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A

Project Report
On
“A Detail Project Report for National Highway NH 166 connecting
Kamthi to Solapur junction ( CH 356.700 to CH 378.100 Km).
Submitted by

Under the Guidance of


Prof. Ashok Kumar

CIVIL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT

WALCHAND INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, SOLAPUR-413 006

(ACCREDITED BY NBA, NEW DELHI)

2017-2018
CERTIFICATE

A Detail Project Report for National Highway NH 166


This is to certify that the project
connecting Kamthi to Solapur junction ( CH 356.700 to CH 378.100 Km)
”is completed by following student of BE (Civil)class in satisfactory manner under my guidance.

Name:Mr.BASAVARAJ VITTAL PACHAPUR

Roll No:05

The Seminar is found to be complete in partial fulfillment for the award of degree in Civil
Engineering of Solapur University, Solapur

Prof.M.G.Kalyanshetti Dr.S.S.Patil Dr.S.A.Halkude

Guide H.O.D. (Civil Dept.) Principal

CIVIL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT

WALCHAND INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, SOLAPUR-413 006

(ACCREDITED BY NBA, NEW DELHI)

2017-2018
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

It’s indeed my immense pleasure to wish my deep sense of gratitude to our teaching
faculty who relentlessly tried to get the best out of me. It is because of their valuable
guidance and continuous encouragement without which this milestone would not
have been a success.
I wish to express my sincere gratitude to my guide Prof. Ashok Kumar for his
motivation, guidance, help and encouragement throughout the period of this work, with his
enthusiasm, his inspiration and his great efforts to explain things clearly and simply. I remain
ever indebted to him for the keen interest shown and moral support offered all through pursuance
of work.
I express my sincere thanks to Dr.S.A.Halkude , Principal Walchand Institute of Technology,
Solapur for providing the necessary facilities for carrying out the experimental work.
I express my sincere thanks to Dr.S.S.Patil, Head Civil Engineering Department, for their
valuable support and motivation.
Last but not the least I thank all those who have helped directly or indirectly for the complication
of my work.

.
SYNOPSIS

The development of effective road transport system is the primary need of any
developing country and the upgrading of existing road network system is essential for
the developed countries as the capacity of roads in urban and non-urban highways
will reach to saturation level with the passage of time. The design of route alignment
and the pavement structure decide the cost of a highway project and for this job the
best available Highway Design Software tools must be deployed.
The project work entitled “Geometric Design of Highways Using MXROAD
Software – A Case Study” was carried out. During this work all geometric design
parameters were studied and used in executing the project work.
The first two chapters of this report include literature review of various
geometric design elements and about MXROAD design software in general. The third
chapter comprises the general features of the project corridor and the fourth chapter
consists of design standards, design proposals, recommendations and solutions of
some problems which where encountered during the designing process. The fifth
chapter comprises a rough estimation of the project.
CONTENTS

CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION 1-6
1.1 General 1
1.2 Highway Design 1
1.3 Computer Aided Design (CAD) of Roads 4
1.4 Need for MXROAD 5
1.5 Objective of Study 6
1.6 Scope of Present Study 6

CHAPTER 2
LITERATURE REVIEW 7-29
2.1 Geometric Design 7
2.1.1 Geometric Design Control Elements 7
2.1.2 Cross Sectional Elements 10
2.1.3 Sight Distance 12
2.1.4 Horizontal Alignment 14
2.1.5 Vertical Alignment 18
2.2 Available Geometric Design Softwares 21
2.2.1 Advantages and Limitations 21
2.3 MXROAD 22
2.3.1 Introduction 22
2.3.2 Standard String Naming Convention 23
2.3.3 Data Import 23
2.3.4 Surface Analysis 24
2.3.5 Alignment Design 24
2.3.6 Road Design 25
2.3.7 Junction Design 28
2.3.8 Modifying The Design 28
CHAPTER 3
PROJECT DETAILS 30-39
3.1 Project Background 30
3.2 Project Focus 31
3.3 Project Location 31
3.4 General Features of The Project 32
3.4.1 Land Width 32
3.4.2 Alignment 32
3.4.3 Road Characteristics 33
3.4.4 Pavement Condition 33
3.4.5 Soil Characteristics 33
3.4.6 Junction and Crossings 33
3.4.7 Drainage Condition 36
3.4.8 Cross Drainage Structures 36
3.4.9 Urban Area 36
3.5 Traffic Characteristics 37
3.6 Flexible Pavement Proposals 39

CHAPTER 4
GEOMETRIC DESIGN FOR ROAD CONNECTING 40-51
MANDYA AND NAGAMANGALA (CH: 00.00 – CH: 40.30)
4.1 Design Standards and Specification 40
4.1.1 Terrain Classification 40
4.1.2 Design Speed 40
4.1.3 Land Width 41
4.1.4 Typical Cross Section 42
4.1.5 Sight Distance 43
4.1.6 Horizontal Curves 44
4.1.7 Vertical Geometry 46
4.2 Design Proposals 47
4.3 Problems and Solutions 48
4.4 Before and After Design Proposal 49
4.4.1 Geometric Elements 49
4.4.2 Road Safety 51

CHAPTER 5
PROJECT COST ESTIMATION 52
5.1 General 52
5.2 Quantity Estimation 52
5.3 Cost Estimation 52

CHAPTER 6
DISCUSSIONS AND CONCLUSIONS

REFERENCES

ANNEXURES
CHAPTER-1
INTRODUCTION

1.1 General
During the past few years there has been a great development in the INDIAN
economy and transportation sector plays a vital role in it. For any developing nation
road network acts as a backbone for its steady growth. Due to the rapid growth in road
infrastructure and its needs, there is a search for a model which guides the designer
to create a most cost effective design with high precision standards, which in turn
leads in saving time, money and material costs.
With the use of latest software technology, road design software named
“MXROAD” has been used to pace up with the fast growing road infrastructure field.
By using this software highway design engineers can quickly create design
alternatives to build an ideal road system.

1.2 Highway Design


Designing a highway depends mainly on its components; following are the list
of highway design components
1. Alignment
2. Pavement
3. Cross Drainage Structures
4. Road Furniture
5. Environment
6. Safety
Alignment
The position of the centerline of the highway on the ground is called the
alignment. The horizontal alignment consists of straight path, horizontal deviations
and curves. The vertical alignment consists of gradients and vertical curves.
The alignment of any highway should be aligned with great care and
importance so as to avoid increase in construction, maintenance and vehicle operation
costs and also in decreasing the accident rates. Once the alignment is aligned and
constructed, it is not easy to change the alignment due to increase in
cost of adjoining land and construction of costly structures by the road side. Hence
finalizing the alignment should be done with great importance.
Pavement
The surface of roadway should be stable and non-yielding, to allow the heavy
wheel loads of road traffic to move with least possible rolling resistance. The road
surface should also be even along the longitudinal profile to enable the fast vehicle to
move safely and comfortably at the design speed. The earthen road may not fulfill any
of those requirements especially during the varying conditions of traffic loads and
weather.
At high moisture contents, the soil becomes weaker and soft and starts yielding
under heavy wheel loads, thus increasing the tractive resistance. The unevenness
and undulations of the surface along the longitudinal profile of the road causes vertical
oscillations in the fast moving vehicles, increasing the fuel consumption and the wear
of the vehicle components, resulting in a considerable increase in the vehicle
operation cost. Apart from this uneven pavement surface causes discomfort and
fatigue to the passengers of fast moving vehicles and cyclists.
Therefore, in order to provide a stable and even surface for the traffic, the
roadway is provided with a suitable designed and constructed pavement structure.
Thus a pavement consisting of a few layers of pavement materials is constructed over
a prepared soil subgrade to serve as a carriageway.

