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Ancient Wealth of a Rāṣṭram, how India

contributed to 33% of World GDP in 1 CE

-- Technology & organization of guilds as key factors in wealth of a nation creating a
commonwealth, shared resource of communities
-- Arthaśāstra Economic History of Veda culture
-- Archives of metalwork wealth in Indus Script & Sarasvati civilization
Presented in 4 sections as Story of Indian Civilization:
I. Key components of Wealth of a Rāṣṭram
II. Sarasvati Civilization maritime trade contacts with Ancient Near East
III. India links with Ancient Far East
IV. Rebirth of River Sarasvati, Renaissance of a civilization with roots traced to 8th millennium BCE
S. Kalyanaraman
Sarasvati Research Centre June, 2018

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अहम् राष्ट्री संगमनी वसूनाम् I am the mover of nation's wealth:
दे वता आत्मा, ऋषिका वाक् आम्भृणी (RV 10.125)

Vedic River Sarasvati, अहम् राष्ट्री संगमनी वसूनाम् I am the
mover of nation's wealth: दे वता आत्मा, ऋषिका वाक् आम्भृणी
R̥gveda archaeology and metaphor: RV II:41:16
(RV 10.125) reveres Sarasvati as ambitame naditame devitame
sarasvatī ‘best of mothers, best of rivers, best of the
divinities, Sarasvatī.’
The presentation provides evidence from Indus Script
Corpora of 8000+ inscriptions to explain this R̥gveda
metaphor in terms of wealth of a Rāṣṭram, again
metaphor of Sarasvatī, vāk, ātmā

Section I: Key Economic factors of production,
Components of Wealth of a Rāṣṭram

Chanhudaro, Sheffield of Ancient India. Metalware.

Discovered in chalcolithic levels of Mehergarh,
metallurgical technology, cire perdue bronze castings, 5th
Arthaśāstra Economic History of Veda culture
Metalwork guilds, maritime trade, capital formation using
natural resources
Guild organization as śreṇi dharma, commonwealth
Metal processing Technologies, land use -- domestication of 4
Sarasvati River Basin, the epicentre, navigable
waterway to create wealth of a nation

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Vedic River Sarasvati

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Sarasvati River Basin wealth-creating activities in
80% of 2600 sites of the civilization

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The enquiry into Veda is intended to promote further Arthaśāstra 'wealth
science' enquiries (veda) to unravel how our pitr̥-s contributed to 33% of
Global Gross Domestic Product (GDP) by 1 Common Era (CE).

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Metaphor of Varāha as Knowledge System

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Priest sculpture is Indus Script hypertext.Potr̥ पोतृ,'purifier', dhā̆vaḍ
'iron-smelter' of dhāū, dhāv 'red stone minerals' in
R̥gveda of yajña.
The hieroglyphs are: 1) Dotted circle (circular inlay ornament) looks like a
2) bead is worn like a
3) fillet tied to a
4) String; the fillet bands fall like a
5) scarf
6) shawl cloth worn with right-shoulder bare is decorated with
7) one, two, three dotted circles
Component 1: dhā 'strand' + vaṭa 'string' rebus: vatta n. ʻduty, officeʼ(Pali) rebus: धावडी [ dhāvaḍī ] a Relating to the class धावड,
'smelter'. (Semantic determinative: dhāṭ(h)u 'scarf' (WPah.) rebus: dhāṭu 'mineral ore')
Component 2: paṭṭa m. ʻfillet', paḍa 'cloth' rebus: phaḍā 'metals manufactory'
Pota ‘cothʼ.Pk. pottī -- f. ʻglassʼ; S. pūti f. ʻglass beadʼ, P. pot f.; N. pote ʻlong straight bar of jewelryʼ; B. pot ʻglass
bead’, puti, pũti ʻsmall beadʼ; Or. puti ʻnecklace of small glass beadsʼ; H. potm. ʻglass beadʼ, G. M. pot f.; -- Bi. pot ʻjeweller's
polishing stoneʼ (CDIAL 8403) rebus: Potr̥ 'Purifier priest' (R̥gveda) ப ோத்தி pōtti, n. < ப ோற் றி. 1. Grandfather; ோட்டன்.
Tinn. 2. Brahman temple- priest in Malabar; மலையோளத்திலுள் ள ப ோயிைருச் ச ன்.(Semantic determinative)
Thus, together, the Indus Script hypertext of the Priest statue reads: Potr̥ dhāvaḍa phaḍā 'Purifier priest, smelter,
metals manufactory’.
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Human initiatives organized in śreṇi-s, 'guilds' of artisans, seafaring merchants,
resulted in domestication of farming, since 7th millennium BCE of cotton and
millet/maize/wheat/rice crops; domestication of cotton, silk, 6th m BCE
2011, Volume
4, Issue 3–4, pp
Pathways to
Tracing the
Origins and
Spread of Rice
and Rice Cultures

Moulherat, C., Tengberg, M., Haquet, J.-F. & Mille, B. 2002. "First Evidence of Cotton at Neolithic Mehrgarh,
Pakistan: Analysis of Mineralized Fibres from a Copper Bead', Journal of Archaeological Science, 29 : 1393-1401.
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A tightly coiled copper wire interspersed with silk
from Antherea silk worm. It was a copper
necklace found in Harappa, 3rd millennium BCE.

Fiber pseudomorphs preserved by

copper salts on the interior of the coiled
copper necklace that have been
analyzed and determined to be silk from
the wild silk moth, Antheraea mylitta,
commonly called "Tussar" silk today.
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Riverine waterways of Sarasvati Civilization. Bogra-মহাস্থানগড়
Môhasthangôṛ on Karatoya (Sadānīra) is bogāṟa 'engraving chisel of
blacksmith' metal śilpi of Vedic times अयस्कार m. id. Pāṇini. 2-4 ,
10 Sch. and viii , 3 , 46 Sch. Śatapatha Brāhmaṇa provides a detailed account of the
movement of people (Videgha Māthava, Gotama
Rahugaṇa) from River Sarasvati to River Sadānīra. The
location of this river is central to the history of Pre-
Mauryan era Bhāratam Janam (RV 3.53.12).

See Bogra on the banks of Karatoya (spelled

Korotoa on the map) river. মহাস্থানগড়
Môhasthangôṛ is close to Bogra.

Amara Kośa asserts Sadānīra to be synonym of Karatoya

River. See: सदानीरा स्त्री सदा नीरं पेयमस्ााः । करतोयानद्याम् अमराः । “अथादौ
कककटे दे वी त्र्यहं गङ्गा रजस्वला । सवाक रक्तवहा नद्याः करतोयाम्बुवाषहनी” स्मृत्युक्तेाः
तन्नदीजलस् सदापेयत्वात् तस्ास्तथात्वम् ।
Karatoya Mahatmya refers to the sacredness of this river. Rivers Kosi and
Mahananda joined the Karatoya and "formed a sort of ethnic boundary
between people living south of it and the Kochs and Kiratas living north
of the river." (Majumdar, Dr. R.C., History of Ancient Bengal, First
Karatoya River, ramparts, Śivalinga, at published 1971, Reprint 2005, p. 4, Tulshi Prakashani, Kolkata.)
Mahasthanagarh 13
Iron working in Ganga Basin, ca. 1800 BCE

Damaged circular clay furnace, comprising iron slag and tuyeres and other waste materials
stuck with its body, exposed at lohsanwa mound, Period II, Malhar, Dist. Chandauli.

