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SOFiSTiK 2016

AQUA

Materials and Cross Sections

Software Version SOFiSTiK 2016

SOFiSTiK AG

Bruckmannring 38 Burgschmietstr. 40

85764 Oberschleissheim 90419 Nuremberg

Germany Germany

F +49 (0)89 315878-23 F +49(0)911 397904

info@sofistik.de

www.sofistik.de

reproduced, in any form or by any means, without written permission from SOFiSTiK AG.

SOFiSTiK reserves the right to modify or to release new editions of this manual.

The manual and the program have been thoroughly checked for errors. However, SOFiSTiK

does not claim that either one is completely error free. Errors and omissions are corrected as

soon as they are detected.

The user of the program is solely responsible for the applications. We strongly encourage the

user to test the correctness of all calculations at least by random sampling.

Front Cover

Project: MILANEO, Stuttgart, Germany | Client: Bayerische Hausbau and ECE | Architect: RKW Rhode Kellermann Wawrowsky

| Structural Engineering for Bayerische Hausbau: Boll und Partner | Photo: Dirk Münzner

Contents | AQUA

Contents

Contents i

1 General 1-1

1.1 Task Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-1

1.2 Types of sections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-1

1.2.1 Static Properties of Cross Sections . . . . . . . . . . 1-1

1.2.2 Standard Cross Sections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-1

1.2.3 Freely Defined Thin-walled Cross Sections . . . . . 1-1

1.2.4 Freely Defined Solid Cross Sections . . . . . . . . . 1-2

1.2.5 Freely Defined FE Cross Sections . . . . . . . . . . . 1-2

1.2.6 Selection of Section Type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-2

1.3 Creating variants of sections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-3

2.1 Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-1

2.2 Holes and Composite Sections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-2

2.3 Coordinate System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-2

2.4 Normal Stresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-3

2.5 Effective Width . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-5

2.6 Warping and Shear Stresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-5

2.7 Torsional Moment of Inertia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-6

2.8 Shear Stresses in Solid Sections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-7

2.8.1 Finite Element Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-8

2.8.2 Boundary Element Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-16

2.8.3 Force Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-17

2.8.4 Equivalent Hollow Cross Sections . . . . . . . . . . . 2-19

2.8.5 Shear Cuts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-19

2.9 Shear Stresses in Thin-Walled Sections . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-21

2.10 Plastic forces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-21

2.11 Program Limits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-22

Literature 2-23

3.1 Input Language . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-2

3.2 Units . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-2

SOFiSTiK 2016 i

AQUA | Contents

3.4 CTRL – Control of Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-9

3.5 Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-13

3.6 NORM – Default Design Code . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-16

3.7 MATE – Material Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-34

3.8 MAT – General Material Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-41

3.9 MLAY – Layered Material . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-42

3.10 NMAT – Non-linear Material . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-44

3.10.1 Invariants of the Stress Tensor . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-45

3.10.2 Material Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-46

3.10.3 Non-linear State Variables (hardening parameters) 3-54

3.10.4 VMIS Viscoplastic Material Law . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-55

3.10.5 DRUC Viscoplastic Material Law . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-56

3.10.6 MOHR Viscoplastic Material Law . . . . . . . . . . . 3-59

3.10.7 GRAN Hardening Plasticity Soil . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-60

3.10.8 SWEL Swelling Soil . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-69

3.10.9 FAUL Oriented Shear Planes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-72

3.10.10 ROCK Material with oriented Shear Plane . . . . . 3-74

3.10.11 UNDR Undrained Soil . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-75

3.10.12 LADE Elasto-plastic Material Law . . . . . . . . . . . 3-83

3.10.13 MEMB Material Law for Polyfabrics/ Textiles . . . . 3-85

3.10.14 User Defined Material Laws . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-86

3.11 BMAT – Elastic Support / Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-89

3.12 HMAT – Material Constants HYDRA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-92

3.12.1 Hydraulic Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-93

3.12.2 Heat Conduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-94

3.12.3 Hydration of Concrete . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-96

3.13 CONC – Properties of Concrete . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-98

3.13.1 Eurocode / DIN 1045-1 / OEN B 4700 . . . . . . . . 3-99

3.13.2 DIN 1045 old / DIN 4227 / DIN 18806: . . . . . . . . 3-102

3.13.3 ÖNORM B 4700 / B 4750 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-103

3.13.4 Swiss Standard SIA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-104

3.13.5 French BAEL-99 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-105

3.13.6 Spanish EHE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-105

3.13.7 Swedish BBK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-105

3.13.8 Danish DS 411 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-106

3.13.9 Norwegian NS 3473 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-106

3.13.10 Italian design codes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-106

3.13.11 Hungarian design codes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-107

3.13.12 British Standard BS 8110 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-107

3.13.13 American concrete institute ACI 318M . . . . . . . . 3-107

3.13.14 Brasilian NBR 6118-2003 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-108

ii SOFiSTiK 2016

Contents | AQUA

3.13.16 Japanese Standards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-109

3.13.17 Chinese Standards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-109

3.13.18 Indian Standards IS / IRC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-109

3.13.19 Egyptian Standard ET RC-2001 . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-110

3.13.20 Russian Standard SNIP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-110

3.13.21 Linear Elastic Concrete . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-111

3.14 STEE – Properties of Metals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-112

3.14.1 Structural Steel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-113

3.14.2 Aluminium alloy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-124

3.14.3 Reinforcing and Prestressing Steel . . . . . . . . . . 3-127

3.14.4 Relaxation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-136

3.14.5 Bond Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-137

3.14.6 Stress-Strain Relations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-138

3.15 TIMB – Timber and Fibre Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-140

3.16 MASO – Masonry / Brickwork . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-147

3.17 SSLA – Stress-Strain Curves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-149

3.18 MEXT – Extra Material Constants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-154

3.18.1 AIR - Air Contact Ratio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-154

3.18.2 CNOM - Nominal Cover . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-154

3.18.3 CRW - Crack width . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-155

3.18.4 EIGE - Parameters for Creep-Coefficients . . . . . . 3-155

3.18.5 KR - Equivalent roughness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-156

3.18.6 TEMP - Temperature environment . . . . . . . . . . . 3-157

3.19 BORE – Soil or Bore Profile . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-158

3.20 BLAY – Layer of the Soil Strata . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-159

3.21 BBAX – Axial Beddings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-162

3.22 BBLA – Lateral Beddings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-164

3.23 BTAB – Foundation pressures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-167

3.24 SMAT – Properties for Springs and Beam Hinges . . . . . . 3-169

3.24.1 Material type charakteristics and examples . . . . . 3-173

3.25 SFLA – Force-Displacement Laws . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-180

3.26 SVAL – Cross Section Values . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-186

3.27 SREC – Rectangle, T-beam, Plate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-189

3.28 SCIT – Circular and Tube Sections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-194

3.29 TUBE – Circular and Annular Steel Cross Sections . . . . . 3-196

3.30 CABL – Cable Sections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-197

3.31 SECT – Freely defined Cross Sections . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-201

3.31.1 Parametric Sections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-204

3.31.2 FE-Sections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-207

3.32 CS – Construction Stages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-209

3.33 SV – Additional Cross Section Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-211

AQUA | Contents

3.35 VERT – Polygon Vertices in Absolute Coordinates . . . . . . 3-216

3.36 CIRC – Circular Cross Section Elements . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-218

3.37 CUT – Shear and Partial Sections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-219

3.38 PANE – Thin-Walled Cross Section Element . . . . . . . . . . 3-226

3.39 PLAT – Thin-Walled Cross Section Element . . . . . . . . . . 3-229

3.40 WELD – Welded Shear Connection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-232

3.41 PROF – Rolled Steel Shapes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-234

3.42 SPT – Points for Stresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-245

3.43 NEFF – Non effective parts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-247

3.44 WPAR – Parameters for Wind Loading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-250

3.45 WIND – Coefficients for Wind and Wave Loading . . . . . . . 3-251

3.46 LAY – Reinforcement Layers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-254

3.46.1 Properties of reinforcement elements . . . . . . . . . 3-254

3.46.2 Rules for the treatment of layers . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-257

3.47 RF – Single Reinforcement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-259

3.48 LRF – Line Reinforcement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-260

3.49 CRF – Circular Reinforcement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-262

3.50 CURF – Perimetric Reinforcement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-264

3.51 TVAR – Template Variables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-266

3.52 INTE – Interpolation or Variants of Sections . . . . . . . . . . 3-268

3.53 IMPO – Import of Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-270

3.54 EXPO – Ansi Export of Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-271

3.55 ECHO – Extent of Output . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-272

4.1 Information about the Design Code . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-1

4.2 Material Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-1

4.3 Bedding Profiles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-7

4.4 Overview of the Cross Section Values and Types . . . . . . . 4-8

4.5 Cross Section Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-9

4.6 Cross Section Elements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-13

4.7 Wind Coefficients . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-19

4.8 Integral Equation Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-20

4.9 Spring Characteristic Curves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-20

iv SOFiSTiK 2016

General | AQUA

1 General

AQUA calculates the properties of cross sections of any shape and made out of

any material. The cross section properties for a static analysis are determined,

as well as characteristic magnitudes for the calculation of normal and shear

stresses. Cross sections need to be defined before input of the static system or

the dimensioning with AQB.

After definition with AQUA, the cross sections can be represented graphically

with ResultViewer.

There are four types of cross sections, depending on the complexity of the de-

sign task. Without a licence for AQUA only the first two types may be defined

(AQUA-light).

1.2.1 Static Properties of Cross Sections

All static properties of cross sections are directly specified. This includes shear

deformation areas and stress resistance values. The values may be taken from

other cross sections with a multiplication factor. These cross sections are mainly

used in the static calculations. Their usage in AQB is strongly restricted.

A standard cross section (Rolled steel shapes, Rectangle, T-beam, annular sec-

tions, cables) is always defined with a single command. All cross sectional prop-

erties, including the torsional moment of inertia, are available. Due to the known

geometric structure, most of the property values may be calculated in a direct

way, allowing to skip the time consuming detailed analysis of the shear or plastic

resistance only available with an AQUA license. In many cases it is also intended

to have these simpler values taken from tabulated data in the literature. On the

other side variability and locations of design points are thus limited. A detailed

analysis or a combination with other cross section parts is only possible for the

rolled steel shapes.

A freely defined thin-walled cross section may contain any number of thin ele-

ments, whose thickness is much smaller comparative to its length. A thin ele-

AQUA | General

ment assumes that the variation of the normal stress and most shear stresses

over the thickness are negligible. This has the consequence that the moment

of inertia about the weak axis also vanishes. Available elements are panels,

standard steel shapes and welded joints, as well as reinforcements.

Section moduli for all stresses are available at all points of the cross section.

Torsional moment of inertia and warping resistance, as well as centre of shear

and shear deformation areas, are determined for open or closed shapes, but

they can also be specified explicitly for special cases. Composite cross sections

can be defined.

A freely defined solid cross section consists of any number of outer and inner

perimeters in the form of circles or polygons, as well as of reinforcement ele-

ments. Structural steel shapes can be integrated.

Section moduli for all stresses are only available at distinct points of the cross

section. The torsional moment of inertia, the centre of shear and the shear de-

formation areas can be calculated, or they can be input separately. The warping

resistance can not be determined. Composite sections or effective widths of the

polygons can be defined.

A freely defined FE cross section will be imported from a FE mesh available in

a separate external data base. Stress points, reinforcement elements or shear

cuts may be added then. The import may also activate a temperature field for

the section (e.g. hot design).

All sectional values including warping are evaluated. Section moduli for all forces

and moments are available for all element mid points. Composite sections may

be defined.

The user has to decide on his own authority, which type of sectional description

to choose. Due to the established restrictions a standard cross section may

have more sectional data available than a poorly defined general cross section.

A thin walled section has much in common with a standard frame analysis, while

the solid section requires a continua solution. This means that the simplifications

of the thin walled approach allow a faster, more robust and more extensive so-

lution, but neglects local effects, which may become visible within a continua

solution with integral equations or finite elements.

General | AQUA

For example it is to be noted, that for a thin hollow box, the shear stress of the

continua solution is not really constant across the web thickness and may have

higher intensities at the corners which might require a smoothing of the contour.

On the other side a thin walled section has problems to take account of the

positive effect of the fillets of a thin rolled steel shape which has a considerable

contribution to the torsional strength.

The checks for the c/t ratio for steel sections are much more easily performed

with a thin walled section and the modelling of discrete dowels is only possible

with this type of approach.

In general problems have to be expected if a section is not modelled with the op-

timum method. Especially very thin plates with stiffeners modelled as polygons

need a very high numerical effort.

Due to the fact that most cross sections are build up according to certain rules,

AQUA supplies several definition possibilities for these instances:

• You may describe the section via CADINP variables within a block, which is

then used multiple times.

• You may interpolate between two sections linearly

• You can define a cross section template consisting of several construction

points. Other points are referenced hierarchically to those original points.

You can then generate other cross sections by changing these points.

• You may describe the position of those construction points by a 3D model

with curved reference lines.

sections with a single command (INTE).

AQUA | General

Theoretical Principles | AQUA

2 Theoretical Principles

2.1 Materials

Properties of materials must be distinguished according to whether they are to

be kept as close as possible to real values (e.g. for dynamic calculations) or to

be used with a safety coefficient for calculating an ultimate load-bearing capacity.

A small, but subtle contradiction is given by the fact, that many design codes

use a factor of 10.0 to convert the density of a material t/ m3 into the weight

kN/ m3 . To avoid any confusion about that SOFiSTiK has established the fol-

lowing rules:

• All weights have to be specified as the 10 time value of the mass, as it is also

done in the Eurocode. This value will be saved to the database.

• Thus masses for dynamic or thermal analysis will be always determined with

a factor of 0.1.

• If the design code or the user allows for more exact loadings, the factor of the

self weight has to be defined according to the locally effective value of the

gravity (e.g. 0.980655 instead of 1.0 for the reference location at 45 degree

latitude and sea level).

• For imperial units it has to be distinguished between mass (b) and a force

(bƒ , ps, ks). The conversion is using the reference location, thus the above

specified load factor should be used.

sometimes to the load and sometimes to the material, more recent regulations

(Eurocode) provide a clearer separation between safety factors for the loads and

factors for the material.

Since the material safety factors still depend on the nature of the load or the type

of design, AQUA generates and stores only the genuine properties of the mate-

rial. However, AQUA accounts for some safety factors which are independent of

the particular loading case, such as long term reduction factors.

Nevertheless, a safety coefficient can be entered in AQUA for each material; this

is used in AQUA for calculating the full plastic section forces and moments, and

can be used in AQB for the strain checks.

AQUA | Theoretical Principles

Any type of hole will be generated automatically if polygons or circles overlap. A

true hole is now defined with material number 0. To avoid any ambiguities, some

rules have to be followed however:

material number and at least one vertex of the periphery within the other

area. The latter is only true provided that the edges of the two polygons

maintain a minimum distance of 0.5 [ mm] apart.

• If a polygon/circle is completely within another area, it will always create a

hole, if the areas overlap partly the sequence of the input will decide: The

area defined last will be considered ”in front of” and will create a hole in the

area laying behind.

Cross sections are described according to DIN 1080 in the local y-z coordinate

system of the beam. Here the x-axis points in the longitudinal direction of the

bar. The observer is looking in general at the positive boundary of the section

(from the end of the bar to the beginning).

The coordinate system of the section is identical with the local beam coordinate-

system, i.e. the local x-axis is along the beam on the line between the nodes,

the y- and the z-axis are right handed perpendicular to it. The z-axis defines

the main bending direction and is in general oriented downwards in the gravity

direction.

For the description of the forces and moments and the support conditions, three

points along the beam have to be distinguished within a section:

• Beam axis (0) - This point may be given either by the centroids of the sec-

tions (centric beam) or it is defined by the origin of the sectional coordinate

system (beam with a reference axis). Support conditions in the nodes thus

are always specified for the beam axis position!

• Centre of gravity (S) - This point is the reference for the normal force and

the bending moments.

• Shear centre (M) - This point is the reference for the transverse shear force

and the torsional moment. The section will rotate about that point in general.

If we have a rotation about a fixed point (e.g. by a bracing) this point has to

be specified explicitly and it will coincide with the beam axis in many cases.

Deviations between these points will create changes in the moments between

Theoretical Principles | AQUA

support and end of beam. On the other side it is possible to describe a com-

plete geometry with any eccentricities and unsymmetrical haunched beams and

construction stages with ease.

S

M

to the global coordinate system by the definition of the beam.

y’, z’ sectional coordinate system for minimum moment of inertia (=co-

ordinate system shifted to the centre of gravity)

For rotations the sign is always defined by the rotation about the local x-axis.

This is clockwise if you look in the direction of the beam and it is counter clock-

wise if looking on the positive face. Sections will be saved in the database with

the periphery in that same orientation. The sign of the radius of a circular arc

is defined positive if the area is increased compared to the secant, and it is

negative if the area is decreased as in the case of a fillet.

The load-bearing behaviour of a generic bar without foundation according to the

1st order theory, yet with warping, can be described with a differential equation

AQUA | Theoretical Principles

matrix:

F Fy Fz F

p

V

py

Fy Fyy Fyz Fy

E · · y

= (2.1)

zV pz

Fz Fyz Fzz Fz

m + Gt ϑ

V

F Fy Fz F ϑ

Θ rotation about the axis of the bar

p , py , pz loads parallel and perpendicular to the bar

m torsional load

The rest of the parameters are static properties of the cross section (geometrical

area moments). Since it is impractical to incorporate all of the static properties

into the calculation, certain standardisations are normally adopted:

• The axial force refers to the centre of gravity of the beam, i.e.

Fy = Fz = 0 (2.2)

Fyz = 0 (2.3)

F = 0 (2.4)

• The torsional moment and the shear forces refer to the centre of shear,

i.e.

Conversely, the conditions in 2.2 through 2.5 can be used in determining the

centre of gravity, the orientation of the principal axes, the free moduli of warping

and the centre of shear.

The determination of the area moments is relatively simple and shall not be

described in any further detail.

Theoretical Principles | AQUA

Swain’s expression and the normalized warping:

My z + Mz yz

N Mz y − My yz Mb

σ = + ·z− ·y+ · (2.6)

A 2

y z − yz 2

y z − yz CM

The so-called effective widths are used in literature for modelling the effects

which derive from the diaphragm action of the plate of a T-beam or a box cross

section. The concept of an equivalent substitute width with constant normal

stress naturally demands different approaches depending on the task at hand

(statics, design).

elements. AQUA then stores the cross section values for the total cross section

as well as for the effective cross section. Static analysis usually refers to the

effective parts, whereas prestressing refers to the total cross section.

The effective widths are not taken into consideration during shear stress calcu-

lations due to many consistency reasons.

In case of warping due to torsion (primary or secondary) and shear force, the

cross section no longer remains plane. A deflection occurring at the cross

section in the longitudinal direction induces shear stresses.

All the problems of the elasticity theory can be analysed by use of the force

method or the displacement method. While the force method is frequently used

in calculations by hand, the displacement method is better suited for process-

ing with the computer. Both procedures are implemented in AQUA for solid

cross sections. The latter are by default computed by means of the displace-

ment method and in particular the Finite Element Method (FEM). Alternatively,

the Boundary Element Method (BEM) could be also activated. Certain simplifi-

cations of the following equations can be made in case of thin-walled sections

which facilitate a quick solution of all tasks. These sections are therefore always

analysed by the matrix displacement method.

A general formulation for the cross section warping according to the displace-

ment method conforms to the equilibrium condition

∂2 ∂2

∂σ

G · + = − (2.7)

∂y 2 ∂z 2 ∂

AQUA | Theoretical Principles

∂ ∂ϑ

τy = G · −z· (2.9a)

∂y ∂

∂ ∂ϑ

τz = G · +y· (2.9b)

∂z ∂

The right side of 2.7 can be computed for example by 2.6. Assuming constant

normal force and constant cross section properties, one gets:

∂σ Vz z − Vy yz Vy y − Vz yz Mt2

− = 2

· z + 2

· y + · (2.10)

∂ y z − yz y z − yz CM

These equations will be approximated by AQUA either with the Boundary Ele-

ment Method (BEM) or the Finite Element Method (FEM).

For the Saint Venant’s torsion problem (∂Θ / ∂ = 1) the right side of 2.7 is iden-

tical to zero and the following boundary condition applies:

∂

= z · ny − y · nz . (2.11)

∂n

The torsional moment of inertia according to the displacement method t is de-

rived by

Z Z

t = y 2 + z 2 − (∂/ ∂y)2 − (∂/ ∂z)2 dF (2.12)

As long as AQUA does not solve the differential equation 2.7, only an estimate

of the torsional moment of inertia is possible. The last equation shows that

the polar moment of inertia can be substituted for t in case of warp-free cross

sections

t ≤ p = y + z . (2.13)

For all cross sections Eq. 2.13 provides an upper limit, which e.g. is about 10%

above the exact value for a square.

Theoretical Principles | AQUA

A4

T = (2.14)

4 · π 2 · y + z

This value is exact for circular and elliptical cross sections. For compact solid

cross sections this value provides a good approximation.

ing to W IENECKE [23] in consideration of the cross section perimeter, which has

been implemented in AQUA.

exact 0.140 0.458 3.13 ×b4

Saint Venant 0.152 0.486 3.01 ×b4

Wienecke 0.124 0.418 3.24 ×b4

For hollow cross sections with more than 30% inner perimeters, an equivalent

hollow cross section based on the external and internal perimeters is used for a

more refined estimate.

For composite sections Eq. 2.14 is used for each partial cross section and the

components are added.

The calculation of shear stresses for solid sections in AQUA requires that the

user specifies the method to be used and the positions that have to be checked.

This challenging problem can be solved with a variety of methods, which is con-

trolled by the CTRL option STYP:

CTRL STYP FEM Finite Element Method - for all shear related cross-

sectional properties (default)

CTRL STYP FEMX Finite Element Method as described above, but with

a secondary database containing the section mesh

in a subfolder

CTRL STYP BEM 1 Boundary Element Method only for t and location of

shear centre ysc ,zsc

CTRL STYP BEM 2 Boundary Element Method for torsion and Force

Method for shear using shear cuts

AQUA | Theoretical Principles

CTRL STYP BEM 3 Boundary Element Method for torsion, shear defor-

mation areas are also determined

CTRL STYP FORC Force Method

Hint

The default of version 2014 can be set with CTRL STYP BEM.