Cross Drainage Structure


The adequate functioning of a roadway depends to a large extent on the
effectiveness of cross-drainage. A road has to be so aligned as to cut across the
natural drainage channels and major rivers. At times, the road cuts across man-made
channels intended for irrigation. Some artificial channels are also intended to take
care of natural drainage.
The function of the cross-drainage structures is to ensure that the run-off water
is discharged across the road from one side to the other, as quickly as possible,
without causing undue ponding, parallel flow along the road embankment,
overtopping of the road embankment or erosion of the portions of the road. Quick
drainage prevents water from penetrating the soil in the embankment. A dry subgrade
has greater bearing strength than a wet subgrade.
Road Furniture
Road furniture’s play a vital role in guiding the road users for a safe and comfort
journey along the road stretch. Lag in road furniture’s leads to misbehavior of road
users causing congestion, delay and accidents, which in turn leads to inefficient travel.
Following are the list of road furniture’s
1. Road Markings
a. Longitudinal Markings
b. Transverse Marking
c. Object marking or delineators
2. Traffic Signs
a. Regulatory or Mandatory Signs
b. Warning or Cautionary Signs
c. Informatory Signs
Environment
While planning development of roads and transportation facilities, apart from
aiming at operational efficiency, it is also necessary to consider the quality of
environment due to the development. It is important to prepare an Environmental
Impact Statement at the planning stage itself. Good results could be achieved if the
aesthetic aspects of the roads are given due consideration at the time of highway
planning. Other aspects which deserve attention are planning road side avenues,
preservation of natural scenery and water sources, reservation of recreational areas
and provision of various road side amenities to the road users. The air pollution and
noise pollution aspects are also to be considered.
In order to ensure better environment on new highways, environmental studies
should be carried out considering all the aspects. A multi-disciplinary approach may
be needed to make a cumulative assessment of land suitability for highway
development causing minimum adverse effects to the surroundings.
Safety
Whenever new roads are constructed, or existing roads are taken up for
improvements, the features of the highway must be designed with an objective of
enhancing safety. Selection of route by the road users mainly depends on the safety
offered by the selective route through out the journey.
Some aspects of geometric design elements that should be kept in mind while
designing a highway are design speed, sight distance, cross sectional elements,
horizontal and vertical curve elements. Some aspects of road furniture’s to be
considered are road signs, road markings, traffic signals and highway appurtenances.

1.3 Computer Aided Design (CAD) of Roads


The use of computers in work station has become inevitable and it has been
used in various fields. During the past few decades computer application in highway
design has taken a new format in which a highway designer can draft, design and
estimate for any road sections.
The present computer aided software’s for highway design are used by both
consultant and construction firms to create their design with high precision and
standards. As most of the design software’s are prepared with various design options
and methods there by facilitating the designer for creating an accurate model to suite
for the practical field conditions.
The major advantage in using such design software’s is to minimize the time
required for design and also for achieving an accurate design by reducing the manual
error during a similar design process. The usefulness of modern highway design
software’s is its three dimensional (3d’s) visualization from which a realistic view of
the designed section can be viewed.

1.4 Need for MXROAD


MXROAD has been created by Bentley Systems, which is an advanced string-
based modeling tool that enables the rapid and accurate design of all road types. By
using MXROAD, highway designers can finalise design alternatives and can
automate much of the design detailing process, saving time and money. At its core,
MXROAD uses 3D string modeling technology-a powerful yet concise method of
creating 3D surfaces. The interoperable database allows engineers to create and
annotate 3D project models in the most popular AEC platforms or in Windows.
In recent, highway projects in INDIA are carried under Public Private
Partnership (PPP) where private investors are challenged to maintain high standards
in design and construction. This scenario leads the design engineers to use some
specially designed software tools like MXROAD. MXROAD is used in attaining a high
precision in building the road with in the limited land width (RoW) so as to minimize
the land acquisition cost, which is a vital parameter that affects the total project cost
directly.
It also helps in fixing the horizontal alignment for an up gradation project to
match up with the existing align of the cross drainage structures and in fixing the
vertical profile to match up with the existing levels of the cross drainage structures.
Various geometric design elements such as carriageways, shoulders can be designed
effectively by using MXROAD. Other design controlling parameters such as design
speed, horizontal curvature, super elevation and vertical curvature can also be
effectively designed and controlled by this software.
The total earthwork quantity can also be computed to a high accuracy by using
MXROAD.

1.5 Objective of study


1. Geometric design of a major district road using MXROAD design software.

1.6 Scope of Present Study


The present study was aimed to use the MXROAD software for geometric design.
National Highways Authority of India (NHAI) has awarded the improvement and up-
gradation of the existing two lane Sangli-Solapur Sections of NH 166 in to 4-lane
configuration. The geometric improvements are done keeping in mind IRC
provisions.
CHAPTER-2
LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1 Geometric Design


The geometric design of a highway deals with the dimensions and layout of
visible features of the highway such as alignment, sight distance and intersections.
The geometric of highway should be designed to provide optimum efficiency in traffic
operations with maximum safety at reasonable cost. It is possible to design and
construct the pavement of a road in stages, but it is very expensive and rather difficult
to improve the geometric elements of a road on stages at a later date. Therefore it is
important to plan and design the geometric features of the road during the initial
alignment itself taking in to consideration the future growth of traffic flow and
possibilities of the road being upgraded to a higher category or to a higher design
speed standard at a later stage (1).
Geometric design of highways deals with the following elements:
(1) Cross section elements
(2) Sight distance
(3) Horizontal alignment
(4) Vertical alignment
(5) Intersection element

2.1.1 Geometric Design Control Elements


Design Speed
Design speed is a selected speed used to determine the various geometric
design features of the roadway. The assumed design speed should be a logical one
with respect to the topography, anticipated operating speed, the adjacent land use,
and the functional classification of highway. Except for local streets where speed
controls are frequently included intentionally, every effort should be made to use as
high a design speed as practical to attain a desired degree of safety, mobility, and
efficiency within the constraints of environmental quality, economics, aesthetics, and
social or political impacts. Once the design speed is selected, all of the pertinent
highway features are related to it to obtain a balanced design. Above-minimum
design values should be used, where practical. Some design features, such as
curvature, superelevation, and sight distance, are directly related to, and vary
appreciably with, design speed. Other features, such as widths of lanes and shoulders
and clearances to walls and rails, are not directly related to design speed, but they do
affect vehicle speeds. Therefore, wider lanes, shoulders, and clearances should be
considered for higher design speeds. Thus, when a change is made in design speed,
many elements of the highway design will change accordingly (3). Design speed for
various classes of roads as per IRC: SP: 84 -2014 (Geometric Design Standards for
Four Laning of Highways through PPP) is presented in table-4.2 of chapter 4.

Topography
The topography or the terrain conditions influence the geometric design of
highway significantly. The terrains are classified based on the general slope of the
country across the alignment, as plain rolling, mountainous and steep terrain. The
design standards specified for different classes of roads are different depending on
the terrain classification. As the speed standards affect every geometric design
elements, topography also affects the geometric design of roads. Further in hilly
terrain, it is necessary to allow for steeper gradients and sharp horizontal curves due
to the construction problems (1). Cross slope for various terrain as per IRC: SP: 84 -
2014 (Geometric Design Standards for Four Laning of Highways through PPP) is
presented in table-4.1 of chapter 4.

Traffic Factors
Design Vehicle
Key controls in geometric highway design are the physical characteristics and the
proportions of vehicles of various sizes using the highway. Therefore, it is appropriate to
examine all vehicle types, establish general class groupings, and select vehicles of
representative size within each class for design use. These selected vehicles, with
representative weight, dimensions, and operating characteristics, used to establish
highway design controls for accommodating vehicles of designated classes, are known
as design vehicles. For purposes of geometric design, each design vehicle has larger
physical dimensions and a larger minimum turning radius than most vehicles in its class
Summary of standards of dimensions for design vehicle by various authorities
are presented in the table below (2).
Table 2.1 – Standards of dimensions for design vehicles by
various authorities (in metres)
Maximum length
Authority/ Maximum Maximum Single
Passenger Semi Truck Single
Country width height unit
car trailer trailer unit bus
truck

AASHTO
2.59 4.12 5.8 9.14 16.8 8.91
(USA)
U.K. 2.5 4.57 (Bus) 5.5 11.0 18.0 13.0
IRC 3.8-4.2
2.5 - 11.0 16.0 18.0 12.0
(1983) (Truck)

Driver Performance
An appreciation of driver performance is essential to proper highway design
and operation. The suitability of a design rests as much on how safely and efficiently
drivers are able to use the highway as on any other criterion. When drivers use a
highway designed to be compatible with their capabilities and limitations, their
performance is aided. When a design is incompatible with the capabilities of drivers,
the chance for driver errors increase, and crashes or inefficient operation may result.
The important human factors which affect traffic behavior include the physical,

mental and psychological characteristics of drivers and pedestrians (3).