Iron artefacts, from the lower and middle levels of Period II, Raja Nala-ka-tila, Dist.
Iron artefacts, from the lower and middle levels of Period II,Malhar, Dist. Chandauli.
Note: In Rigveda, vajra refers to something hard or mighty compared to a thunderbolt or a jet of water. At what stage of
semantic evolution, the gloss was expanded to mean 'adamaentine, glue' is unclear. This is the stage when the artisans might
have recognized the feature of cementite, as a nanotube which forms when carbon combines with iron. It is clear that in
VarAhamira's time, the gloss vajra meant an adamantine glue: sanghAta. It is possible that this gloss was signified by the
sangaDa 'lathe' which is a device most commonly deployed on Indus Script Corpora. The purport of Indus Script corpora is to
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present metalwork catalogs using hieroglyphs in a writing system deploying rebus-metonymy layered cipher. There are
Iron working, Sarasvati Civilization, Naikund
See Fig.6.7 iron smelting furnace
of Naikund)

Possehl, Gregory L., and Gullapalli,

Praveena, 1999, The early iron agein
South Asia, in: Vincent Pigott, ed., The
archaeometallurgy of the Asian Old World,
University Museum Monograph 89,
MASCA Research Papers in Science and
Archaeology, Volume 16, Philadelphia: The
University Museum, Univ. of Pennsylvania,
pp. 153-175.

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Tepe Hissar, Mundigak Tepe Hissar I (4–5) and Mundigak III.6
(7). After Ghirshman (1938, Pl. XXXIV and LXXXV), Schmidt (1937, Pl. XVI, H3483 and H3408) and Casal (1961).

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Iron working, Mundigak
"Mundigak (Pashto: ‫)مونډي ګاګ‬, in Kandahar, Afghanistan, is an archaeological site in Kandahar province in Afghanistan. It's
situated approximately 55 km northwest of Kandahar near Shāh Maqsūd, on the upper drainage of the Kushk-i Nakhud
River. Mundigak was a large prehistoric town with an important cultural sequence from the 5th-2nd millennia BC. The mound
mound was nine meters tall at the time of excavation. Pottery and other artifacts of the later 3rd millennium BC, when this
became a major urban center, indicate interaction with Turkmenistan, Baluchistan, and the Early Harappan Indus
region. Mundigak flourished during the culture of Helmand Basin (Seistan), also known as Helmand Culture (Helmand
Province). With 21 hectare area, this was the second largest centre of Helmand Culture, the first being Shahr-i-Sokhta which
was as large as 150 acres, by 2400 BCE. Bampur, in Iran, is a closely related site. Around 2200 BCE, both Shahr-i-Sokhta and
Mundigak started declining, with considerable shrinkage in area and with brief occupation at later dates. Mundigak has some
Indus Valley Civilization related material. This material consists in part of ceramic figurines of snakes and humped bulls, and
other items, similar to those found at other Indus valley sites. Pottery found at Mundigak had number of similarities with
such material found at Kot Diji. This material shows up at the earliest layer of Kot Diji. Remains of a "palace" is found in one
mound. Another mound revealed a large "temple", indicating urban life.Mundigak and Deh Morasi provide early
developments in what may be now called religious activities. A white-washed, pillared large building with its door way
outlined with red, dating around 3,000 BC is related to religious activities. Apart from pottery and painted pottery, other
artifacts found include crude humped bulls, human figures, shaft hole axes,adzes of bronze and terrecotta drains.Painting on
pots include pictures of Sacred Fig leaves (ficus religiosa) and tiger like animal. Several stone button seals were also found
at Mundigak. Disk Beads and faience barrel beads, copper stamp seals, copper pins with spiral loops were also found.The
female looking human figurines (5 c.m.height) found at Mundigak are very similar to such figurines found at another
archeological site in Afghanistan, Deh Morasi Ghundai. (cicra 3000 BC)"

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Iron working, Sarasvati Civilization, 3rd m.BCE (1)

Galerie d'images. Mundigak.Note: The figurine of zebu, bos indicus

taurus is a signature tune of Indus Script to signify
पोळ [pōḷa] 'zebu' rebus: पोळ [pōḷa] 'magnetite, ferrite ore’.
mũh 'face' Rebus mũhã̄ 'iron furnace output’
loa ‘ficus glomerata’ rebus:loh ‘copper, iron,metal’
Field Work:
· 1951-58 Casal, DAFA - excavations. Collection:BIAS & DAFA - shers;
· Kabul Museum & Musée Guimet - excavated material.

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Iron working, Sarasvati Civilization, 3rd m.BCE (2)
Rare discovery by Prof KP Rao of iron tools and weapons in Hyderabad ca. 2200 BCE. This report points to the early date of iron
age in Bharatam to ca. 3rd millennium BCE, coterminus with the mature phases of Sarasvati_Sindhu (Hindu) Civilization. Gregory
Possehl and Praveena Gullampalli provide evidence of iron artifacts of Sarasvati-Sindhu (Hindu) Civilization, though there is no
evidence of iron smelters in the archaeological sites of the civilization. (Possehl, Gregory L., and Praveena Gullampalli, 1999. The
Early Iron Age in South Asia. pp. 153–175 in: Pigott, Vincent C. (ed.), The archaeometallurgy of the Asian Old World. (MASCA
Research Papers in Science and Archaeology, University Museum Monograph, volume 16.) Philadelphia: The University Museum,
University of Pennsylvania.)

Iron appears in the greater Punjab by 1000 BCE (Possehl & Gullampali, 1999) and earlier in 2nd millennium BCE in eastern N India
and Northern Deccan (Hallur, c. 1200 BCE). Atharvaveda has references to metals: 11.3.7 -8 s'yaama ayas (iron), lohita (copper) ,
trapu (lead), harita (gold) = Paippalada version 16.53.12-13.

Thus, both the Gufkral evidence evaluated by Possehl and Gullampalli and the evidence from Malhar and other Central Ganga
Plain and Eastern Vindhya sites discussed by Rakesh Tewari point to an indigenous evolution of iron-working in India dated to early
2nd millennium BCE. The evidence leads to a reasonable hypothesis that the metal-workers of the chalcolithic periods of Sarasvati
Civilization moved into the Ganga and Eastern Vindhya iron-age sites to continue the tradition of metal-working, exemplified by the
asur-s of Mundarica tradition. No wonder, the Sarasvati hieroglyphs have a significant number of homonyms from the Mundarica
tradition to represent metal-working artefacts such as furnaces and minerals used to produce metal products. 19
Iron working, Sarasvati Civilization, 3rd m.BCE (3)(Evidences)

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Iron working, Sarasvati Civilization, 3rd m.BCE (4)(Briefs)

Ayas अयस् n. iron , metal RV. &can iron weapon (as an axe , &c ) RV. vi , 3 ,5 and
47 , 10, gold Naigh. steel L. ; ([cf. Lat. aes , aer-is for as-is ; Goth. ais , Thema aisa ;
Old Germ. e7r , iron ; Goth. eisarn ; Mod.Germ. Eisen.])
I suggest that the expression ayas in R̥gveda is a reference to 'alloy metal' rich in iron and relates to
early Bronze Age, consistent with the date of R̥gveda of a period earlier than 4th millennium BCE.

