll radially towards or away from sand at a suitable speed,

the centre. The disc is set in motion first at the weight lifts off the table;

re R

the lowest speed of 16 revolution per minute. its weight is just enough to

bl

The stretching of the rubber band indicates provide the necessary

centripetal force

that a force acts outwards along the radius.

E

At higher speeds, 33 r.p.m., or 45 r.p.m., or 78 r.p.m., the stretching

of the rubber band could seen to be larger and larger, showing that

be C

greater and greater centripetal force comes into play. Note that as

the angular speed increases, the radius of circular motion of the

roller also increases due to elongation of the rubber band.

to N

Turn table

©

Central peg

Roller

Rubber band

t

no

that it is exerting a centripetal force

on the roller

225

LABORATORY MANUAL

LABORA TORY MANUAL

DEMONSTRATION 4

d

To demonstrate the principle of centrifuge

he

Bend a glass tube (about 10 to 15 mm diameter) slightly at its middle

to make an angle of, say, 160°. Fill it with coloured water leaving an

air bubble in it and then close its both ends with rubber stoppers.

pu T

is

Now mount it on the turn-table with both its arms inclined to

horizontal say, at, 10° while keeping the turn-table horizontal. The

re R

lowest portion of the tube in the middle is attached to the central peg

bl

of the turn-table (Fig. D 4.1). The air bubble then stays at the top of

one or both the arms of the glass tube.

E

be C

to N

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Fig. D 4.1: A bent glass tube filled with a liquid but having an air bubble

attached to the central peg of turn table at its middle

Now rotate the turn-table and increase its speed in steps, 16 r.p.m.,

t

no

towards the centre, the lowest part of the tube.

The rotating turn-table is an accelerated frame of reference. At every

point on it, the acceleration is directed towards the centre. Thus, an

object at rest in this frame of reference experiences an outward force.

Every molecule of water in the tube experiences this force, just like

the force of gravitation. Under the action of this force, denser matter

moves outwards and the less dense inwards.

226

DEMONSTRATION

UNIT NAME

DEMONSTRATION 5

d

To demonstrate interconversion of potential and kinetic energy

he

Interconversion of kinetic and potential energies may be easily

demonstrated by Maxwell’s Wheel (Fig. D 5.1). It consists of a wheel

rigidly fixed on a long axle passing through its centre. It is suspended

pu T

is

by two threads of equal length, tied to the axle on two sides of the

wheel. In the lowest position of the wheel, separation between the

re R

lower ends of the two threads is slightly more than that between

bl

them at the supporting at the

top.

E

To set it in action the wheel is

be C

both threads wind up on the Thread

axle. As the wheel moves up, it

to N

releasing, it moves down and its Axle

P.E. is converted to K.E. of

rotation of the wheel. At its

©

Wheel

lowest position when all the

length of the two threads has

unwound, all the energy of the

wheel is kinetic due to which the

threads start winding up in the

opposite direction.

Thus, the wheel starts moving

upwards, converting its K.E.

into P.E.

t

no

down motions of the wheel be small, the threads should be

quite flexible, inextensible and identical to each other.

227

LABORATORY MANUAL

LABORA TORY MANUAL

DEMONSTRATION 6

d

To demonstrate conservation of momentum

he

The law of conservation of momentum can be demonstrated using

two bifilar pendulums of the same length using bobs of different

materials (Fig. D 6.1). The time period T for both pendulums is the

pu T

is

same. Initially the two bobs A and B touch each other in their rest

position. Also the suspension fibres of A and B are parallel to each

re R

other in their rest positions.

bl

The bob A is displaced with the

E

help of a wooden strip and allowed

to touch the reference peg C and

be C

which is noted with the scale. The

strip is then quickly removed, so

to N

towards the rest position and

collides with the bob B. The

maximum displacement a′ and b ′

©

after collision are noted

simultaneously. On the right hand

side of B, a rider is put on the scale,

which is pushed by the ball B, as Fig. D 6.1: The bifilar pendulums

it undergoes the displacement b ′.

Then reading the displacement of A directly and of B from the

displaced position of the rider becomes easier.

The masses mA and mB of the bobs are measured. The velocities of the

t

bobs, just before and just after the collision are proportional to their

no

equal and the velocity of a simple pendulum in its central position is

equal to (amplitude × 2π/T). Therefore, the equality of total momentum

of the two bobs before and after their collision implies

m A a = mA a′ + mB b′

Having measured a, a′ and b ′, the above equality can be checked up

(a′ and b′ are the displacements’ after the impact).

228

DEMONSTRATION

UNIT NAME

DEMONSTRATION 7

d

To demonstrate the effect of angle of launch on range of a

projectile

he

The variation in the range of a projectile with the angle of launch can

be demonstrated using a ballistic pistol or toy-gun and mounting it

suitably so that the angle of launch can be varied. While mounting

pu T

is

the gun care must be taken to see that the axis of the gun passes

through the centre of the circle graduated in degrees (Fig. D 7.1). If a

re R

toy-gun is used, whose maximum range is more than the length of

bl

the classroom, then this demonstration may be done in an open

E

area such as the school play ground.

Plumb-line

be C

to N

Clamp

©

90°

180°

Holes for

270° fixing the

clamp

Circular

protector

Wooden

circular disc

rigidly fixed

vertically

t

no

projectile fired with a toy pistol

the corresponding ranges are measured with care. A graph for the

angle of projection versus the range may be drawn.

Alternately one can also study the range of water jet projected at

different angles provided it is assured that water will be released at

same pressure.