Traffic characteristics
The design of a highway and its features should be based upon explicit
consideration of the traffic volumes and characteristics to be served. All information
should be considered jointly. Financing, quality of foundations, availability of
materials, cost of right-of-way, and other factors all have important bearing on the
design. However, traffic volumes indicate the need for the improvement and directly
affect the geometric design features, such as number of lanes, widths, alignments,
and grades. It is no more rational to design a highway without traffic information than
it is to design a bridge without knowledge of the weights and numbers of vehicles it is
intended to support. Information on traffic volumes serves to establish the loads
for the geometric highway design. Traffic data for a road or section of road are
generally available or can be obtained from field studies. The data collected by State
or local agencies include traffic volumes for days of the year and time of the day, as
well as the distribution of vehicles by type and weight. The data also include
information on trends from which the designer may estimate the traffic to be expected
in the future. A reasonable value of traffic volume is decided for the design and it is
called the Design Hourly Volume (DHV). The ratio of volume to capacity affects the
level of service of the road (3).

Environmental and other factors


The environmental and other factors such as aesthetics, landscaping, air
pollution, noise pollution and other local conditions should be given due consideration
in the design of road geometrics. Some of the arterial high speed highways and
express highways are designed for high speed standards and uninterrupted flow of

vehicles by providing grade separated intersections and controlled access (1).

2.1.2 Cross Sectional Elements


Pavement Surface Characteristics
The surface depends on the pavement type which is decided based on the
availability of material and funds, volume and composition of traffic, subgrade, climatic
conditions, construction facilities and cost considerations. The important surface
characteristics of pavement are the friction, unevenness, light reflecting
characteristics and drainage of surface water.
Cross Slope or Camber
Cross slope or camber is the slope provided to the road surface in the
transverse direction to drain off the rain water from the road surface. Usually the
camber is provided on the straight roads by raising the centre of the carriageway with
respect to the edges, forming a crown or highest point on the center line. At horizontal
curves with super elevation, the surface drainage is affected by raising the outer edge
of the pavement with respect to the inner edge while providing the desired super
elevation. Crossfall/Camber values for different road surfaces as per
IRC: SP: 84 -2014 (Geometric Design Standards for Four Laning of Highways through
PPP) is presented in table-4.6 of chapter 4.

Width of Pavement or Carriageway


The pavement or carriageway width depends on the width of traffic lane and
number of lanes. The carriageway intended for one line of traffic movement may be
called as traffic lane. The lane width is determined on the basis of width of the vehicle
and the maximum side clearance which may be provided for the safety. When the
side clearance is increased there is a increase in the operating speed of vehicles and
hence an increase in the capacity of the traffic lane. Width of carriageway for various
classes of roads as per IRC: SP: 84 -2014 (Geometric Design Standards for Four
Laning of Highways through PPP) is presented in table-4.5 of chapter 4.

Kerbs
Kerbs indicate the boundary between the pavement and shoulders or
sometime islands and footpath or kerb parking space. It is desirable to provide kerbs
on the urban roads. In rural roads submerged kerbs are sometimes provided at the
pavement edge between edge and shoulders. The kerbs provide lateral confinement
and stability to the granular base courses and flexible pavements.

Width of Roadway or Formation


Width of formation or roadway is the sum of widths of pavements or
carriageway including separators if any and the shoulders. Formation or roadway
width is the top width of the highway embankment or the bottom width of the highway
cutting excluding the side drains. Roadway Width for various classes of roads as per
IRC: SP: 84 -2014 (Geometric Design Standards for Four Laning of Highways through
PPP) is presented in table-4.4 of chapter 4.

Right of Way or Land Width


Right of way is the area of land acquired for the road, along its alignment. The
width of this acquired land is know as land width and it depends on the importance of
the road and possible future development. A minimum has been prescribed for each
category of road. A desirable range of land width has also been suggested for
each category. While acquiring land for a highway it is desirable to acquire more width
of land as the cost of adjoining land invariably increases very much, soon after the
new highway is constructed. Also road side development start taking place making it
difficult later on to acquire more land if required for future widening or for other
improvements. In some cases the lower width within the suggested range may have
to be adopted in view of high cost of land and other existing features. This is
particularly true in urban and industrial areas (1). Land Width for various classes of
roads as per IRC: SP: 84 -2014 (Geometric Design Standards for Four Laning of
Highways through PPP) is presented in table-4.3 of chapter 4.

2.1.3 Sight Distance


A driver’s ability to see ahead is of the utmost importance in the safe and
efficient operation of a vehicle on a highway. The path and speed of motor vehicles
on highways and streets are subject to the control of drivers whose ability, training,
and experience are quite varied. For safety on highways, the designer should provide
sight distance of sufficient length that drivers can control the operation of their vehicles
to avoid striking an unexpected object in the traveled way. Certain four-lane highways
should also have sufficient sight distance to enable drivers to occupy the opposing
traffic lane for passing other vehicles without risk of a crash. Four-lane Nationall
highways should generally provide such passing sight distance at frequent intervals
and for substantial portions of their length. By contrast, it is normally of little practical
value to provide passing sight distance on four-lane urban streets or arterials. The
proportion of a highway’s length with sufficient sight distance to pass another vehicle
and interval between passing opportunities should be compatible with the design
criteria. Three aspects of sight distance are:
(1) The sight distances needed for stopping (SSD).
(2) The sight distances needed for the passing of overtaken vehicles (OSD).
(3) The sight distances needed for decisions at complex locations .

Stopping Sight Distance (SSD)


Sight distance is the length of the roadway ahead that is visible to the driver.
The available sight distance on a roadway should be sufficiently long to enable a
vehicle traveling at or near the design speed to stop before reaching a stationary
object in its path. Although greater lengths of visible roadway are desirable, the sight
distance at every point along a roadway should be at least that needed for a below-
average driver or vehicle to stop.
Stopping sight distance is the sum of two distances:
(1) The distance traversed by the vehicle from the instant the driver sights an
object necessitating a stop to the instant the brakes are applied which are
normally referred as lag distance.
(2) The distance needed to stop the vehicle from the instant brake application
begins. These are referred to as brake reaction distance and braking
distance, respectively (3).
Safe stopping side distance for various speeds as per IRC: SP: 84 -2014 (Geometric
Design Standards for Four Laning of Highways through PPP) is presented in table-
4.7 of chapter 4.
Passing Sight Distance or Overtaking Sight Distance (OSD)
Most roads and many streets are two-lane, two-way highways on which
vehicles frequently overtake slower moving vehicles. Passing maneuvers in which
faster vehicles move ahead of slower vehicles must be accomplished on lanes
regularly used by opposing traffic. If passing is to be accomplished safely, the passing
driver should be able to see a sufficient distance ahead, clear of traffic, to complete
the passing maneuver without cutting off the passed vehicle before meeting an
opposing vehicle that appears during the maneuver. When appropriate, the driver can
return to the right lane without completing the pass if he or she sees opposing traffic
is too close when the maneuver is only partially completed. Many passing maneuvers
are accomplished without the driver being able to see any potentially conflicting
vehicle at the beginning of the maneuver, but design should not be based on such
maneuvers. Because many cautious drivers would not attempt to pass under such
conditions, design on this basis would reduce the usefulness of the highway.
Overtaking sight distance for various speeds as per IRC: SP: 84 -2014 (Geometric
Design Standards for Four Laning of Highways through PPP) is presented in table-
4.9 of chapter 4.
Sight distance at intersections
It is important that on all approaches of intersecting legs, there is a clear view
across the corners from a sufficient distance so as to avoid collision of vehicle. This
is all the more important at uncontrolled intersections. The sight line is obstructed by
structures or the other objects at the corner of the intersections. The area of
unobstructed sight formed by the lines of vision is called the sight triangle .

2.1.4 Horizontal Alignment


For balance in highway design all geometric elements should, as far as
economically practical, be designed to provide safe, continuous operation at a speed
likely to be observed under the normal conditions for that roadway. For the most part,
this can be achieved through the use of design speed as an overall design control.
The design of roadway curves should be based on an appropriate relationship
between design speed and curvature and on their joint relationships with
superelevation and side friction. Although these relationships stem from the laws of
mechanics, the actual values for use in design depend on practical limits and factors
determined more or less empirically over the range of variables involved. When a
vehicle moves in a circular path, it undergoes a centripetal acceleration that acts
toward the center of curvature. This acceleration is sustained by a component of the
vehicle’s weight related to the roadway superelevation, by the side friction developed
between the vehicle’s tires and the pavement surface, or by a combination of the two.
As a matter of conceptual convenience, centripetal acceleration is sometimes

equated to centrifugal force (3).