This word ayas, is comparable to another lexeme med which means 'copper' in Slavic languages,
but meḍrefers to iron in Indian languages (Mu.Ho.Santali). In this context, the lexical entries are
significant attesting to the early meanings of ayas as 'iron or metal':

There is an expression in Mahavamsa, XXV, 28,ayo-kammata-dvara, interpreted as: "iron studded

gate ". This could also mean 'entrance (of) iron mint' consistent with the rebus reading of Indus
Script hypertexts: ayo 'fish' rebus: ayas 'alloy metal' PLUS khambhaṛā 'fish'fin'
rebus: kammaṭa 'mint'.

I refer to Chapter 6 'Early Iron Age in South Asia' in Vincent C. Pigott, 1999, The Archaeometallurgy of
the Asian World, UPenn Museum of Archaeology (pp.153 to 176) in which Gregory Possehl and
Praveena Gullapalli provide evidences of archaeologically attested iron artifacts from 3rd millennium
BCE. This documentation evidences the working in iron during the Early Bronze Age.
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Indus Script Hypertexts signify metal work in mints
There is an expression in Mahavamsa, XXV, 28,ayo-kammata-dvara, interpreted as: "iron studded gate ". This could also mean 'entrance (of) iron
mint' consistent with the rebus reading of Indus Script hypertexts: ayo 'fish' rebus: ayas 'alloy metal' PLUS khambhaṛā 'fish'fin'
rebus: kammaṭa 'mint'.
Mohenjo-daro Seal m1118 and Kalibangan Seal 032, glyphs used are: Zebu (bos taurus indicus), fish, four-strokes (allograph: arrow).ayo ‘fish’
(Mu.) + kaṇḍa ‘arrow’ (Skt.) ayaskāṇḍa ‘a quantity of iron, excellent iron’ (Pāṇ.gaṇ) aya = iron (G.); ayah, ayas = metal (Skt.) gaṆḌa, ‘four’
(Santali); Rebus: kaṇḍ ‘fire-altar’, ‘furnace’), arrow read rebus in mleccha (Meluhhan) as a reference to a guild of artisans working
with ayaskāṇḍa ‘excellent quantity of iron’ (Pāṇini) is consistent with the primacy of economic activities which resulted in the invention of a
writing system, now referred to as Indus Writing.
poLa 'zebu' rebus: poLa 'magnetite, ferrite ore’

Allographs काण्डाः kāṇḍḥ ण्डम् ṇḍam The portion of a plant from one knot to another. काण्डात्काण्ड- त्प्ररोहन्तीMahānār.4.3. A stem, stock,
branch; लीलोत्खातमृणालकाण्डकवलच्छे दे U.3.16; Amaru.95; Ms. 1.46,48, Māl.3.34.
కాండము [ kāṇḍamu ] kānḍamu. [Skt.] n. Water. నీళ్లు (Telugu) kaṇṭhá -- : (b) ʻ water -- channel ʼ: Paš. kaṭāˊ ʻ irrigation channel ʼ,
Shum. xãṭṭä. (CDIAL 14349).
lokhãḍ ‘overflowing pot’ Rebus: ʻtools, iron, ironwareʼ (Gujarati)
काण्ड an arrow MBh. xiii , 265 Hit. (Monier-Williams, p. 269)
Rebus: काण्ड abundance; a multitude , heap , quantity (ifc.) Pa1n2. 4-2 , 51 Ka1s3.

Munda etyma related to ayo, ayu:

beḍa hako (ayo) ‘fish’ (Santali); beḍa ‘either of the sides of a hearth’ (G.) Munda: So. ayo `fish'. Go. ayu `fish'. Go <ayu> (Z), <ayu?u> (Z),,
<ayu?> (A) {N} ``^fish''. Kh. kaDOG `fish'. Sa. Hako `fish'. Mu. hai (H) ~ haku(N) ~ haikO(M) `fish'. Ho haku `fish'. Bj. hai `fish'. Bh.haku
`fish'. KW haiku ~ hakO |Analyzed hai-kO, ha-kO (RDM). Ku. Kaku`fish'.@(V064,M106) Mu. ha-i, haku `fish' (HJP). @(V341) ayu>(Z),
<ayu?u> (Z) <ayu?>(A) {N} ``^fish''. #1370. <yO>\\<AyO>(L) {N} ``^fish''. #3612. <kukkulEyO>,,<kukkuli-yO>(LMD) {N} ``prawn''.
!Serango dialect. #32612. <sArjAjyO>,,<sArjAj>(D) {N} ``prawn''. #32622. <magur-yO>(ZL) {N} ``a kind of ^fish''. *Or.<>. #32632.
<ur+GOl-Da-yO>(LL) {N} ``a kind of ^fish''. #32642.<bal.bal-yO>(DL) {N} ``smoked fish''. #15163.
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Kurukshetra, Bhīma, Duryodhana gadāyuddham
Angkorwat sculptures, remembered memories

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yajña kuṇḍa

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Meluhha (Indian sprachbund, speech union),
intrepid explorers of metals

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Network of resources for
Sarasvati River Basin

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Section II: Wealth of a Rāṣṭram
Sarasvati Civilization maritime trade contacts with
Ancient Near East
Out of over 8000 Indus Script inscriptions, over 2000 are the so-called Persian
Gulf seals and over 1000 are artifacts of Ancient Far East region, with Indus
Script Hypertexts/hieroglyphs, all presented in the context of metalwork wealth
and the presence of Meluhha speakers in the region.

Map of major routes and sites (adapted from Potts T. 1994 fig.5)

Wealth accounting ledgers, metalwork
catalogues presented
Epigraphia Indus Script – Hypertexts & Meanings, 3 vols.

By S. Kalyanaraman contains over 8000 Epigraphia Indus Script documents

accounting/trading entries -- 5,300 years old --of Tin-Bronze Age metalwork
wealth-creating activities of artisans and seafaring Meluhha merchants

Who invented the oxhide ingot shape? Meluhha artisans. An
archaemetallurgical journey along the Maritime Tin Route.
m1429 Three sided molded tablet. One side shows a flat bottomed boat with a central hut that has leafy fronds at the
top of two poles. Two birds sit on the deck and a large double rudder extends from the rear of the boat. On the second
side is a snout nosed gharial with a fish in its mouth. The third side has eight symbols of the Indus script.

Material: terra cotta Dimensions: 4.6 cm length, 1.2 x 1.5 cm width Mohenjo-daro, MD 602 Islamabad Museum, NMP
1384 Dales 1965a: 147, 1968: 39

T symbol on ox-hide ingot (in the middle) from Cape Gelidonya shipwreck. Copper ox-hide ingots (Talents) After Fig. 5

30 cm. high bronze statue. Enkomi Level III sanctuary. ca. 1200 BCE Cyprus Archaeological Museum, Nicosia.