229

LABORATORY MANUAL

LABORA TORY MANUAL

DEMONSTRATION 8

d

To demonstrate that the moment of inertia of a rod changes with

the change of position of a pair of equal weights attached to the rod

he

Take a glass rod and hang it horizontally from its centre of gravity with

the help of a light, thin wire. Take two lumps of equal mass of plasticine,

pu T

is

roll both of them separately to get discs of same size and uniform

thickness. Now attach them near the two ends of the rod (like rings) so

re R

that the rod is again horizontal [Fig. D 8.1(a)]. Make sure that the

bl

plasticine cylinders easily move along the rod. Give a small angular

displacement to the rod and note the time for 10 oscillations. Find the

E

time period for one oscillation. Now, move the rings of plasticine by

equal distances towards the centre of the rod so that it remains

be C

again note the time period for 10 oscillations. Find the time period for

one oscillation. Are the two time periods the same or different? If you

to N

©

Copper wire

Glass rod C.G.

the ends to centre

t

no

(a) (b)

Fig. D 8.1: Setup to demonstrate that total mass remaining constant, the

moment of inertia depends upon distribution of mass. Here

nuts have replaced the plasticine balls: (a) the movable mass

are far apart, (b) the masses are closer to the C.G. of the rod

230

DEMONSTRATION 8

U N

NIT AME

find that the time periods in both the situations are different, it shows

that the moment of inertia changes with the distribution of the mass

of a body even if the total mass remains the same.

An important caution for a convincing demonstration is that the

point where a thin metal wire is attached to the glass rod (the point

about which the glass rod makes rotatory oscillations) should remain

fixed. The metal wire should be so tied that the rod hangs horizontally

from it. It ensures that the axis of rotation passes through its C.G.

The wire can be fixed tightly by using a strong adhesive. Therefore,

d

the position of plasticine discs have to be adjusted so that the glass

rod hangs horizontally.

he

pu T

is

re R

bl

E

be C

to N

t©

no

231

DEMONSTRATION 9

d

To demonstrate the shape of capillary rise in a wedge-shaped gap

between two glass sheets

he

You would require two plane glass

slides, a thick rubber band, a match

pu T

is

Water level Match stick stick, a petri-dish, some potassium

between the slides permanganate granules and a felt-tip

re R

Glass slides

bl

Rubber band glass marking pen.

Coloured water

Clean the two slides and the petri-dish

E

thoroughly with soap and water and

rinse with distilled water. Ensure that

be C

dish about half with distilled water

to N

Tie one end of the pair of slides together

Petri-dish with a rubber band and put a match

©

Fig. D 9.1: Capillary rise of water is higher at the end stick between their free ends (Fig. D 9.1).

tied by rubber band in the wedge-shaped Dip this arrangement in the coloured

gap between the glass slides water in the petri-dish. Water rises more

at the tied end as compared to that at

the match stick end because the

separation between the glass slides

increases linearly from the tied end to

Capillary Water the match stick end.

tubes levels Coloured

water Note

t

Petri-dish

no

demonstrated by using a number

of capillary tubes of different

diameters arranged side by side in

increasing order of diameter, as

shown in Fig. D 9.2.

Fig. D 9.2: Rise of water in capillary tubes of different 2. Students may take up this

diameters experiment as an activity or

project work.

DEMONSTRATION 10

d

To demonstrate affect of atmospheric pressure by making partial

vacuum by condensing steam

he

To perform this demonstration you will need a round-bottom flask,

a glass tubing, a cork, cork borer, a long piece of pressure rubber

pu T

is

tube just fitting the glass tubing, a pinch cock, burner, tripot stand,

laboratory stand with a clamp and large water container.

re R

bl

Take some water in a round bottom flask. Close its mouth tightly

with a rubber cork, in which a short glass tube is fitted. Attach a

E

pressure rubber tube, about 1.5 m long, in the open end of the glass

tube. Heat the water, as shown in Fig. D 10.1(a). The steam produced

be C

in the flask expels the air from the flask, the glass tube and the

rubber tube. Stop heating after some time and tightly close the mouth

of the rubber tube with a pinch cock immediately.

to N

Invert the flask and clamp it as high as possible in a tall stand placed

on the table [Fig. D 10.1(b)]. Dip the free end of the rubber tube in

coloured water kept in the large container on the ground and release

©

the pinch cock. As the flask cools, water from the container rushes

through the glass tube into the flask. The students will naturally

Rubber tube

Rubber cork

t

Water

no

steam drives air out fr om it

LABORATORY MANUAL

LABORA TORY MANUAL

d

he

pu T

is

re R

bl

E

be C

to N

into the flask as steam in the flask condenses

become curious to know the reason why water rises through the height.

©

surface of the water in the container and inside the flask.

Note

To make this experiment more spectacular, a student may climb

on the table and raise the stand by another 2 m. Then the pressure

rubber tube may also have to be longer.

t

no

234

DEMONSTRATION

UNIT NAME

DEMONSTRATION 11

d

To study variation of volume of a gas with its pressure at constant

temperature with a doctor’s syringe

he

This demonstration can be given with the help of a large (50 mL or

more) doctor’s syringe (disposable type), laboratory stand, grease or

pu T

is

thick lubricating oil, 200 gram to 1 kg weights which fit over one

another, cycle value-tube, rubber band, a wooden block and a

re R

laboratory stand.

bl

Make the piston in the syringe air tight by applying a drop of thick

E

lubricating oil or grease into the syringe. Draw out the piston in the

syringe so that the volume of air enclosed by it is equal to its full

be C

capacity. Next close the outlet tube of the syringe by fixing a piece of

cycle value-tube on it and folding the valve-tube. Hold the syringe

vertically with a laboratory stand with its base resting on a wooden

to N

Press the piston downward with the hand to compress the air inside.