Minimum Radius
The minimum radius is a limiting value of curvature for a given design speed
and is determined from the maximum rate of superelevation and the maximum side
friction factor selected for design (limiting value of f). Use of sharper curvature for that
design speed would call for superelevation beyond the limit considered practical or
for operation with tire friction and lateral acceleration beyond what is considered
comfortable by many drivers, or both. Although based on a threshold of driver comfort,
rather than safety, the minimum radius of curvature is a significant value in alignment
design. The minimum radius of curvature is also an important control
value for determination of superelevation rates for flatter curves. Minimum Radii of
Horizontal Curve as per IRC: SP: 84 -2014 (Geometric Design Standards for Four
Laning of Highways through PPP) is presented in table-4.11 of chapter 4.

Superelevation
In order to counteract the effect of centrifugal force and to reduce the
tendency of the vehicles to overturn or skid, the outer edge of the pavement is raised
with respect to the inner edge, thus providing a transverse slope through out the length
of the horizontal curve. This transverse inclination to the pavement surface is known
as super elevation or cant or banking (1).
There are practical upper limits to the rate of superelevation on a
horizontal curve. These limits relate to considerations of climate, constructability,
adjacent land use, and the frequency of slow-moving vehicles. Where snow and ice
are a factor, the rate of superelevation should not exceed the rate on which vehicles
standing or traveling slowly would slide toward the center of the curve when the
pavement is icy. At higher speeds, the phenomenon of partial hydroplaning can occur
on curves with poor drainage that allows water to build up on the pavement surface.
Skidding occurs, usually at the rear wheels, when the lubricating effect of the water
film reduces the available lateral friction below the friction demand for cornering. When
traveling slowly around a curve with high superelevation, negative lateral forces
develop and the vehicle is held in the proper path only when the driver steers up the
slope or against the direction of the horizontal curve. Steering in this direction seems
unnatural to the driver and may explain the difficulty of driving on roads where the
superelevation is in excess of that needed for travel at normal speeds. Such high rates
of superelevation are undesirable on high-volume roads, as in urban and suburban
areas, where there are numerous occasions when vehicle speeds may be
considerably reduced because of the volume of traffic or other conditions (3). The
radius values beyond which no super elevation is required as per IRC: SP: 84 -2014
(Geometric Design Standards for Four Laning of Highways through PPP) is presented
in table-4.14 of chapter 4.

Widening of Pavement on Horizontal Curves


Offtracking is the characteristic, common to all vehicles, although much
more pronounced with the larger design vehicles, in which the rear wheels do not
follow precisely the same path as the front wheels when the vehicle negotiates a
horizontal curve or makes a turn. When a vehicle traverses a curve without
superelevation at low speed, the rear wheels track inside the front wheels. When a
vehicle traverses a superelevated curve, the rear wheels may track inside the front
wheels more or less than the amount computed on the above basis. This is because
of the slip angle assumed by the tires with respect to the direction of travel, which
results from the side friction developed between the pavements and rolling tires. The
relative position of the wheel tracks depends on the speed and the amount of friction
developed to sustain the lateral force not sustained by superelevation or, when
traveling slowly, by the friction developed to counteract the effect of superelevation
not compensated by lateral force. At higher speeds, the rear wheels may even track
outside the front wheels (3). Extra width of pavement at horizontal curve as per IRC:
SP: 84 -2014 (Geometric Design Standards for Four Laning of Highways through
PPP) is presented in table-4.13 of chapter 4.

Horizontal Transition Curve


A transition curve has a radius which decreases from infinity at the
tangent point to a designed radius of the circular curve. When a transition curve is
introduced between a straight and a circular curve, the radius of the transition curve
decreases and becomes minimum at the beginning of the circular curve. The rate of
change of radius of the transition curve will depend on the equation of the curve or its
shape.
A transition curve which is introduced between the straight and a circular
curve will help also in gradually introducing the designed super elevation and the extra
widening necessary.
The functions of transition curves in the horizontal alignment of highway are:
1. To introduce gradually the centrifugal force between the tangent point and
the beginning of the circular curve, avoiding a sudden jerk on the vehicle.
2. To enable the driver turn the steering gradually for his own comfort and
security.
3. To enable gradual introduction of the designed super elevation and extra
widening of pavement at the start of the circular curve.
4. To improve the aesthetics appearance of the road (1).
Minimum transition length for different speeds and curve radius as per IRC: 73 – 1980
(Geometric Design Standards for Rural Highways) is presented in table-4.12 of
chapter 4.

2.1.5 Vertical Alignment


Terrain
The topography of the land traversed has an influence on the alignment of
roads. Topography affects horizontal alignment, but has an even more pronounced
effect on vertical alignment. To characterize variations in topography, engineers
generally separate it into three classifications according to terrain.
In level terrain , highway sight distances, as governed by both horizontal and
vertical restrictions, are generally long or can be made to be so without construction
difficulty or major expense.
In rolling terrain, natural slopes consistently rise above and fall below the road
or street grade, and occasional steep slopes offer some restriction to normal horizontal
and vertical roadway alignment.
In mountainous terrain, longitudinal and transverse changes in the elevation of
the ground with respect to the road or street are abrupt, and benching and side hill
excavation are frequently needed to obtain acceptable horizontal and vertical
alignment.
Terrain classifications pertain to the general character of a specific route
corridor. Routes in valleys, passes, or mountainous areas that have all the
characteristics of roads or streets traversing level or rolling terrain should be classified
as level or rolling. In general, rolling terrain generates steeper grades than level
terrain, causing trucks to reduce speeds below those of passenger cars. Mountainous
terrain has even greater effects, causing some trucks to operate at crawl speeds (3).
Grades
Gradient is the rate of rise or fall along the length of the road with respect to
the horizontal. It is expressed as a ratio of 1 in x (1 vertical unit to x horizontal units).
Some times the gradient is also expressed as a percentage, n. while aligning a
highway. The gradient is decided for designing the vertical curve. Very steep gradients
are avoided as it is not difficult to climb the grade, but also the vertical operation cost
is increased. The designers have to consider all aspects such as construction costs,
practical problems in construction at the site and the vertical operation cost in such
alternative proposal before finalizing the gradients(1). Gradients for different terrains
as per IRC: SP: 84 -2014 (Geometric Design Standards for Four Laning of Highways
through PPP) is presented in table-4.15 of chapter 4.

Vertical Curves
Due to change in grade in the vertical alignment of highway, it is necessary to
introduce vertical curve at the intersection of different grades to smoothen out the
vertical profile and thus ease off the changes in gradients for the fast moving vehicles.
The vertical curves used in highway are classified into two different categories
(1) Summit curve or crest curves with convexity upwards.
(2) Valley or sag curves with concavity upwards.
Summit curves
Summit curves with convexity upwards are formed when the deviation angle
between the two interacting gradients is equal to the algebraic difference between
them. Of all the cases, the deviation angle will be maximum when an ascending
gradient meets with a descending gradient.
When a fast moving vehicle travels along a summit curve, the centrifugal force
will act upwards, against gravity and hence a part of the pressure on the tyres and
spring of the vehicle suspension is relieved. So there is no problem of discomfort to
passengers on summit curves, particularly because of deviation angles on roads are
quite small and if the summit curve is designed to have adequate sight distance, the
length of the curve would be long enough to ease the shock due to change in
gradients.
The only problem in designing summit curves is to provide adequate sight
distances. The stopping sight distance or the absolute minimum sight distance should
invariably be provided at all sections of the road system and so also on summit curves.
As far as possible safe overtaking sight distance or at least intermediate sight
distance, equal to twice the stopping sight distance should also be available on these
curves for important highways, expect when restrictions to overtaking have been
strictly imposed at the section concerned.
Valley curve
Valley curves or sag curves are formed when the maximum possible deviation
angle is obtained when a descending gradient meets with an ascending gradient.
The most important factors considered in valley curve design are
(1) Impact-free movement of vehicles at design speed or the comfort to the
passengers.
(2) Availability of stopping sight distance under head lights of vehicles for
night driving.
The lowest point in the valley curve may be located from considerations of cross
drainage. At the valley curve, the centrifugal force acts downwards adding to the
pressure on the springs and the suspensions of the vehicle in addition to that due to
weight of the vehicle. Hence the allowable rate of change of centrifugal acceleration
should govern the design of the valley curves. The best shape valley curve is a
transition curve for gradually introducing and increasing the centrifugal force acting
downwards. Cubic parabola is generally preferred in vertical valley curves. There is a
restriction in the sight distance at valley curves as the head light gets intercepted
through the beam of light may be slightly inclined upwards. Therefore the head light
distance available at valley curves should be atleast equal to the stopping sight
distance. However, there is no problem of overtaking sight distance at valley curves
at night as other vehicles with head lights can be seen from a considerable distance (1).
Minimum length of vertical curves as per IRC: SP: 84 -2014 (Geometric Design
Standards for Four Laning of Highways through PPP) is presented in table-4.16 of
chapter 4.
2.2 Available Geometric Design Softwares
There are many geometric design softwares used in different parts of the world
based on its usage and application. Some of those design softwares are listed below
1. MX ROAD
2. Auto Civil
3. AutoTURN
4. ACAD
5. CDS Road
6. Diolkos
7. Earth
8. Eagle Point
9. HEADS
10. High Road
11. Key Terra Firma (KTF)
12. LISCAD
13. Novapoint
14. Pythagoras Road Design
15. PDS – CAD
16. Roadmate
17. Softree
18. Visual Roads
19. Soft Desk
20. VESTRA Civil 3d