The large oxhide ingots were signified by ḍhālako a large metal ingot (Hieroglyph: dhāḷ 'a slope'; 'inclination' ḍhāla
n. ʻ shield ʼ lex. 2. *ḍhāllā -- .1. Tir. (Leech) "dàl" ʻ shield ʼ, Bshk. ḍāl, Ku. ḍhāl, gng. ḍhāw, N. A. B. ḍhāl, Or. ḍhāḷa,
Mth. H. ḍhāl m.2. Sh. ḍal (pl. °le̯) f., K. ḍāl f., S. ḍhāla, L. ḍhāl (pl. °lã) f., P. ḍhāl f., G. M. ḍhāl f.Addenda: ḍhāla -- . 2.
*ḍhāllā -- : WPah.kṭg. (kc.) ḍhāˋl f. (obl. -- a) ʻ shield ʼ (a word used in salutation), J. ḍhāl f.(CDIAL 5583).

कारण्ड a sort of duck R. vii , 31 , 21 ரண்டம் karaṇṭam, n. Rebus: karaḍa 'hard alloy (metal)'. tamar ‘palm’ (Hebrew) Rebus: tam(b)ra ‘copper’ [fish = aya (G.);
I suggest
crocodile = kāru (Telugu)] Rebus: ayakāra that the
‘ironsmith’ rebus rendering of ḍhāla to signify ḍhālako 'large ingot' indicates that the persons who signified
(Pali) 33 the
specific hieroglyphs as devices to signify the metal ingots, were familiar with Indus Script writing system and hence,
T-symbol on ox-hide copper/tin ingots in ANE, an
Indus Script hypertext rhd01B Rehman Dehri pendant seal 1A, B.dula 'two' rebus:
dul 'metal casting'
T symbol which appears on ox-hide ingots of the shipwrecks (Cape Gelidonya and Uruburun) is an Indus Script hieroglyph. The hieroglyph T symbol
appears in a catalogue of metalwork on a Rehmandehri carved ivory pendant together with hieroglyphs of: frog, and two scorpions (on side A) and two
markhors (on side B). miṇḍāl ‘markhor’ (Tōrwālī) meḍho a ram, a sheep (G.)(CDIAL 10120); rebus: mẽṛhẽt,meḍ ‘iron’ (Mu.Ho.) Thus, iron metal

. casting

T symbol appears on both sides of the Double T symbol on fourth ingot from L. T symbol on fifth ingot from L. Disegno dei tre lingotti superstiti di Serra
Ilixi, Nuragus, conservati al Museo di Cagliari (5). Come si vede dalla figura 1, non tutti gli autori concordano sull'esatta trascrizione dei segni.
T-glyph may denote a mould or fire altar like the two fire-altars shown
on Warrka vase below two animals: antelope and tiger. kand ‘fire-altar’
(Santali) wo T symbols shown below the hieroglyphs of markhor and
tiger on Warka vase. The T symbol on the vase also shows possibly fire
on the altars superimposed by bun-ingots.kand ‘fire-altar’ (Santali) Ta.
accu mould, type. Ma. accu id. Ko. ac mould for casting iron. Ka. accu
mould, impression, sign, type, stamp. Koḍ. acci cake of jaggery sugar
with hollow in middle (formed in a mould). Tu. acci form, model.
Te.accu stamp, impression, print, mould. / ? Cf. Turner, CDIAL, no.
13096, Skt. sañcaka-, Panj. sañcā, saccā mould(DEDR 47)

The appearance of T symbol (orthography of a stool) on ox-hide ingots is

thus significant signify an Indus Script hieroglyph which is read rebus as
a fire-altar: Hieroglyph: Malt. kanḍo stool, seat. (DEDR 1179) Rebus:
kaṇḍ 'fire-altar' (Santali)kand ‘fire-altar’ (Santali)]
A Harappa potshed with 3 Indus Script

Harappa. Potsherd with Indus Script inscription dated to ca. 3300 BCE. kolom
'three' rebus: kolimi 'smithy, forge' PLUS tagaraka 'tabernae montana'
'tin'. This discovery makes the writing system the oldest in the world, pre-dating
Indus Script Inscriptions
Discovery Sites of Sarasvati civilization

Dilmun & Indus Seals

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Indus script hypertext of four-hooded cobra arching over membrum virile of Daimabad
charioteer of Daimabad bronze chariot ca. 2000 BCE.
Two black drongo birds perched atop either end of the axle rod:
पोळ pōḷa, 'Zebu, bos primigenius indicus' rebus: पोळ pōḷa, 'magnetite, ferrite ore'
PLUS Hieroglyph: dula 'pair' rebus: dul 'metal casting' PLUS
pōlaḍu, 'black drongo' rebus: pōlāda 'steel', pwlad (Russian),
fuladh (Persian) folādī (Pashto).पोलाद [ pōlāda ] n ( or P) Steel.
पोलादी a Of steel. (Marathi) bulad 'steel, flint and steel for making fire'
(Amharic); fUlAd 'steel' (Arabic).

Four hoods of cobra arch over membrum virile. Hypertext expression reads: lo gaṇḍa phaḍa
Rebus plaintext readings : 1. phaḍa lokhaṇḍa, 'metals manufacory,metalware,metal
implements market (pun on the word paṇi, 'market'); 2. lokhaṇḍa phaḍa 'metals manufactory, metal implements production,metals quarry'.

Reinforcement of semantics for upraised penis, for lo: bhar̥kanu 'rise of penis' (N.)(CDIAL 9365) rebus: bhaṭa 'furnace, smelter' Thus, an alternative plain text is:
bhaṭa phaḍa lokhaṇḍa 'furnace (for) metals manufactory, metal implements'. कोला kōlā m (Commonly कोल्हा) A jackal. Rebus: कोल्हें Ta. kol working in iron,
Curved stick held in his right hand: मेंढा [ mēṇḍhā ] A crook or curved end (of a stick, horn &c.) rebus: मृदु mṛdu, mẽṛhẽt, meḍ 'iron' meḍ 'iron,
metal' (Ho.Mu.)
फड phaḍa 'cobra hood' rebus: phaḍa 'metals manufactory' paṭṭaḍe 'metals workshop'. Thus, blacksmith's metals workshop.Ta. paṭṭaṭai, paṭṭaṟai anvil,
smithy, forge. Ka. paṭṭaḍe, paṭṭaḍi anvil, workshop. Te. paṭṭika, paṭṭeḍa anvil; paṭṭaḍa workshop.(DEDR 3835) PLUS Ta. aṭai prop. slight support; aṭai-kal anvil.
Ma. aṭa-kkallu anvil of goldsmiths. Ko. aṛ gal small anvil. Ka. aḍe, aḍa, aḍi the piece of wood on which the five artisans put the article which they happen to
operate upon, a support; aḍegal, aḍagallu, aḍigallu anvil. Tu. aṭṭè a support, stand. Te. ḍā-kali, ḍā-kallu, dā-kali, dā-gali, dāyi anvil (DEDR 86), Thus, paṭṭaṭai is
composed of: phaḍa 'metals workshop' PLUS aḍe 'anvil' = paṭṭaḍe 'metals workshop with anvil', i.e.smithy/forge. Thus, the Daimabad chariot hypertexts are
metalwork catalogues, wealth accounting ledgers.
Competence of scribes to write on metal
One-horned heifer ligatured to an octopus. This composite glyph occurs on a seal (Mohenjodaro) and also on a copper plate (tablet)(Harappa).