Release the piston and observe, whether the air inside regains its

©

initial volume by pushing the piston up. Since, the friction between

the piston and the inner surface of the syringe is quite large, both

Piston

40

t

35

no

Compressed air 25

20

15

Rubber or Graduated

10

cloth pad 5

outer body

0 of syringe

Wooden block Cycle valve

tube

Fig. D 11.1: The load is kept on the piston of the syringe to apply

the force of its weight along the axis of the piston 235

LABORATORY MANUAL

LABORA TORY MANUAL

being of plastic, the air inside is unable to push the piston upto its

original position. When the piston comes to rest, the thrust of

atmospheric pressure plus limiting friction is acting on it downwards.

Note the volume of enclosed air in this position of the piston.

Next, pull the piston up a little and release. Again it does not reach

quite upto its original position. This time the thrust of atmospheric

pressure minus limiting friction is acting on it downwards. Note this

d

volume of air also and check that the mean of the two volumes so

measured is equal to the original volume of air at atmospheric pressure.

he

Now balance a 1 kg weight on the handle of the piston. Note the two

volumes of enclosed air, (i) piston slowly moving up and coming to

rest, and (ii) piston slowly moving down and coming to rest and find

pu T

their mean. In this manner note volume, V, of air for at least two

is

different loads, say 1 kg and 1.8 kg, balanced turn by turn on the

re R

piston. Check up, in the end that volume for no load is same as that

bl

at the beginning to ensure that no air leaks out during the experiment.

Draw a graph between 1/V and load W for the three observations,

E

W = 0 kg, 1 kg and 1.8 kg if a graph black-board is available.

Alternately, it may be given as an assignment to students.

be C

t to N

©

no

236

DEMONSTRATION

UNIT NAME

DEMONSTRATION 12

d

To demonstrate Bernoulli’s theorem with simple illustrations

he

(a) Suspend two simple pendulums from a horizontal rod clamped

to a laboratory stand (Fig. D 12.1). Use paper balls or table tennis

balls as bobs. Their bobs should be close to each other and at

pu T

the same height but not touching each

is

other. Ask the students what would

happen if you strongly blow into the

re R

bl

space between the bobs. A person/

student not thinking in terms of

E

Bernoulli’s theorem would conclude that

air pushed into this space will push the

be C

between the two bobs suspended close

to each other and ask them to observe

to N

between them gets increased due to less

space available and so the pressure there,

gets decreased. Thus, the pressure of air

©

them closer. That is why one observes

the bobs to actually move closer.

two books in the form of a bridge.

Let the books be slightly converging

(Fig. D 12.2) i.e., their separation is larger

on the side facing you. Now, you blow

t

no

pushed down.

horizontally, so that its length curves

down by its weight [Fig. D 12.3(a)]. If you

press down lightly on the horizontal part

of the curve with your finger the paper Fig. D 12.2

curves down more. Now, instead of

touching with the hand hold the horizontal edge of the sheet of

paper close to your mouth. Blow over the paper along the

horizontal. Does the hanging sheet of paper get pushed down or 237

LABORATORY MANUAL

LABORA TORY MANUAL

Sheet of

Paper Blown Air

d

he

Fig. D 12.3 (a) Fig. D 12.3 (b)

is

shown in [Fig. D 12.3(c)]. Thereby its speed increases and pressure

on the upper side of the paper decreases.

re R

bl (d) Fill coloured water in an insecticide/pesticide spray

pump. Spray the water on a white sheet of paper.

E

Coloured drops deposit on the paper. It is evident

that water from the tank rises up in the tube

be C

of tiny droplets. But what makes it rise up in the

tube? As the pump forces air out of a fine hole, the

to N

open end of the tube in the tank becomes high

(Fig. D 12.4). Thus, the pressure of air in the region

©

to atmospheric pressure). Right in this region, just below

Fig. D 12.3 (c) the hole in the pump is the upper end of the fine tube

through which water rises up, due to atmospheric

pressure acting on the surface of water outside the tube.

t

no

Fig. D 12.4

238

DEMONSTRATION 12

UNIT NAME

(e) Fig. D 12.5 shows the construction of a Bunsen burner. The fuel

gas issues out of the jet J in the centre of the vertical tube. Due

to the high speed of gas, its pressure gets lowered. So, through a

wide opening in the side of the vertical tube air rushes in, mixes

up with fuel gas and the gas burns with a hot and blue flame. If

the air does not get mixed with fuel gas at this stage and comes

into contact with it only at the flame level, the flame will be

bright yellow-orange like that of a candle, due to incomplete

combustion of the gas which gives off comparatively less heat

than when it burns with a blue flame.

d

he

pu T

is

re R

bl

E

be C

to N

©

Fig. D 12.5

t

no

239

LABORATORY MANUAL

LABORA TORY MANUAL

DEMONSTRATION 13

d

To demonstrate the expansion of a metal wire on heating

he

Stretch a length of any metal wire firmly between two laboratory

stands, which are fixed rigidly on the table by G-clamps (Fig. D 13.1).

Suspend a small weight at the centre of the wire and stretch the wire

pu T

is

as tightly as possible, without significantly bending the iron stands.

However, the wire cannot be made straight and some sagging is

re R

inevitable due to the weight suspended at the centre. Place a pointer

bl

on the hind side of the upper edge of the weight to serve as reference.