In post-cracking (state II) analysis, AQB always employs the force method with

proportional axial force. In case of composite cross sections options BEM 2

and BEM 3 should be used with caution. The input of explicit shear sections is

required as a rule.

Basics

The Finite Element Method for solid (thick) sections is an innovative approach

which uses a 2D discretisation of the cross-sectional domain, thus formulat-

ing the main differential warping problem into a discrete system of equations

using the connectivity of the mesh (AQUA produces only quadrilateral ”QUAD”

meshes). AQUA solves the four main unit warping problems (MT1 = 1.0, Vy = 1.0,

Vz = 1.0 and MT2 = 1.0) and derives from that the unit shear stress distributions

resulting under each loading condition. These results are then being used for

obtaining several entities such as:

(required for second order analysis)

Hint

The Finite Element Method is the default method of computation in version

2016 for all polygonal thick cross-sections.

Theoretical Principles | AQUA

means of the CTRL option prior to the definition of a cross-section or in the

cross-section editor.

It is also worth noting that cross-sections defined in version 2014 when re-

opened in version 2016 will automatically be converted by default to FEM cross-

sections with the following conversion scheme:

CTRL STYP 1 to 3 ⇒ CTRL STYP FEM

CTRL STYP 15 ⇒ CTRL STYP FEMX

CTRL STYP 5 ⇒ CTRL STYP BEM 1

CTRL STYP 6 ⇒ CTRL STYP BEM 2

CTRL STYP 7 ⇒ CTRL STYP BEM 3

General Advantages

The Finite Element Method has several numerical and performance-related ad-

vantages over the methods previously available in AQUA:

• provides a more stable and accurate approach for the elastic computation

of torsional, shear force and warping dependent properties and stresses

• provides a nonlinear incremental approach for the computation of plastic

and other nonlinear properties. FEM yields plausible values for the plastic

shear forces and the plastic torsional moment

• provides a more accurate estimation of the elastic limit forces Ne , My,e ,

Mz,e , Mb,e for general cross-sections

sections with HYDRA (thermal time-dependent analysis)

• provides symmetrical meshing of singly or doubly symmetrical cross-

sections, thus ensuring that symmetry of results is maintained and re-

duces numerical fluctuations of derivatives (centroid, shear centre, points

of symmetrical warping etc.)

• enables a detailed visualization of stresses and warpings with WINGRAF

/ Result Viewer over the entirety of the domain

As with the remaining methods, one can also define none-effective parts, various

isotropic / anisotropic material models, shear cuts, reinforcements and construc-

tion stages which shall be taken into account when constructing and meshing,

interpolating, computing and post-processing the model.

AQUA | Theoretical Principles

Secondary CDB

Upon activating the extended control option CTRL STYP FEMX the gener-

ated cross-sectional mesh shall be saved into a databank which is located

in a subdirectory pertaining to the project, entitled projectname_sections.

For example, Section 1 would then be saved in the following database:

projectname_sections\section_0001.cdb. The created database is an impor-

tant feature which is necessary for HYDRA if the section is to be later on used in

a thermal analysis or in a column design. It is not recommended to activate this

option unless one is explicitly interested in the physical output details of the anal-

ysis as its creation may demand considerable additional HDD space and writing

time. Out of optimization reasons, the default setting is CTRL STYP FEM ensur-

ing that the mesh for each cross-section shall be created and kept only for the

period of the analysis.

Databases with meshes could be also imported into AQUA using the SECT FEM

definition for a freely defined cross-section. The user is also allowed to import

sectional systems meshed by SOFiMSHC 2D as a whole or group-wise via the

same principle.

If the input option SECT LTAU is defined by the user, WINGRAF could access

the secondary CDB containing the mesh and visualize the therein saved unit

shear stresses over the entire domain of the cross-section. The four unit shear

stress profiles (MT1 = 1.0, Vy = 1.0 , Vz = 1.0 , MT2 = 1.0) shall be then grouped

as load cases starting with the predefined LTAU number and consequently each

further increasing by one. WINGRAF allows in addition to that the definition

of shear cuts in the section, along which the unit results could be colourfully

displayed.

The Animator could be used for a general graphical overview too. For most

general purposes, the Result Viewer would always extract the boundary warp-

ings/stresses along those quad edges belonging to the outer contours of the

domain and save them in the main project database, ready for visualization un-

der the tree.

Hint

Explicitly defined stress points and single reinforcement bars shall not nec-

essarily be meshed in such a way that AQUA will always create a FE node

at those locations. Therefore results at those points are usually obtained

via interpolation of results belonging to the surrounding quads.

Theoretical Principles | AQUA

Mesh Quality

The quality of the FEM analysis depends entirely on how fine the underlying

model is to be discretized, i.e. the number of quad elements the mesh con-

sists of. By default, AQUA aims at providing a sufficiently reasonable mesh in

order to obtain mechanically reasonably accurate results for all cross-sectional

elastic and plastic values, especially for steel shapes. One has to however note

that the last requirement is very difficult to be fulfilled for any possible input.

It is also a matter of compromise between accuracy, computational time and

demand. More geometrically complex and involving, especially multi-domain /

multi-material composite sections might need further mesh densification in the

zones of stress concentration, interfaces and fillets. Same applies to sections

which are to be subsequently undergoing thermal analysis with HYDRA, where

acceptable results can only be obtained with finer meshes. Before meshing a

model, AQUA determines for each subregion of the domain a corresponding

mesh size which is to be applied, also termed ”h-value”.

Hint

The cross-sectional FE-mesh provided by AQUA using the default mesh

parameters is in most cases sufficient to obtain mechanically reasonably

accurate results of all cross-sectional elastic and plastic values.

For the cases where a denser or a coarser mesh is required on an overall level,

a control option is provided by means of which the user could :

factor CTRL HDIV factor [ -] . For example a factor of 0.5[ -] would mean

that each subdomain is to be scaled down to 50% of its originally defined

by AQUA mesh density. Same effect could be achieved by the alternative

input 50 [ %] . A factor greater than 1.0[ -] or 100[ %] can be also applied.

• a direct input of a global mesh size by CTRL HDIV mesh size [ mm or m] .

In this case AQUA determines the ratio of the input value to the internally

computed ”h-value” and applies the quotient as a factor on that region.

Since the mesh size cannot be uncontrollably rescaled, AQUA has fixed allow-

able internal limits in the range [ 0.1 ... 5.0] or [ 10% ... 500%] . Any value in-

putted beyond this scope forces the program to rescale it to the nearest extreme

and yield a warning.

It is more than recommended to use the first option since an estimate of the

”h-values” is quite cumbersome and is a function of several complex invariable

criteria.

AQUA | Theoretical Principles

Hint

Reducing the mesh could result in overwhelmingly long analysis time, large

databases and excessive data output.

In order to avoid various meshing problems, one should bear in mind that poly-

gons must not intersect each other at one or more singular points. It is thor-

oughly possible for polygons to intersect each other in various fashions, provided

that the intersections are continuous and generated intersection points are not

singular points.

Integration Schemes

When integrating any FE-related properties, AQUA/AQB would always employ

a Lobatto-integration scheme. For some very special cases, further integration

schemes are available using CTRL SINT. The options are :

1 Integration scheme using only quad mid points (useful for fine meshes)

2 Integration scheme using only quad nodes

3 Lobatto-integration scheme with nodes and quad mid-points (default)

Hint

It is always recommended to use the Lobatto-Integration scheme (default

setting) in order to achieve optimum result accuracy at the cost of a neg-

ligibly higher computational time. Nevertheless, the user should be aware

that this option also produces the most output as both FEM quad nodes

and quad mid-points are being considered and additionally saved into the

database.

The FEM method also allows for several far more complex effects such as plas-

ticity to be considered by the analysis of a cross-section:

The analysis of the shear related plastic properties (MT1,p , Vy,p , Vz,p ,

MT2,p ) for thick (solid) FEM cross-sections is a complex task, especially if

these values are to be computed in a mechanically exact manner. It should

be noted that in real engineering applications, shear does not exist on its

own and plastic values, required for interaction purposes and checks, are

often of controversial nature and in many cases it is recommended to refer

Theoretical Principles | AQUA

but it is in nearly all the cases left to the engineer to take an adequate deci-

sion as to which plastic forces and moments would mostly suit the nature of

his needs. In order to allow for that, the following three methods have been

implemented into AQUA for CTRL OPT PLAS:

0 take all plastic values from standard cross-sectional tables

1 compute plastic shear-related properties using a FE-method of

scaling the elastic shear stresses flux (default)

2 calculate plastic shear-related properties using a nonlinear incre-

mental displacement controlled FEM approach

+1*16 replace current method’s computed Vy,p and Vz,p by plastic

forces based on the scaled elastic shear areas

It is of importance to note that:

• Standard steel (solid or AQUA-light solid) profiles PROF obtain their

plastic values by default directly from section tables:

SECT 1 MNO 1

PROF 1 TYPE IPE 300 DTYP S

SECT 2 MNO 1

PROF 2 TYPE IPE 300 DTYP TABS

PROF 4 MNO 1 TYPE IPE 300 DTYP S

PROF 5 MNO 1 TYPE IPE 300 DTYP TABS

of a SECT. In the example above all 5 sections shall be treated equally

in terms of elastic and plastic computation. Enforcing the CTRL PLAS

0 option is here unnecessary and will not affect anything. PLAS 1 and

PLAS 2 will be suppressed if called.

• Freely defined sections with SECT obtain their plastic values by default

according to the method they are computed with:

CTRL PLAS 2

SECT 6 MNO 1

PROF 6 TYPE IPE 300

POLY OPZ MNO 2

VERT 1 200 -200

AQUA | Theoretical Principles

CTRL PLAS 17

SECT 7 MNO 1

PROF 7 TYPE IPE 300

POLY OPZ MNO 2

VERT 1 200 -200

VERT 2 200 +200

SECT 8 MNO 1

PROF 8 TYPE IPE 300

POLY OPZ MNO 2

VERT 1 200 -200

VERT 2 200 +200

if nothing else specified) using the enforced plastic method PLAS 2.

Section 7 will likewise be handled by FEM with the enforced condition

of using the standard method PLAS 1 (default if nothing else specified)

in combination with the condition of using elastic shear areas for Vy,p

and Vz,p . Section 8 shall be computed by BEM, therefore none of the

PLAS controls related to FEM is relevant here.

If the CTRL PLAS 0 option is explicitly activated for the three sections

above, sections 6 and 7 will obtain only the plastic values of the PROF

definition in them, disregarding any further elements in the section defi-

nition which might lead to dangerously small and thus erroneous plastic

values. Users are thus advised to use PLAS 0 only in cases where a

single profile is to be analyzed. Finally, section 8 will remain unaffected.

• Any of the obtained in AQUA plastic characteristic values can be over-

written or rescaled if needed as per cf. SV.

AQUA also possesses a highly advanced algorithm for calculating the plas-

tic shear-related properties using a nonlinear incremental displacement

controlled FEM approach. The latter consists in applying a unit kinematic

deformation once at a time onto the cross-section in its principal axis and

gradually increasing that deformation until the ultimate plastic capacity is

reached, i.e. the tangential elasto-plastic stiffness does not change signif-

icantly with increasing deformation. Full plastification does not necessar-

ily mean all of the Gauss points becoming plastic. The algorithm would

currently find consecutive elasto-plastic equilibrium states along the fun-

damental path and compute the resulting plastic force/moment, stiffness,

Theoretical Principles | AQUA

within small tolerances, the algorithm is deemed to have converged and

the plastic values are written into the database. WPS shall cater for correct

guiding output during the analysis. Both characteristic and design plas-

tic values are being computed by the algorithm. Non-effective parts and

construction stages are being disregarded in the analysis, i.e. converged

plastic values are only applicable to the final cross-section.

The current implementation of the CTRL PLAS 2 plastic algorithm em-

ploys the von Mises2D plastic material model for isotropic/anisotropic steel

and concrete materials (default) and the Tsai-Wu2D model for anisotropic

timber-like materials under plastification.

For visualization of the plastified cross-sectional areas (by means of

Wingraf), corresponding secondary element groups are generated auto-

matically in the cross-section database. The latter are automatically cre-

ated provided STEU PLAS 2, STEU STYP FEMX and the additional option

QNR LTAU are activated for the current cross-section. The naming conven-

tion for the secondary groups is based on the literal of the computed plastic

force, extended by an identifier for the current state (fyd = design state, fyk

= characteristic state).

The example input below illustrates the activation of the advanced algorithm

with the forced condition of overwriting the computed plastic shear forces

with the ones obtained from the elastic shear areas.

Example input file: aqua.dat/english/plastic.dat

Hint

Please note that CTRL PLAS 2 method is currently still under devel-

opment. Therefore it is highly recommended not to fully rely on the

results it produces, even though the method is based on mechanically

exact assumptions. Depending on the mesh size and the complexity

of the cross-section, analysis time might vary widely and impede the

computational speed of your project. Convergence is also not fully

guaranteed under all circumstances.

FEM cross-section of arbitrary shape and material composition can be easily

used for time-dependent thermal analysis with HYDRA. The user is kindly ad-

vised to consult the manual of HYDRA and in particular the definitions of SECT

and MEXT in AQUA for more detailed information on the underlying workflow.

AQUA | Theoretical Principles

The analysis with the displacement method employs either the Finite Ele-

ment Method or the Integral equation method (also termed Boundary Element

Method) developed by K ATZ [9]. While the FE mesh may be imported or auto-

matically generated in AQUA, for the second method, the cross section contour

is discretized into multiple so-called ”boundary elements”. A linear formulation

of the warping is made for each element and the boundary condition is satisfied

by a Galerkin weighted residual.

Both methods compute the warping function over the cross section and on this

basis the shear stresses due to shear force and torsion, as well as nearly all

sectional values like the torsional inertia, the location of the shear center and

the shear deformation areas.

The number of elements determines the accuracy of the solution. In the case

of a square, for instance, the unit lateral warping on all the axes of symmetry

is zero. A non-vanishing solution can therefore be obtained only by defining at

least four elements per side. AQUA uses each polygon edge as one element,

which can be further subdivided depending on its size. Duplicate edges are

automatically removed. As the results along the edges will vary only linearly, it

is strongly recommended to use the input value CTRL HMIN or the item SMAX

in POLY in order to have a coarse subdivision visible.

creases the computational time with a power of two or three, the subdivision

should not be made too fine. The user can control the mesh size as absolute or

relative by CTRL HDIV / SDIV.

CTRL SDIV 1 maximum 1/2

CTRL SDIV 2 maximum 1/4

CTRL SDIV 3 maximum 1/8

CTRL SDIV 4 maximum 1/16

CTRL SDIV 5 maximum 1/32

etc.

ically. It is a numerical approximate method. Local singularities of the shear

stresses, such as those at re-entrant corners for example, can generate rather

high stresses.

Theoretical Principles | AQUA

The force method is implemented in AQUA only for ”statically determinate”, i.e.

simply connected cross sections. For multiple connected cross sections, the

user must either know the location of zero shear stress or specify the distribution

of the shear to the multiple segments of the cut. Since in cracked sections the

common usage is the force method, the distribution values are needed in any

case for reinforced concrete sections. The displacement method allows however

to establish reasonable estimates for many cases.

Torsional stress analysis is not elementary even for the force method (stress

function with soap film analogy). The resistance areas for the torsional shear

stresses are therefore prescribed by two values per section. The first value

defines the shear at mid-area (Bredt’s equivalent section). The second value

defines the increase along the cut:

τm = Mt · WT m ; Δτ = Mt · WT d (2.15)

The default is one of the following two values, depending on whether the cross

section is a hollow one or an equivalent hollow one:

1 1

WT m = ; WT d = · min(b, d) (2.16)

(2 · Ak · b0 ) t

The sign of the shear stresses is based on the orientation of the cut relative to

the shear centre.

V S

τ = · (2.17)

b

• I has to be generalized with Swains formula

• For S the separated part of the cross section is not known for multiple con-

AQUA | Theoretical Principles

nected sections.

• Shear stress does not need to be constant across the width b

The separated part of the cross section is based on the positive face the one

to the left of the cut’s direction on the positive side. During this calculation any

missing partial sections are automatically filled in. It is therefore extremely im-

portant to input the sections correctly, and especially to maintain their sequence.

For special cases, such as dowel outline joints, deductible areas, equivalent

hollow cross sections, multiply connected cross sections etc., the component of

the shear force for each partial cut can be provided by a factor.

gons, either inner perimeters or composite cross sections, not dissected by the

polygonal shear cut. In such cases AQUA examines all points of the polygon to

see whether they are inside or on the boundary of the already evaluated partial

section. Openings must therefore always be defined according to the polygons

that surround them. In case of composite cross sections it may be helpful to pay

attention to the cut direction or the sequence of the polygons.

In the definition of cuts across several materials the user must take care that

each segment of the cut has the correct material number, because a cut will

dissect only parts having the same material number. It makes a difference for

the horizontal shear in a composite flange if a dowel is before or behind the cut.

Theoretical Principles | AQUA

Cuts through cross sections with ”open air” between their parts can not be anal-

ysed as the section does not hit any elements. A similar problem occurs if a cut

has the wrong material number. This may happen especially with the standard

cuts through the centre of gravity.

Some additional advice applies to oblique cuts. Since the shear force at an

oblique cut does not vary significantly compared to the straight cut, however the

width of the cut does. Since the selection of an inappropriate cut direction can

result in the analysis of too small shear stresses.

The stress evaluation with the displacement method always uses the gross sec-

tion while the force method may only use the effective part of the section. The

latter is the default behaviour. But with CTRL SCUT +8 you may switch to the

full section if needed.

While DIN 1045 still allows the calculation of torsional stresses according to state

I, both DIN 4227 and EC2 allow for their calculation on an equivalent hollow

cross section. As long as AQUA does not use the FEM or BEM method, the

force method is used in conjunction with the definition of an equivalent hollow

cross section.

The user normally uses the command CUT to define a so called cut through the

sectional geometry where a check of the shear stresses should take place. Each

cut is assigned an identification, which consists of three characters. The cut can

be defined parallel to an axis or as a free form polygon line. Every segment

has its own material number and it will only cut through cross section elements

with the same material number. Gaps between the segments will be closed by

means of virtual connections. The width of the substitute torsional cross section

is available as a special option for the description of equivalent hollow cross

sections of reinforced and prestressed concrete. Two partial cuts are generated

for each section in this case.

AQUA | Theoretical Principles

If the user does not supply any input, one or two axis-parallel cuts will be created

through the centre of gravity. This is generally not sufficient even for a simple

T-Beam, nor for composite sections, where the reference material number of

the section is not necessarily represented at that location. The user will see a

warning for general sections therefore.

CTRL SCUT allows the user to control how many of these standard cuts will be

generated (0/1/2).

The cut can dissect the cross section at several locations creating partial cuts.

Each partial cut has a direction s and three defined points of interest: beginning

(A), middle (M) and end (E):

The internal forces perpendicular to the cut M and N act in such way that positive

axial forces cause tensile stresses across the cut, and positive moments cause

tensile stresses at the End-Point.

The shear stressing is described primarily by the section moduli of the shear

stresses at the three points. Additional values are calculated for the design of

links in reinforced concrete structural elements:

• A mean torsional shear stress which, after being multiplied by the width of

the partial section, must be covered by reinforcement. This corresponds to

a section modulus for the shear flow.

• The total cut width, by which the shear stresses due to the shear force must

be multiplied in order to obtain the shear flow from shear force.

These distinctions are very significant to the definition of equivalent hollow cross

Theoretical Principles | AQUA

sections.

The calculation of shear stresses in thin walled sections is however much eas-

ier as opposed to the shear analysis of solid continua. i.e. there are closed

solutions possible which do not depend on the subdivision of elements. The

theoretical background has been developed and published by S CHADE [16].

AQUA uses the deformation method in the frame of a simplified FE model for

thin-walled sections in all cases. The CTRL option STYP has in here no effects

at all, but you may specify explicit values via SV.

The calculation of fully plastic forces is a very complex task. The single values for

each force component may be evaluated easily, but the interaction of all forces

and moments is a rather extensive numerical problem. With AQUA/AQB one

has the following choices:

Plastic normal force and bending moments can be evaluated precisely. For

the plastic shear force Vy,p the plastic shear area is taken according to Eu-

rocode including the additional fillet areas, which is a deviation from the

simpler formulas given in DIN 18800 for steel shapes. For Vz,p the fil-

lets are ignored. For Mt,p a more conservative approximation is used for

thin walled sections, whereas for thick sections, the exact solution given by

Bäcklund/Akesson is used. It should be also noted that plastic forces and

moments for tabulated profiles shall always be transformed into the rotated

system if the profiles are rotated around their default state.

• Evaluation of plastic forces using the real geometry (AQUA - Full Version)

For thin walled sections of arbitrary shape and composition, the plastic nor-

mal force and bending moments are evaluated precisely. Plastic shear forces

Vy,p , Vz,p may be evaluated rather well (neglecting some plastic shear centre

effects). The method that AQUA currently uses for this purpose is based on

scaling the elastic stresses to their yield limit, which does in the general case

provide a slight, but negligible overestimation of the exact theoretical values,

as in the case of Mt,p .

For thick walled sections of arbitrary shape and composition, either com-

puted by BEM or FEM, the plastic normal force and bending moments are

evaluated precisely. For torsion however, it is difficult in the very general case

AQUA | Theoretical Principles

to clearly distinguish between open and closed sections. For thick polygo-

nal sections, a pure sum of areas would lead to significantly overestimated

values for all shear problems.

With standard BEM, as well as with FEM solely in combination with CTRL

PLAS +16, AQUA will use the shear deformation area for Vy,p and Vz,p , being

up to 20% on the safe side.