This glyph is decoded as: smithy guild in a citadel (enclosure), with a warehouse (granary), beṛhī

m297a: Seal h1018a: copper plate veṛhā octopus, said to be found in the Indus (Jaṭki lexicon of A. Jukes, 1900)

L. veṛh, vehṛ m. fencing; Mth. beṛhī granary; L. veṛhā, vehṛā enclosure containing many houses; beṛā building with a courtyard (WPah.) (CDIAL 12130) Rebus: Ta. vēḷ petty ruler, chief,
Cāḷukya king, illustrious or great man, hero; ? title given by ancient Tamil kings to Vēḷāḷas; vēḷir a class of ancient chiefs in the Tamil country, the Cāḷukyas, petty chiefs; ? vēḷāḷaṉ a person of
Vēḷāḷa caste. Kur. bēlas king, zemindar, god; belxā kingdom; belō, (Hahn) bēlō queen of white-ants.(DEDR 5545)

koḍ = artisan’s workshop (Kuwi); koḍ ‘horn’ damṛa, koḍiyum ‘heifer’ (G.) rebus: tam(b)ra ‘copper’; koḍ ‘workshop’ (G.); ācāri koṭṭya ‘smithy’ (Tu.)

vēṣṭá— ‘enclosure’ lex., °aka- m. ‘fence’, Si. veṭya ‘enclosure’; — Pa. vēṭhaka— ‘surrounding’; S. veṛhu m. ‘encircling’; L. veṛh, vehṛ m. ‘fencing, enclosure in jungle with a hedge, (Ju.)
blockade’, veṛhā, vehṛā m. ‘courtyard, (Ju.) enclosure containing many houses’; P. veṛhā, be° m.‘enclosure, courtyard’; Ku. beṛo ‘circle or band (of people)’; A. ber‘wall of house, circumference
of anything’; B. beṛ ‘fence, enclosure’, beṛā ‘fence, hedge’; Or. beṛha ‘fence round young trees’, beṛā ‘wall of house’; Mth. beṛ ‘hedge, wall’, beṛhī‘granary’; H. beṛh, beṛ, beṛhā, beṛā m.
‘enclosure, cattle surrounded and carried off by force’; M.veḍh m. ‘circumference’; WPah.kṭg. beṛɔ m. ‘palace’, J. beṛām. ‘id., esp. the female apartments’, kul. beṛā ‘building with a courtyard’;
A. also berā ‘fence, enclosure’ (CDIAL 12130 ) वाडी [ vāḍī ] f (वाटी S) An enclosed piece of meaand keepers. dow-field or garden-ground; an enclosure, a close, a paddock, a pingle. 2 A cluster
of huts of agriculturists, a hamlet. Hence (as the villages of the Konkan̤ are mostly composed of distinct clusters of houses) a distinct portion of a straggling village. 3 A division of the suburban
portion of a city. वाडा [ vāḍā ] m (वाट or वाटी S) A stately or large edifice, a mansion, a palace. Also in comp. as राज- वाडा A royal edifice; सरकारवाडा Any large and public building. 2 A
division of a town, a quarter, a ward. Also in comp. as दे ऊळवाडा,ब्राह्मण- वाडा, गौळीवाडा, चां भारवाडा, कुंभारवाडा. 3 A division (separate portion) of a मौजा or village. The वाडा, as well as the
कोंड, paid revenue formerly, not to the सरकार but to the मौजेखोत. 4 An enclosed space; a yard, a compound. 5 A pen or fold; as गुरां चा वाडा, गौळवाडा or गवळीवाडा,

धन- गरवाडा. The pen is whether an uncovered enclosure in a field or a hovel sheltering both beasts.
Thus, the field symbol showing the face of a one-horned young bull ligatured to an indus octopus reads rebus as followss:
Indus Script inscriptions on 14 examples of
copper tablets inscribed on two sides (C6 figure)
Indus Script inscriptions on 7 examples of
copper tablets inscribed on two sides (B19 figure)
The hieroglyph components in these hypertext variants are:

1. dhāḷ, 'slanted stroke' 2. khāṇḍā, 'notch, jag'

Both together signify rebus: dhāḷako 'ingot' PLUS khaṇḍa 'implement'.

dhāḷ 'slanted stroke' A. ḍhaliba ʻto leanʼ, B. ḍhalā; Or. ḍhaḷibā ʻto inclineʼ(CDIAL 5581) Rebus: dhāḷako 'large ingot'(Gujarati)

खां ड (p. 116) khāṇḍa f (खंड S) A break or opening in a dam or mound; a crack or fissure in a wall &c. 2 A jag, indentation, denticulation. 3 A gap in the teeth; a notch
खां डा (p. 116) khāṇḍā A jag, notch, or indentation (as upon the edge of a tool or weapon). Rebus: khaṇḍa 'metal implements' as in:lokhaṇḍa

^ adaren 'lid' rebus: aduru 'native metal' | koḍa 'one' rebus: koḍ 'workshop'

Thus, the two sets of hypertexts on the tin ingots of Hishule Carmel are read rebus in Meluhha:

1. dhāḷako 'ingot' PLUS khaṇḍa 'implement'.

2. aduru 'native metal' PLUS koḍ 'workshop'

These two examples of tin ingots are also cited in: Kassianidou, Vasiliki, 2003, The trade of tin and island of copper, in: Alessandra Giumlia-Mair & Fulvia Lo
Schiavo, 2003, Le probleme de l’etain a l’origine de la metallurgie, The problem of early tin, Bronze Age in Europe and the Mediterranean, Colloque/Symposium
Indus Script Inscriptions, metalwork catalogues on
metal implements

Indus Script Inscription free-hand writing in colour
paint, on gold pendant

The inscription is a professional calling card -- describing professional competence and ownership of specified items of property -- of the wearer of the

3 Gold pendants: Jewelry Marshall 1931: 521, pl. CLI, B3 The comments made by John Marshall on three curious objects at bottom right-hand corner of
Pl. CLI, B3: “Personal ornaments…Jewellery and Necklaces…Netting needles (?) Three very curious objects found with the studs and the necklace appear
to be netting needles of gold. They are shown just above the ear-studs and also in the lower right-hand corner of Pl. CLI, B, 3-5 and 12-14. The largest of
these needles (E 2044a) is 2.5 inches long. The handle is hollow and cylindrical and tapers slightly, being 0.2 inch in diameter at the needle-end. The needle
point is 0.5 inch long and has a roughly shaped oval eye at its base. The medium sized needle (E 2044b) is 2.5 inches long and of the same pattern: but the
cap that closed the end of the handle is now missing. The point which has an oval eye at its base is 0.3 inch long. The third needle (E 2044c) is only 1.7
inches long with the point 0.3 inch in length. Its handle, which is otherwise similar to those of the other two needles, is badly dented. The exact use of these
three objects is open to question, for they could have been used for either sewing or netting. The handles seem to have been drawn, as there is no sign of a
soldered line, but the caps at either end were soldered on with an alloy that is very little lighter in colour than the gold itself. The two smaller needles have
evidently been held between the teeth on more than one occasion.” (p.521)

Gold pendant with Indus script inscription. The pendant is needle-like with cylindrical body. It is made from a hollow cylinder with soldered ends and
perforated joint. Museum No. MM 1374.50.271; Marshall 1931: 521, pl. CLI, B3 (After Fig. 4.17 a,b in: JM Kenoyer, 1998, p. 196).

kanac 'corner' Rebus: kancu 'bronze'; sal 'splinter' Rebus: sal 'workshop'; dhatu 'cross road' Rebus: dhatu 'mineral'; gaṇḍa 'four' Rebus: khaṇḍa 'implements';
Bhirrana Indus Script dance-step hypertext