E

Heat the wire along its entire length by a spirit lamp or a candle. The

wire is seen to sag more and the weight moves down. Remove the

be C

flame to let the wire cool. As the wire gradually cools, the weight

ascends to its original position.

to N

Wire

©

Pointer

Small

weight

t

no

Fig. D 13.1: A taut wire sags on heating due to its thermal expansion

Note:

The wire can also be heated electrically, if so desired. Use a step-down

transformer which gives various voltages in steps from 2 volt to 12

volt. The advantage is that heating of the wire for a certain voltage

applied across it will be uniform along its whole length and the

observed sagging by this heating will be repeatable.

240

DEMONSTRATION

UNIT NAME

DEMONSTRATION 14

d

To demonstrate that heat capacities of equal masses of

aluminium, iron, copper and lead are different

he

This demonstration can be performed with

four cylinders of aluminium, iron, copper

pu T

is

and lead having equal mass and cross-

sectional area, a rectangular blocks of

re R

paraffin wax, beaker/metallic vessel,

bl

thread, water and a heating device.

E

Since the four solid cylinders are having

equal mass and equal cross-sectional

be C

proportional to their densities. Take

water in a beaker or a metallic vessel and

to N

with threads, fully inside boiling water

(cautiously, if a beaker is being used).

After a few minutes all have attained

©

[Fig. D 14.1(a)].

(a)

Take out the cylinders in quick

succession and place them side by

side on a thick block of paraffin wax

[Fig. D 14.1(b)]. The cylinders sink to

different depths in the paraffin wax. They

all cool from temperature of boiling water

to melting point of wax during the process

t

no

they give out are different.

An alternative (and more convenient to do) (b)

method is to have a wooden board with

semi cylindrical grooves resting against a Fig. D 14.1: Qualitative comparison of

block. Equal length of each groove is heat capacities of different

metals

initially filled with wax. Hot cylinders are

placed on this wax in the grooves, instead

of on the wax block. 241

LABORATORY MANUAL

LABORA TORY MANUAL

Note

A substantial portion of heat given out by each cylinder is

radiated into the atmosphere. Moreover, they radiate at

different rates because of the difference in their surface areas.

Therefore, by this experiment we only get a qualitative

comparison of the heat capacities of these solids.

d

he

pu T

is

re R

bl

E

be C

t to N

©

no

242

DEMONSTRATION

UNIT NAME

DEMONSTRATION 15

d

To demonstrate free oscillations of different vibrating systems

he

A number of demonstrations involving vibrating systems are

presented through (a) to (j). Demonstrate as many vibrating systems

as possible and discuss the following in each case:

pu T

is

(i) What are the energy changes that occur during vibrations?

re R

(ii) How can the frequency of vibration be altered?

bl

(iii) Can the damping of the system be reduced? If so, how?

E

(iv) How does the force acting on the oscillating body vary with

its displacement from the

be C

mean position?

(a) Simple pendulum: Make a

to N

pendulum following the steps

described in Experiment 6. One

©

at one end of a strong thread

about 1.5 m in length. Suspend

the pendulum from a stand

having a heavy base so that it

does not topple over. The base

can be made heavy by putting

a heavy load on it, say a few

bricks. Alternatively, the stand

may be clamped on the table

t

no

supported by tying it to three

G-clamps fixed on the table

(Fig. D 15.1). A sturdy stand will

Fig. D 15.1: Set up to study oscillations

help in keeping the pendulum

of a heavy pendulum

oscillating for quite a long time

with very small damping.

(b) Vibrating hacksaw blade: Clamp a hacksaw blade (or a thin metal

strip) with its flat surface horizontal at the edge of the table by a

243

LABORATORY MANUAL

LABORA TORY MANUAL

about 20 g of plasticine or by putting a 20 g

weight on the flat free end and fastening it to

the blade with a thread. Let the free end of the

blade vibrate up and down. Repeat the

demonstration with a smaller load and then

with no load on the blade. Compare the

oscillations with different loads.

(c) Oscillating liquid column: Fix a U-tube of

large diameter (about 2cm) on a stand with

d

Fig. D 15.2: A hacksaw blade clamped at its arms vertical. Fill liquid of low viscosity

one end vibrates up and down

e.g., water or kerosene or methylated spirit

he

in it. Let the liquid column oscillate up and

down in the tube (Fig. D 15.3). For this

purpose blow repeatedly into one arm of

is

the liquid column in the arm you are

re R

blowing attains maximum height so as to

bl

generate a small air pressure in it each

time so as to oscillate the liquid column

E

by resonance. Another method is to slightly

tilt the stand to one side repeatedly, with

be C

liquid column by resonance.

to N

two straight tubes of about 3.5 cm to 4 cm

Fig. D 15.3: Set up to demonstrate oscillations diameter and each of length about 50 cm. Fix

of liquid column in a U-tube the tubes vertically on a wooden board about

©

with a piece of a rubber tube, or a piece of hose

pipe made of plastic. A plastic hose pipe is better

because it bends to the U-shape easily. Fill this U-tube with

coloured water upto about 10 cm below the two open ends.

Oscillate the liquid in the tube by either of the two methods

described above.

(d) Helical spring : Attach a suitable mass, say 1kg, at one end of a

t

no

the weight down through a small distance and let it go. Observe

and study the vertical oscillations of the mass suspended by the

lower end of the spring.

(e) Oscillations of a floating test-tube : Take a test tube and fill at its

Fig. D 15.4: A load attached bottom about 10 g of lead shots or iron filings or sand. Float the

to the lower end of a helical tube in water and adjust the load (lead shots or iron filings or

spring oscillates up and down sand) in the tube till it floats vertically. Keeping the tube vertical

push it a little downwards and release it so that it begins to

oscillates up and down on the surface of the water (Fig. D 15.5).