If standard FEM is used (PLAS 1), AQUA will apply a scaling based on the

elastic torsional and shear stress in the section, thus partially overestimating

both torsional and shear plastic values (see also Section 2.8.1). It is very

often questionable how these values (in particular the plastic shear) compare

to standard tabulated values. In reality, each resource uses a slightly different

mechanical definition of the area that is to be considered as fully plastic

and active. Nevertheless, using the PLAS 1 method is for design purposes

adequate, safe and computationally not expensive. If a mechanically correct

analysis is sought after, PLAS 2 method could be enforced to deliver the

required, exact plastic values, but at the price of a higher computational cost

(not recommended for a general use).

Finally, enforcing PLAS 0 for standard steel sections (also default in AQUA)

is highly recommendable for design purposes.

• Evaluation of nonlinear interaction values for the real cross-section geometry

(AQB - record NSTR)

With this method, all prerequisites like compatibility, yield criteria and equi-

librium are fulfilled. However the evaluation is always done for a distinct

force/moment combination. Thus the limiting value has to be found itera-

tively.

The following program limits hold:

Materials 999

Materials per cross section 31

Cross sections 9999

Reinforcement layers 10

Polygon vertices per polygon 255

Shear sections per cross section 255

Literature | AQUA

Literature

wendung bei der numerischen Analyse von Grundbauaufgaben. Mitteilun-

gen Heft 10 des Baugrund-Instituts Stuttgart, 1979.

[2] T. Benz. Small-strain Stiffness of Soils and Its Numerical Consequences.

PhD thesis, Universität Stuttgart, Institut für Geotechnik, 2006.

[3] M.A. Chrisfield. Non-linear Finite Element Analysis of Solids and Struc-

tures. Volume I, Essentials. Wiley & Sons, 1991.

[4] M.A. Chrisfield. Non-linear Finite Element Analysis of Solids and Struc-

tures. Volume II, Advanced Topics. Wiley & Sons, 1997.

[5] C.S. Desai and J.T. Christian. Numerical Methods in Geotechnical Engi-

neerin. Chapter 2, McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1973.

[6] J.M. Duncan and C.Y. Chang. Nonlinear analysis of stress and strain in soil.

J. Soil Mech. Found. Div. ASCE 96, 1970.

[7] Fédération internationale du Béton. fib Model Code for Concrete Structures

2010. Wilhelm Ernst & Sohn, Berlin, 2013. ISBN 978-3-433-03061-5.

[8] C. Galliot and R. Luchsinger. A simple non-linear material model for pvc-

coated polyester fabrics. Tensinews Newsletter, 18, 2010.

[9] C. Katz. Self-Adaptive Boundary Elements for the Shear Stress in

Beams. BETECH 86, Boundary Element Technology Conference 1986

Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge U.S.A., 1986.

[10] R.L. Kondner and J.S. Zelasko. A hyperbolic stress strain relation for sands.

Proc. 2nd Pan. Am. I-COSFE Brazil 1, 1963.

[11] H.B. Kupfer and K.H. Gerstle. Behavior of concrete under biaxial stresses.

Journal of the Engineering Mechanics Division, 4:853–866, 1973.

[12] P.V. Lade. Failure Criterion for Frictional Materials in Mechanics of Engi-

neering Materials. Chap 20 (C.s.Desai,R.H.Gallagher ed.) Wiley & Sons,

1984.

[13] M.M. Maksimović. Mehanika Tla. Gradjevinska knjiga, 1995.

[14] D.M. Potts and L. Zdravković. Finite Element Analysis in Geotechnical En-

gineering: Theory, volume 1 of Finite Element Analysis in Geotechnical

Engineering. Thomas Telford, 1999.

[15] P.W. Rowe. The stress-dilatancy relation for static equilibrium of an assem-

AQUA | Literature

Series A. Mathematical and Physical Sciences, 269(1339):500–527, 1962.

[16] D. Schade. Zur Berechnung von Querschnittswerten und Span-

nungsverteilungen für Torsion und Profilverformungen von prismatischen

Stäben mit dünnwandigen Querschnitten. Z. Flugwiss.Weltraumforschung

11 , 167-173., 1987.

[17] T. Schanz. Zur Modellierung des mechanischen Verhaltens von Reibungs-

materialien. Habilitationsschrift, Institut für Geotechnik der Universität

Stuttgart, 1998.

[18] A.W. Skempton. The pore-pressure coefficients A and B. Géotechnique, 4:

143–147, 1954.

[19] O.K. Søreide. Mixed hardening models for frictional soils. PhD thesis, Nor-

wegian University of Science and Technology, 2003.

[20] K. Terzaghi. Theoretical Soil Mechanics. Wiley, 1948.

[21] A. Verruijt. Grondmechanica. Delftse Uitgevers Maatschappij, 1983.

[22] M. Wehnert. Ein Beitrag zur drainierten und undrainierten Analyse in der

Geotechnik. PhD thesis, Universität Stuttgart, Institut für Geotechnik, 2006.

[23] U.J. Wienecke. Zur wirklichkeitsnahen Berechnung von Stahlbeton- und

Spannbetonstäben nach einer konsequenten Theorie II.Ordnung unter all-

gemeiner Belastung. Dissertation Technische Hochschule Darmstadt,

1985.

[24] W. Wittke. Grundlagen für die Bemessung und Ausführung von Tunnels

in quellendem Gebirge und ihre Anwendung beim Bau der Wendeschleife

der S-Bahn Stuttgart. Veröffentlichungen des Institutes für Grundbau, Bo-

denmechanik, Felsmechanik und Verkehrswasserbau der RWTH-Aachen,

1978.

[25] W. Wittke and P. Rissler. Bemessung der Auskleidung von Hohlräumen in

quellendem Gebirge nach der Finite Element Methode. Veröffentlichungen

des Institutes für Grundbau, Bodenmechanik, Felsmechanik und Verkehr-

swasserbau der RWTH-Aachen , Heft 2, 1976.

[26] P. Wittke-Gattermann. Verfahren zur Berechnung von Tunnels in

quellfähigem Gebirge und Kalibrierung an einem Versuchsbauwerk. Dis-

sertation RWTH-Aachen, Verlag Glückauf, 1998.

[27] O.C. Zienkiewicz and I.C. Cormeau. Visco-Plasticity - Plasticity and Creep

in Elastic Solids - a Unified Numerical Solution Approach. In International

Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering, volume 8, 1974.

[28] O.C. Zienkiewicz and R.L. Taylor. The Finite Element Method, volume 2.

McGraw Hill, London., 1991.

Input Description | AQUA

3 Input Description

AQUA allows the user to define general cross sections with arbitrary geometry

and materials. For simple sections and materials you do not need a special

license, but for all sections starting with record SECT you need a license for

AQUA.

Before defining a section you have to specify the materials. Materials are ad-

dressed by an arbitrary number. Please note, that by keeping track of construc-

tion phases in AQBS, it is assumed that materials with higher material numbers

were added at a later time.

A standard section is defined by just one input record. All sectional values will be

calculated including torsional and shear properties. The maximum components

for all stresses are known, but a detailed analysis at different locations within the

section will not take place.

SREC Rectangular sections, plates, T-beams and joists

SCIT Circular and annular sections via Diameter / Thickness

TUBE Tubular sections

PROF Rolled Steel shapes

CABL Cable sections

SECT General section (AQUA licence required)

With AQUA cross sections can be redefined at any time during the processing

of the project without affecting other defined sections. However if any material

definition is made, all existing cross sections are deleted. The distributions of

reinforcements and stresses are deleted too, unless otherwise specified with

CTRL REST.

Freely defined cross sections always start with the record SECT, which specifies

the cross section number. All subsequent input records describe this one cross

section, which may consist of several partial cross sections (external perime-

ter, inner perimeter, reinforcement layout etc.). The input for a cross section is

concluded either by the next SECT record or by two END records.

AQUA | Input Description

The input occurs in a free format with the CADINP input language (see the

general manual SOFiSTiK: ’Basics’).

3.2 Units

SOFiSTiK programs offer the possibility to carry out all input and output of data

in engineering units. A number of unit sets are provided for this purpose, which

are preset according to the design code used in the given project. This default

can additionally be changed for each program run separately using the keyword

PAGE. More information about unit sets can be found in the general SOFiSTiK

manual, section ’Units’.

explicit assignment of a related unit is possible (eg. 2.5[m] ).

[mm] 1011 Implicit unit. Implicit units are categorised semantically and de-

noted by a corresponding identity number (shown in green). Valid

categories referring to the unit ”length” are, for example, geodetic

elevation, section length and thickness. The default unit for each

category is defined by the currently active (design code specific)

unit set. This input default can be overridden as described above.

The specified unit in square brackets corresponds to the default for

unit set 5 (Eurocodes, NORM UNIT 5).

For sections the units for all dimesnions are expected in [ mm] in general, the

unit sets 0, 3 and 4 expect [ m] , the Unit-Set 1 [ cm] . For reinforcement areas

values are expected in [ cm2 ] , the unit sets 6 and 7 expect [ mm2 ] .

1= German buildings (sections in cm, system in m)

2= German steel construction, (sections mm,cm2 ,dm4 , system in m)

3= Bridge construction (like 0 but internal forces in MN instead of kN)

4= Soil Mechanics (m, kN, sec)

5= Structural Engineering (sections in mm, system in m)

6= Metric system (All dimensions in mm, loads in kN)

7= Mechanical (All dimensions in mm, loads in N)

Input Description | AQUA

The default unit set (UNIT) of a corresponding design code is described in the

record NORM at the respective design code in the tables.

The following records are defined:

Record Items

CTRL OPT VAL VAL2

NORM DC NDC COUN CAT ALT WIND SNOW

SEIS

MATE NO E MUE G K GAM GAMA

ALFA E90 M90 OAL OAF SPM FY

FT TYPE TITL

MAT NO E MUE G K GAM GAMA

ALFA EY MXY OAL OAF SPM TITL

MLAY NO T0 NR0 T1 NR1 T2 NR2

T3 NR3 T4 NR4 T5 NR5 T6

NR6 T7 NR7 T8 NR8 T9 NR9

TITL

NMAT NO TYPE P1 P2 P3 P4 P5

P6 P7 P8 P9 P10 P11 P12

BMAT NO C CT CRAC YIEL MUE COH

DIL GAMB TYPE MREF H

HMAT NO TYPE TEMP KXX KYY KZZ KXY

KXZ KYZ S NSP A B C

QMAX TK TITL

CONC NO TYPE FCN FC FCT FCTK EC

QC GAM ALFA SCM TYPR FCR ECR

FBD FFAT FCTD FEQR FEQT GMOD KMOD

GC GF MUEC TITL

STEE NO TYPE CLAS FY FT FP ES

QS GAM ALFA SCM EPSY EPST REL1

Table continued on next page.

AQUA | Input Description

Record Items

REL2 R K1 FDYN FYC FTC TMAX

GMOD KMOD QS TITL

TIMB NO TYPE CLAS EP G E90 QH

QH90 GAM ALFA SCM FM FT0 FT90

FC0 FC90 FV FVR FVB FM90 OAL

OAF KMOD KMO1 KMO2 KMO3 KMO4 KDEF

TMAX RHO TITL

MASO NO STYP SCLA MCLA E G MUE

GAM ALFA SCM E90 M90 OAL OAF

FCN FC FT FV FHS FTB TITL

SSLA EPS SIG TYPE TEMP EPST TS MUET

MNRB FCTF

MEXT NO EXP TYPE VAL VAL1 VAL2 ...

VAL9

BORE NO X Y Z NX NY NZ

ALF TITL

BLAY S MN0 ES MUE DES VARI PMAX

PMAL C PHI

BBAX S1 S2 K0 K1 K2 K3 M0

C0 TANR TAND KSIG D0 D2 CA0

CA2

BBLA S1 S2 K0 K1 K2 K3 P0

P1 P2 P3 PMA1 PMA2 CL0 CL1

CL2 CL3 SM0 SM2

SVAL NO MNO A AY AZ IT IY

IZ IYZ CM YSC ZSC YMIN YMAX

ZMIN ZMAX WT WVY WVZ NPL VYPL

VZPL MTPL MYPL MZPL BCYZ TITL

SREC NO H B HO BO SO SU

SS MNO MRF MRFL RTYP ASO ASU

DASO DASU DASS A AMIN AMAX ASL

INCL REF YM ZM IT AY AZ

Table continued on next page.

Input Description | AQUA

Record Items

BCYZ SPT BEFF TITL

SCIT NO D T SA SI MNO

MRF MRFL RTYP ASA ASI DAS A

ASL IT AY AZ TITL

TUBE NO D T MNO BC TITL

CABL NO D TYPE INL MNO F K

W KE TITL

SECT NO MNO MRF ALPH YM ZM FSYM

BTYP BCY BCZ KTZ TITL

- CS NO TITL ATIL

- SV IT AK YSC ZSC CM CMS AY

AZ AYZ LEVY LEVZ MNO DEFF FACE

FACG AG

- POLY TYPE MNO YM ZM DY DZ SMAX

EXP REFP REFD REFS

- - VERT NO Y Z R PHI TYPE EXP

REFP REFD REFS

- CIRC NO Y Z R MNO EXP

REFP REFD REFS REFR

- NEFF TYPE YMIN ZMIN YMAX ZMAX MNO WIDT

NO SMIN SMAX

REFI RFDI RFSI REFA RFDA RFSA

- CUT NO YB ZB YE ZE NS MS

WTM WTD MNO MRF LAY ASUP

OUT TYPE VYFK VZFK INCL BMAX

BRED BCT MUE SXE TANA REFA

RFDA RFSA REFE RFDE REFS

- PANE NO YB ZB YE ZE T MNO

REFA RFDA RFSA REFE RFDE RFSE

R PHI OUT FIXB FIXE TYPE

AS ASMA LAY MRF TORS DAS

A

Table continued on next page.

AQUA | Input Description

Record Items

- PLAT NO YB ZB YE ZE T MNO

REFA RFDA RFSA REFE RFDE RFSE

R PHI OUT FIXB FIXE TYPE

- WELD NO YB ZB YE ZE T MNO

REFA RFDA RFSA REFE RFDE RFSE

- PROF NO TYPE Z1 Z2 Z3 MNO ALPH

YM ZM REFP REFD REFS REFR

DTYP SYM REF MREF VD VB

VS VT VR1 VR2 VB2 VT2

CW BCYZ WU1 WU2 WU3

- SPT NO Y Z WTY WTZ WVY WVZ

SIGY TEFF CDYN SIGC TAUC MNO

FIX REFP REFD REFS

- SFLA NO U F S SH FP TYPE

LEV TITL

- WPAR CS KR ICE TRAF YMIN YMAX ZMIN

ZMAX YREF ZREF

- WIND ALPH CWY CWZ CWT REF CHYD CLAT

S AG VR0 V0 ... VR19 V19

- RF NO Y Z AS ASMA LAY MRF

TORS D AR SIG TEMP REFP

REFD REFS

- LRF NO YB ZB YE ZE AS ASMA

LAY MRF TORS D A DIST AR

REFA RFDA RFSA REFE RFDE RFSE

R PHI

- CRF NO Y Z R PHI AS ASMA

LAY MRF TORS D A DIST AR

REFP REFD REFS REFR

- CURF H EXP AS ASMA LAY MRF

TORS D A DIST AR CENT

TVAR NAME VAL SCOP CMNT

Table continued on next page.

Input Description | AQUA

Record Items

INTE NO NS0 NS1 S NREF ICS ...

ICS9

IMPO MAT SECT FROM

EXPO MAT SECT TO PASS

ECHO OPT VAL VAL2

The records HEAD, END and PAGE are described in the general manual

SOFiSTiK: ’Basics’.

AQUA | Input Description

SREC SCIT

Input Description | AQUA

CTRL

OPT A literal from the following list: LT FULL

REST Restart options

(like deletion of data at restart)

FACE Standard view on section

POS = positive face

NEG = negative face

or numerical value

RFCS Minimum reinforcement for com-

puting ideal cross section values

HMIN max. length of polygon edges

HDIV Mesh density scaling for FEM /

max. element size for BEM

SDIV relative element size for BEM

SINT Special Options for FEM / BEM

HTOL max. stitch of circular arcs

STYP Method of shear computation for

solid sections

PLAS Method of plastic shear computa-

tion for FE solid sections

SCUT Number of standard shear sec-

tions

FIXL max. factor for thickness step for

buckling panel detection

REFD Control for the input of references

VAL2 Additional value for the option − *

The CTRL options may be defined at any location within the input data. However

if they are intended to be different for individual sections it is mandatory to define

them before the sections intended to use them. Within a restart CTRL REST 3

AQUA | Input Description

CTRL REST controls what AQUA should do with existing data in the database.

As default AQUA will erase everything if materials are defined, and only the

minimum reinforcements, limit stresses and beam stiffness if only sections are

defined. This is usually the best choice to avoid unforeseeable results. In some

cases though it is desirable to process these results further. This can take place

without problems only, if the assignment of the layers and the use of the material

numbers in the individual cross sections are not changed.

1 keep old values in the database

2 Keep all values, even if material is changed,

implies a possible reanalysis of the sections.

CTRL REST 2 nn will reanalyse section nn.

3 Reanalyse all sections

CTRL FACE defines the standard view on the section. While the physical orien-

tation in space is only specified by the orientation of the local beam coordinate

system, the possible values for graphical views on the section are defined that

the literal POS and all positive numbers define a view on the positive face (i.e. in

the inverse direction of the beam or axis) while the literal NEG and all negative

values define a view on the negative face (ie. along the direction of the beam or

axis) :

NEG y-axis to the right, z-axis downwards

1,3 rotation by 0 or 180 degrees (y-axis horizontal)

2,4 rotation by 90 or 270 degrees (y-axis vertical)

>4 rotated against the default by VAl degrees

the calculation of the cross section values:

0 do not consider

1 consider for composite sections (default)

2 consider for all sections (also for SCIT, but not for SREC)

3 consider also effect on dead load (the weight of the concrete should

be reduced in that case)

+4 do not assign reinforcement to any partial section

Input Description | AQUA

HMIN defines a maximum allowed length for linear or circular polygon edges.

(Default: no limit)

cular arc by a polygon.This is applicable to fillets and arcs. Default: 2[mm] .

HDIV defines a maximum element length for the boundary elements (BEM). In

case of FE cross-sections, HDIV shall be interpreted as mesh density scaling.

There are two alternative ways of applying a scale factor on the mesh density :

• HDIV factor [ -] - for example a factor of 0.5 [ -] would mean that each

subdomain is to be scaled down to 50% of its originally defined by AQUA

mesh density. Same effect could be achieved by the alternative input

50[ %] . A factor greater than 1.0 [ -] or 100[ %] can be also applied.

• HDIV mesh size [ mm or m] - a direct input of a global mesh size.

In this case AQUA determines the ratio of the input value to the internally

computed ”region element size” and applies the quotient as a factor on

that region.

Since the mesh size cannot be uncontrollably rescaled, AQUA has fixed allow-

able internal limits in the range [ 0.1 ... 5.0] or [ 10% ... 500 %] . Any value

inputted beyond this scope forces the program to rescale it to the nearest ex-

treme and yield a warning.

SDIV defines a relative desired element length per edge for the boundary ele-

ments. For finite elements this should be kept to the default of 0 and if not so,

the value will be ignored.

0 no explicit subdivision

1 maximum 1/2

2 maximum 1/4

3 maximum 1/8

4 maximum 1/16

5 maximum 1/32 (Default BEM)

A snap distance (always in m) for the detection of cross section parts connecting

together can be defined additionally at item VAL2. The value SDIV 4 0.001

defines 1 mm, as snap measure.

The detailed background of STYP and SCUT are explained in Section 2.8.

AQUA | Input Description

STYP FEM Finite Element Method - for all shear related cross-

sectional properties (default)

STYP FEMX Finite Element Method as described above, but with a sec-

ondary database containing the section mesh in a sub-

folder

STYP BEM 1 Boundary Element Method only for It and location of shear

centre ysc ,zsc

STYP BEM 2 Boundary Element Method for torsion and Force Method

for shear using shear cuts

STYP BEM 3 Boundary Element Method for torsion, shear deformation

areas are also determined

STYP FORC Force Method

Hint

The default of version 2014 can be set with CTRL STYP BEM.

PLAS defines the method of plastic shear computation for FE solid sections:

1 compute plastic shear-related properties using a FE-method of scaling

the elastic shear stresses flux (default)

2 calculate plastic shear-related properties using a nonlinear incremen-

tal displacement controlled FEM approach

forces based on the scaled elastic shear areas

The controls are of high importance and one should be first familiar with their

background. Therefore the user is kindly advised to consult Sections 2.8 and

2.10 of the AQUA manual for a detailed description of the control options and

their peculiarities.

2 element nodes only

3 Lobatto integration with nodes and element centers (Default)

Thin walled sections are always calculated with a FEM-type method. For thick

walled sections the more advanced algorithms may create high stress values at

Input Description | AQUA

singularities. To disable these values for the design, it is possible to select STYP

with option 1, defining that for all shear cuts the simplified values according to the

force method are used. If options 2 or 3 are used, the integral mean values will

be used for this case and all other stress points will get the calculated values.

SCUT controls the generation of the two standard cuts parallel to the coordinate

axis and the standard stress points:

+1 create main shear cut at gravity center

+2 create both default shear cuts at gravity center

+8 shear is evaluated according to the force method for the gross sec-

tion instead of the effective section.

+1 corner points with maximum distance (Points 1:4)

+2 Intersection of principal axis with section (Points 5:8)

+4 Intersection of principal axis with convex hull (Points 5:8)

+8 with original coordinate system instead of principal axes

+16 use only z-ordinates (uni-axial bending)

As the input of references is best done with relative offsets (default: CTRL REFD

1), the export however with the actual absolute coordinates, the input CTRL

REFD 0 allows to change the default to the definition in absolute coordinates.

In that case it is also allowed to make a reference to an element defined later

in the input stream, but all coordinates will be taken exactly as they have been

specified. Reference IDs should be unique within every element type. As long

as the sections are only defined via CADINP in specified sequence, same Ids

may be used however. With CTRL REFD 2+xx the algorithm may be changed

to the old purely sequential scheme for test purpose.