Dance-step, meḍ in Indus Script orthography and Meluhha/Slavic language semantics

of metalwork, meḍ 'iron,copper' med ‘copper’ (Slavic languages)

Forge scene stele. Forging of a keris or kris (the iconic Javanese dagger) and other weapons. The blade
of the keris represents the khaṇḍa. Fire is a purifier, so the blade being forged is also symbolic of the
purification process central theme of the consecration of gangga sudhi specified in the inscription on the
1.82 m. tall, 5 ft. dia. lingga hieroglyph, the deity of Candi Sukuh. med 'dance step' rebus: med 'iron'

karibha 'elephant's trunk' rebus: karba 'iron' ibha 'elephant' rebus: ib 'iron' PLUS meḍ 'step' rebus: meḍ
'iron, metal, copper'.

m0493Bt Pict-93: Three dancing figures in a row. Text 2843

Three dancers. kolmo ‘three’; meḍ ‘to dance’ 44

Clusters of settlements in Cholistan, west of
Anupgarh, Sarasvati River Basin

6/20/2018 45
6/20/2018 46
6/20/2018 47
Sarasvati-Sindhu civilization sites: Landsat image
shows bheda of River Sarasvati at Anupgarh
Dr. S. Kalyanaraman
Sarasvati Research Center
Dr. S. Kalyanaraman,
Sarasvati Research Centre

6/20/2018 48
Yupa is ketu, ‘banner, emblem, flame, rays of light'
of yajna (RV 3.8.8)

6/20/2018 49
Fiery pillar of light (Skambha Sukta AVX.7,8)
khambhaṛā 'fish fin' rebus: kammaṭa ‘mint, coiner,

6/20/2018 50
Satapatha Brahmana on Vājapeya Soma Yāga
Carburization, infusing carbon to harden metal in furnace
SBr. elucidates the process using wheat chaff as चिालाः caṣāla, the metaphor is ascent on Yupa to heaven.
• 5.2.1.[12] atha godhūmānupaspṛśati | svardevā aganmeti svarhyeṣa gacati yo vājapeyena yajate

5:2:1:1212. He then touches the wheat (top-piece) 2, with, 'We have gone to the light, O ye gods!' for he who
offers the Vâgapeya, indeed goes to the light.

5.2.1.[13] tadyadgodhūmānupaspṛśati | annaṃ vai godhūmā annaṃ vā eṣa ujjayati yo vājapeyena yajate
'nnapeyaṃ ha vai nāmaitadyadvājapeyaṃ
• tadyadevaitadannamudajaiṣīttenaivaitadetāṃ gatiṃ gatvā saṃspṛśate
tadātmankurute tasmādgodhūmānupaspṛśati

5:2:1:1313. And as to why he touches the wheat: wheat is food, and he who offers the Vâjapeya, wins food, for
vâga-peya is the same as anna-peya (food and drink): thus whatever food he has thereby won, therewith now that
he has gone to that supreme goal, he puts himself in contact, and possesses himself of it,--therefore he touches the
wheat (top-piece).

5.2.1.[14]atha śīrṣṇā yūpamatyujjihīte | amṛtā abhūmeti devalokamevaitenojjayati

5:2:1:1414. He then rises by (the measure of) his head over the post, with, 'We have become immortal!' whereby
he wins the world of the gods.
6/20/2018 51
Binjor (Anupgarh), fire-altar—a yupa, yaṣṭi यषष्ट् made of an octagonal brick; Binjor seal, zebu
(Bos indicus statue) were discovered in March 2015 mēḍhā m A stake, esp. as forked.
Rebus: mẽṛhẽt, meḍ 'iron' (Munda.Ho.) med 'copper' (Slavic languages)

kõda 'young bull, bull-calf' rebus: kõdā 'to turn in a lathe'; kōnda 'engraver,
lapidary'; kundār 'turner'.
Hieroglyph: sãghāṛɔ 'lathe'.(Gujarati) Rebus: sangara 'proclamation 'metallic
iron alloy implements, hard alloy workshop'
aya ancu khaNDa 'metallic iron alloy implements'.
Aya ‘metal’ ã̄s (amśu) ‘stalks’ Rebus: aya ‘metal’ ancu ‘iron’.
khambhaṛā 'fish fin' rebus: kammaTa ‘mint, coiner, coinage’
gaNDa 'four' Rebus: khaNDa 'metal implements'
koḍi ‘flag’ (Ta.)(DEDR 2049). Rebus 1: koḍ ‘workshop’ (Kuwi) Rebus
2: khŏḍ m. ‘pit’, khö̆ḍü f. ‘small pit’ (Kashmiri. CDIAL 3947)
करण्ड m. a sort of duck -- f. ʻ a partic. kind of bird ʼ; S. karaṛa --
ḍhī˜gu m. ʻ a very large aquatic bird ʼ(CDIAL
2787) Rebus: karaḍā 'hard alloy' Octagonal linga, Nepal
पोळ (p. 534) [ pōḷa ] Zebu, m A bull dedicated to the gods, marked with a trident and discus, and
6/20/2018 set at large (Marathi) Rebus: pōḷa ’magnetite ferrite ore’. 52
Kalibangan fire-altar with stake PLUS terracotta cake with
Hieroglyph: mēḍhā m A stake, esp. as forked. Rebus: mẽṛhẽt, meḍ 'iron'
(Munda.Ho.) med 'copper' (Slavic languages) मेधाः ’An offering, an oblation’ 'यज्ञो
वै मेधाः' इषत श्रुतेाः’
Hieroglyph: G. kāmṭhiyɔ m. ʻ archer ʼ . B. kāmṭhā ʻ bow ʼ, G. kāmṭhũ n., °ṭhī f. ʻ
bow ʼ; M. kamṭhā, °ṭā m. ʻ bow of bamboo or horn ʼ; -- (CDIAL 2760 ) Rebus:
kammaTa ‘mint, coiner, coinage’ kola, 'tiger’ rebus: kol ‘working in iron’
meṛh rope tying to post, pillar:’ rebus: meD ‘iron’

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चतुषश्रक,अष्ट्ाषश्र śivalinga is a metalwork catalogue scuptural metaphor
recording the iron smelted,wealth created in a smelter