244

DEMONSTRATION 15

UNIT NAME

30 cm length of aluminium curtain channel

and bend it into an arc of a circle. Put it on a

table and provide it proper support by two

rectangular pieces of thick card board or

Lead shots

plywood to keep it standing in a vertical plane.

Let a ball–bearing or a glass marble oscillate

in its groove (Fig. D 15.6). Alternatively place

a concave mirror (10 cm or 15 cm aperture)

or a bowl or a karahi on a table with its

Fig. D 15.5: A test tube floating

d

concave side facing up. Let a ball bearing or a in vertical position

glass marble oscillate in it along an arc passing due to a load in it,

he

through its lowest point as shown by point P oscillates up and

in Fig. D 15.6. down, when it is

pushed a little and

(g) Oscillations of a ball on the double inclined then released

pu T

track: Adjust a double inclined

is

track on a table with its arms

re R

equally inclined to the horizontal

bl

(Fig. D 15.7). Release a steel ball–

bearing (2.5 cm diameter) from

E

the upper end of one of the arms

and let it oscillate to and fro

be C

double inclined plane.

Fig. D 15.6: Arrangement to demonstrate the

to N

between two springs on a table: a channel in the for m of an arc of

Take a trolley and attach two a circle

identical helical springs at each of

©

its ends such that the springs are along a straight line. Place the

trolley on a table and fix the free ends of the springs to two rigid

supports on opposite ends of the table so that the springs are

under tension along the same straight line [Fig. D 15.8(a)].

Displace the trolley slightly to

one side keeping both springs

under tension. Release the Enlarge view of

trolley and observe its to and central curved part

fro motion along the length of

t

no

make a note of damping.

(i) Oscillations of a trolley

attached to a spring: Remove

Fig. D 15.7: Arrangement to demonstrate the to-

one of the springs from the set and-fr o motion of a ball along a

up arranged for demonstration double inclined track

(h) shown in Fig D 15.8 (a).

Displace the trolley to one side and release it. Compare the time

period of oscillations affect of damping with the earlier case.

245

LABORATORY MANUAL

LABORA TORY MANUAL

(a)

d

he

pu T

is

re R

Wheels not

bl

touching

the table

E

(b)

be C

of a trolley held between two identical springs

to N

of a trolley suspended from a high support while it is

held between two springs on either side

©

two springs: Set up the trolley with two springs on a table as

described in demonstration (h) above. Attach an inflexible string

to the trolley as shown in Fig. D 15.8(b). Fix the other end of the

string to a stand kept on a stool placed on the table or to a hook

on the ceiling such that the trolley remains suspended just above

the table. Set the trolley in oscillation by displacing it slightly to

one side. Study how the time period of oscillations and damping

get affected as compared to the case when the trolley was placed

t

no

246

DEMONSTRATION

UNIT NAME

DEMONSTRATION 16

d

To demonstrate resonance with a set of coupled pendulums

he

Take two iron stands and keep them on the table at about 40 cm

from each other. Tie a half metre scale (or still better a straight strip

of wood about 1.5 cm wide) between them so that it is horizontal

pu T

is

with its face vertical and free to rotate about its upper edge

(Fig. D 16.1). Near one edge of the scale suspend a pendulum with a

re R

heavy bob (say, approximately 200 g). Also suspend four or five

bl

pendulums of different lenghts with bobs of relatively lower masses.

However, one of them should be exactly of the same length as the

E

one with the heavy bob, as described.

be C

to N

©

t

Let all the pendulums come to a rest after setting up the arrangement

no

described above. Gently pull the bob of the heavy pendulum and

release it so that it starts oscillating. Make sure that other pendulums

are not disturbed in the process. Observe the motion of other

pendulums. Which of the pendulums oscillates with the same

frequency as that of the heavy pendulum? How does the amplitude

of vibrations of different pendulums differ?

247

LABORATORY MANUAL

LABORA TORY MANUAL

DEMONSTRATION 17

d

To demonstrate damping of a pendulum due to resistance

of the medium

he

(a) Damping of two pendulums of equal mass due to air: Set up two

simple pendulums of equal length. The bob of one should be small

pu T

is

in size say made of solid brass. The bob of the other should be of

the same mass but larger in size — either of a lighter material like

re R

thermocole or a hollow sphere. Give them the same initial

bl

displacement and release simultaneously. Observe that in the

pendulum with the larger bob the amplitude decreases more

E

rapidly. Due to its larger area, air offers more resistance to its

motion. Though both pendulums had the same energy to start

be C

(b) Alternative demonstration by comparing damping due to air and

to N

metal bob of 25 mm or more diameter. In its vertical position the

bob should be about 4 cm to 5 cm above the table. First, let the

pendulum oscillate in air and observe its damping. Now place a

©

the bob in water. Let the pendulum oscillate with the bob immersed

in water and note the effect of changing the medium on damping.

t

no

248

DEMONSTRATION

UNIT NAME

DEMONSTRATION 18

d

To demonstrate longitudinal and transverse waves

he

A few characteristic properties of

transverse and longitudinal waves can

be demonstrated with the help of a

pu T

is

slinky, which is a soft spring made of a

thin flat strip of steel (about 150 to 200

re R

turns) having a diameter of about 6 cm

bl

and width 8 cm to 10 cm. Nowadays

slinky shaped spirings made of plastics

E

are also available. Let two students hold

each end of the slinky and stretch it to

be C

smooth floor. Give a sharp transverse

jerk at one end and let the student

to N

spring [Fig. D 18.1(a)].