3.5 Materials

SOFiSTiK supports a large number of different material descriptions. All will be

addressed by a unique material number and should in general be usable every-

where. The default for the material type and any national deviant parameters

is established dependent on the selected design code NORM. In some cases

parameters may be also changed by the selection of a country code. All values

may be modified explicitly if required.

AQUA | Input Description

MATE General material definition including strength

CONC Concrete material

STEE Steel and other metallic materials

TIMB Timber/lumber and Fibre materials

MASO Masonry / Brickwork

MLAY Layered composite material for QUAD elements

These records are mutually exclusive but may be enhanced by other records:

NMAT Non-linear material properties for MAT/MATE (ASE/TALPA for

QUAD and BRIC elements)

HMAT Material definitions for HYDRA (Thermal or Seepage problems)

SSLA Uniaxial strain-stress law for materials CONC/STEE/TIMB/MASO

MEXT Special material properties

self-evident that not all parameters are used for all types of analysis or system.

Each material has a standard name given by its classification, which might be

extended by the user. If the user wants to replace the standard completely, he

has to start his own text with an exclamation mark (e.g. ’!my own Text’) or to

quote it a second time (eg. " ’my own Text’ ").

properties which are close to the realistic behaviour (e.g. for dynamic cal-

culations) or to which have some lower or upper limit to be multiplied with a

safety factor for the calculation of an ultimate load-bearing capacity. Whereas

the safety factors were formerly assigned more-or-less at random, sometimes

to the load and sometimes to the material, more recent regulations (Eurocode)

provide a clearer separation between safety factors for the loads and factors for

the material. However, since the material safety factors still depend on the na-

ture of the load or the type of design, it will not be possible to define all safety

factors with the material itself.

• Mean values or calculation values and safety factors for nonlinear service-

ability and deformation analysis

Input Description | AQUA

If some design codes (DIN 18800, DIN 1045-1) apply additional safety-factors

to the mean values, this may be defined with the stress-strain relation via SSLA.

The safety factor defined with the material will thus be used only for the full

plastic forces in AQUA.

Note: The following pages are valid in all details only for AQUA, for other pro-

grams (SOFiMSHB) deviations are possible due to older versions with missing

or changed items.

Note: Hints for material properties of strange materials may be found on the

internet at www.azom.com (The A to Z of Materials).

AQUA | Input Description

NORM

DC Design code family LT EN

EN Eurocodes

DIN German Standard

OEN Austrian Standard

SIA Swiss Standard

AS Australian Standard

BS British Standard

IS Indian Standard

JS Japanese Standard

US US Standards (ACI etc.)

GB Chinese Building Codes

NF French Standard

I Italian Standard

E Spanish Standard

S Swedish Standard

DS Danish Standard

NS Norwegian Standard

SNIP Russian Standard

NZS New Zealand Standard

ET Egypt Building Code

MSZ Hungarian Standard

SFS Finnish Standard

NEN Netherlands Standard

NBN Belgian Standard

NBR Brazilian Standard

ZA South African Standard

Table continued on next page.

Input Description | AQUA

COUN Country code for boxed values within EN − *

00 General EN

FR / F / 33 France

ES / E / 34 Spain

IT / I / 39 Italy

CH / 41 Switzerland

AT / A / 43 Austria

UK / 44 Great Britain

DE / D / 49 Germany

or any other valid TLD

ALT Altitude above sea level m 0.0

WIND Wind zone Lt4 *

SNOW Snow zone Lt4 *

SEIS Seismic zone Lt4 *

WCAT Terrain category for wind Lt4 *

Many defaults for materials, superposition and design are selected according to

the selected design code and an optional country code and all the other data

provided with this record. It is therefore requested to specify this data with the

beginning of the project.

cases have been defined or the editing of the INI-File to include ”missing”

materials does not comply with the provisions of SOFiSTiK for a proper

use of the software.

It is possible to redefine the design code NORM temporarily for the design (eg.

concrete / steel) if the parameters of the actions remain the same. As this might

have some special risque, the user should use this option thoroughly.

Although there are still explicit code fragments in the software unavoidable,

many of the defaults are specified in so called INI-Files located in the SOFiSTiK

directory. The name of the matching INI-file is derived from the given data as

DC_NDC.INI.

AQUA | Input Description

values). Corresponding INI-files to EN 1992-2004 and EN 1993-2005 and the

country code may be used to select those values, as far as we have got notice

of them. The country code for example is valid for deviations in Hong Kong to

the British Standard or similar.

Some codes require or allow the selection of a category or class. This can

then be specified with CAT. The possible items are given in the INI-File. For

evaluations with historic design codes not available with an INI-file, the definition

of CAT USER allows to specify any name of the design code.

input which depends on the design code has to be checked and adapted if

necessary.

The extend to which the specified altitude, wind/snow or earthquake zone def-

initions are accounted for is described in the program manuals of the modules

using those values. The user should never assume that all regulations of the de-

sign codes are automatically fulfilled when selecting such a value. The possible

items and defaults are given in the matching INI-File. The resultant values which

result from the altitude or the wind/snow/earthquake zones have to be checked

in the corresponding programs in the case of a subsequent modification. E.g.

for some design codes the combination coefficients of the snow depend on the

altitude. In the case of a modification of the altitude combination coefficients

have to be adapted by the user if necessary.

If the user wants to suppress such a value completely he may specify it with

”NONE”.

The item UNIT will be processed only in AQUA or TEMPLATE. With a definition

of UNIT a set of units will be selected globally for all input and output data in

all other modules. The default is specified in the INI-file. Definitions with record

PAGE will be active only within the current module.

The following design codes are available as INI-Files and/or special program

code has been created to cope with special regulations. The marks A and B

indicate if this code has been implemented in AQB and BEMESS. For more

detailed information, especially which provisions of the codes have been imple-

mented, please check the manuals and the HTM-files of the design programs.

In many cases it is possible to add some clauses within short time within the

program or with CADINP.

Input Description | AQUA

EN - Eurocodes

EN 1992-2004 EN 1992-1 (2004) 5 A,B

CAT AN/AP Building construction

Table 7.1N EN 1992-1-1

CAT B,C,D Bridges

EN 1993-2005 EN 1993-1 (2005) 5 A

CAT A Building construction

CAT B,C,D Bridges

EN 1994-2004 EN 1994-1 (2004) 5 A

CAT A Building construction

CAT B,C,D Bridges

EN 1995-2004 EN 1995-1 (2004) 5 A

EN 1999-2007 EN 1999-1 (2007) 5 A

EN 1992-1991 EN 1992-1 (1991) 5 A,B

AQUA | Input Description

DIN EN1992-2004 DIN EN 1992-1-1/NA:2013 5 A,B

DIN EN 1992-2/NA:2013

CAT AN/AP/AV Hochbau Tabelle 7.1

DE

CAT B,C,D Brückenbau

DIN EN1993-2005 DIN EN 1993-1-1/NA:2010-12 5 A

CAT A Hochbau

CAT B,C,D Brückenbau

DIN EN1994-2004 DIN EN 1992-1-1/NA:2010 5 A,B

DIN EN 1994-2/NA:2010

CAT AN/AP/AV Hochbau Tabelle 7.1

DE

CAT B,C,D Brückenbau

DIN 1045-2008 DIN 1045-1 (2008) 0 A,B

CAT -/A/B/C/D/E/F (Tab. 18)

Klassifizierung von Nachweisbe-

dingungen

DIN FB102-2009 DIN Fachbericht 102 (2009) 0 A,B

CAT A/B/C/D/E (Tab. 4.118) Klassi-

fizierung von Nachweisbedingun-

gen

DIN FB103-2009 DIN Fachbericht 103 (2009) 2 A

DIN FB104-2003 DIN Fachbericht 104 (2003) 0 A

CAT A/B/C/D/E (Tab. 4.118 des FB

102), Klassifizierung von Nach-

weisbedingungen

DIN 18800 Stahlbau (Nov. 2008) 2 A

CAT A/B

A voreingestellte Überlagerung

DIN 18800

B voreingestellte Überlagerung

DIN 1055-100

DIN 1052-2008 Holzbau (2008) 0 A

Table continued on next page.

Input Description | AQUA

DIN 1045-1 DIN 1045-1 (2001) 0 A,B

CAT -/A/B/C/D/E/F (Tab. 18) Klas-

sifizierung von Nachweisbedin-

gungen

DIN FB102-2003 DIN Fachbericht 102 (2003) 0 A,B

CAT A/B/C/D/E (Tab. 4.118) Klas-

sifizierung von Nachweisbedin-

gungen

DIN 1045 Alte Norm (1988) 0 A,B

DAfStb hochfest.Beton (1995) A

DIN 4227 Alte Spannbetonnorm + Anhang A1 0 A

(1995)

DIN FB103-2003 DIN Fachbericht 103 (2003) 2 A

DIN 18800-1990 Stahlbau (1990) 2 A

DIN 1052 Holzbau (1988) 0 A

DIN 1054 Grundbau (2005) 0

OEN EN1992-2004 OENORM B 1992-1 (2011) 5 A,B

OENORM B 1992-2 (2008)

CAT AN/AP/AV Hochbau Tabelle 4 B

1992-1-1

CAT B,C,D Brückenbau B 1992-2

OEN EN1993-2005 OENORM B 1993-1-1 (2007) 5 A

CAT A Hochbau

CAT B,C,D Brückenbau

OEN 4700 Stahlbeton OENORM B 4700 (2001) 0 A,B

OEN 4750 Spannbeton OENORM B 4750 (2000) 0 A

OEN 4300 Stahl OENORM B 4300 (1994) 0 A

For the old design codes OEN 4200, OEN 4250, OEN 4253 no INI files exist.

The program AQB is so programmed that the appropriate design is done with

AQUA | Input Description

input of the design code. As materials BOE is input for concrete and BSOE for

steel.

Input Description | AQUA

SIA 262 Schweizer Betonbaunorm (2013) 0 A,B

SIA 263 Schweizer Stahlbaunorm (2003) 2 A

SIA 265 Schweizer Holzbaunorm (2003) 0 A

SIA 162 Schweizer Stahlbetonnorm (1989) 0 A

BS - British Standard

BS EN1992-2004 NA to BS EN 1992-1-1:2004 (2005) 6 A,B

CAT AN/AP Building construction Ta-

ble 7.1N EN 1992-1-1

CAT B,C,D Bridges

BS 8110 British Standard Concrete (1997) 6 A,B

HK/852 country code Hong Kong

BS 5400 British Standard Concrete Bridge (1990) 6 A

CAT 0 without Prestress

CAT 1/2/3 Prestress for Class 1/2/3

HK/852 country code Hong Kong

IL/972 country code Israel

BS 5950 British Standard Steelwork (2001) 6 A

HK/852 country code Hong Kong

US ACI-318-08 American Standard ACI / UBC (2008) 0 A,B

US ACI-318-02 American Standard ACI / UBC (2002) 0 A,B

incl. ACI-318-05

US ACI-318-99 American Standard ACI / UBC (1999) 0 A

US AASHTO-2010 American Highway (2010) 0 A

US AASHTO-2004 American Highway (2005) 0 A

Table continued on next page.

AQUA | Input Description

US AASHTO-2002 American Highway (2002) 0 A

US AISC-2005 American Standard AISC (Steel) 2005 0 A

US AISC American Standard AISC (Steel) 1998 0 A

Input Description | AQUA

SNIP 52101 SP 52-101-2003 (2004) (Concrete) 0 A,B

SNIP 20301 SNIP II 03.01 - 84 (89) (Concrete) 0 A,B

SNIP 22381 SNIP II 23.81 (89) (Steel) 2 A

SNIP RK50333 SNIP RK 5.03-33-2005 (Concrete) 0 A

Kasakhstan

IS - Indian Standard

IS 456 Indian Standard (2000) (Concrete) 6 A

IS IRC18 Indian Roads Congress 6 A

Prestressed Road Bridges

IS IRC21 Indian Roads Congress Road Bridges 6 A

IS IRC112 Indian Roads Congress: Code of Practice for 6

Concrete Road Bridges (2011)

AS - Australian Standard

AS 3600 Concrete Structures (2009) 6 A,B

AS 4100 Structural Steel (1998) 6 A

AS 5100 Bridge Design (2004) 6 A

E - Instrucciones Espaniola

E EHE Instrucion de hormign estructural 0 A,B

Nivel de control de ejecucin:

EHE Normal

EHE_INTENSIO Intensio

Table continued on next page.

AQUA | Input Description

EHE_REDUCIDO Reducido

Input Description | AQUA

I DM-2008 Decretto Ministeriale 2008 0 A,B

CAT A1 Costruzioni Civili

CAT A2/A3 Ponti

I DM-2005 Decretto Ministeriale 2005 0 A,B

I DM-96 Decretto Ministeriale 9. gennaio 1996: 0 A,B

Parte I: Cemento armato normale e precom-

presso

Parte II: Acciaio

Parte III: Manufatti prefabbricati prodotti

Parte IV: Costruzioni composte d elemeti in met-

alli

Parte V: Per travi composte ”acciaio -

calcestruzzo”

NF EN1992-2004 Annexe Nationale la NF EN 1992-1-1/-2 5 A,B

CAT AN/AP Btiment Tableau 7.1NF

NF EN 1992-1-1/NA

CAT B,C,D Ponts

NF BAEL Regle techniques de conception et de cal- 0 A,B

cul des ouvrages et construction en beton

arm suivant la methode des tats limites.

BAEL/BPEL 91 revises 99

AQUA | Input Description

S EN1992-2004 National Annex to Eurocode 2 5 A,B

SS-EN 1992-1-1:2004/NA:2009,

SS-EN 1992-2:2005/NA:2009

CAT

A1 byggnader & säkerhets"-klass 1

A2 byggnader & säkerhets"-klass 2

A3 byggnader & säkerhetsklass 3

B1 vegbruer & säkerhets"-klass 1

B2 vegbruer & säkerhets"-klass 2

B3 vegbruer & säkerhets"-klass 3

C1 gangbruer & säkerhets"-klass 1

C2 gangbruer & säkerhets"-klass 2

C3 gangbruer & säkerhets"-klass 3

D1 jernbanebruer & säkerhets"-klass

1

D2 jernbanebruer & säkerhets"-klass

2

D3 jernbanebruer & säkerhets"-klass

3

S BBK-04 Boverkets Handbok om Betongkonstruk- 0 A,B

tioner

CAT 1/2/3 (Säkerhetsklasslg/nor-

mal/hög)

S BRO-2004 Vägverket BRO 2004 0 A

DS - Danish Standard

DS EN1992-2004 National Annex to Eurocode 2 5 A,B

EN 1992-1-1 DK NA:2011

CAT

LE low safety & extended control

Table continued on next page.

Input Description | AQUA

NE normal safety & extended con-

trol

HE high safety & extended control

LN low safety & normal control

NN normal safety & normal control

(default)

HN high safety & normal control

LR low safety & reduced control

NR normal safety & reduced control

HR high safety & reduced control

- safety acc. to EN 1990 DK NA:2011

consequences classes

- control acc. to EN 1992-1-1 DK NA:2011

inspection level

DS 411 Norm for betonkonstruktioner 0 A,B

CAT

LE low safety & extended control

NE normal safety & extended con-

trol

HE high safety & extended control

LN low safety & normal control

NN normal safety & normal control

(default)

HN high safety & normal control

LR low safety & reduced control

NR normal safety & reduced control

HR high safety & reduced control

DS 411-bro Norm for betonkonstruktioner 3 A,B

Default for superpositions for bridges

AQUA | Input Description

NS - Norsk Standard

NS EN1992-2004 National Annex to Eurocode 2 5 A,B

NS-EN 1992-1-1:2004/NA:2008,

NS-EN 1992-2:2005/NA:2010

CAT

A1 bygninger & palitelighetsklasse

1

A2 bygninger & palitelighets-klasse

2

A3 bygninger & palitelighets-klasse

3

A4 bygninger & palitelighets-klasse

4

B vebruer (palitelighets-klasse 3)

C gangbruer (palitelighets-klasse

3)

D jernbanebruer (palitelighet-

sklasse 3)

NS 3472 Prosjektering av Stalkonstruksjoner 0 A

CAT 1/2/3/4 (Palitelighetsklasse) Liten

/ Middels / Stor / Saerlig stor

NS 3473 Prosjektering av Betongkonstruksjoner 0 A

CAT 1/2/3/4 (Palitelighetsklasse) Liten

/ Middels / Stor / Saerlig stor

Input Description | AQUA

SFS EN1992-2004 National Annex to Eurocode 2 5 A,B

SFS-EN 1992-1-1 NA:2007

CAT

LE low safety & extended control

NE normal safety & extended con-

trol

HE high safety & extended control

LN low safety & normal control

NN normal safety & normal control

(default)

HN high safety & normal control

LR low safety & reduced control

NR normal safety & reduced con-

trol

HR high safety & reduced control

- safety acc. to SFS-EN 1990 NA

consequences classes

- control acc. to SFS-EN 1992-1-1

NA:2007 inspection level

SFS TA1992-2004 National Annex to Eurocode 2 for 5 A

bridges only

CAT B,C,D,E Bridges

NEN EN1992-2004 NEN-EN 1992-1-1+C2/NB:2011 5 A,B

CAT AN/AP Building construction

Table 7.1N EN 1992-1-1

CAT B,C,D Bridges

AQUA | Input Description

NBN EN1992-2004 NBN EN 1992-1-1 ANB:2010 5 A,B

CAT AN1-AN3/AP1-AP3 Building

construction Table 7.1N EN

1992-1-1

CAT B1-B3,C1C3,D1-D3 Bridges

NBN EN1993-2005 NBN EN 1993-1-1 ANB:2010 5 A

CAT A1-A3 Building

CAT B1-B3,C1C3,D1-D3 Bridges

MSZ UT414 Code of Roadbridges 0 A,B

NZS 3101 Concrete Structures Standard (1995) 6 A,B

ET RC-2001 Based on description 0 A,B

”Reinforced Concrete Design Handbook”

Prof.Dr.Shaker El-Behairy, Ain Shams Univers.

GB - Chinese Standard

GB 50010 Chinese Standard for Concrete Structures (2002) 0 A

Input Description | AQUA

JS - Japan Standard

JS JRA Japan Road Association Standard (2002) 0 A

NBR 6118-2003 Norma Brasileira, Projeto de estruturas de 5 A,B

concreto - Procedimento

CAT A Edifcios

CAT B Pontes rodovirias

CAT C Passarelas de pedestres

CAT D Pontes ferrovirias

ZA TMH7 Code of Practice for the Design of Highway 6 A

Bridges and Culverts in South Africa (1989)

CAT 0 without Prestress

CAT 1/2/3 Prestress for Class 1/2/3

AQUA | Input Description

MATE

NO Material number − 1

E Elastic modulus MP *

MUE Poisson’s ratio (between 0.0 and 0.49) − *

G Shear modulus MP *

K Bulk modulus MP *

GAM Specific weight kN/ m3 25

GAMA Specific weight under buoyancy kN/ m3 *

ALFA Thermal expansion coefficient 1/ ◦ K E-5

M90 Anisotropic poisson’s ratio − MUE

OAL Meridian angle of anisotropy deg 0

about the local x axis

OAF Descent angle of anisotropy deg 0

about the local x axis

FY Design strength of material MP -

FT Ultimate strength of material MP -

TITL Material name Lt32 -

BRIC otherwise. The number of these materials must not be used for other

materials.

With the definition of a literal at TYPE from the following list, default values will

be selected:

VSGh, VSGv laminated glas (horiz./vertical usage),

Input Description | AQUA

Cu, Pb, Mg, W, Zn Copper, Lead, Magnesia, Wolfram, Zinc

BRAS, BRON brass, bronce

BRIC, SLBR, CLIN brick, sand-lime-brick, clinker

IGYP, GYPS isolat. gypsum, standard gypsum plaster

MOGY, MOCH, MOCE gypsum/chalk/cement mortar

ASPH, BITU Asphalt, Bitumen

CARP, WOOL Carpet, Felt/Wool

CORK, LINO Cork, Linoleum

EPOX, PHEN, PEST Epoxid-, Phenol-, Polyester resin

ACRY, PC, PTFE Acryl, Polycarbonat, Polytetrafluorethylen

PVC, PMMA Polyvinylchlorid, Polymethylmethakrylat

POM, PA Polyazetat, Polyamid/Nylon

PEHD. PELD Polyethylen high/low density

PS. PP, PUR Polystyrol, Polypropylen, Polyurethan

RUBB, NEOP, EBON Rubber, Neopren, Ebonit

EPDM, PSUL, BUTA Ethylen-Propylenedien,Polysulfid,Butadien

SI, SILA Silicone, Silica

FOAM, FOAS, FOAU foamed rubber, silicone, urethan

FOAC, FOAR, FOAE foamed PVC, PUR, PE

The mechanical properties of those materials are not always known with a dis-

tinct value or even suitable for a linear material description at all!

For geotechnical design the TYPE may be specified by the Unified Soil Classifi-

cation System (USCS) :

GP, SP poorly graded gravel / sand

GM, SM gravel / sand with significant silt

GC, SC gravel / sand with significant clay

ML, MI, MH silt with low, intermediate, high plasticity

CL, CI, CH clay with low, intermediate, high plasticity

ROC1, ROC2 crystal rock, sediment rock

ROC3, ROC4 light sediments, porous rock

For fine grained soils the effect of the liquidity index will be defined by the uniaxial

strength FY, which may be preset by appending a literal to the type:

AQUA | Input Description

:S stiff ( 0.75 < c < 1.0; 120kN/ m2 < FY < 300kN/ m2 )

:H hard ( 1.0 < c ; 300kN/ m2 < FY < 700kN/ m2 )

:F Fully hard ( 700kN/ m2 < FY )

strongly on the temperature) for:

H2O Water (1 bar, 10 deg. Celsius)

CO2, O2, N2 Carbondioxid, Oxygen, Nitrogen, Methane

HE,NE,AR,KR,XE,SF6 Helium, Neon, Argon, Krypton, Xenon, Sul-

furhexafluorid

convenient to define the elastic constants by other values than the Elasticity

modulus, the Shear modulus and the Poisson ratio. You may transform your

values by the following formulas:

E Elastic modulus

Es subgrade modulus (horizontally constrained)

K Bulk modulus

G Shear modulus

μ Poisson’s ratio

E E

K = G = (3.1)

3(1 − 2μ) 2(1 + μ)

9·K ·G 3K − 2G

E = μ = (3.2)

(3K + G) 6K + 2G

(1 − μ)

Es = E · (3.3)

(1 + μ)(1 − 2μ)

3 · K · E 3 · K · (1 − 2μ)

G = G = (3.4)

9 · K−E 2 · (1 + μ)

is, however, possible to define non-consistent constants. If no values are given,

E defaults to 30000 MPa and MUE to 0.0.