2.2.1 Advantages and limitations


Each of the above mentioned software’s have their unique advantages and
limitations, out of them HEADS and Nova Point software features are discussed below
HEADS
 Multi level grade separated interchange design.

 Highway hydraulic design.

 Hill roads design.
 Highway improvement design.

 Airfield pavement design.

 Pavement design as per AASHTO specification.

Nova Point

 Highway, road and street design

 Interactive horizontal and vertical alignment design

 3D Road model

 Complex cross-sections with soil and rock layers

 Intersection design

 Sight distance analysis

 Dynamic vehicle turning circles

 Automatic plan, profile, cross-section and mass diagram

 Localized to national design and drawing standards

 Quantity calculation and stake out data sent direct to surveying equipment

2.3 MXROAD

2.3.1 Introduction
MXROAD is an application constructed of a number of modules to permit the
efficient design of a road scheme from the input of the existing ground data through
to the production of drawings and reports defining the scheme. Throughout the design,
tools are available to permit analysis or visualization of the design and to confirm each
step of the design process. The modules that make up MXROAD are:
 Quick Alignment.

 Road Design and Delete String Groups.

 Shoulder Design and Carriageway Widening.

 Rule−Based Superelevation.

 Junction Design.

 Pavement and Subgrade Design.

 Cross Sectional Editor.

 Report Generator.
2.3.2 Standard string naming convention
The MX standard string naming convention (SNC) has been formed to give
automatic integration to any design produced from any of the MXROAD options. It
may be switched on or off on a per project basis.
Strings created by the MXROAD options are assigned names which store the
following information:
 string type

 specific road feature

 associated master alignment which defines the string group

 side of the master alignment on which the string was created
Because many of the options within MXROAD rely on the information returned
from the string names, it is not possible to use MXROAD on models that do not follow
the convention. Any alignment created using MXROAD options should conform to the
standard string naming convention.

2.3.3 Data Import


Existing ground data’s are import on which the road design scheme is to be
implemented.
The data may be imported in one of several formats:
 AutoCAD DXF (*.dxf)

 National Transfer Format NTF (*.ntf)

 MX GENIO (*.txt)

 MX Survey data (*.inp)

 Softdesk Alignment and DTM

 Eagle Point Triangulation

 LandXML
A new model created from the ground data can be assigned with default feature
set and style set.

2.3.4 Surface Analysis


This option is used for analyzing the surface on which the design has to be
built. This is essential to confirm that the imported data is correct and contains no
errors. Typically the analysis will highlight errors in level and will also provide a
graphical representation of the existing surface; both of which can provide essential
information for design.
There are nine different types of analysis they are
 Display contours

 Level bands

 Slope bands

 Aspect bands

 Flat spots

 Steep slopes

 Flow arrows

 Simple long section

 Display triangulation

2.3.5 Alignment Design


The Alignment Design options are used to create the alignment for the road
design. By choosing Quick Alignment options, Horizontal Design and Vertical Profile
can be done in limited time duration and by choosing Alignment option, which gives
greater flexibility but consumes long time. Whichever method is used, the end results
are same with complete alignment defining both horizontal and vertical. The alignment
is converted to a master string which is generally used as the centre line along which
a carriageway and other features can be designed.
Quick Alignment
Horizontal Design enables to create horizontal alignments using dynamic
Intersection Point (IP) placement and Vertical Profile enables to create vertical
alignments using dynamic IP placement and manipulation. The backcloth is a vertical
profile of an existing horizontal alignment extracted from the triangulation model of
the ground.
Alignment
Alignment is used to design alignments for roads and other engineering
features. An alignment describes the basic horizontal and vertical position of a design
from which all other surface features are generated. For a road, the alignment usually
represents the centre line, but may represent a channel or any other convenient
feature.
Alignments are created in two stages:
 Horizontal design

 Vertical design
For horizontal and vertical design, there are three design methods
 Element method

 Intersection Point (IP) method

 Spline method.

The Element method is used to construct an alignment from a series of
elements, either straights or circular arcs, connected by transition curves as required.
The IP method produces the same end result but allows constructing the alignment
by entering a series of intersection points. The lines joining these points are tangential
to the curves which connect the straight elements, transitions can also be included.
The spline method allows specifying a series of points through which a cubic spline
curve is fitted. Complete alignments are converted to master strings for use with the
other MXROAD options.

2.3.6 Road Design


Road Design is a series of options which enables in designing a road
from an existing master string. It consists of a number of stages namely
Carriageways, Rule−based Superelevation, Road Widening, Shoulder Design and
Kerbs, Verges and Footways.
Carriageway
Carriageway options are used to creates a road surface using either a standard
template or by customizing it by manual data feeding. The templates contain all the
details of the road surface, including the carriageway width and the crossfall or vertical
offset to the carriageway edge strings. There are standard templates for many
different types of carriageway, including single roads, with a single lane either side,
and dual carriageways with two or three lanes.
Rule-based super elevation
Rule−based Superelevation provides a simple approach to the
application of superelevation to a road. The superelevation applied is based on
parametres specified in design rules files, which conform to either a local or national
standard.
Road Widening
The Road Widening Wizard provides a simple approach to the process of road
widening, and can be used to create extra lanes, lay−bys, parking areas or junction
widening.
Shoulder Design
Shoulder Design is used to create shoulders from the edge of the carriageway.
Several different methods are available to apply the crossfall across the shoulder, and
the method can be changed automatically when certain criteria are met .
The standard shoulder methods are:
 Fixed crossfall method
In this method the crossfall is specified from the carriageway edge to
the shoulder.
 Follow carriageway crossfall method
In this method the same crossfall for the shoulder are used for the
carriageway.
2.3.7 Junction Design
The Junction Design options are used to create a junction between a through
road and an intersecting road.
Before attempting junction design the design of both carriageways including
widening at the junction and applied superelevation should be completed.
Once the junction design is complete, the design of kerbs, verges or footways
can be continued. Cross roads are created by adding fillets to all corners of two
intersecting carriageways. Fillets can be created from circular arcs or three centre
curves, and then the entire junction is regraded dynamically by editing the vertical
profile using information from the carriageway edges. These options are used to
improve water flow across the junction or to relocate a low spot. Once the previous
steps are completed traffic islands are added from a pre−defined traffic island style
library, and the junction design is complete by automatically joining the fillets to the
carriageway edges.
Earthwork wizard
The Earthworks Wizard is a standard MX option which is used to design
an earthworks structure between two models, the design model containing the new
design surface and the existing ground model. The earthwork design relies on the
specification of an earthwork style, together with a number of strategies to be used
when specified criteria are met.

2.3.8 Modifying the design


Edit Strings and Edit Points
The standard MX Edit options can be used during any stages of an engineering
design as follows:
 For the existing surface − to correct erroneous levels and the ground position
of points and strings.
 For feature design − to remove redundant parts of strings where they
intersect other features, or to insert nonstandard features.