Find the speed of the pulse by

©

from one end to the other along the

stretched length of the spring. For more Fig. D 18.1(a): Motion of a pulse through a

accuracy, instead of measuring time slinky

taken by the pulse to move from one

end to the other, measure the time taken by it to make three to four

journeys along the entire length of the spring. This would be possible

because each pulse moves back and forth along the spring a few

times before it dies.

t

no

it to a smaller length) and find the speed

(b)

of the pulse. Does the speed depend on

tension? Fig. D 18.1(b): A compression moving along

the length of a slinky

The slinky can also be used to

demonstrate propagation of longitudinal waves. To do so, give a

longitudinal jerk at one end of the slinky, keeping the slinkly

stretched on the floor to about half the length (2.5 m) than while

demonstrating movement of a transverse pulse [Fig. D 18.1(b)]. Ask 249

LABORATORY MANUAL

LABORA TORY MANUAL

compression of the spring.

The damping may be too high if the floor is not very smooth. In that

case the experiment may be performed by suspending the slinky from

a steel wire stretched between two pegs firmly fixed on opposite walls

of the room. In order to minimise the effect of sagging of the spring in

the middle, support the spring by tying it to the wire with pieces of

thread spaced at about 25 cm from each other. All pieces of thread

must be equal in length.

d

The transverse waves may also be demonstrated with the help of a

he

flexible clothes line or a rubber tubing or a rope instead of a slinky.

Tie one end of the rubber tubing or the clothes line to the knob of a

door and give it a jerk at the other end while keeping it stretched. If

the rubber tube is heavy (fill water in it) and is held loosely, the pulse

pu T

is

would move slowly to make better observation.

Instead of a single pulse, a series of pulses one after the other creating

re R

bl

an impression of a continuous wave propagation may also be

demonstrated. This can be done by using a slinky or a flexible clothes

E

line. Stretch the slinky on the ground and ask one of the students to

hold one end firmly. Instead of giving just one jerk at the other end,

move the hand to and fro continuously to make waves of wavelength

be C

about 0.5m which can be seen to move continuously along the spring.

t to N

©

no

250

DEMONSTRATION

UNIT NAME

DEMONSTRATION 19

d

To demonstrate reflection and transmission of waves at the

he

boundary of two media

pu T

or suspend it from a stretched steel

is

wire as described in Demonstration

re R

18.1. Keeping one end fixed, send a

bl

pulse from the other end. Note the

size and direction of displacement of

E

pulse before and after it gets reflected

at the fixed end. Note that the

be C

little change in its size in comparison

to N

another long helical spring of heavier

©

Stretch them by holding the free end

of each spring and produce a pulse

at the free end of the lighter spring

(slinky). Observe what happens when

(a)

the pulse arrives at the joint of two

springs. In what way (i.e., with Fig. D 19.1 (a): A pulse reflected at a fixed end

respect to size and direction of undergoes phase change of π

t

no

pulse transmitted to the heavier spring also undergo any change?

Repeat the demonstration by sending the pulse from the end of the

heavier spring. Note how the reflected and transmitted pulse undergo

a change at the boundary of the two springs as compared to the

incident pulse [Fig. D 19.1(c)].

going from lighter to heavier spring?

251

LABORATORY MANUAL

LABORA TORY MANUAL

d

he

pu T

is

re R

bl

E

be C

to N

Fig. D 19.1 (b): Reflection and transmission Fig. D 19.1 (c): Reflection and transmission of

©

a rarer medium to a medium to a rarer medium

denser medium

Now join the slinky (coil spring) to a fine thread instead of a heavier

spring. Stretch the spring and the thread and produce a pulse at the

free end of the spring. Note what happens to the pulse at the boundary

of the spring and the thread.

t

no

252

DEMONSTRATION

UNIT NAME

DEMONSTRATION 20

d

To d e m o n s t r a t e t h e p h e n o m e n o n o f b e a t s d u e t o

superposition of waves produced by two tuning forks of

he

slightly different frequencies

pu T

is

plasticine or wax to the prongs of one of the tuning forks. This will

slightly lower the frequency of the tuning fork. Now holding them

re R

one in each hand strike both the tuning forks simultaneously on two

bl

rubber pads. Place them close to each other.

E

Carefully listen to the combined sound produced by the two tuning

forks. Gradual increase and decrease in the intensity of sound will

be C

of slightly different frequencies. You can also count the number of

beats produced per second if their frequency does not exceed two or

to N

three beats per second. The person who is listening to the beats,

gives a silent signal at each minimum intensity or maximum intensity,

e.g., by shaking his head in the manner we say ‘yes’. Then a second

person with a stop-watch, either finds the time taken by 10 beats or

©

counts the number of beats in 5 seconds. The person with the stop-

watch will also listen to the beats, though less loudly and may measure

the frequency without the aid of a signal by the first person.

If two tall tuning forks of the same frequency mounted on resonating

wooden boxes are available, all the students in a classroom may be

able to listen to the beats. Place them on a desk in the centre of the

classroom. Let there be pin-drop silence in the classroom. Then strike

the tuning forks with a rubber hammer in quick succession, with

roughly equal force. Make their frequencies slightly different by

t

no

load with adhesive tape. Both tuning forks must be of rather good

quality and must give audible sound for about 8 to 10 seconds in

spite of dissipation of energy in the resonating box.

253

LABORATORY MANUAL

LABORA TORY MANUAL

DEMONSTRATION 21

d

To demonstrate standing waves with a spring

he

Stretch the wire spring (heavier one and not the slinky) to a length of

6 m to 7 m, by tying its one end to a door handle. It may sag in the

middle but that will not affect the demonstration. Give a transverse

pu T

horizontal jerk at the free end, a pulse will travel along the spring,

is

and get reflected back and forth. If instead of stretching the spring in

air it is stretched along the ground, then due to large damping, the

re R

bl

results will not be so clear and convincing.