Input Description | AQUA

Orthotropy may be defined via material and thickness of QUAD elements. (see

record QUAD in SOFiMSHA and manuals to ASE and TALPA).

direction that has different properties, while the description in the plane perpen-

dicular to this direction remains isotropic. This covers most practical problems

like timber and rock. Unfortunately the designation of the general material con-

stants for timber materials is not compatible with that convention, so we strongly

recommend to use TIMB for the description of timber materials.

The principal values E and μ are related to the isotropic plane, while E90 (MAT

still old literal EY) acts normal to that plane and μ90 and G90 (attention: input

parameter G) describe the transverse straining behaviour between normal di-

rection and isotropic plane. With z being the normal direction we have:

σ σy σz

ε = −μ· − μ90 · (3.5a)

E E E90

σy σ σz

εy = −μ· − μ90 · (3.5b)

E E E90

σz (σ + σy )

εz = − μ?90 · (3.5c)

E90 E

E

μ?90 = μ90 · (3.5d)

E90

It should be noted, that poisson’s ratios μ90 and μ90∗ are no longer limited by

an upper bound of 0.5 (this would hold for the isotropic case). According to

the formula given above, their relation is determined by the ratio of the elasticity

moduli; this preserves symmetry of the stress strain matrix, which is required to

fulfill elemental equilibrium.

The order of the indices of stress and strain components for subsequent equa-

tions is defined as:

[ y y z ] plane stain condition, axial symmetry

[ y y ] plane stress.

With axial symmetry x denotes the axis of rotation while y represents the radial

and z the tangential direction.

Furthermore holds:

E1

E1 = E , E2 = E90 , μ1 = μ , μ2 = μ90 , G1 = , G2 = G (3.6)

2(1 + μ1 )

AQUA | Input Description

The three-dimensional material matrix is obtained by inversion of the strain

stress relations and reads (z being the direction normal to the isotropic plane):

1−n·μ2 μ1 +n·μ2

2 2 μ2

E · E1 · 1+μ ·m E1 · 0 0 0

1

( 1+μ1 ) ·m ( 1) m

μ +n·μ2 1−n·μ2

μ2

E1 · 1 2

E1 · 1+μ 2·m

E1 · 0 0 0

(1+μ1 )·m ( 1) m

μ μ2 1−μ1

D=

E1 · m2 E1 · m E2 · m

0 0 0

(3.7)

0 0 0 G1 0 0

0 0 0 0 G2 0

0 0 0 0 0 G2

E1

n = , m = 1 − μ1 − 2 · n · μ22 (3.8)

E2

Here we have in difference to the three-dimensional case, the y direction defined

as normal to the isotropic plane. The reduced material stiffness matrix yields:

1−n·μ2

2 μ2

E · E1 · 0

1

( 1+μ1 ) ·m m

μ 1−μ1

E1 · m2 E2 · 0

D= m (3.9)

0 0 G2

μ1 +n·μ2

2 μ2

E1 · E1 · 0

(1+μ1 )·m m

E1

n = , m = 1 − μ1 − 2 · n · μ22 (3.10)

E2

Here we have in difference to the three-dimensional case, the y direction defined

as normal to the isotropic plane. The material stiffness matrix is obtained via

Input Description | AQUA

E1 E1 ·μ2

0

1−n·μ22 1−n·μ2

2 E1

E1 ·μ2

D= E2

0 , n = (3.11)

1−n·μ 2 1−n·μ2

E2

2 2

0 0 G2

Axial symmetry:

A general case of anisotropy does not need to be considered since axial symme-

try would be impossible to achieve under such circumstances. A case of interest

in practice is that of a stratified material in which the rotational axis x is normal

to the plane of isotropy. For such a case the material stiffness matrix reads:

1−μ2

μ2 (1 + μ1 )

n

1

0 μ2 (1 + μ1 )

μ2 (1 + μ1 ) μ1 + nμ22

2

1 − nμ 0

D=A· 2 (3.12)

G90

0 0 A

0

μ2 (1 + μ1 ) μ1 + nμ22 0 1 − nμ2 2

E2 · n E1

A= , n= , m = 1 − μ1 − 2 · n · μ22 (3.13)

(1 + μ1 )·m E2

Skew orthotropy:

Consideration of ’skew’ orthotropy is also possible. In geological terms, the

three-dimensional orientation of the isotropic plane is defined by means of the

meridian and descent angle. They describe the deviation of the steepest de-

scent to the north direction and the inclination of the layers. Mathematically, the

angles are equivalent to the first and third of the Eulerian angles. The trans-

formation is defined by two rotations, the north axis (N) corresponding to the

element y-direction and the G-axis corresponding to the element z-direction.

Axes K, N and G form a right handed Cartesian coordinate system.

2. Subsequent tilting of the rotated system (K’, N’, G’=G) by descent angle

OAF about axis K’.

AQUA | Input Description

and plates, as well.

For planar systems (TALPA) the value OAL defines the slope of the stratification,

i.e. the angle between the element x-direction and the stratification direction.

Input for OAF is not evaluated for the plane case.

For axial symmetry input of OAF and OAL is not evaluated (see above: axial

symmetry).

Input Description | AQUA

MAT

NO Material number − 1

MUE Poisson’s ratio (between 0.0 and 0.49) − 0.2

G Shear modulus kN/ m2 *

K Bulk modulus kN/ m2 *

GAM Specific weight kN/ m3 25

GAMA Specific weight under buoyancy kN/ m3 *

ALFA Thermal expansion coefficient 1/ ◦ K E-5

MXY Anisotropic poisson’s ratio m-xy − MUE

OAL Meridian angle of anisotropy about the local deg 0

x axis

OAF Descent angle of anisotropy about the local deg 0

x axis

Materials which can be used for SVAL or QUAD and BRIC elements may be

defined with the record MAT and MATE. The number of the material must not be

used for other materials.

The differences between the two records are mainly the used dimensions. MATE

is analogue to CONC,STEE etc. (MPa) and has additional strength values, while

MAT uses (kN/m2 ) analogue to NMAT. MAT has older item names for the or-

thotropic parameters.

AQUA | Input Description

MLAY

NO Number of composite material − 1

T0 Thickness of first layer ∗ !

NO0 Material number of first layer − !

T1 Thickness of second layer ∗ !

NO1 Material number of second layer − !

...

T9 Thickness of 9th layer ∗ -

NO9 Material number of 9th layer − -

TITL Material Designation Lt32 -

With MLAY you may define for QUAD elements a composite layered material

with up to 10 layers. Each layer may be defined with a positive absolute thick-

ness or a negative relative one. The total thickness of the element will be cal-

ibrated to the sum of the thicknesses of the material definition. If some layers

have negative thickness only these layers will be adapted. Otherwise a uniform

scaling will take place.

If you have a sandwich element with two outer laminates with a given thickness

for example:

-1.00 2 $ interior laminate $

0.02 1 $ lower laminate $

then this data will be applied to match two QUAD elements with a total thickness

of 0.10 or 0.15 as follows:

0.06 2 $ interior laminate if 0.10 total $$

thickness $

0.02 1 $ untere Deckschicht $

MLAY 1 0.02 1 $ upper laminate $

0.11 2 $ interior laminate if 0.15 total $$

Input Description | AQUA

thickness $

0.02 1 $ lower laminate $

AQUA | Input Description

NMAT

NO Material number − 1

TYPE Kind of material law LT !

LINE Linear material

VMIS von Mise law, optional viscoplas-

tic extension

DRUC Drucker-Prager law, optional vis-

coplastic extension

MOHR Mohr Coulomb law

GRAN Hardening Plasticity Soil

SWEL Swelling

FAUL Faults in rock material

ROCK Rock material

MISE Mise / Drucker Prager law

GUDE Gudehus law

LADE Lade law

MEMB Textile membrane

USP1 to USP8 and USD1 to USD8 re-

served for user defined material

models

UNDR Undrained Stress Analysis

P2 2nd parameter of material law ∗ -

P3 3rd parameter of material law ∗ -

P4 4th parameter of material law ∗ -

... ...

P12 12th parameter of material law ∗ -

The types of the implemented material laws and the meaning of their parameters

can be found in the following pages.

Input Description | AQUA

In a linear analysis the yield function for the non-linear material is merely eval-

uated and output. This enables an estimation of the non-linear regions for a

subsequent non-linear analysis.

For the present chapter, as long as not specified differently, the following con-

ventions hold.

• The first principal invariant of the Cauchy stress tensor σ is defined as:

1 = σ + σy + σz (3.14)

1

• The deviatoric stress tensor can then be established as s = σ − 3

1:

1

s = σ − (3.15a)

3

1

sy = σy − (3.15b)

3

1

sz = σz − (3.15c)

3

with its second and third principal invariants:

1

J2 = (s2 + s2y + s2z ) + τy

2

+ τyz

2

+ τz

2

(3.16a)

2

J3 = s sy sz + 2τy τyz τz − s τyz

2 2

− sy τz 2

− sz τy (3.16b)

A related set of quantities is frequently adopted for the description of yield sur-

faces of cohesive frictional materials:

1

p= (3.17a)

3

p Æ

q = 3 J2 (3.17b)

1/ 3

1

r=3 J3 (3.17c)

2

AQUA | Input Description

system, the Haigh-Westergaard stress space:

1

ξ= (3.18a)

sqrt3

p Æ

ρ = 2 J2 (3.18b)

p

3 3 J3 π

cos (3θh ) = 3/ 2

with 0 ≤ θh ≤ + (3.18c)

2 J2 3

(3.18d)

In this documentation, unless stated otherwise, for the Lode angle θ an alterna-

tive definition is adopted:

p

3 3 J3 π π

sn (3θ) = − 3/ 2

with − ≤θ≤+ (3.19)

2 J2 6 6

Non-linear material parameters have to be selected very carefully. Especially for

soil and rock mechanics the values of the site have to be used, at least for the

final design. There are some values available in literature (e.g. EC7, DIN 1055

part 2, EAU), but these values are hardly usable for a non-linear FEM analysis.

If we cite some of the values here, we deny any responsibilities for the correct

selection of values for any current project.

Angle of friction

The angle of friction is zero for most fine grained cohesive soils under undrained

conditions. Friction angles larger than 40 degrees are encountered rarely.

Note: A slope without cohesion world cannot be steeper than the material’s

ultimate friction angle.

Cohesion

The cohesion as well as the friction have to be clearly distinguished for drained

and undrained conditions. For fine grained soils a pore pressure is created

for sudden loading which decreases the possible friction considerably. As time

passes, the water will leave the soil, the friction increases, but the cohesion will

be reduced by a factor up to 10.

Input Description | AQUA

Dilatancy

Dilatancy denotes the volumetric plastic deformation behavior of a material sam-

ple under shear. The quantity which is used to describe the dilatancy effects is

called the dilatancy angle ψ:

ume (compaction)

• ψ=0 volume-neutral plastic deformation (holds, e.g., for steel)

• ψ>0 plastic deformation associated with volume increase

For soil materials, the plastic deformation behavior depends on the material’s

effective density, which in turn changes with the material’s loading state - there-

fore, the dilatancy angle is in fact not a constant quantity. This coherence is

described by the well-established stress dilatancy theory (R OWE [15]), which

links the mobilized dilatancy angle ψm to the actual shear straining level, the

latter being characterized by the mobilized friction angle φ0m (cf. section NMAT

Hardening Plasticity Soil Model - GRAN).

In soil mechanics usual way to qualitatively illustrate the dilatancy effects of nor-

mally (NC) and overconsolidated soil (OC) is to idealize the soil with an assembly

of spherical particles (Fig. 3.3). In case of a loosely packed soil any shear de-

formation will result in a denser packing of the particles, followed by a volume

decrease, also know as the contraction (Fig. 3.3a). This process is character-

ized by the negative angle of dilatancy ψ. On the other hand, shearing of the

initially densely packed soil is only possible if the volume increases (Fig. 3.3b).

This process is also know as dilatation and it is characterized by the positive

dilatancy angle.

AQUA | Input Description

ψ>0

ψ<0

σ0 σ0

τ τ

ΔV < 0 ΔV > 0

Contraction ⇒ ψ < 0 and ΔV < 0 Dilatation ⇒ ψ > 0 and ΔV > 0

Figure 3.3: Model of soil as spherical particles assembly: Contraction and dilata-

tion under shear

The easiest way to understand the mechanical interpretation of the dilatancy an-

gle is to look at the behavior of the soil under a plane-strain conditions subjected

to shear τy (Fig. 3.4).

0

σyy

τy

ϵ̇pyy ψ

p

γ̇y

1

Figure 3.4: Mechanical interpretation of the dilatancy angle ψ for a soil under a

plane-strain conditions

ϵ̇pyy

tn ψ = p , (3.20)

γ̇y

Input Description | AQUA

where ϵ̇pyy is the plastic strain rate in y-direction describing the change in volume

and γ̇py is the plastic shear strain rate.

sliding friction between the grains increased by an additional resistance as a

result of the granular interlocking. The effect of the dilatancy on the mechanical

behavior of the soil, or more precisely on the friction angle can be illustrated

by the sawtooth model shown in Figure 3.5 (M AKSIMOVI Ć [13]). It is assumed

that the friction angle of the non-compacted soil, when the volume gradient is

zero (constant volume), is a constant value and it describes only the friction

resistance of the grains. This angle is called critical state friction angle and

usually denoted as φ0c . For the densely packed soil as a result of the interlocking

between the grains, the sheering does not develop along a straight horizontal

plane s − s, but along the sawtooth planes t − t with the angle of inclination

ψm , called the mobilized dilatancy angle. The friction angle mobilized along the

imaginary horizontal shear plane s − s, φ0m , can now be determined as the sum

of the friction angle along the inclined shear planes t − t , φ0c , and mobilized

dilatancy angle, ψm , defining the inclination of t − t planes, i.e.

σ0

φ0m

τ t

t

ψm

s s

s s

ψm

t t 0

ψm φcs

For the triaxial stress state the dilatant soil behavior is more complicated than

the one described by the sawtooth mechanism but the overall behavior is qual-

itatively similar. In case of the triaxial stress state, the relationship between the

mobilized dilatancy angle and the plastic strain rates can be described as follows

AQUA | Input Description

ϵ̇p

sin ψm = , (3.22)

γ̇p

were ϵp represents the plastic volumetric strain and γp = ϵp1 − ϵp2 − ϵp3 is the mea-

sure of the plastic shear strain.

Figure 3.6a schematically shows the differences in the behavior of the normally

consolidated (NC) and heavily overconsolidated (OC) soils in drained triaxial

experiment. As aforementioned, under shear normally consolidated soils exhibit

contractive behavior, while the overconsolidated soils have a tendency to expand

(dilatation) after some small initial range of contraction. For NC soils deviatoric

stress - axial strain curve will monotonically grow until the shear strength qcs is

reached. On the other hand, OC soils reach their peek shear strength qpek at

a maximal dilatation (maximal inclination of the ϵ − ε curve), followed by the

reduction of the shear stiffness up to the remaining level qcs corresponding to

the zero volumetric strain gradient. This state is also know as the critical state.

q φ0m

qpek φ0pek

OC φ0cs

qcs

NC φ0ƒ

φ0μ

ϵ ϵ

ϵ ϵ

dϵ

ψm → 0

contraction dilatation

dϵ m OC

ϵ ϵ

ψmn

ψm = 0

NC

(a) Deviatoric stress q vs. axial strain ϵ (b) Mobilized friction angle φ0m vs. ax-

and volumetric ϵ vs. axial strain ε for ial strain ε and volumetric ϵ vs. axial

NC and OC soils strain ε for OC soils

Figure 3.6: Drained triaxial experiment

Input Description | AQUA

Figure 3.6b shows the dependency of the mobilized friction angle ψ0m on the level

of axial shear strains for the OC soils. The value φ0ƒ marks the transition between

the contractive and dilatant behavior (a.k.a. phase transformation). Above this

level of straining, the behavior of the soil is purely dilatant. The value of φ0ƒ is in

between the critical state friction angle φ0cs and the grain-to-grain friction angle

φ0μ . The friction angle range [φ0μ , φ0cs ] is not larger than a couple of degrees

(W EHNERT [22]). For dense soils, the value of the φ0ƒ will be closer to the φ0μ . For

loose soils as well as for the case of the plain-strain conditions the value of φ0ƒ

will be closer to the upper limit, i.e. to the value φ0cs . Peak friction angle φ0pek

corresponds to the maximal dilatancy, i.e. ψpek .

Evidently the dilatancy is not a constant value - it depends on the stress level.

Most advanced soil models recognize this fact by incorporating models which

can take into consideration stress dependent dilatancy angle. One of the most

famous dilatancy models is a model according to R OWE [15]. This model estab-

lishes the relationship between the mobilized dilatancy angle ψm and mobilized

friction angle φ0m as follows

sin φ0m − sin φ0ƒ

sin ψm = . (3.23)

1 − sin φ0m sin φ0ƒ

Mobilized friction angle φ0m represents the measure of the stress and it can be

computed as

σ10 − σ30

sin φ0m = . (3.24)

2c · cot φ − σ10 − σ30

ψm [ ◦ ]

ψpek

0 φ0m [ ◦ ]

φ0ƒ φ0pek

ψmn

Figure 3.7: Mobilized dilatancy angle - mobilized friction angle relationship accord-

ing to R OWE [15]

AQUA | Input Description

dilatancy angle. If the dilatancy has considerable effects (e.g. due to arch action)

the predominant loading situation should be assessed carefully. As a coarse rule

of thumb, for dense soils a value of +φ/ 2, for middle dense soils a value of 0.0

and for loose soils a value of −φ/ 2 can be adopted.

model directly incorporates a loading state dependent variation of the dilatancy

angle according to the above mentioned stress dilatancy theory (cf. subsec-

tion 3.10.7).

As tensile stresses are not allowed in soils in general, a tension cut off will be

applied for most soils. However, it might be advisable to define a small uniaxial

tensile strength for numerical reasons. e.g. if the soils becomes stress free at

the surface.

Characteristic values

DIN 1054-100 Appendix A gives characteristic values for soils as follows:

DIN 18196 wet buoan.

kN/ m3 kN/ m3

sand,

gravely sand, SU with U < 6 mid.dense 18.0 10.0 32.5◦

uniform or poorly dense 19.0 11.0 35.0◦

graded

Gravel, Boulder, GE loose 17.0 9.0 32.0◦

stones with small mid.dense 18.0 10.0 36.0◦

sand content, dense 19.0 11.0 40.0◦

uniform or poorly

graded

Sand, Gravely- SW, SI, SU, loose 18.0 10.0 30.0◦

Sand,

Gravel, well GW, GI with mid.dense 19.0 11.0 34.0◦

graded 6 < U < 15 dense 20.0 12.0 38.0◦

Sand, Gravely- SW, SI, SU, loose 18.0 10.0 30.0◦

Sand,

Input Description | AQUA

DIN 18196 wet buoan.

kN/ m3 kN/ m3

well graded U>15, as well dense 22.0 14.0 38.0◦

as GU

Saturated weight = weight buoyancy + 10.0

DIN kN/ m2 kN/ m2

18196

Anorganic fine TA soft 18.0 * * *

grained cohesive stiff 19.0 * * *

soils with high hard 20.0 * * *

plasticity

(wL > 50%)

Anorganic fine TM and soft 19.0 20◦ 0 5

grained cohesive UM stiff 19.5 20◦ 5 25

soils with hard 20.5 20◦ 10 60

intermediate

plasticity

(50% ≥ wL ≥ 35%)

Anorganic fine TL and soft 20.0 27◦ 0 5

grained cohesive UL stiff 20.5 27◦ 5 25

soils with low hard 21.0 27◦ 10 60

plasticity

(wL < 35%)

organic Clay OT and soft 14.0 * * 5

organic Silt OU stiff 17.0 15

Peats without HN and 11.0 * * 5

preloading HZ

Peats with 13.0 * * 20

moderate

preloading

Weight with buoyancy = weight - 10.0

AQUA | Input Description

DIN kN/ m2 kN/ m2

18196

*) only based on tests

General non-linear material laws are normally influenced by the loading history.

Therefore, for every load step material point state-variables are stored to the

data base, that can be visualized with WinGRAF during post-processing. Sub-

sequently, the meaning of the stored values is shortly explained.

Plastification number

Value of the corresponding yield function for the uncorrected (=linear elastic)

stress state, possibly scaled to stress units. If >0 the material undergoes plasti-

fication. The value is computed for each loading step anew. Therefore, regions

that possibly have plastified previously, still can get values < 0 in a subsequent

loading step. For GRAN the value of the MOHR yield function is computed, here.

For the ’Hardening Plasticity Soil’ (GRAN) material model, the plastification num-

ber is an identifier that holds more detailed information about the current state

of loading (see section ’Hardening Plasticity Soil Model’) - instead of storing the

current value of the yield function, only.

Plastic volumetric strain ϵp,de = ϵ̇p,de (scalar value), accumulated from corre-

R

Plastic deviatoric strain ϵp,de = ϵ̇p,de (scalar value), accumulated from cor-

R

responding strain rates. It reflects the volume neutral (shearing) portion of the

plastic deformation.

v v

t2t 1

u u

ϵ̇p,de = ė2p, + ė2p,y + ė2p,z + γ̇2p,y + γ̇2p,yz + γ̇2p,z (3.26a)

3 2

v

t2 1

u

2 2 2

= ϵ̇p, − ϵ̇p,y + ϵ̇p,y − ϵ̇p,z + ϵ̇p, − ϵ̇p,z + γ̇2p,y + γ̇2p,yz + γ̇2p,z

9 3

Input Description | AQUA

where

ϵp,

ėp, = ϵ̇p, −

3

Measures the degree of shearing strain based on the Mohr-Coulomb criterion.