 For analysis − to create boundaries within which areas or volumes are
derived.
 For visualization − to enhance and improve model information for drawings.
Delete String Groups
The MXROAD, Delete String options are particularly used because it allows
to delete strings of a particular type in one operation.
Cross Sectional Editor

The cross sectional editor is used to view cross sections and modify the points
on them. The changes made in cross sections are reflected in the model data.
Sections can be dynamically edited at individual chainages by specifying an
offset, level or slope. The cross section element can be edited independently, ie,
without affecting the elements which lie outside of the element, or an element can be
edit while all outer elements retain the same relative position. Volumes can be
calculated at any time between the ground and design models within a selected

chainage range (9).

CHAPTER – 3
PROJECT DETAILS

3.1 Project Background

National Highways Authority of India (NHAI) has awarded the improvement


and up-gradation of the existing two lane Sangli-Solapur Sections of NH 166 in to 4-
lane configuration. Under the said program, NHAI has signed the contract agreement
with M/s. Aarvee Associates Architects Engineers & Consultants Pvt. Limited,
Hyderabad for consultancy services for preparation of the Detailed Project Report.
3.3 Project Location
The proposed Sangli to Solapur Project Road Comprises the following four
road packages

Project Packages

Package IV: Mangalwedha to Solapur:

In this we have taken the stretch from Kamthi (Ch-356.700) to Solapur (Ch-
378.100) for our geometric design by using MX Road software.
3.4 General Features of Project
Right of Way

A minimum Right of Way (ROW) of 60m shall be made available for


development of a 4 - Lane National Highway. The Authority shall acquire the additional
land required, if any for other project facilities.

Lane width of Carriageway

The standard lane width of carriageway for the Project Highway shall be 3.5m.
3.4.2 Alignment

The existing pavement is entirely of flexible type with width varying from 6.8 to 7.0 m
and earthen shoulder width varying from 1.5 to 2.0 m. The
height of embankment varies from 0m to 3m.. The existing carriage way has two lane
width with 1.0 m to 2.50 m earthen shoulders
on either side. The embankment height is less than 1.0 m except near the
approaches of bridges where it is more than 5.2 m. In majority of the sections,
roadside drains are available but are in choked condition.
There are many horizontal curves and few steep vertical curves in the project
corridor. Many of the horizontal curves lack adequate sufficient sight distance and
transition lengths, resulting in unsafe driving. Sight distance is very inadequate even
on relatively smooth curves because of abutting cultivation on both sides of road.
Also observed are big trees and plantations all along the road that will be a constraint
on the improvements to geometry. Places where there are settlements, the houses
are very close to the road further making difficult to improve curves.

3.4.3 Road Characteristics

3.4.4 Pavement Condition


➢ Crack type (longitudinal, transverse, alligator and block), width (fine cracks
<3mm and wide cracks >3mm) and as a percentage of total area.
➢ Ravelling as percentage of total area.
➢ Pot hole area as percentage of total area and their number.
➢ Rut depth which is classified in three types: type I (<10mm), type II (10-
20mm) and type III (>20mm).
➢ Edge failure in running meter.
Shoulder condition.

➢ Material
loss by checking the level difference between the paved surface and
unpaved surface.
➢ Embankment condition and the material loss in the embankment.
➢ Drainage condition.
The road condition survey revealed that the pavement condition is generally fair with
cracking and less percentage of rutting.

Condition Percentage (%)

Good 23

Fair 63

Poor 14

3.4.5 Soil Characteristics


The soil samples have been primarily classified according to IS: 1498-1970 which is
based on USC system. Test results (Appendix) indicate that out of 15 samplescollected
from existing subgrade of the project road, 7 samples belongs to CH type, 2 samples
belongs to SC type, 4 samples belongs to CI type and 2 sample each belongs to SM and
Non-Plastic type. The soaked CBR values obtained from the laboratory test for the
collected soil samples ranges from 2% to 9%.
3.4.6 Junctions and Crossings
There are many crossroads that intersect the project road; the project road
provides direct access to villages.
Lists of Junctions and Crossings along the Project Road

Junction
Chainage Junction
Details
Two
Kamthi
356.700 Legged
357.255
357.500 Two
Solapur To Kamthi
Legged
357.530
357.770
357.992
T
Minor Junction
358.200 Section
358.337
Minor Junction Three
358.500 Legged
T
Minor Junction
358.600 Section
358.669

359.034
359.094
359.133
359.174
359.200 Bus Bay
359.3
359.354
359.575

Dadpur Kamthi B K Three


359.600 Legged
359.620
T
LamanTanda
359.700 Section
359.703
359.900 Busbay
360.072
360.238
Three
LamanTanda
360.400 Legged
360.421
360.424
360.464
360.750
360.820
361.107
Two
Shingoli
361.240 Legged
361.243
361.334
361.397
Three
Shingoli
361.534 Legged
361.760
361.776

Shingoli,Haralwadi Three
361.861 Legged
362.059
362.117
362.320
362.623 Three
Shingoli,Taratgaon,
Legged
362.752
362.946
363.044
363.123
363.451
363.530
363.721
Two
Taratgaon
364.000 Legged
364.076
364.350
364.503
364.829
Three
Shivani,Pathari
365.000 Legged
365.074
365.216
365.400 Bus bay
365.500
365.600 Bus bay
365.71
T
Minor Junction
365.800 Section
366.052
366.330
366.343
366.558
366.800 Bus bay
367.000
367.078
367.150 Bus bay
Three
Hiraj Pathari
367.264 Legged
367.457
T
Belati
367.600 Section
Two
Belati clg
368.000 Legged
368.050 Bus bay
368.097
368.220
368.419
368.548
Two
Busbay,Junction(hirag)
368.600 Legged
369.063
369.195
369.387
369.421
369.622
Three
Hiraj, Belati
369.738 Legged
369.763
369.830 Bus bay
370.015
370.036
370.054
370.063
370.200 Bus bay
370.510
Three
Junction
370.750 Legged
371.019
371.110
371.183
371.322
Three
Junction belati
371.600 Legged
371.634
T
Degoan
372.220 Section
T
Minor Junction
372.400 Section
372.481
372.640
373.058
373.150 Bus bay
373.216
Two
Kegoan
373.350 Legged
373.466
373.550 Bus bay
373.800
373.942 Bridge
Two
Degoan
374.000 Legged
374.096
Two
Junction
374.200 Legged
374.351
Three
Degoan
374.411 Legged
Two
Junction
374.500 Legged
374.601
374.737
374.770 Bus bay
374.985
375.007
375.220
375.426
375.700 Bus bay
Koyan nagar Shelake
vasti Three
375.800 Legged
375.908
375.930
375.973
376.231
Two
Junction
376.350 Legged
376.493 Bridge
376.704
T
Laxmi peth
376.710 Section
Laxmi peth laxmi Three
376.844 vishnu chanl legged
376.881
377.155
Three
Damani Nagar
377.500 legged
377.200 Bus Bay
Three
Junction
377.500 legged
377.555
Three
Junction
377.600 legged
377.800
377.890 Bus bay
377.991
378.100 End Of Package4

3.4.7 Drainage condition


Improper drainage for surface water along the project road was observed for project road.
The raised earthen shoulder and problem of drainage is more in township / built up area
as water gets stagnated on the road and shoulders due to lack of proper drainage

3.4.8 Cross Drainage Structures

VUP/LVUP Minor bridges Major bridges ROB

7 7 2 1
3.6 Flexible Pavement Proposals
The composition of flexible pavement is proposed by considering soil
characteristics, projected traffic data, design period of 15 years and calculated MSA
value.
The recommended pavement composition as per IRC: 37–2001 (Guidelines for
the Design of Flexible Pavements) is given below.
RIGID PAVEMENT DESIGN

Pavement is one of the significant components of design and therefore it should beable
to withstand projected traffic loading for the design period.
The pavement design is carried out for rigid options using IRCcodesRigid pavement has
been designed in accordance with IRC:58-2015.

FACTORS GOVERNING DESIGN

 Axle load
 Design period
 Design lane
 Design traffic
 Axle load spectrum
 Wheel base
 Temperature consideration

RECOMMENDED DESIGN PROCEDURE

Different cross section of pavements are shown in Appendix 1. Design examples for
different types of pavements are also illustrated in Appendix 1
Step 1 :Stipulate design values for the various parameters

Step 2 :Select a trial design thickness of pavement slab

Step 3 :Compute the repetitions of axle loads of different magnitudes during the

design period

Step 4 :Find the proportions of axle load repetitions of each axle load during

the day and night periods

Step 5 :Find the axle load repetitions in 6 hours during the day time. The
maximum temperature differential is assumed to remain constant during the 6 hours for
analysis of bottom up cracking

Step 6 :Find the axle load repetitions in 6 hours during the night time. The maximum
negative temperature differential in the night is taken as half of day time maximum
temperature differential. Built in negative temperature differential of 50C developed
during the setting of the concrete is to be added to the temperature differential for the
analysis of top down cracking. Only those vehicles with wheel base less than 4.5 m
need be considered for the analysis.