मेढ्या (p. 665) [ mēḍhyā ] a (मेढ Stake or post) Rebus: medha ‘yajña’; meḍ, mẽṛhẽt 'iron' (Ho.
Santali) अश्रि [p= 114,2]f. the sharp side of anything , corner , angle (of a room or house) , edge
(of a sword) S3Br.Ka1tyS3r.often ifc. e.g. अष्ट्ा*षश्र , षिर् -/अषश्र , च्/अतुर्-षश्र , शता*षश्र q.v. (cf. अश्र);
([cf. Lat. acies , acer ; Lith.assmu3]). (Monier-Williams) अषराः asriḥअषराः 1 An angle; अष्ट्ारयाः
सवक एव श्लक्ष्णरूपसमन्वितााः Rām.1.14.26.-2 Ten million; see अश्रि. -अि, -अस्र a. (for अश्रि-षर)
1 four cornered, quardrangular; R.6.1. A quality of gems; Kau. A.2.11. -2 symmetrical, regular or
handsome in all parts; बभूव तस्ाश्चतुररशोषभ वपुाः Ku.1.32. (-िः, स्रः) 1 a square. -2 a
quardrangular figure. -3 (in astr.) N. of the fourth and eighth lunar mansions अषश्राः aśriḥ श्री
śrīअषश्राः श्री f. [अश्यते संहन्यते अनया अश् वङ्क्याषद˚ षि; cf. Uṇ.4.137] 1 A corner, angle (of a
room, house &c. changed to अश्र at the end of comp. with चतुर्, षि, िट् and a few other words;
see चतु6/20/2018
रर); अष्ट्ाषश्रवै वज्राः Ait. Br. -2 The sharp side or edge (of a weapon &c.); वृिस् हन्तुाः क
54ु षलशं
19 Yupa inscriptions of Bharatam and East Borneo are a
continuum of Vedic tradition of octagonal yupa found in Binjor
The structure of the octagonal yupa signifying Vajapeya Soma Yāga includes an
octagonal चिालाः caṣāla signified by the hour-glass-shaped Vajra

Commemorative stone yupa, Isapur – from Vogel, 1910-11, plate

23; drawing based on Vedic texts – from Madeleine Biardeau, 1988,
108, fig. 1; cf. 1989, fig. 2); C. Miniature wooden yupa and caSAla
from Vaidika Samsodana Mandala Museum of Vedic sacrificial
utensils – from Dharmadhikari 1989, 70) (After Fig. 5 in Alf
Hiltebeitel, 1988, The Cult of Draupadi, Vol. 2, Univ. of Chicago
Press, p.22)

Isapur Yupa inscription (102 CE, dated in year 24 in Kushana king

Vasishka's reign) indicates performance of a sattra (yajña) of
dvadasarAtra, 'twelve nights'. (Vogel, JP, The sacrificial posts of
Isapur, Annual Report of the Archaeological Survey of India, 1910-
11: 40-8).The Isapur yupa is comparable to the ring and vajra atop
6/20/2018 55
South of Kailas the Om parvat rises 6191 m high in Himalayas. Ice is
depicted on arms of overturned folds. 12 Jyotirlinga and other
venerated shrines, located close to geological marvels unite the people
of Bharatavarsha . (Courtesy: KS Valdiya) Shivalinga found in
Harappa, Kalibangan

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Bhutesvar Mathura museum. Ekamukha linga atop
smelter with Gaṇa, kharva ‘dwarf’ ‘cups baked in fire’
rebus: kharva ‘Kubera’s nidhi’ karba ‘iron’.
kuThi ‘tree’ rebus: kuThi ‘smelter’ dAma ‘garland’
rebus: dhAv ‘element, mineral’

Relief fragment of a linga worshiped by winged figures, Bhuteshwar (ca. first century).
Photograph by John Huntington, The Huntington Photographic Archive, Ohio State
6/20/2018 57
Rigveda describes Rudra is vajrabāho, wielder of the
thunderbolt weapon signified by yupa which is चतुर्-षश्र,
अष्ट्ाषश्र quadrangular (BrahmabhAga), octagonal
Baba Bhusandeswar Lingam, Balasore, Odisha,
12 ft. tall 14 ft. wide, octagonal in the middle

7th Century Mukha Linga Vietnam, 1.46 m tall,

Cham temple, Quang Nam province

Thunderbolt Vietnam, Asian Civilisations Museum
Vajra –
6/20/2018 58
Mukhalinga, Oc Eo, An Giang, 6th-7th century CE
6 ft. tall Phetchabun Province, Si Thep, Thailand
(7th-8th cent.) Śivalinga which combines both
चतुषश्रक,अष्ट्ाषश्र quadrangular and octagonal
components with a चिालाः caṣāla topping the
aniconic sculpture with a 'face'
hieroglyph: mũh 'face' (Hindi)
rebus: mũhe 'ingot' mũhã̄ = the quantity of
iron produced at one time in a native smelting
furnace of the Kolhes; iron produced by the Kolhes
and formed like a four-cornered piece a little pointed
at each end; mūhā mẽṛhẽt = iron smelted by the
Kolhes and formed into an equilateral lump a little
pointed at each of four ends; kolhe tehen mẽṛhẽt ko
mūhā akata = the Kolhes have to-day produced pig
iron (Santali)
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Brahma Bhaga, Rudra Bhaga, Vishnu Bhaga

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Susa pot, from Meluhha,
with metal artifacts. The pot
has an inscription, painted
with ‘fish’ Indus Script

Mohenjo-daro tablet m1429B. Glyphs: crocodile + fish

ayakāra ‘blacksmith’ (Pali) kāru a wild crocodile or alligator (Te.) aya

Soma Samsthā and Metal work of Bronze Age Maritime tin route from Hanoi to Haifa
aya ‘fish’ ã̄s (amśu) ‘stalks, soma’ Rebus: aya ‘metal’ ancu ‘iron’.

Seafaring merchants of Meluhha Louvre Susa pot with Indus Script

deciphered अयस्काण्ड

Susa pot c. 2450 BCE is a Rosetta stone for Indus Script decipherment because: 1. The pot is
painted with Indus script hieroglyphs and 2. The pot contains metal implements, weapons, pots
and pans. (Maybe, from Meluhha).
Painted inscription on the pot constitutes a metalwork catalogue with technical specifications of
cargo in the pot.
A clay storage pot discovered in Susa (Acropole mound), Old Elamite period, ca. 2500-2400 BCE
(H. 20 1/4 in. or 51 cm.) now in Musee du Louvre, Paris which displayed a fish hieroglyph on the A quail tied to a rope';
rim. Sb 2723, Sb 2723 bis (vers 2450 avant J.-C.) Hieroglyph: aya, ayo 'fish' Rebus: aya 'iron' painted on the top
(Gujarati) ayas 'metal' (Rigveda). It is a remarkable 'rosetta stone' because it validates the register of the jar,
expression used by Panini: ayas kāṇḍaअयस्काण्ड [p= 85,1] m. n. " a quantity of iron " or "
excellent iron " , (g. कस्का*षद q.v.). The early semantics of this expression is likely to be 'metal together with a fish.
implements‘’ Wavy lines signify water: kāṇḍa ‘water’ rebus: kaṇḍa ‘implements’
meṛh rope tying to post, pillar:’ rebus: meḍ ‘iron’ med ‘copper’ (Slavic) PLUS karaṇḍa ‘duck’
(Sanskrit) karaṛa ‘a very large aquatic bird’ (Sindhi) కరాండవము [ kāraṇḍavamu ] n. A sort of
duck. కరాండవము [ kāraṇḍavamu ] kāraṇḍavamu. [Skt.] n. A sort of duck. कारं डव [kāraṇḍava ]
m S A drake or sort of duck. कारं डवी f S The female. karandava [ kârandava ] m. kind of
duck. कारण्ड a sort of duck R. vii , 31 , 21 ரண்டம் karaṇṭam, n.
Rebus: करडा [karaḍā] Hard from alloy--iron, silver &c. (Marathi)
6/20/2018 62
Tell Abraq finds: comb, bronze axe with Indus Script
hypertexts to signify tin and bell-metal