Computed according to:

σ10 − σ30

sin φm = (3.27)

2c · cot φ − σ10 − σ30

Utilization level

Ratio ≡ φm / φnp ≤ 1 , where the material input parameter φnp marks the maxi-

mum (ultimate) friction angle (np - input) .

Elastoplastic material according to von MISE with associated flow rule and op-

tional viscoplastic extension.

Application range

Metals and other materials without friction. Simulation of creep effects.

Parameters

P1 Yield stress kN/ m2 !

P2 Hardening modulus (tangent modulus) kN/ m2 0.0

P10 Type of creep law (overstress function) − 0

0 no viscous effects, elasto-plastic

1 Perzyna model

P11 Creep parameter, exponent m ≥ 1.0 − 1.0

P12 Viscosity η ≥ 0.0 kNs/ m2 0.0

p Æ

ƒ= 3 J2 − p1 ≤ 0 (3.28)

AQUA | Input Description

model. Accordingly, the viscoplastic strains are defined by

Z t

p

Δϵ = ϵ̇p dτ

t0

t

∂g(σ, κ)

Z

= λ̇ · dτ (3.29)

t0 ∂σ

t

〈(ƒ (σ, κ))〉 ∂g(σ, κ)

Z

= · dτ

t0 η ∂σ

In case of an associative flow-rule (e.g. von Mise material) the plastic potential

g equals the yield function. The overstress function reads

ƒ (σ, κ)m

, ƒ ≥0

〈〉 = (3.30)

0 , ƒ <0

This frequently used form can be calibrated to reproduce a wide range of time-

dependent material phenomena adequately.

References

The implementation of this material model essentially adopts concepts and

strategies from C HRISFIELD [3], C HRISFIELD [4], Z IENKIEWICZ AND TAYLOR [28]

and Z IENKIEWICZ AND C ORMEAU [27].

Elastoplastic material with a conical yield surface according to DRUCKER/

PRAGER and an optionally non-associated flow rule. The model is extended

by means of a cut-off criterion for tensile stresses (tension limit) and features a

viscoplastic option.

Application range

Soil and rock with friction and/ or cohesion. Modelling of time-dependent effects

(e.g. short term strength)

Parameters

P1 Friction angle φ [ ◦] !

Table continued on next page.

Input Description | AQUA

<0 inner cone

≥0 outer cone

P2 Cohesion c kN/ m2 !

P3 Tensile strength ƒt kN/ m2 0.0

P4 Dilatancy angle ψ [ ◦] 0.0

P5 unused - -

P6 Plastic ultimate strain ϵp,de, h 0.0

P7 Ultimate friction angle φ [ ◦] P1

P8 Ultimate cohesion c kN/ m2 P2

P10 Type of creep law (overstress function) − 0

0 no viscous effects, elasto-plastic

1 Perzyna model

P11 Creep parameter, exponent m ≥ 1.0 − 1.0

P12 Viscosity η ≥ 0.0 kNs/ m2 0.0

2 sin φ Æ 6c cos φ

ƒ=p · 1 + J2 − p ≤0 (3.31a)

3 (3 ± sin φ) 3 (3 ± sin φ)

2 sin ψ Æ

g= p · 1 + J2 (3.31b)

3 (3 ± sin ψ)

This formulation describes a cone in principal stress space that either embraces

the MOHR yield surface (- sign) or is embraced by and tangential to it (+ sign).

VMIS.

Tension cut-off

By default, the Drucker-Prager yield surface is accomplished by a tensile stress

limit of R ANKINE style

ƒ = σ ,, − ƒt ≤ 0 (3.32)

where σ ,, denotes the vector of principal stresses and ƒt the entered tensile

strength.

AQUA | Input Description

For subsequent derivations we use a slightly modified variant of yield condition

eq. 3.31a, adopting the hydrostatic stress p (eq. 3.17a) and the deviatoric stress

q (eq. 3.17b). Additionally, we focus on the case of the outer cone (- sign).

2 sin φ 6 cos φ

ƒ= · 3p + q − ·c ≤0 (3.33)

(3 − sin φ) (3 − sin φ)

The DRUCKER/ PRAGER yield surface features two strength parameters φ and

c which can be derived from two failure conditions, one for the uniaxial and one

for the biaxial compression limit state, respectively.

state renders

−ƒc

1

σ ,m =

0

⇒ p=− ƒc ; q = ƒc (3.34)

3

0

be observed in biaxial compression tests, cf. K UPFER AND G ERSTLE [11]. In

this notation we have introduced the amplification factor . The corresponding

biaxial stress state at failure thus renders

− · ƒc

2

σ b,m =

− · ƒc

⇒ p=− · ƒc ; q = · ƒc (3.35)

3

0

! !

The corresponding failure conditions ƒ (σ ,m ) = 0 and ƒ (σ b,m ) = 0 constitute

a set of two equations, which can be solved for the two material parameters φ

and c to be determined.

sin φ (3 − sin φ)

!

− + · ƒc − c =0 (3.36a)

3 cos φ 6 cos φ

sin φ (3 − sin φ)

!

−2 + · · ƒc − c = 0 (3.36b)

3 cos φ 6 cos φ

Input Description | AQUA

3 − 3

snφ = (3.37a)

5 − 3

1 − snφ

c = · ƒc (3.37b)

2 · cosφ

Hint

In the absence of experimental data, F ÉDÉRATION INTERNATIONALE DU

B ÉTON [7] proposes the following relation for the biaxial strength ƒc2c

ƒc [MP]

ƒc2c = 1.2 − ·ƒc (3.38)

1000

| {z }

3.37a and eq. 3.37b:

References

The implementation of this material model essentially adopts concepts and

strategies from Z IENKIEWICZ AND TAYLOR [28] and C HRISFIELD [4].

Elastoplastic material with a prismatic yield surface according to MOHR-

COULOMB and a non-associated flow rule. The model is extended by means of

a cut-off criterion for tensile stresses (tension limit) and features a viscoplastic

option.

Application range

Soil and rock with friction and/ or cohesion. Modelling of time-dependent effects

(e.g. short term strength).

Parameters

P1 Friction angle φ [ ◦] !

Table continued on next page.

AQUA | Input Description

P2 Cohesion c kN/ m2 !

P3 Tensile strength ƒt kN/ m2 0.0

P4 Dilatancy angle ψ [ ◦] 0.0

P5 unused - -

P6 Plastic ultimate strain ϵp,de, h 0.0

P7 Ultimate friction angle φ [ ◦] P1

P8 Ultimate cohesion c kN/ m2 P2

P10 Type of creep law (overstress function) − 0

0 no viscous effects, elasto-plastic

1 Perzyna model

P11 Creep parameter, exponent m ≥ 1.0 − 1.0

P12 Viscosity η ≥ 0.0 kNs/ m2 0.0

1 sin θ sin φ

Æ

ƒ = 1 sin φ + J2 cos θ − p − c cos φ ≤0 (3.40a)

3 3

2 sin ψ Æ

g= p (3 ± sin ψ) · 1 + J2 (3.40b)

3

Special comments

The following expressions are better suited for checking the yield criterion:

1 − sin φ 2c cos φ

ƒ = σ1 − · σ3 − (3.41)

1 + sin φ 1 + sin φ

VMIS.

References

The implementation of this material model essentially adopts concepts

and strategies from Z IENKIEWICZ AND TAYLOR [28], C HRISFIELD [4] and

Z IENKIEWICZ AND TAYLOR [28].

Input Description | AQUA

double hardening) for soil materials.

Application range

Realistic stiffness and hardening behavior of soil, settlement analysis.

Parameters

P1 Friction angle φ [ ◦] !

P2 Cohesion c kN/ m2 !

P3 Tensile strength ƒt kN/ m2 0.0

P4 Dilatancy angle ψ [ ◦] 0.0

P5 Stiffness modulus Es,reƒ (GRAN-extended) kN/ m2 *

P6 Lateral earth pressure coefficient K0nc − 1 − sin φ

(GRAN-extended)

P9 Modulus for primary loading E50,reƒ kN/ m2 !

P10 Exponent m ≥ 0.0 − 0.7

P11 Failure factor 0.5 < Rƒ < 1.0 − 0.9

P12 Reference pressure preƒ > 0.0 kN/ m2 100.0

ing) is activated by specification of the oedometric stiffness modulus Es,reƒ (P5)

- only in this case the lateral earth pressure coefficient K0nc (P6) takes effect. In

case no input of Es,reƒ is provided, the basis version of the GRAN material model

(single-surface model, single hardening) is adopted.

posed by KONDNER AND Z ELASKO [10], which was derived from triaxial test-

ing. Hardening is limited by the material’s strength, represented by the clas-

sic MOHR/COULOMB failure criterion. Additionally, the model accounts for the

stress dependent stiffness according to equations (4-6). A further essential fea-

ture is the model’s ability to capture the loading state and can therefore auto-

matically account for the different stiffness in primary loading and un-/reloading

paths.

tive; for the principal stresses the relation σ1 ≥ σ2 ≥ σ3 holds. Accordingly, for the

triaxial state index 3 denotes the axial and index 1 the lateral direction.

AQUA | Input Description

q = σ1 − σ3 [kN/ m2 ]

-1200

-1000

σ1 -800

← MOHR

-600

-400

-200

σ3

-1000 -800 -600 -400 -200 0

Mohr-Coulomb

σ2 p [kN/ m2 ]

cording to KONDNER AND Z ELASKO [10]

⇒ plastic straining prior to reaching shear strength

parameter : E50,reƒ ; Rƒ

• Shear capacity (Mohr-Coulomb failure criterion)

parameter : φ; c

• optional accounting of dilatant behaviour (non-associated flow)

parameter : ψ

• stress dependent stiffness

parameter : m; preƒ

• loading dependent stiffness

⇒ differentiation between primary loading and un-/reloading

parameter : Er ; μ (elastic, from MAT/MATE record)

parameter : ƒt

hardening two-parameter cap surface. An appropriate calibration of the cap’s

hardening and shape parameters is done automatically, based on the input of

physically sound input parameters - and, hence, allows for

compression (oedometric testing) ⇒ plastic straining

Input Description | AQUA

q = σ1 − σ3 [kN/ m2 ]

-1200

-1000

σ1 -800

← MOHR

-600

-400

-200

σ3

-1000 -800 -600 -400 -200 0

Mohr-Coulomb

σ2 p [kN/ m2 ]

σter

• preservation of a realistic stress ratio K0nc = σ

, e.g. according to Jaky

as K0nc = 1 − sin φ

parameter : Es,reƒ ; K0nc ; (m; preƒ )

According to KONDNER AND Z ELASKO [10], the axial strain ϵ3 - deviatoric stress

q behavior of granular soil under drained triaxial conditions can be approximated

well by a hyperbolic relation:

−ϵ3

q = σ1 − σ3 = , (3.42)

b − · ϵ3

with

1

= E ' 2 · E50 , (3.43a)

b

1 qƒ

= q = , (3.43b)

Rƒ

where q is the asymptotic value of the deviatoric stress and E is the initial

stiffness. D UNCAN AND C HANG [6] extended this formulation by introducing the

limit value to the deviatoric stress q in form of the ultimate deviatoric stress

qƒ = q · Rƒ . The ratio between qƒ and q is given by the failure factor Rƒ , which is

smaller than 1.0.

AQUA | Input Description

1

E =

1 b

q =

E50

qƒ

σ1 − σ3

E

ε3

Granular materials show a stiffness behaviour that is dependent on the stress

state (and the compactness of the packing). Extending the approach from (Ohde

1939, 1951) - which was derived from oedometric testing - by cohesive terms

the oedometric modulus’ magnitude depends on the effective axial stress state

according to:

σ3 [kP]

reƒ

σ reƒ Es

1.0

ε3 [−]

m

|σ3 | · sin φ + c · cos φ

Es = Es,reƒ · (3.44)

preƒ · sin φ + c · cos φ

Input Description | AQUA

under triaxial conditions. Due to the changed boundary conditions the triaxial

modulus’ stiffness E50 deviates from the stiffness modulus. E50 is defined as

secant stiffness that corresponds to a 50-percent mobilisation of the maximum

shear capacity (figure 1). Choosing the smaller compressive stress σ1 as ref-

erence stress, a relation anlogous to equation (4) can be established for the

stiffness evolution of the triaxial modulus E50 (Kondner & Zelasko 1963, Duncan

& Chang 1970), which is then used in the model equations (1) to (3).

m

|σ1 | · sin φ + c · cos φ

E50 = E50,reƒ · (3.45)

preƒ · sin φ + c · cos φ

m

|σ1 | · sin φ + c · cos φ

Er = Er,reƒ · (3.46)

preƒ · sin φ + c · cos φ

Like other plasticity models, the Hardening Plasticity Soil model incorporates a

relationship between activated plastic shear strains ϵp and corresponding plastic

volumetric strains ϵp, . The according flow rule in rate form reads

For the Hardening Plasticity Soil model, the so-called mobilized dilatancy angle

ψm is defined from the well-established stress dilatancy theory (R OWE [15]) as

(Fig. 3.12)

sin φm − sin φcs

sin ψm = , (3.48)

1 − sin φm sin φcs

see also subsubsection 3.10.2. Therein, the critical state friction angle φcs marks

the transition between contractive (small stress ratios with φm < φcs ) and dilatant

(higher stress ratios with φm > φcs ) plastic flow. The mobilized friction angle φm

in Eq. 3.48 is computed according to

σ10 − σ30

sin φm = (3.49)

2c · cot φ − σ10 − σ30

At failure, when φm ≡ φ , also the dilatancy angle reaches its final value ψm ≡ ψ .

AQUA | Input Description

Accordingly, from Eq. 3.48 the critical state friction angle can be derived as

sin φ − sin ψ

sin φcs = (3.50)

1 − sin φ sin ψ

SOFiSTiK performs the computation of the critical state friction angle φcs auto-

matically on basis of the user specification for the final angles φ and ψ .

It has been recognized that in some cases the Rowe’s model for dilatancy angles

(Eq. 3.48) can overestimate the contractive behavior of the soil at low mobilized

friction angles, φm < φcs . As a remedy, several researchers have developed

modified formulations based on the original Rowe’s model. Some of these mod-

els which are implemented in SOFiSTiK are described below.

One of the models which do not require additional input parameters is the model

according to S ØREIDE [19] which modifies the Rowe’s formulation by using the

scaling factor sin φm / sin φ (Fig. 3.12)

sin φm − sin φcs sin φm

sin ψm = · . (3.51)

1 − sin φm sin φcs sin φ

This method is activated with the TALPA/ASE commands TALPA: CTRL MSTE

EMAX 2 and ASE: CTRL MSTE W4 2.

W EHNERT [22] proposed a model based on a lower cut-off value ψ0 for the mod-

ification of the Rowe’s formulation from Eq. 3.48 at low mobilized friction angles

(Fig. 3.12)

sin ψ0 ; 0 < ψm ≤ ψRoe

m

sin ψm = sin φm − sin φcs . (3.52)

; ψRoe

m

< ψm ≤ ψ

1 − sin φm sin φcs

ter ψ0 . TALPA / ASE commands TALPA: CTRL MSTE EMAX 1 EMIN ψ0 or ASE:

CTRL MSTE W4 1 W5 ψ0 will deactivate the original Rowe’s model and activate

the model acc. to W EHNERT [22].

relationship from Eq. 3.48, can optionally be requested by specifying TALPA:

CTRL MSTE EMAX 0 or ASE: CTRL MSTE W4 0 in the corresponding TALPA /

ASE run (Fig. 3.12).

Input Description | AQUA

ψm [ ◦ ]

Rowe

Soreide

20

Wehnert, ψ0 = −3◦

Constant

ψ = 10

φcs

0 φm [ ◦ ]

5 15 25 φ = 35

ψ0

-10

-20

in SOFiSTiK for φ = 35◦ and ψ = 10◦

Hint

It should be noted that for saturated soils under undrained conditions, the

evolution of excess pore water pressures shows a pronounced sensitivity

regarding the volumetric deformation behavior of the soil phase. As a con-

sequence, when carrying out corresponding simulations using the 2-phase

model, the dilatancy model parameters should be carefully selected. Ide-

ally, model parameters should be calibrated according to laboratory tests.

the volumetric deformation behavior of soil under undrained conditions, also re-

fer to the documented benchmark “Triaxial Consolidated Undrained (CU) Test”

in VERIFICATION_MANUAL_MECHANICAL: BE48.

• Plastification number

Identifier for the current material state of loading:

0 elastic

+2 deviatoric hardening

+4 volumetric hardening (cap)

+8 material failure (Mohr-Coulomb)

Example: For the current loading stage, a material point experiences hard-

ening in both ’directions’ and finally reaches the failure limit. The

corresponding value of the identifier amounts to 14=2+4+8.

• Deviatoric hardening variable → section 3.10.3

AQUA | Input Description

• Mobilized friction angle φm

Measures the degree of shearing strain based on the Mohr-Coulomb crite-

rion. Computed according to equation (9).

• Utilization level

Ratio ≡ φm / φnp ≤ 1 , where φnp is the maximum (ultimate) friction angle

provided as material input parameter.

• Isotropic pre-consolidation stress

Hydrostatic stress pc marking the highest state of compression that was

reached in loading history (cap); the hydrostatic stress being defined as

p ≡ σ + σy + σz / 3 .

Used dilatancy angle for the current loading stage. Computed according to

equation (9), if dilatancy theory is activated. Otherwise equal to material

input parameter: ψm = ψ .

Special comments

The model can easily be calibrated according to triaxial/oedometric test data.

Therefore, deformation behaviour of the material prior to failure can be captured

with a good accuracy. This feature, combined with the consideration of specific

stiffnesses for primary and un-/reloading, respectively, constitutes a significant

progress when compared to the behaviour of classic elasto-plastic soil material

models. Consequently, GRAN is particularly suited for tasks that require more

precise settlement predictions.

If no precise data is available, then the following estimations may be used for an

approximation of the properties of normally consolidated soil:

m ' 0.4 . . . 0.7 (3.53b)

Rƒ ' 0.7 . . . 0.9 (3.53c)

E50,reƒ ≈ Es,reƒ (3.53d)

Er,reƒ ' 3 · E50,reƒ (3.53e)

MUE ( MAT/MATE ) should be chosen to mimic the elastic loading behavior (i.e.

unloading, reloading) of the soil skeleton, only. The actual evolution of lateral

stresses during primary loading is controlled by the hardening plasticity formula-

tion itself. Therefore - as opposed to common practice with elastic-ideal plastic

Input Description | AQUA

material models, where calibration for primary loading behavior often results in

values MUE>>0.3 - for the hardening plasticity formulation suitable values of

MUE are significantly lower, usually in the range from 0.2 to 0.3. For higher val-

ues, the development of volumetric strains is prone to be overestimated (also at

the cost of model performance).

References

The implementation of this material model essentially adopts concepts and

strategies from S CHANZ [17], B ENZ [2], KONDNER AND Z ELASKO [10], D ESAI

AND C HRISTIAN [5] and D UNCAN AND C HANG [6].

Application range

Additional parameters to account for swelling of soils due to stress disturbance

(unloading).

Parameters

P1 Swelling modulus Kq h 3.3

P2 Swelling limit stress (absolute value) |σc | > 0 kN/ m2 10.0

(magnitude of smallest compressive stress

below which no further increase of swelling

occurs)

P3 Historical swelling equilibrium stress (abso- kN/ m2 2000.0

lute value) from oedometer testing |σ0,hst | >

|σc |

P4 Viscous extension: retardation time η ≥ 0.0 h 0.0

0 σ < σ0

σ

q

ϵ∞ = −p1 · log10 σ0 ≤ σ ≤ −p2 (3.54)

σ0

σc

log10 −p2 < σ

σ0

where

AQUA | Input Description

1..3

σ principal normal stresses

σ0 equilibrium state of stress w.r.t. swelling (initial condition), trans-

formed to the direction of the principal normal stresses σ

Special comments

Swelling of soils is a complex phemomena that is influenced by various fac-

tors. There are two swelling mechanisms of practical importance that can be

distinguished - for both processes the presence of (pore-) water is a common

prerequisite. The first mechanism is termed as the ”osmotic swelling” of clay

minerals, which basically is initiated by unloading of clayey sedimentary rock.

The second mechanism takes place in sulphate-laden rock with anhydride con-

tent. In this case the swelling effects are due to the chemical transformation of

anhydride to gypsum- which goes along with a large increase in volume (61%).

in volume, caused by swelling, and the state of stress was observed both in

laboratory and in in-situ experiments. The formula employed represents a gen-

eralization of the 1-dimensional stress-strain relationship that HUDER and AM-

BERG derived from oedometer tests for the final state. Here the time dependent

evolution of the swelling process is not considered.

Upper Limit

Test Data

Grob (Eq.2)

1.0

σc = −2 kN/ m2 0.9

0.8

0.7

0.6

0.5 εq [%]

0.4

kq = 0.33 % 0.3

0.2

0.1

-800 -700 -600 -500 -400 -300 -200 -100 0 100 200

σ [kN/ m2 ]

of the GRP record. For this we use the option PLQ in order to reference a

(previously calculated) load case as ”primary state for swelling”. This state is

regarded as an equilibrium state with respect to swelling (normally in-situ soil

Input Description | AQUA

tual ”unloading” from the historical equilibrium state σ0,hst to this new ”primary

state” σ0 have already occurred. Swelling strain increments in the course of

construction work are only due to unloading related to the new ”primary state

for swelling” σ0 :

q q q

(Δ) ϵ∞ = ϵ,tot − ϵ,hst

σ σ0

§ ª § ª

= −p1 · log − −p1 · log

σ0,hst σ0,hst (3.55)

σ

= − p1 · log

σ0

state, i.e. it relates the evolved swelling strains to the stress state that is present

at time t = ∞ . To account for time dependent behaviour, the relation is extended

to the time scale by a formal viscous approach. Correspondingly, the rate of

swelling strains is defined as

ϵq∞ (σ)−ϵq

q

ϵ̇ = (3.56)

η

with the retardation time η as a viscosity parameter and ϵq denoting the swelling

strains that have developed at the considered time t . In rheological terms this

approach can be interpreted as a parallel coupling of a ’swelling’ and a dashpot

device.

