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"There are times when silence speaks so
much more loudly than words of praise to
only as good as belittle a person, whose
words do not express, but only put a
veneer over true feelings, which are of
gratitude at this point of time."

I would like to express my sincere gratitude

to my physics mentor for his vital
support, guidance and encouragement,
without which this project would not
have come forth. I would also like to
express my gratitude to the staff of the
Department of Physics at Delhi Public
School Ghaziabad for their support
during the making of this project.
The transformer is a device used for converting a
low alternating voltage to a high alternating
voltage or a high alternating voltage into a low
alternating voltage. It is a static electrical device
that transfers energy by inductive coupling
between its winding circuits. Transformers range in
size from a thumbnail-sized coupling transformer
hidden inside a stage microphone to huge units
weighing hundreds of tons used in power plant
substations or to interconnect portions of the
power grid. All operate on the same basic
principles, although the range of designs is wide.
While new technologies have eliminated the need
for transformers in some electronic circuits,
transformers are still found in many electronic
devices. Transformers are essential for highvoltage
electric power transmission, which makes
long-distance transmission economically practical.
A transformer is most widely used device in both
low and high current circuit. In a transformer, the
electrical energy transfer from one circuit to
another circuit takes place without the use of
moving parts. A transformer which increases the
voltages is called a step-up transformer. A
transformer which decreases the A.C. voltages is
called a step-down transformer.
A transformer consists of a rectangular shaft iron
core made of laminated sheets, well insulated from
one another. Two coils p1 & p2 and s1 & s2 are
wound on the same core, but are well insulated
with each other. Note that the both the coils are
insulated from the core, the source of alternating
e.m.f is connected to p1p2, the primary coil and a
load resistance R is connected to s1 s2, the
secondary coil through an open switch S. thus
there can be no current through the sec. coil so
long as the switch is open. For an ideal
transformer, we assume that the resistance of the
primary & secondary winding is negligible. Further,
the energy loses due to magnetic the iron core is
also negligible. For operation at low frequency, we
may have a soft iron. The soft iron core is
insulating by joining thin iron strips coated with
varnish to insulate them to reduce energy losses
by eddy currents. The input circuit is called
primary. And the output circuit is called secondary.
When an altering e.m.f. is supplied to the primary
coil p1p2, an alternating current starts falling in it.
The altering current in the primary produces a
changing magnetic flux, which induces altering
voltage in the primary as well as in the secondary.
In a good-transformer, whole of the magnetic flux
linked with primary is also linked with the
secondary, and then the induced e.m.f. induced in
each turn of the secondary is equal to that induced
in each turn of the primary. Thus if Ep and Es be
the instantaneous values of the e.m.f.’s induced in
the primary and the secondary and Np and Ns are
the no. of turns of the primary secondary coils of
the transformer and, Dфь / dt = rate of change of
flux in each turn of the coil at this instant, we have
Ep = -Np Dфь/dt (1)
Es = -Ns Dфь/dt (2)
Since the above relations are true at every instant,
so by dividing 2 by 1, we get
Es / Ep = - Ns / Np (3)
As Ep is the instantaneous value of back e.m.f
induced in the primary coil p1, so the
instantaneous current in primary coil is due to the
difference (E – Ep ) in the instantaneous values of
the applied and back e.m.f. further if Rp is the
resistance o, p1p2 coil, then the instantaneous
current Ip in the primary coil is given by
I =E – Ep / Rp
E – Ep = Ip Rp
When the resistance of the primary is small, Rp Ip
can be neglected so therefore
E – Ep = 0 or Ep = E
Thus back e.m.f = input e.m.f
Hence equation 3 can be written as Es / Ep = Es / E
= output e.m.f / input e.m.f = Ns / Np = K
Where K is constant, called turn or transformation
In a step up transformer
Es > E so K > 1, hence Ns > Np
In a step down transformer
Es < E so K < 1, hence Ns < Np
If Ip=value of primary current at the same instant t
And Is =value of sec. current at this instant,
then Input power at the instant t = Ep Ip and
Output power at the same instant = Es Is
If there are no losses of power in the transformer,
then Input power = output power or
Ep Ip = Es Is Or
Es / Ep = Ip / Is = K
In a step up transformer
As k > 1, so Ip > Is or Is < Ip
I.e. current in sec. is weaker when secondary
voltage is higher. Hence, whatever we gain in
voltage, we lose in current in the same ratio.
Similarly it can be shown, that in a step down
transformer, whatever we lose in voltage, we gain
in current in the same ratio.Thus a step up
transformer in reality steps down the current & a
step down transformer steps up the current.
1. Inspect your transformer thoroughly to prevent or minimize breakdowns. Before

installation, monitor your transformer by checking for any burnt odor, damaged

power cords and connectors or any parts that are improperly installed.

2. Keep the power off when working on the transformer. Make sure there is zero

electrical leakage or continuity between the current source and the system.

3. Use protective equipment and pay close attention to specific ratings for the

transformer’s voltage output. Keep over current protection of conductors and circuits

set to the manufacturer’s standards.

4. Learn the maximum voltage requirements of your transformer. Be careful of system

overload from a single transformer, with the understanding that multiple

transformers help balance the impedance of each load.

5. Keep spare nuts, bolts and other objects away from your work, so that they don’t

touch or fall into the transformer.

6. Be certain that your transformer is grounded, which will prevent static electricity and

protect the coils from contacting the enclosure or core.

7. Always keep your transformer and all of its components dry and free from any kind of

moisture or water. To protect unskilled onlookers, set up caution signs that warn

people to keep away from danger.


The data used in this project was taken from the

following sources:
Sears and Zemansky’s University Physics

To study the voltage and current ratios of a

transformer and learn about exciting
currents, volt-ampere capacity and short-
circuit currents.
When mutual induction is permitted between two coils or windings, a
change in current flowing through one coil induces a voltage upon the
other coil. All transformers have a primary winding and one or more
secondary windings. The electromagnetic coupling between the primary
and secondary windings allows electrical energy to be transferred from the
primary winding to the secondary winding. Electrical current entering the
primary winding appears as an electromotive force (emf) at the secondary.
Connecting the secondary winding to a load allows the energy to be
transferred to the load. Since there is no electrical connection between
primary and secondary windings (only a magnetic connection), the source
and load can be electrically isolated from each other by means of a

When a transformer is energized and loaded, AC current flowing in its

windings creates an alternating magnetic field in its iron core. A small
portion of the current, called the magnetizing current, is dedicated to the
magnetic circuit in the creation of the magnetic field. Losses associated
with the magnetizing current are reactive power (VARs).