Now generate a continuous transverse wave in the spring by giving

E

series of jerks to the spring at fixed time intervals. Change the

frequency of the waves by changing the time period of oscillating your

be C

hand till stationary waves are set up. You will find that stationary

waves are produced only when an integral number of loops, i.e., 1,2,3

etc. are accommodated in the entire length of the spring. In other

to N

definite time periods.

Ask one of the students to measure the time period of standing waves

©

when one loop, two loops, three loops, and so on are formed in a

given length of stretched spring. For the same extension of the spring,

and thus for the same tension in the spring, how are the time periods

of stationary waves of one loop, two loops, and three loops related to

each other?

While producing stationary waves, suddenly stop moving your hand

to and fro and thus stop supplying energy to the spring. This is best

done by taking the help of a stool on which your hand rests while

t

producing the waves as well as when you stop your hand. Observe

no

that the spring continues to vibrate for some time with the same time

period and the same number of loops. Thus, it can be demonstrated

that the stretched spring is capable of making free oscillations in

several modes—with one loop, two loops, three loops, etc. The various

time periods with which you can produce stationary waves in it, are

also the natural time periods of the spring.

Thus, when you are producing and observing stationary waves in the

stretched spring, you can consider it as a resonance phenomenon.

However, in this case, the object being subjected to forced oscillations

254 (i.e., the stretched spring), is capable of oscillating freely with one of

DEMONSTRATION 21

UNIT NAME

the several time periods, unlike the simple pendulums with which

you experimented earlier to study the phenomenon of resonance.

One can also demonstrate stationary waves with a spring when its

both ends are free to move. Tie a thread, 3 – 4 m in length, at one

end of the spring. Tie other end of the thread to a hook on the wall or

a door handle. Stretch the spring by holding it at its free end and

send a continuous transverse wave in the spring by moving the end

in your hand. Do you observe that the stationary waves now produced

are somewhat different than those produced when one end of the

d

spring was fixed. Note the difference in the pattern of stationary

waves in the two situations and discuss the reason for the difference.

he

Also ask to note the number of loops produced when a stationary

wave is set in the spring.

Change the time period of the wave by adjusting to and fro motion of

pu T

is

your hand to produce ½ loop, 1½ loop, 2½ loop and so on for same

extension of the spring.

re R

bl

How are these time periods related to the various time periods of

vibration when the end not in your hand was kept fixed and extension

E

of the spring was the same?

Note

be C

of the same frequency (and thus moving with same velocity)

to N

stationary waves. In this mathematical treatment, there is no

need of specific frequencies at which the stationary waves are

produced. However, it is not possible to translate that

©

In an experiment we have to take a finite medium, like the

stretched spring of finite length. A finite medium with boundaries

has its natural frequencies and thus experiment is done at those

frequencies. In the above demonstrations one wave is produced

by hand and the other (travelling in the opposite direction) is

the reflected wave and their superposition produces stationary

waves, exemplifying the above referred mathematical result.

t

no

255

LABORATORY MANUAL

LABORATORY MANUAL

APPENDICES

APPENDIX A-1

SOME IMPORTANT CONSTANTS

d

Speed of light in vacuum c 2.9979 × 108 m s–1

Charge of electron e 1.602 × 10–19 C

he

Gravitational constant G 6.673 × 10–11 N m2 kg –2

Planck constant h 6.626 × 10–34 J s

Boltzmann constant k 1.381 × 10–23 J K–1

Avogadro number NA 6.022 × 1023 mol–1

pu T

Universal gas constant R 8.314 J mol–1 K–1

is

Mass of electron me 9.110 × 10–31 kg

Mass of neutron mn 1.675 × 10–27 kg

re R

Mass of proton mp 1.673 × 10–27 kg

bl

Electron-charge to mass ratio e/me 1.759 × 1011 C/kg

Faraday constant F 9.648 × 104 C/mol

E

Rydberg constant R 1.097 × 107 m–1

Bohr radius a0 5.292 × 10–11 m

Stefan-Boltzmann constant σ 5.670 × 10–8 W m–2 K–4

be C

Permittivity of free space ε0 8.854 × 10–12 C2 N–1 m–2

to N

Permeability of free space μ0 4π × 10–7 T m A–1

≅ 1.257 × 10–6 Wb A–1m–1

©

Mechanical equivalent of heat J 4.186 J cal–1

Standard atmospheric pressure 1 atm 1.013 × 105 Pa

Absolute zero 0K – 273.15 °C

Electron volt 1 eV 1.602 × 10–19 J

Unified Atomic mass unit 1u 1.661 × 10–27 kg

t

no

Volume of ideal gas (0 °C and 1 atm) V 22.4 L mol–1

Acceleration due to gravity g 9.78049 m s–2

(sea level, at equator)

256

APPENDICES

UNIT NAME

APPENDIX A-2

Densities of substances (20 °C)

Substance Density Substance Density

(103 kgm–3) (103 kgm–3)

Alcohol (ethyl) 0.79 Quartz (crystal) 2.6

Asbestos 2.4 Sea water 1.03

Brass (60.40) 8.4 Stainless steel 7.8

Brass (70.30) 8.5 Turpentine 0.85

Cast iron 7.0 Wrought iron 7.8

d

Caster Oil 0.95 Zinc 7.1

Charcoal 0.4 Water 0 °C 0.99987

he

Coal 1.6 – 1.4 4 °C 1.00000

Copper 8.9 20 °C 0.99823

Constantan 8.9 100 °C 0.9584

Cork 0.24 Water, heavy

Diamond

is

German Silver 8.4 temperature, 11 °C 1.106

Glass 2.5

re R

Glycerine 1.3 Petrol 0.70

bl

Gold (pure) 19.3 Kerosene 0.80

Gold (22 carat) 17.5 Common salt sol. 1.189

E

Gold (9 carat) 11.3 (20% by wt.)