The time dependent response can be calibrated via the retardation time η (P4) -

the greater η the more accentuated is the retardation in the evolution of swelling

strains. For η = 0 the response is instantaneous, identical with the non-viscous

(instationary) case. Furthermore, for t → ∞ the model’s response converges to

the instationary solution - independent of the adjusted retardation time η . This

property enables application of the viscous model also for stabilisation of the

solution process, even if one is not explicitly interested in modelling time effects.

material.

References

The implementation of this material model essentially adopts concepts and

strategies from: W ITTKE -G ATTERMANN [26], W ITTKE [24], W ITTKE AND

AQUA | Input Description

R ISSLER [25], B AUGRUND -I NSTITUT [1], and Z IENKIEWICZ AND TAYLOR [28].

Application range

Complementary definition of oriented shear planes, anisotropic elasto-plastic

material law.

Parameters

P1 Friction angle φs , shear plane [ ◦] !

P2 Cohesion cs , shear plane kN/ m2 !

P3 Tensile capacity ƒt,s , shear plane kN/ m2 0.0

P4 Dilatancy angle ψs , shear plane [ ◦] 0.0

P5 Meridian angle of shear plane (OAL) [ ◦] 0.0

P6 Descent angle of shear plane (OAF) [ ◦] 0.0

P5 Streichwinkel der Kluftebene (OAL) [ ◦] *

P6 Fallwinkel der Kluftebene (OAF) [ ◦] *

P9 Tensile fracture energy Gƒ kNm/ m2 0.0

The shear stress over the designated shear plane and corresponding plastic

strain development is controlled by means of the yield condition ƒ1 and plastic

flow rule g1 according to

ƒ1 = tn φs · σ − cs + τ ≤ 0 (3.57a)

g1 = tn ψs · σ + τ (3.57b)

where:

τ maximum shear stress acting in the direction of the shear plane.

The tensile stress normal to the plane is limited by the additional cut-off criterion

ƒ2 = σ − ƒt,s ≤ 0 (3.58)

where again:

Input Description | AQUA

Shear plane hardening variable: Effective plastic shear strain in the plane of the

shear joint.

Special comments

This material law may be specified up to three times in addition to the material

law of the base material (elastic, MOHR, DRUC). This allows for the considera-

tion of different distinct fault directions. Increasing the number of specified shear

planes per material, also increases the number of possible equilibrium states for

a material point - this may possibly affect the stability of the overall equilibrium

iteration process.

Specification of meridian angle OAL and descent angle OAF follows the instruc-

tions given in the descriptions for input records MAT/MATE. For planar systems

the value OAL directly defines the slope of the stratification, i.e. the angle be-

tween the local x direction and the global X direction. Input for OAF is not eval-

uated for the plane case.

For P9>0 a scalar damage model with exponential softening of the tensile

strength is applied. The softening obeys

§ ƒt,s ª

ƒt,s = ƒt,s · ep − · (3.59)

Gƒ

where denotes the crack opening. In this context, the tensile fracture energy

Gƒ represents an objective material parameter. In order to minimize discretiza-

tion dependent spurious side effects, a characteristic element size is incorpo-

rated into the softening formulation. This requires, however, a sufficiently fine

finite element discretization in the corresponding system domains.

softening is executed.

References

The implementation of this material model essentially adopts concepts and

strategies from C HRISFIELD [4] und Z IENKIEWICZ AND TAYLOR [28].

AQUA | Input Description

Application range

Anisotropic elasto-plastic material with oriented shear plane.

Parameters

P1 Friction angle φs , shear plane [ ◦] !

P2 Cohesion cs , shear plane kN/ m2 !

P3 Tensile capacity ƒt,s , shear plane kN/ m2 0.0

P4 Dilatancy angle ψs , shear plane [ ◦] 0.0

P5 Inclination of shear plane α, [ ◦] 0.0

angle against x-axis (0 − 180)

P6 Friction angle φr , rock [ ◦] !

P7 Cohesion cr , rock kN/ m2 !

P8 Tensile capacity ƒt,r , rock kN/ m2 0.0

P9 Dilatancy angle ψr , rock [ ◦] 0.0

Shear plane:

gs1 = tn(p4) · σ + τ (3.60b)

ƒs2 = σ − p3 ≤ 0 (3.60c)

where:

τ maximum shear stress acting in the direction of the shear plane.

1 sin θ sin φ

Æ

ƒr = 1 sin φ + J2 cos θ − p − c cos φ ≤ 0 (3.61a)

3 3

2 sin ψ Æ

gr = p (3 ± sin ψ) · 1 + J2 (3.61b)

3

Input Description | AQUA

Special comments

The mpdel allows to specify the strength of the rock as well as the capacity of a

predominant shear plane, which is are defined by the angle P5. The flow rule of

the hear failure is non-associated if P4 is different from P1.

References

The implementation of this material model essentially adopts concepts and

strategies from C HRISFIELD [4] and Z IENKIEWICZ AND TAYLOR [28].

If there is no possibility for drainage of water from soil pores because the bound-

aries of the soil have been sealed-off, or because the loading rate is so high

and the permeability is so low that the outflow of water is neglectable, no con-

solidation of the soil will take place. In this case the soil behavior is dominantly

undrained and hence undrained stress analysis can be performed.

Application range

For soils saturated with water with low permeability and high loading rate and

when the short term behavior has to be assessed.

Parameters

P1 Skempton’s B-parameter − 0.978

Limits: 0.909 ≤ B ≤ 0.998

Undrained Soil

Soil is a porous material consisting of solid particles which together represent

the grain skeleton. The pores can be filled with fluid (commonly water) and air.

Hence we talk about soil as a three phase system (Figure 3.14).

The solid particles occupy the volume Vs . An important basic parameter of soil

is the porosity n, which is defined as the ratio of the volume of the pores Vn and

the total volume of the soil V (Figure 3.14b), i.e.

Vn

n= . (3.62)

Vs

AQUA | Input Description

V Air n

Vn n

V Water n

V 1

Solid

Vs 1−n

Particles

Figure 3.14: Soil as three phase system

the rest is filled with air V . When the volume of air in pores approaches zero,

i.e. V → 0, the water completely occupies the pore space (Vn = V ) and we

speak of soil fully 1 saturated with water.

For the following, unless stated otherwise, we restrict ourselves to the soils sat-

urated with water.

Let us consider an element of soil saturated with water subjected to some ex-

ternal total force P acting on a plane with area A (Figure 3.15). These external

forces are transmitted by a pore water pressure p and by stresses in the par-

ticles. The stresses in the particles are a result of the the concentrated forces

acting on the contact points between the grains and the pressure in water en-

compassing the grains (Figure 3.15a). Assuming that the particle stiffness is

much higher than the stiffness of the soil skeleton as a whole, it follows that the

soil element can deform only by sliding and rolling in the contact points between

the particles. Hence the deformation of the soil skeleton depends solely on the

concentrated forces acting on the contact points between the particles.

Having aforementioned in mind, inside the soil element we can construct a sur-

face s − s which crosses trough the points of contact between the soil particles

(Figure 3.15a). Due to the relatively small size of soil particles, the s − s sur-

face does not differ much from the plane and hence it has an area As which is

approximately equal to A. The contact forces acting on s − s can be resolved

into tangential and normal component N , acting in the direction of the force P.

Assuming that the contact areas between the soil particles are practically points

(their area is negligible compared to A), the pressure in the water p will also act

1 As will be illustrated below, a complete saturation with V = 0 is a theoretical concept

rather than a realistic option. When we use the terminus saturated soil, it should be thought of

as quasi-saturated.

Input Description | AQUA

P

P

s s As ≈ A

s s

p

N0

Figure 3.15: Effective stress principle

on the surface s − s over the entire area As ≈ A. We can now write the equilibrium

equations for the surface s − s in the vertical direction (Figure 3.15b) as follows:

X

P= N0 + p · A . (3.63)

Dividing Eq. 3.63 with A and introducing the notation σ = P/ A and σ 0 = N0 / A we

P

get:

σ = σ 0 + p . (3.64)

Eq. 3.64 represents the basis for one of the fundamental principles of soil me-

chanics postulated by Karl Terzaghi - the principle of effective stress. This prin-

ciple states that the total normal stress σ comprises of effective normal stress

σ 0 and pore water pressure p . The effective normal stress σ 0 is a measure

of contact forces of granular material and hence, under the assumptions stated

above, it governs the deformation of soils.

Hint

The Therzaghi’s effective stress principle is based on three main assump-

tions:

AQUA | Input Description

(Hint continued...)

1. Soil is saturated with water

2. Soil particles are very stiff compared to the soil as a whole

3. Contact areas between the soil particles are very small

For standard saturated soil these assumptions are valid; however for rock

some of these assumptions may not hold. In this case the compressibility of

rock must be taken into account and therefore Eq. 3.64 should be modified

to take this fact into an account.

The Terzaghi’s principle generalized for a three-dimensional body reads: the to-

tal normal stresses in a saturated soil consist of two parts: effective normal

stresses and pore (water or fluid) pressures (T ERZAGHI [20]). The effective

shear stresses are equal to the total shear stresses since the resistance of pore

water (fluid) to shear is neglegible. This can be described by the following equa-

tions:

0

τjk = τjk , j, k = {, y, z} , j 6= k (3.65b)

where:

σ0, τ0 effective normal and shear stresses,

p pore (water) stress (negative for pressure).

Writing the Eqs. 3.65 in matrix form, the total stress increments can be ex-

pressed as

Δσ = Δσ 0 + Δσ , (3.66)

where:

h iT

Δσ 0 = Δσ0 Δσy0 Δσz0 Δτy Δτz Δτyz , (3.67a)

h iT

Δσ = Δp Δp Δp 0 0 0 . (3.67b)

Δσ 0 = D0 · Δϵ , (3.68)

where D0 denotes the elasticity matrix of the soil skeleton, as described in MATE.

Pore stress comprises of two parts: steady-state pore stress ps and excess

Input Description | AQUA

The rate of change of the steady-state part of the pore stress Δps is equal to

zero and hence the rate of change of pore pressure Δp is equal to the rate of

change of excess pore pressure Δpe , i.e.

In the undrained conditions the relative movement between the water (fluid) and

soil skeleton is negligible and therefore the strains are the same for each phase

of the soil. Hence, for the water stress increments we can write:

Δσ = D · Δϵ , (3.71)

with D representing the pore water stiffness matrix which is given by:

1 1 1 0 0 0

1 1 1 0 0 0

1 1 1 0 0 0

D = Ke · . (3.72)

0 0 0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 0 0

Ke is a constant and represents the equivalent bulk modulus of the pore fluid

(water). Substituting Eq. 3.72 into Eq. 3.71, and having in mind Eqs. 3.67b

and 3.73, we can write the relationship between the rate of excess pore water

pressure Δpe and the rate of volumetric strain Δϵ

(3.73)

The modulus Ke is related to the bulk modulus of the pore water K . This rela-

tionship is examined next.

water occupies a volume V = n · V and the solid soil particles occupy a volume

Vs = (1 − n) · V , where n is the porosity (Figure 3.14) . The total volume change

in the soil ΔV is equal to the change of volume in the soil particles ΔVs plus the

change of volume in the pore water ΔV , i.e.

Since the soil particles are assumed to be incompressible (ΔVs ≈ 0), the change

AQUA | Input Description

of the volume V can take place only on the account of the change of poros-

ity. Since the soil is saturated with water and under undrained conditions, the

change of porosity is only possible if the water in the pores changes its volume.

Taking this into an account and dividing Eq. 3.74 with V , the total volume change

per unit volume of soil Δϵ reduces to:

ΔV ΔV

Δϵ ≈ = ·n . (3.75)

V V

The change of volume in the pore water per unit area of pore water, ΔV / V ,

is directly proportional to the change of pore water pressure Δpe and inversely

proportional to the bulk modulus of pore water K . Now the volumetric strain of

soil can be written as

Δpe

Δϵ ≈ ·n . (3.76)

K

Comparing Eqs. 3.73 and 3.76 the relationship between the equivalent bulk

modulus of the pore water Ke and the bulk modulus of the pore water K can

finally be established P OTTS AND Z DRAVKOVI Ć [14]:

K

Ke ≈ . (3.77)

n

Writing the effective stress principle given by the Eq. 3.66 in terms of the

isotropic stress p = (σ1 + σ2 + σ3 )/ 3, and taking into consideration Eqs. 3.68

and 3.71, we get

K K

Δp = Δp0 + Δpe = K 0 Δϵ + Δϵ ⇒ K = K 0 + , (3.78)

n n

where K 0 = Δp0 / Δϵ is the bulk modulus of soil skeleton, while K = Δp/ Δϵ rep-

resents the undrained total bulk modulus of soil.

The equivalent pore water bulk stiffness K / n can be defined by the bulk mod-

ulus of the soil skeleton K 0 and the Skempton’s B-parameter, which is conve-

nient since the Skempton’s B-parameter can be measured experimentally in the

undrained triaxial test. It is for this reason that the Skempton’s B-parameter is

chosen as an input parameter (parameter P1) for the undrained material prop-

erties 2 .

In the undrained triaxial compression test where the soil sample is subjected

to the isotropic compression (Δσ1 = Δσ2 = Δσ3 ), Skempton’s B-parameter repre-

2 S KEMPTON [18] has expressed the pore pressure change Δpe occurring under changes

in total principle stresses Δσ1 and Δσ3 by the equation: Δpe = B · [Δσ3 + A · (Δσ1 − Δσ3 )].

He termed the coefficients A and B as “Pore-pressure Coefficients“, also know as “Skempton’s

A and B Coefficients“.

Input Description | AQUA

sents the relationship between the change of pore pressure Δp and the change

of isotropic total stress Δp = (Δσ1 + Δσ2 + Δσ3 )/ 3, i.e.

Combining Eqs. 3.79 and 3.78 we can finally obtain the relationship between

the equivalent bulk modulus of the pore water and the bulk modulus of the soil

skeleton K 0 trough Skempton’s B-parameter3

K B

Ke = = · K0 . (3.80)

n 1−B

Theoretically, for soils fully saturated with water, K is equal to the bulk modulus

0

of pure water K . In many applications the water is assumed to be an incom-

pressible fluid (K = ∞), which would then imply that the saturated soil is also

0

incompressible (K = ∞). This corresponds to the value B = 1, which also marks

the upper limit for the Skempton’s B-parameter. This limit value describing fully

incompressible behavior of the pore water ( K / n → ∞, when B → 1; Eq. 3.80)

and saturated soil cannot be reached within a FE calculation due to the singu-

larity of the stiffness matrix which then occurs.

However, fully incompressible behavior of the water is not realistic - water has a

very large but finite bulk modulus K 0

= 2·106 kN/ m2 , and hence the bulk stiffness

of the pore water K / n is always finite, even if the soil is fully saturated. It follows

that Skempton’s B-parameter in real applications is always smaller than one.

Hint

Moreover, full saturation is also not feasible in reality. Practically, it is not

possible to squeeze out the pore air volume V completely. Since the ’stiff-

0

ness’ of air is considerably smaller than the bulk stiffness of pure water K ,

even a very small fraction of remaining pore air volume has a significant

impact; the resulting equivalent bulk modulus of the pore fluid K / n shows

very high sensitivity with respect to the degree of saturation S = V / Vn .

This relationship can be approximated by the following expression (V ER -

RUIJT [21]):

0

1 S 1−S K K · p0 1

= + ⇒ Ke = = · , (3.81)

K 0

K p0 n (1 − S) · K

0 +S·p

0 n

vacuum (p0 = 100kN/ m2 ).

3K

/ n = B · K .

AQUA | Input Description

(Hint continued...)

For illustration: despite an almost complete saturation of 99.9%, i.e. S =

0

0.999, this relation indicates a ratio of K / K ≈ 20 – the compressibility of

the pore fluid is about 20 times higher than the one of pure water!

To avoid potential numerical problems associated with very high stiffness values

in FE calculations, the following upper limits are used in the program:

K / n 500

≤ 500 ⇒ B≤ ≈ 0.998 . (3.82)

K0 501

On the other hand, in order to have the realistic computational results (B ≈ 1),

the pore water stiffness K / n must be substantially larger than the stiffness of

the soil skeleton K 0 . Therefore the lower limits are set to

K / n 10

≥ 10 ⇒ B≥ ≈ 0.909 . (3.83)

K0 11

Default values for bulk stiffness of pore water and Skempton’s B-parameter are

K / n 45

= 45 ⇒ B= ≈ 0.978 . (3.84)

K0 46

Very often, the stiffness of the pore water K / n is expressed in terms of the

undrained Poisson’s ratio ν , the bulk modulus of the soil skeleton K 0 and the

effective Poisson’s ratio ν 0 : 4

K 3(ν − ν 0 )

= · K0 . (3.85)

n (1 − 2ν )(1 + ν 0 )

It follows from Eqs. 3.85 and 3.80 that the undrained Poisson’s ratio and the

Skempton’s B-parameter are not independent of each other. They are con-

nected by the following expressions

3ν 0 + B(1 − 2ν 0 ) 3(ν − ν 0 )

ν = ⇔ B= . (3.86)

3 − B(1 − 2ν 0 ) (1 + ν )(1 − 2ν 0 )

corresponds to ν = 0.5.

Once the bulk stiffness of pore water K / n is know so is the pore water stiffness

matrix D , and the total stresses increments can be related to strains:

Δσ = (D0 + D ) · Δϵ . (3.87)

4E

= G · (1 + ν ) , K = E / [3(1 − 2ν )]

Input Description | AQUA

Elasto-plastic material according to LADE with non-associated flow rule.

Application range

All materials with friction including rock and concrete (module ASE, 3D solid

elements)

Parameters

P1 Parameter η1 − !

P2 Exponent m − !

P3 Uniaxial tensile strength ƒt kN/ m2 0.0

P4 Parameter η2 for flow rule − P1/10

P5 Compressive strength (cap) kN/ m2 -

P6 Tensile failure strain ϵt h -

m

p

ƒ= 13 − 27 + η1 · · 3 ≤ 0 (3.88a)

1

m

p

g= 13 − 27 + η2 · · 3 (3.88b)

1

with

Special comments

Due to their non-physical nature, calibration of the LADE model parameters

may not be obvious at first sight. For this reason, the basic procedure for a

material with known uniaxial tensile and compressive strength (e.g. concrete)

is described in the following. Of particular interest is the section of the three-

dimensional yield surface with one of the principal planes (-> ”Kupfer Curve”).

towards the hydrostatic axis - the larger m the stronger the curvature. In this

AQUA | Input Description

manner m determines the shape of the intersection curve. For most types of

concrete a value of m between 1.0 and 2.0 is reasonable.

Using the known quantities of uniaxial tensile and compressive strength and the

chosen parameter m, parameter η1 can now be determined from the condition:

For the stress state corresponding to the uniaxial compressive stress limit the

yield condition must be fulfilled.

m

13

|1 |

η1 = −27 · (3.89)

3 p

σ = σ = − ƒt

σ = − (ƒt + ƒc )

(3.90)

1 = σ + σ + σ

3 = σ · σ · σ

Where ƒt (= P3 ) and ƒc are the magnitudes of the uniaxial tensile and compres-

sive strength, respectively, 1 and 3 the required invariants for this stress state.

Substituing into the rewritten yield function yields the yet unknown parameter η1 .

The following table contains exemplary parameters for selected concrete types,

derived from the procedure described above (classification according to EC2,

Ultimate Limit State).

class [ kN/m2 ] [ kN/m2 ] [ -] [ -]

1.5 324095.87

C30/37 20000 2000 1.0 43466.02

1.5 689515.99

C40/50 26667 2500 1.0 63426.77

1.5 1153410.57

C50/60 33333 2900 1.0 88162.15

1.5 1778218.62

spherical cap (in principal stress space) that limits the volumetric compressive

Input Description | AQUA

hydrostatic compression. The cap is defined by:

q q

ƒ= σ1 2 + σ2 2 + σ3 2 − P5 2 + P5 2 + P5 2 ≤ 0 (3.91)

The optional parameter P6 defines a linear decay of the material’s tensile capac-

ity after the initial tensile strength ƒt has been exceeded, such that ƒt (ϵt ) = 0.

If not specified, the behavior is ideally plastic, the tensile strength remains at

the initial value ƒt (tension cut-off). The tension model is suitable for monotonic

loading, only.

References

The implementation of this material model essentially adopts concepts and

strategies from L ADE [12].

Parameters

P1 Tensile strength (yielding capacity), P1=0.0 kN/ m 0.0

is interpreted as ’no input’ = no limitation

P2 Factor for compression stiffness − 0.0

0.0 no compressive stress possible

1.0 full compressive stress possible

> 0, < 1 intermediate values for scaling

the elasticity modulus

P4 Variation of fill stiffness kN/ m 0.0

P1 and P2 should not be used for standard membranes. P1 can be used to limit

the maximum tension force, e.g. for geo textiles.

via SYST...NMAT JES. For linear elastic membrane materials only NMAT

MEMB must be set in AQUA. Examples for lineare membrane materials siehe

ase.dat\english\membranes\atrium.dat.

LIOT AND L UCHSINGER [8] can be activated. P3 (ΔE ) and P4 (ΔEƒ )

AQUA | Input Description

define the nonlinear variation of the stiffness in warp and fill direction

depending on the stress ratio σ and σƒ (warp fill) . Example see

ase.dat\english\membranes\nonlinear_warp_fill_behaviour.dat.

Please notice that in input MAT the E modulus must be input in kN/m2 but the

values NMAT MEMB P1+P3+P4 are in kN/m, see atrium.dat.