Step 7 :Compute the flexural stresses at the edge due to the single and
tandem axle loads for the combined effect of axle loads and temperature differential
during the day time. Determine the stress ratio ( Flexural stress/ MR (Modulus of
Rupture) ) and evaluate the cumulative fatigue damage(CFD) for single axle and
tandem axle loads. Sum of the two CFDs should be less than 1 for bottom up cracking.

Step 8 :Compute the flexural stress in the central area of the pavement slab with the
front axle near the approaching transverse joint and the rear axle close to the following
joint under negative temperature differential( as per step 6). Determine the stress ratio
and evaluate the CFD for different axle loads for the analysis of top down cracking. CFD
should be less than 1 for top down cracking. The designer has to provide traffic data
such as rate of traffic growth, axle load spectrum, number of single and tandem axles,
proportion of trucks with wheel base less than transverse joint spacing(say 4.5 m). The
entire design process is programmed on an excel sheet and the designer can make
several trials instantly. All relevant traffic and material data are inputs to the excel
sheets.

It is worth noting that concrete strength increases with age. The excel sheets illustrate
design for 28 day and 90 day strengths of PQC. 90 day strength can safely be used
because of following considerations

(i) Design traffic for edge stress calculation is taken as 25% against 2-3% axle actually
moving near the edge

(ii) Assumption of low terminal load transfer efficiency at transverse and longitudinal
joints for stress calculation. Load induced flexural stress in the early years of
pavements is only a fraction of computed stress

(iii) Conservative assumption of highest temperature differential to be constant for 6


hours both during the day and night hours all through the years leading to high
computed CFD

(iv) Conservative recommendation of dowel bar design. There is hardly any gap
between the concrete slabs at transverse joints due to absence of expansion joints but
a gap of 8mm is assumed in design of dowel bar.

(v) The moisture gradient across the depth of the concrete is opposite to that of the
temperature gradient and hence the curling caused by temperature gradient is nullified
to some extent by the warping caused by the moisture gradient. In view of the above
factors, the above design methodology is likely to result in a higher life of the pavement
than considered.
CHAPTER – 4
GEOMETRIC DESIGN STANDARDS
4.1 Design Standards and Specifications
4.1.1 Terrain classification
Terrain classification based on cross slope of the country as per IRC: SP:
84 – 2014 (Geometric Design Standards for Four Laning of Highways through
PPP).
Table 4.1 IRC Specification – Cross slope for various terrain

S.No Terrain Classification Percent Cross Slope of the Country

1 Plain 0 – 10

2 Rolling 10 – 25

3 Mountainous 25 – 60

4 Steep greater than 60

4.1.2 Design Speed


Design speeds as per IRC: SP: 84 – 2014 (Geometric Design Standards for
Four Laning of Highways through PPP).
Table 4.2 IRC Specification – Design speed for various classes of
roads

Design Speed, km/h


Mountainous
Plain Terrain Rolling Terrain Steep Terrain
S. Road Terrain
No Design Design Design Design Design Design Design Design
Classification
Speed Speed Speed Speed Speed Speed Speed Speed
(R) (M) (R) (M) (R) (M) (R) (M)
National and
1 100 80 80 65 50 40 40 30
State Highways
Major District
2 80 65 65 50 40 30 30 20
Roads
Other District
3 65 50 50 40 30 25 25 20
Roads

4 Village Roads 50 40 40 35 25 20 25 20

Note: R – Ruling, M – Minimum


4.1.3 Land Width
Land width for different classes of road based on terrains as per IRC: SP: 84
– 2014 (Geometric Design Standards for Four Laning of Highways through PPP).
Table 4.3 IRC Specification – Land Width for various classes of roads

Road width in metre


Road Classification
Plain and Rolling Terrain Mountainous and Steep Terrain
Open Area
NH/SH 45 (30 – 60) 24
MDR 25 (25 – 30) 18
ODR 15 (15 – 5) 15
VR 12 (12 – 18) 9
Built-up Area
NH/SH 30 (30 – 60) 20
MDR 20 (15 – 25) 15
ODR 15 (15 – 20) 12
VR 10 (10 – 15) 9

Formation width for different classes of roads based on terrains as per IRC:
SP: 84 – 2014 (Geometric Design Standards for Four Laning of Highways through
PPP).

Table 4.4 IRC Specification – Width of formation for various classes of roads

Roadway width in metre


Road Classification
Plain and Rolling Terrain Mountainous and Steep Terrain
NH/SH 12 6.25 – 8.8
MDR 9 4.75
ODR 7.5 – 9.0 4.75
VR 7.5 4.0

4.1.4 Typical Cross Section


Carriageway width as per IRC: SP: 84 -2014 (Geometric Design
Standards for Four Laning of Highways through PPP).
Table 4.5 IRC Specification – Width of carriageway for various classes of roads

S.No Road Classification Carriageway Width, metre

1 Single Lane 3.75

2 Two Lane, no kerbs 7.0


3 Two Lane, raised kerbs 7.5

4 Intermediate Lane 5.5

5 Multi-Lane 3.5

Crossfall/Camber values for different road surface types as per IRC: SP:
84 – 2014 (Geometric Design Standards for Four Laning of Highways through
PPP).
Table 4.6 IRC Specification – Crossfall/Camber values for different road surfaces

S.No Surface Type Camber/Crossfall

1.7% – 2.0 %
1 High Type Bituminous Surfacing or Cement Concrete
(1 in 60 to 1 in 50 )

2.0% – 2.5%
2 Thin Bituminous Surfacing
(1 in 50 to 1 in 40 )

2.5% – 3.0%
3 Water Bound Macadam Gravel
(1 in 40 to 1 in 33 )

3.0% – 4.0%
4 Earth
(1 in 33 to 1 in 25 )

4.1.5 Sight Distance


Sight distance standards as per IRC: SP: 84 – 2014 (Geometric Design
Standards for Four Laning of Highways through PPP).

Table 4.7 IRC Specification – Safe stopping side distance for various speeds

Speed km/h Safe Stopping Sight Distance (metres)


20 20
25 25
30 30
40 45
50 60
60 80
65 90
80 130
100 180
Table 4.8 IRC Specification – Intermediate sight distance for various speeds

Speed km/h Intermediate Sight Distance (metres)


20 40
25 50
30 60
35 80
40 90
50 120
60 160
65 180
80 240
100 360
Table 4.9 IRC Specification – Overtaking sight distance for various speeds

Time component, seconds Safe overtaking


For overtaking For opposing sight distance
Speed km/h Total
manoeuvre vehicles (metres)
40 9 6 15 165
50 10 7 17 235
60 10.8 7.2 18 300
65 11.5 7.5 19 340
80 12.5 8.5 21 470
100 14 9 23 640
Criteria for measuring the different type of sight distance as per IRC: SP: 84 -
2014 (Geometric Design Standards for Four Laning of Highways through PPP).
Table 4.10 IRC Specification – Criteria for Measuring sight distance

Drivers eye height Height of object


S.No. Sight distance
(metres) (metres)