Graphite 2.3 Air (STP) 0.00129

Ice 0.92 Carbon dioxide (STP) 0.00198

be C

Mild Steel 7.9 Oxygen (STP) 0.00143

Milk 1.03 Nitrogen (STP) 0.00125

to N

Mercury 13.56

APPENDIX A-3

Variation of atmospheric temperature and pressure with altitude

©

(metres) (millibars)

(1) (2) (3)

0 1013.25 15.0

250 983.58 13.4

500 854.61 11.8

750 926.34 10.1

1000 898.75 8.5

1500 825.56 5.2

t

no

3000 701.08 – 4.5

3500 657.64 – 7.8

4000 616.40 –11.0

4500 577.28 –14.2

5000 540.20 –17.5

6000 471.81 –29.0

7000 410.61 –30.5

8000 356.00 –37.0

9000 307.42 –43.5

10000 246.36 –50.0

257

LABORATORY MANUAL

LABORATORY MANUAL

APPENDIX A-4

places in India along with their Latitude,

Longitude and Elevation

(N) ( E) (m)

Aligarh 9.7908 27°54’ 78°05’ 187

Allahabad 9.7894 25°27’ 81°51’ 94

d

Varanasi 9.7893 25°20’ 83°00’ 81

Mumbai 9.7863 18°54’ 72°49’ 10

he

Kolkata 9.7880 22°35’ 88°20’ 6

Delhi 9.7914 28°40’ 77°14’ 216

Equator 9.7805 00°00’ n.a. 0

Jaipur 9.7900 26°55’ 75°47’ 433

Udaipur 9.7881 24°35’ 73°44’ 563

pu T

is

Srinagar 9.7909 34°05’ 74°50’ 159

North Pole 9.8322 90°00’ n.a. 0

re R

Chennai 9.7828 13°04’ 80°15’ 6

bl

Thruanatapuram 9.7812 8°28’ 76°58’ 27

Tirupati 9.7822 13°38’ 79°24’ 169

E

Madurai 9.7810 9°55’ 78°7’ 133

Bangaluru 9.7803 12°57 77°37’ 915

Guwahati 9.7899 26°12’ 91°45’ 52

be C

to N

APPENDIX A-5

Surface tension of liquids

©

Air 20 72.55

Air 30 71.18

Air 40 69.56

Air 50 67.91

Acetic acid Vapour 10 28.8

Vapour 20 27.8

Vapour 50 24.8

Ethyl Alcohol Air 0 24.05

Vapour 10 23.61

t

Vapour 20 22.75

no

Vapour 30 21.89

Glycerol Air 20 63.04

Vapour 90 58.6

Methyl Alcohol Air 0 24.49

Air 20 22.61

Vapour 50 20.14

Mercury Vapour 20 470

Vapour 100 456

Oleic acid Air 20 32.5

Kerosene Air 20 24

Turpentine Air 20 27

258

APPENDICES

UNIT NAME

APPENDIX A-6

Coefficient of viscosity of liquids

Substance Temp (°C) Coefficient of viscosity (cP)

(1) Water 0 1.787

20 1.002

50 0.5468

100 0.2818

(2) Acetic Acid 15 1.31

30 1.04

60 0.70

100 0.43

d

(3) Ethyl Alcohol 0 1.773

20 1.200

50 0.834

he

70 0.504

(4) Mercury 0 1.685

20 1.554

50 1.407

100 1.240

pu T

is

200 1.052

(5) Methyl Alcohol 0 0.82

20 0.597

re R

30 0.510

bl

50 0.403

(6) Glycerine 20 1495

25 942

E

30 622

(7) Carbon disulphide 0 0.436

20 0.4375

be C

40 0.329

(8) Castor oil 10 2420

30 451

50 125

to N

20 0.972

40 0.744

©

APPENDIX A-7

Elastic properties of solids

Substance Young’s Modulus of Bulk

Modulus rigidity Modulus

(1010 Nm–2) (1010 Nm–2) (1010 Nm–2)

Aluminium 7.03 2.61 7.55

Brass (70/30) 10.06 3.73 11.18

Copper 12.98 9.83 13.78

t

no

Silver 8.27 3.03 10.36

Steel (mild) 21.19 8.22 17.92

Rubber 0.05 0.00015 -

Wood (oak) 1.3 - -

Wook (teak) 1.7 - -

Glass 5.1-7.1 3.1 3.75

Quartz 5.4 3.4 -

259

LABORATORY MANUAL

LABORATORY MANUAL

APPENDIX A-8

Velocity of sound

Substance Temperature Velocity of Substance Temperature Velocity of

(0 °C) longitudinal (0 °C) longitudinal

wave (ms–1) wave (ms–1)

Alcohol 20 1177 Hydrogen 0 1284

*Aluminium 20 5240 *Iron 20 5170

Air 0 331.45 Mercury 20 1451

*Brass 20 3130-3450 Nitrogen 0 334

*Copper 20 3790 *Steel 20 5150

d

(annealed) (tool)

Carbon dioxide 0 259 Water 20 1484

*Glass, crown 20 4710-5300 Water vapour 100 405

he

*Glass, flint 20 3490-4550 Oxygen 0 316

*In case of solids, velocities of longitudinal waves in thin rods are quoted.

For the gases for which v0, the velocity of sound at 0 °C is quoted here, vt the velocity at t 0C with fair degree

pu T

is

1

⎛ 273.15 +t ⎞ 2