Hieroglyph is tabernae montana, ‘mountain tulip’. A soft-stone flask, 6 cm. tall, from Bactria (northern Afghanistan)
showing a winged female deity (?) flanked by two flowers similar to those shown on the comb from Tell Abraq. Ivory comb
with Mountain Tulip motif and dotted circles. TA 1649 Tell Abraq. तगर [ tagara ] f A flowering shrub, Tabernæ montana
coronaria. 2 n C The flower of it. 3 m P A ram. টগর [ ṭagara ] বি. (সচ.) সাদা ফুলবিশেষ। [সং. তগর]। White bell. [Song.
Tagara].(Bengali) తగటు [ tagaṭu ] tagaṭu. [Tel.] n. Lace. సరిగ. తగటుచీర a lace cloth. తగటి or తగటీ tagaṭi. adj. Laced
సరిగగల. తగడు [ tagaḍu ] tagaḍu. [Tel.] n. A plate or flat piece of metal. Gold leaf, brocade. రేకు A. iv. 132. M. VI63i. 298.
చీనాతగడు a tin plate. తగరము [ tagaramu ] tagaramu. [Tel.] n. Tin. kã̄gsī ‘comb’ (Gujarati) (CDIAL 2598) Rebus:
Section III: Wealth of a Rāṣṭram
Ancient India links with Ancient Far East
-- George Coedes refers to the cultural
contacts as ‘Hinduised States of Ancient Far
East’; French title: Histoire ancienne des
États hindouisés d'Extrême-Orient, 1944

Sculptures, Indus Script hypertexts of Candi Sukuh Java,
Bhima Swarga iconographic metaphors
• On this narrative of metalwork
Indus Script traditions signified
by hieroglyphs, in front of a
smelter (kiln), on the left is
Bhima bringing out a dagger
from the furnace; Gaṇeśa in a
dance step (meD 'step, dane'
rebus: meD 'iron'; Arjuna
working on the bellows; ayo,
aya 'fish' rebus: aya 'iron' ayas
'metal'.kaNDa 'sword' rebus:
kaNDa 'implements'.

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Gardez Gaṇeśa, Mahāvināyaka, in-charge phaḍa ‘metals
Superintendent of phaḍa ‘metals manufactory’.

paṭṭaḍi ‘broad strip of cloth tied around the

waist’(Telugu) rebus: : phaḍa ‘metals manufactory’
paṭṭaḍa ‘metals workshop’ panja ‘feline paw’ rebus:
panja ‘kiln’

lo ‘membrum virile’ rebus: loh ‘copper’ PLUS gaṇḍa

‘four’ rebus: khaṇḍa ‘implementś (lokhaṇḍa ‘metal
implements) PLUS phaḍā फडा ‘cobra hood’rebus:
phaḍā फडा ‘superintendent of metals manufactory’.

Another name: Tri-dhātu Gaṇeśa Tri-dhātu 'three

mineralś wich are: goṭa 'laterite, ferrite ore' poḷa
'magnetite, ferrite ore' bicha 'haemtite, ferrite ore’.
These three ferrite ores are signified by the
hieroglyphs: goṭa 'round pebble stone' poḷa 'zebu,
dewlap, honeycomb' bica 'scorpion'.
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Dong Son drums Hieroglyphs Find spots
17/10/2010 This morning at Van Mieu, Hanoi conducted rituals
offered 100 drums 1000th Thang Long - Hanoi for the 63
provinces and 37 enterprises and individuals representing the
karabha ‘elephant’ rebus: karba ‘iron’
mUxa ‘frog’ rebus: muh ‘ingot’ muhA ‘quantity of metl taken
out of furnace
Maraka ‘peacock’ marakaka loha ‘calcining metal, copper alloy’
Hieroglyph: kāṅga ʻ
combing ʼ (Phal.)
Rebus: kang 'brazier,
fireplace' (Kashmiri)

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Tin-Bronze Revolution: Largest tin granite belt of
the globe (Mekong delta, Malaysia)

In Indonesia, tin is mined on Bangka

Island ("Tin Island") off the
southeastern coast of Sumatra.
Mining pits seen in landscape. Pit tin
mine.6/20/2018 68
Tin ingots in the Museum of Ancient Art of the Municipality of Haifa, Israel (left
#8251, right #8252). The ingots each bear two inscribed Cypro-Minoan markings.
(Note: I have argued that the inscriptions were Meluhha hieroglyphs (Indus writing)
denoting ranku 'tin' dhatu 'ore'. See: The Bronze Age Writing System of Sarasvati
Hieroglyphics as Evidenced by Two “Rosetta Stones” By S. Kalyanaraman
in: Journal of Indo-Judaic Studies Volume 1: Number 11 (2010), pp. 47-74.)

• mũh 'a face' in Indus Script Cipher signifies mũh, muhã 'ingot'
or muhã 'quantity of metal produced at one time in a native
smelting furnace
• Hieroglyph: ran:ku = liquid measure (Santali)
• Rebus: ran:ku = tin (Santali)
• Hieroglyph: ran:ku a species of deer; ran:kuka (Skt.)
(CDIAL 10559).
• Hieroglyph: dāṭu = cross (Telugu) Rebus: dhatu =
mineral (Santali)
• Hindi. dhāṭnā ‘to send out, pour out, cast (metal)’ (CDIAL
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Section IV: Wealth of a Rāṣṭram
Rebirth of River Sarasvati, Renaissance of
a civilization with roots traced to 8th
millennium BCE
The profile of a revolution on the anvil

Himalayas as the Greatest Water Tower of the World which can sustain
a National Water Grid with assured 24x7 water to every farm, every
home in every village
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Himalayan range (great water tower serving ca. 2 billion people) measuring rod of the globe from Hanoi, Vietnam to Teheran, Iran.
Dynamic due to uplift of 1 cm every year as Indian plate juts into European plate at 6 cm per year and lifts it up causing plate tectonics
(earthquakes). The perennial great river systems out of Manasarovar are: Yangtse-Huanghe, Brahmaputra, Irrawaddy, Salween,
Mekong. The largest tin belt of the globe is in Mekong River delta hence the Dong Son Bronze drums.


Badrinath. Rudraprayag. Was a glacier channel
from here joining at Prayag to create triveni
sangamam and celebration of Kumbha mela every
12 years? A glaciological subject area for
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Milam Trek, Uttarakhand.Milam Glacier

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Kāli, Mahākāli (Nepal), Sharada, Uttarakhand

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Karnali-Gori Ganga-Sharada river

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Aqueducts across Ganga and Yamuna. Roman
aqueduct 312 BCE. The water channel (specus) of the
Aqüeducte de les Ferreres (Tarragona) 100 CE
Reborn River Sarasvati to use
Sharada River glacial waters
through aqueducts crossing
Yamuna and Ganga.
The Reborn River will flow upto
Sabarmati (Gujarat) Draft
feasibility reports of Yamuna-
and Rajasthan-Sabarmati have
been completed by March 2009.

water conduit of the Tarragona Aqueduct, Spain. 84
ca. 100 CE.
yogas citta vr̥tti nirodhah (Patañjali Sutra2)

1, citta (treasure house of memories)

2. vr̥tti (modifications) and

3. nirodhah (control).

Terracotta toys of Sarasvati Civilization demonstrate

some yoga postures,to control modifications in the treasure

house of memories (in mind).

Two terracotta toys of Nausharo show women, ca. 2500 BCE wearing sindhur at the