1 Stopping Sight Distance 1.2 0.15


2 Intermediate Sight Distance 1.2 1.2
3 Overtaking Sight Distance 1.2 1.2

4.1.6 Horizontal Curves


Minimum radius of horizontal curves for different terrain conditions with
ruling and absolute minimum values as per IRC: SP: 84 -2014 (Geometric Design
Standards for Four Laning of Highways through PPP).
Table 4.11 IRC Specification – Minimum Radii of Horizontal Curve
Terrain
Road Classification
Plain Rolling Mountainous Steep
NH/SH 360-230 230-155 80-50 50-30
MDR 230-155 115-90 50-30 30-14
ODR 155-90 90-60 30-20 20-14
VR 90-60 60-45 20-14 20-14
The minimum length of transition curves for various values of radius of curve
and design speeds recommended as per IRC: SP: 84 -2014 (Geometric Design
Standards for Four Laning of Highways through PPP).
Table 4.12 IRC Specification – Minimum transition length for different speeds
and curve radius
Plain and Rolling Terrain Mountainous and Steep Terrain
Curve Design Speed (Kmph) Curve Design Speed (Kmph)
Radius Radius
100 80 60 50 40 35 50 40 30 25 20
R(m) R(m)
Transition Length, m Transition Length, m
45 - - - - NA 70 14 - - - NA 30
60 - - - NA 75 55 20 - - - 35 20
90 - - - 75 50 40 25 - - NA 25 20
100 - - NA 70 45 35 30 - - 30 25 15
150 - - 80 45 30 25 40 - NA 25 20 15
170 - - 70 40 25 20 50 - 40 20 15 15
200 - NA 60 35 25 20 55 - 40 20 15 15
240 - 90 50 30 20 NR 70 NA 30 15 15 15
300 NA 75 40 25 NR - 80 55 25 15 15 NR
360 130 60 35 20 - - 90 45 25 15 15
400 115 55 30 20 - - 100 45 20 15 15 -
500 95 45 25 NR - - 125 35 15 15 NR -
600 80 35 20 - - - 150 30 15 15 - -
700 70 35 20 - - - 170 25 15 NR - -
800 60 30 NR - - - 200 20 15 - - -
900 55 30 - - - - 250 15 15 - - -
1000 50 30 - - - - 300 15 NR - - -
1200 40 NR - - - - 400 15 - - - -
1500 35 - - - - - 500 NR - - - -
1800 30 - - - - -
2000 NR - - - - -
The extra widening recommended as per IRC: SP: 84 -2014 (Geometric
Design Standards for Four Laning of Highways through PPP) for single lane and two
lane pavements
Table 4.13 IRC Specification – Extra width of pavement at horizontal curve

Radius of
Up to 20 20 to 40 41 to 60 61 to 100 101 - 300 Above 300
curve (m)

Extra width (m)

Two lane 1.5 1.5 1.2 0.9 0.6 Nil

Single lane 0.9 0.6 0.6 Nil Nil Nil

Super Elevation
The radius values beyond which no super elevation is required as per IRC:
SP: 84 -2014 (Geometric Design Standards for Four Laning of Highways through
PPP).
Table 4.14 IRC Specification – radii beyond which super elevation is not required

Design speed Radius (metres) for camber of

(Kmph) 4% 3% 2.50% 2.00% 1.70%

20 50 60 70 90 100
25 70 90 110 140 150
30 100 130 160 200 240
35 140 180 220 70 320
40 180 240 280 350 420
50 280 370 450 550 650
65 470 620 750 950 1100
80 700 950 1100 1400 1700
100 1100 1500 1800 2200 2600

4.1.7 Vertical Geometry


The maximum values of gradients recommended as per IRC: 73 –1980
(Geometric Design Standards for Rural Highways)
Table 4.15 IRC Specification – Gradients for different terrains

Gradient, %
Terrain
Ruling Limiting Exception
Plain/Rolling 3.3 5.0 6.7

Hilly 5.0 6.0 7.0

Steep 6.0 7.0 8.0


The minimum length of vertical curve for different design speeds and for the
maximum grade change values as per IRC: SP: 84 -2014 (Geometric Design
Standards for Four Laning of Highways through PPP).
Table 4.16 IRC Specification – Minimum length of vertical curves

Maximum grade change Minimum length of vertical


Design Speed (km/h) (percent) not requiring a vertical curve (metres)
curve
Up to 35 1.5 15
40 1.2 20
50 1.0 30
65 0.8 40
80 0.6 50
100 0.5 60

4.2 Design Proposals


By considering all the above mentioned design parameters and specification
the following design values are taken for executing the project work.
1) Design speed – 100kmph
2) Cross Section Elements
a) Road Margins
i) Right of Way(RoW) – 60m
ii) Width between control lines – 150m
iii) Width between building lines – 80m
iv) Setback distance between building line and road boundary – 8m to 10m
b) Roadway Width – Varies
c) Roadway Cross Section Details
i) Carriageway width –7.0m
ii) Shoulder width – 3.5m (1.5m Paved and 2m Earthern Shoulder)
d) Cross Slope or Camber
i) Bituminous surface – 2.5%
ii) Earthen surface(shoulder) – 3.5%
iii) Embankment Slope – 1 V : 2 H
3) Sight Distance
a) Stopping Sight Distance(SSD) – 180m
b) Intermediate Sight Distance(ISD) – 360m
c) Over Taking Sight Distance(OSD) – 640m
4) Horizontal Design
a) Super elevation – maximum 7.0%
b) Radius of Horizontal Curve – Ruling Minimum 230m
c) Radius at which no super elevation is required – > 1200m
d) Radius at which 7% super elevation is achieved – 230m
e) Extra Widening of Carriageway at Curves – varies
5) Vertical Design
a) Gradient
i) Ruling gradient maximum – 3.3%
ii) Limiting gradient maximum – 5.0%
iii) Minimum gradient – 0.5%
b) Minimum length of vertical curve –
c) Minimum ‘K’ (rate of change of vertical acceleration value) of Summit Curve –
d) Minimum ‘K’ (rate of change of vertical acceleration value) of Valley Curve –

The above proposals are used during the designing process. Problems which
where encountered during design and their recommended are discussed in next
subheading.
CHAPTER – 5

PAVEMENT DESIGN:
CHAPTER – 6
DESIGN STEPS IN MX ROAD
Step 1: Importing Survey Data

Step 2: Triangulation

Step 3: Creating a Design Model

Step 4: Horizontal Design

Step 5: Vertical Design

Step 6: Carriageway Design

Step 7: Superelevation

Step 8: Shoulder Design

Step 9: Earthwork Calculation

Step 10: Pavement Design

Step 11: Pavement Quantity Calculation

Step 12: Generation of Various Reports

Pictures are given for each steps in Annexure-I


CHAPTER – 7

PROJECT COST AND QUANTITY ESTIMATION:


5.1 General
A rough quantity and cost estimation of pavement materials has been prepared
for the project considering all the major items belonging to road works.

5.2 Quantity Estimation


The quantification of pavement materials is done based on the detailed plan,
profile and design. Typical cross section shown in ANNEXURE – III has been taken
for quantity estimation.

5.3 Cost Estimation


The unit rates for individual items are obtained from referring Schedule of Rates
(2016-17) belonging to PWD Pune Division.
Adopted unit rates for major items are presented in table.

Unit Rates for Major items


S.No Item Unit Rates (Rs)
1 Scarification – Bituminous layer Sq.m
2 Earthen Subgrade Cum
3 Granular Sub Base (GSB) Cum
4 Wet Mix Macadam (WMM) Cum
5 Prime Coat Sq.m
6 Tack Coat Sq.m
7 Dense Bituminous Macadam (DBM) Cum
8 Bituminous Concrete (BC) Cum

The description of major items and project cost are enclosed in ANNEXURE – II
CHAPTER – 8

DISCUSSIONS AND CONCLUSIONS:

1. All improvements are planned within the proposed ROW.


2. Highway design precision and savings in time were achieved by using MX Road
software.
3. A
4. A
5. Maximum design speed (100 kmph) is maintained throughout the project stretch
and minimum design speed is 50 kmph.
REFERENCES
1. S.K.Khanna., C.E.G.Justo., Highway Engineering, New Chand & Bros.
2. L.R.Kadiyali., N.B.Lal., Highway Engineering, Khanna Publishers.
3. AASHTO, A policy on Geometric Deign of Highways and Streets, American
Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials; Washington, D.C.
4. Indian Road Congress, “Geometric Design Standards for Rural (Non Urban)
Highways”, IRC: 73-1980.
5. Indian Road Congress, “Design of Horizontal Curves for Highways and
Design Tables”, IRC: 38-1988.
6. Indian Road Congress, “Vertical Curves for Highways”, IRC: SP23-1983.
7. Indian Road Congress, “Capacity of Roads in Rural Areas”, IRC: 64-1990.
8. Indian Road Congress, “Design of Flexible Pavements”, IRC: 37-2011.
9. Indian Road Congress, “Design of Rigid Pavements”, IRC: 58-2015.
10. Bently, MXROAD Introduction Manual, Bently Systems, Inc.
ANNEXURE-I
Step-1: Importing Survey Data.

Step-2: Triangulation.

Step-3: Creating DESIGN Model.


Step-4: Horizontal Design.

Step-5: Design of Vertical Allignment.


Step-6: Design of Carriageway.
Step-7: Design of Superelevation.

Step-8: Earthwork Calculation.


ANNEXURE-II