σ σƒ

γ = q γƒ = q (3.92)

σ 2 + σƒ 2 σ 2 + σƒ 2

Stress-strain relation:

−νƒ

1

ϵ (γ ) E (γ ) σ

= E−ν (3.93)

ƒ 1

ϵƒ E (γ ) Eƒ (γƒ ) σƒ

1

E (γ ) = ΔE γ − p + E1:1 (3.94)

2

1

Eƒ (γƒ ) = ΔEƒ γƒ − p + E1:1 ƒ (3.95)

2

Parameters for user-defined material laws (USP1..USP8 und USD1..USD8)

For the advanced user the modules TALPA (for QUAD-elements) and ASE (for

BRIC-elements) offer the possibility to plug in self-developed non-linear mate-

rial models via an interface (currently only for WINDOWS-OS). The following

paragraphs describe the interface in detail.

(DLL) with arbitrary name. The variable SOFISTIK_USERMATDLL must be set

with the name of this DLL. This can either be done by specification of

SET SOFISTIK_USERMATDLL=my_material

SOFISTIK_USERMATDLL=my_material

Input Description | AQUA

into the SOFISTIK.DEF file. In both cases the user defined material models,

in the DLL my_material.dll, are loaded at run-time. The interface routine itself

reads:

ParMat , ElcMat , D , C , Ctrl , deltaTime , $$

iNonl ,

iUpd , iErr , NrEl , iGP )

Input parameters:

Ss 6 Double Elastic stress tensor (trial stress)

[ xx,yy,zz,xy,xz,yz]

SsPrim 6 Double Stress tensor primary state

[ xx,yy,zz,xy,xz,yz]

deltaSn 6 Double Strain increment related to primary state

[ xx,yy,zz,xy,xz,yz]

SnIe 6 Double not used

StateV 10 Double State variables

Mtype 1 Integer Identifier for material type

USP1-USP8 -> 101-108

USD1-USD8 -> 109-116

ParMat 12 Double Non-linear material parameters P1-P12

ElcMat 16 Double Elastic material constants from record

001/No:1, @1-@14 (where appropriate

multiplied with factor of stiffness FACS!).

Additionally FACS at pos 15 and, as the case

may be thickness of QUAD-element at pos

16.

D (6,6) Double Elastic material stiffness matrix

C (6,6) Double Elastic compliance

Ctrl 5 Single Control values from CTRL MSTE- record

deltaTime 1 Double not used

NrEl 1 Integer Element number

iGP 1 Integer Identifier for Gauss-Point

Return values:

AQUA | Input Description

Ss 6 Double Updated stress tensor

[ xx,yy,zz,xy,xz,yz]

SnIe 6 Double not used

StateV 10 Double Updated state variables

D (6,6) Double Updated (tangential) material

stiffness matrix

iNonl 1 Integer =0 for linear-elastic response

=1 for non-linear response

iUpd 1 Integer =0 no update of stiffness matrix

=1 update of stiffness matrix (only ASE)

iErr 1 Integer Error indicator

=0 no error

=1 error -> program terminates

=-99 no user defined material model

provided -> program terminates

Input Description | AQUA

BMAT

NO Material number − 1

CT Elastic constant tangential to surface Ct kN/ m3 0.

CRAC Maximum tensile stress of interface kN/ m2 0.

YIEL Maximum stress of interface kN/ m2 -

MUE Friction coefficient of interface − -

COH Cohesion of interface kN/ m2 -

DIL Dilatancy coefficient − 0.

GAMB Equivalent mass distribution t/ m2 0

PESS Plane stress condition

PAIN Plane strain condition

HALF Circular disk at half space

CIRC Circular hole in infinite disk

SPHE Spherical hole in infinite space

NONE no reference

MREF Number of a reference material − NO

H Reference dimension m !

(thickness H or radius R)

elastic support. For a QUAD element it is thus possible to select for a founda-

tion the properties of the plate and the soil within a single element number. For

pure supporting materials, BMAT is the second step transforming the elasticity

constants from a material to support constants by including a geometric dimen-

sion and a specify geometry rule. This step is also necessary if one wants to

define just the constants. However for this case a direct definition of a value at

the element is much more straight forward. The bedding approach works ac-

cording to the subgrade modulus theory (Winkler, Zimmermann/Pasternak). It

facilitates the definition of elastic supports by an engineering trick which, among

AQUA | Input Description

others, ignores the shear deformations of the supporting medium. The bedding

effect may be attached to beam or plate elements, but in general it will be used

as an own element. (see SPRI, BOUN, BEAM or QUAD and the more general

description of BORE profiles)

presents considerable difficulty, since this value depends not only on the ma-

terial parameters but also on the geometry and the loading. One must always

keep this dependance in mind, when assessing the accuracy of the results of an

analysis using this theory.

The subgrade parameters C and CT will be used for bedding of QUAD elements

or for the description of support or interface conditions. A QUAD element of a

slab foundation will thus have a concrete material and via BMAT the soil prop-

erties attached to the same material number. The value C is than acting in the

main direction perpendicular to the QUAD surface in the local z-direction, while

CT is acting in any shear direction in the QUAD plane.

spring elements will be generated along that edge based on the width and the

distance of the support nodes.

Instead of a direct value you may select a reference material and a reference di-

mension for some cases with constant pressure based on the elasticity modulus

and the Poisson ratio μ[1] :

• Planar layer with horizontal constraints e.g. for modeling elastic support by

columns and supporting walls (plane stress condition):

E 1 E 1

Cs = · Ct = · (3.96)

H (1 + μ)(1 − μ) H 2(1 + μ)

• Planar layer with horizontal constraints for settlements of soil strata (plane

strain condition):

E (1 − μ) E 1

Cs = · Ct = · (3.97)

H (1 + μ)(1 − 2μ) H (1 + μ)

E 2

Cs = · (3.98)

R π(1 + μ)(1 − μ)

• Circular hole with radius R in infinite disk with plane strain conditions (bedded

pipes or piles):

Input Description | AQUA

E 1

Cs = · Ct = Cs (3.99)

R (1 + μ)(1 − 2μ)

E 2

Cs = · Ct = Cs (3.100)

R (1 + μ)

Including a dilatancy factor describing the volume change induced by shear de-

formations, we have for the bedding stresses the following equations depending

on the normal and transverse displacements:

both the axial and the lateral direction. The failure load

is always a tensile stress. If the bedding reaction is ap-

plied to a QUAD element, a deformation in the direction

of the local z-axis will create compressive (negative)

stresses.

Yield load: Upon reaching the yield stress, the principal deforma-

tion component of the interface increases without an

increase of the stress.

Friction/cohesion: Defining a friction and/or a cohesion coefficient, the lat-

eral shear stress can not become larger than:

Friction coefficient * normal stress + Cohesion

Please note, that before reaching this limit the stiff-ness

CT will produce the shear stress only if a deformation

is present.

If the principal interface has failed (CRAC), then the lateral bedding acts only if

0.0 has been entered for both friction- coefficient and cohesion.

The non-linear effects can only be taken into account by a non-linear analysis.

The friction is an effect of the lateral bedding, while all other effects act upon the

principal direction.

AQUA | Input Description

HMAT

NO Material number − !

TYPE Type of material law LT *

DARC Seepage (Darcy, linear)

FORC Seepage (Forchheimer, nonlin.)

MISS Seepage (Missbach, nonlin.)

FLOW General diffusion (e.g. vapor)

FOUR Heatflow (Fourier, linear)

Hydration of concrete:

JONA Jonasson model

HSCM ”Shrinkage-Core” model

WESC Danish model acc. to Wesche

KXX Isotropic permeability or conductivity ∗ 0.

KYY or anisotropic permeability/conductivity ∗ KXX

KZZ or parameters A,B (Forchheimer), ∗ KXX

KXY or parameters C,M (Missbach) ∗ 0.

KXZ ∗ 0.

KYZ ∗ 0.

S Specific Capacity/Storage coefficient ∗ 0.

NSP effective porosity or moisture grade − 0.

A Constant a for JONA / HSCM / WESC − *

B Constant b for JONA / WESC − *

C Constant c for WESC − *

QMAX Maximum heat quantity for hydration kJ/ m3 0.

TK Reference time h 15

HMAT allows to specify three individual sets of constants for three tasks dif-

Input Description | AQUA

fusion, seepage and heat flow for a material. Material properties have to be

selected according to literature or experimental data. But some rough estimates

(without warranty) are given here.

For any material there might be up to 15 different sets of materials for different

temperatures [ ◦ Celsius] or pore water pressures [ kPa = kN/m2 ] . With a

nonlinear analysis the material values will then be interpolated between those

values.

For seepage (DARC,FORC,MISS) the unit for conductivity (KXX, KYY, KZZ) is

[ m/sec] , for storage coefficient (S) [ m3/m] . TEMP is the pressure in [ kPa] .

Sandy gravel 3·10−3 ... 5·10−4

Gravelly sand 1·10−3 ... 2·10−4

Medium sand 4·10−4 ... 1·10−4

Silty sand 2·10−4 ... 1·10−5

Sandy silt 5·10−5 ... 1·10−6

Silty clay 5·10−6 ... 1·10−8

Clay ≈ 10−8

Positive pressures represent saturated flow regions while negative values de-

scribe unsaturated soils. Conductivities and Capacities will be interpolated. Free

surface problems also use a variation of the porosity to account for the effective

capacity of the free surface.

state from the database. This is performed by additional data given with the

same material number and the types FVOL, FSIN or FSIT. The difference be-

tween FSIN and FSIT is given by the fact that FSIN modifies the values across

the crack, while FSIT does this perpendicular to the crack. It is recommended

to use a linear stress field for that purpose and not a plasticity field.

Within HYDRA the user has the possibility to define material properties for the

elements either via a given material number (engineering constructions) or via

the nodes (element material number = 0), especially for ground water models.

Both methods may be used together within the same system. For a general

AQUA | Input Description

diffusion according to potential theory, the unit for conductivity (KXX, KYY, KZZ)

is [ sec/m] , for storage coefficient (S) [ kg/m3/Pa] =[ sec2/m] .

Heat conduction according to the equations of Forier (FOUR). The unit for con-

ductivity (KXX, KYY, KZZ) is [ W/K/m] , for storage coefficient (S) specific capac-

ity*Density [ J/Km3 ] . TEMP is the temperature in degree Celsius or Kelvin, which

may be selected with an explicit unit in the table headder.

e.g.:

λ [ W/Km] c [ J/kgK] coeff. [ -] rate ε[ -]

P.concrete 0.14 ... 1.20 1050

LW concrete 0.70 ... 1.20 1050

concrete 1.60 ... 2.10 1050 1.0·10−5

brickwork 0.50 ... 1.30 950 0.93

insulation 0.020 ... 0.090 850 -

steel 50 850 1.2·10−5 0.06 . . . 0.67

copper 380 850 1.6·10−5 0.04 . . . 0.78

aluminum 200 850 2.4·10−5 0.05 . . . 0.30

timber 0.13 ... 0.20 2500 0.18·10−3

Water 0.58 4187

(S = c·ρ)

If the materials have been defined with CONC, STEE, TIMB, BRIC or TYPE at

MATE, all constants will be preset for FOUR according EN 12524. For concrete

and timber a definition of NSP will select the moisture ratio.

lated values. The default is to use the formulas defined in the Eurocode.

lower (A=0.0) limit. The special effect for S is the evaporation of pore water.

Input Description | AQUA

4500

1.80

4000

1.60

3500

1.40

3000

1.20

2500

1.00

S [kJ/m3/K]

0.800 2000

0.400 1000

0.200 500

0.0 0.0

[ C] [ C]

100.00

200.00

300.00

400.00

500.00

600.00

700.00

800.00

900.00

100.00

200.00

300.00

400.00

500.00

600.00

700.00

800.00

900.00

0.00

0.00

1000.00

1200.00

1000.00

1200.00

1100.00

1100.00

Figure 3.16: Conductivity and Capacity of Concrete

50.0

18000

45.0

16000

40.0

14000

35.0

12000

30.0

k [W/m/K] 10000

25.0

8000

20.0

15.0 6000

S [kJ/m3/K]

10.0 4000

5.00 2000

0.0 0.0

[ C] [ C]

100.00

200.00

300.00

400.00

500.00

600.00

700.00

800.00

900.00

100.00

200.00

300.00

400.00

500.00

600.00

700.00

800.00

900.00

0.00

0.00

1000.00

1200.00

1000.00

1200.00

1100.00

1100.00

1.40 6.50

1.30

6.00

1.20

5.50

1.10

5.00

1.00

4.50

0.900

4.00

0.800

3.50

0.700

0.600 3.00

0.500 2.50

0.400 2.00

0.300 1.50

0.200 1.00

0.100 0.500

S [kJ/m3/K]

[ C] [ C]

100.00

200.00

300.00

400.00

500.00

600.00

700.00

800.00

900.00

100.00

200.00

300.00

400.00

500.00

600.00

700.00

800.00

900.00

0.00

0.00

1000.00

1200.00

1000.00

1200.00

1100.00

1100.00

AQUA | Input Description

For the hydration of concrete it is required to know the maximum heat release

QMAX, a function for the effective age of concrete (see HYDRA CTRL TEFF)

and a formula for the hydration degree α governing all other properties. There

are numerous possibilities with different parameters. All of them have in com-

mon:

QMAX The maximum heat quantity [kJ/ m3 ] !

TK The reference time τk [ h] 15

S The exponent for maturity function 1.00

acc. Saul

TYPE JONA

Function of Jonasson, an extension to the Byfors definition:

τ

α = ep b n 1 + (3.102)

τk

512 of the German DAfStB, printed with the input record HMAT but the general

rule is that you need tests! Unfortunately there are publications with exchanged

parameters a and b.

The values have to be determined from experiments, values for the total heat in

the literature are often defined in [ kJ/kg] . However the following values might

give a rough idea:

Q-max [ kJ/m3] a b τ k [ h]

B25 (Heft 512 DAfStB) 167700 -0.925 -0.42 41.82

B35WU (Heft 512 DAfStB) 135750 -1.185 -1.00 17.53

B35 (Heft 512 DAfStB) 105940 -1.605 -1.00 37.46

Input Description | AQUA

TYPE HSCM

”Shrinkage-Core” model:

· (τ − τk )

α = τ > τk (3.103)

1 + · (τ − τk )

τk is a period with very low chemical reaction, named d in the original formula.

Values for a mass concrete are given by Dussinger:

TYPE WESC

Danish model according to Wesche:

b

τk

α = ep − (3.105)

τ

ƒcc (t) 0

β = = · ep c · t −0.55 c = c1 ·

(3.106)

ƒcc (28d) z

The water cement ratio w0 /z has to be incorporated in the input value c. Please

note that parameter a is used in the original with two different meanings. The

following parameters for the Wesche model can be found in the literature.

Q-max [ kJ/kg] a c1

w0 /z 0.35 0.55 0.75

Z 55 / Z 45 F 380 1.10 1.15 1.20 -1.50

Z 45 L / Z 35 F 295 1.20 1.30 1.40 -2.80

Z 35 L 216 1.30 1.50 1.70 -4.40

Z 25 1.50 1.90 2.30 -7.10

τk = 24.87[h]

b = 0.84[−]

0 / z = 0.68[−] (3.107)

= 1.63[−]

c1 = −4.4[−] ⇒ c = −4.4 · 0.68 = −2.99

Hint: If the maturity function according to Saul is used, the exponent s there

might be specified with item S.

AQUA | Input Description

CONC

NO Material number (1-999) − 1

TYPE Type of concrete (see remarks for list): LT *

C, LC regular / light-weight

FCN Nominal strength class (fck /fck /fc ’ etc.) N/ mm2 *

FCT Tensile strength of concrete N/ mm2 *

FCTK Lower fractile strength value N/ mm2 *

EC Elastic modulus N/ mm2 *

MUE Poisson’s ratio or shear modulus − 0.2

GAM Unit weight kN/ m3 25

ALFA Thermal expansion coefficient 1/ ◦ K 1E-5

SCM Typical material safety factor − *

TYPR Type of service state line LT *

LINE constant elastic modulus

A,B short time lines (EN 1992)

FCR Strength for non-linear analysis N/ mm2 *

ECR Elastic modulus for servicability N/ mm2 *

FBD Design bond strength N/ mm2 *

FFAT Fatigue strength fcd,ƒ t N/ mm2 *

FCTD Design tensile strength N/ mm2 *

FEQR Equiv. tensile strength after cracking N/ mm2 0.0

FEQT Ultimate tensile strength N/ mm2 0.0

GMOD Shear modulus N/ mm2 *

KMOD Bulk modulus N/ mm2 *

RHO Density kg/ m3 *

GF Fracture energy (MC 2010, 5.1.5.2) N/ mm *

MUEC Friction in cracks − *

Input Description | AQUA

According to Eurocode EN 1992 and other design codes derived from that the

following types are available:

C = regular concrete

LC = light-weight concrete

As the German DIN Fachbericht anticipates the design rules of the upcoming

Eurocode, but references cite explicitly the old DIN 1045-1, it is recommended

to specify the correct material type with C_EN or CDIN unambiguously.

The cylindrical strength is always to be input for FCN. The default value is 20.

Some properties are dependent on so called boxed values or other national reg-

ulations. The definition of NORM is used to select those variants. The possible

values for example are given in table 3.1 and 3.2 of EN, resp. table 9 and 10 of

DIN 1045-1 resp. table 4 of OEN B 4700 and not repeated here in detail.

FCN = ƒck 12 16 20 25 30 35 40 45 50

ƒck,cbe 15 20 25 30 37 45 50 55 60

FCN 55 60 70 80 90 100

ƒck,cbe 67 75 85 95 105 115

The default values for strength and elastic modulus are derived as follows:

FC = 0.85 · ƒck

2/ 3

FCT = 0.3 · ƒck (ƒck < 55)

= 2.12n((ƒck + 8)/ 10+ 1) (ƒck > 55)

EC = 9500(ƒck + 8)0.3 (EN 1992-1992)

EC = 22000(ƒcm / 10)0.3 (EN 1992-2004)

FBD = 2.25 · ƒct,0.05 / γ (Tbl. 5.3.)

The coefficients αcc and αc for the long term strength effects are defined in

the national annexes. The Eurocode suggests values between 0.8 and 1.0 and

recommends as default the value of 1.0. However SOFiSTiK uses a default

on the safe side of 0.85, if not specified explicitly in the INI-file according to

the national annex. An explicit definition of FC = αcc ·FCN is possible of cause.

However, for the fatigue, bond or tensile strength values all corrective factors

and the safety should be included in the input data.

AQUA | Input Description

For the elasticity modules we have to distinguish between a secant modulus Ecm

(Input value EC of this record) for elastic deformations, especially constraining

forces and a tangential modulus Ec0,28 = 1.05 Ecm or Ec0,28 = Ecm / α , used for

creep and nonlinear analysis (input item ECR) where Heft 525 of DAfStb chapter

9.1 provides:

The value ECR may be also defined with an explicit unit [-] as factor to the

default value, as recommended in Heft 600 of DAfStB with 0.85 for non lnear

analysis.

For light-weight concrete (LC) according to density RHO has to be defined ex-

plicitly in kg/ m3 . GAM and EC will then be defined appropriately.

For light-weight concrete, the tensile strength and bond values and limit strains

will be scaled by a factorη1 . For the ultimate limit stress strain law the bilinear

version is selected. The different coefficients for natural sand and other com-

ponents are selected by AQUA automatically based on the defined weight and

strength.

The fatigue strength may be specified with item FFAT. The formula given in the

EN 1992-1-1 Gl. 6.76 is dependent on a some parameters not fully known here:

The number of load cycles, the kind of the cement, the age at the time of the

design and its own safety factor. Thus the user has to specify the final value

directly:

ƒck

ƒcd,ƒ t = k1 · βcc (t0 ) · ƒcd · 1− ; k1 = 0.85 / 1.0

250 (3.110)

p

28/ t0 )

βcc (t0 ) = e s(1−

; s = 0.20(R) / 0.25(N) / 0.38(S)

For detailed analysis of concrete according to appendix 1 you need to know the

kind of cement. You may specify this by appending a literal to the concrete grade

S slow hardening cement (α = -1.0)

R fast hardening / high strength cement (α = +1.0)

careous aggregates. For the second case an additonal character C may be

appended to the cement type: NC, SC and RC.

Input Description | AQUA

strain diagram. For non-linear analysis or deformation analysis, there are other

types A/B available, following the expression:

σ k · n − n2

= (3.111)

ƒc 1 + (k − 2) · n

with

n = ϵ/ ϵc1

(3.112)

k = Ec0 · ϵc1 / ƒc

For fc the value fck +8 is used for the curves A and B . The maximum strain is

limited according to the strength. The B line does not possess a descending

branch, and it is thus possibly more stable numerically. The C line has its stress

values even for very large strains and will be the most robust case.

The safety factors SCM are preset to 1.5 (in Italy to 1.6). However, they should

be selected at the design explicitly, because they are dependent on the loading

combinations. For concrete with high strength the factor will be increased by γ’,

which will be incorporated in the strain-stress laws immediately, to allow a global

safety factor to be used for the design.

For non-linear analysis with a unified safety factor according to DIN 1045-1 the

strength of the concrete will be reduced to a value of 0.85αfck , while those of

the reinforcements will be raised. These non linear analysis stress-strain laws

are generated automatically for DIN 1045-1. For DIN EN1992 these alternate

curves have to be selected with SSLA CALC 1.3 for CONC and STEE explicitly.

For steel fibre concrete according to DBV-Merkblatt (Oct. 2001, 4.2) it is allowed

to use higher concrete tensile bending strength values for elements not thicker

than 60 cm. If desired the user has to enter that value of FCTD explicitly. (with

a factor of 1.6-d). However only if a value is given for FEQR or FEQT the tensile

strength of the concrete is applied for the design and nonlinear analysis. Values

are defined as follows:

ƒ ƒ

FCTD = ƒ,ctd = ƒ,ctk,ƒ · αct / γct

ƒ ƒ

FEQR = ƒeq,ctd, = ƒeq,ctk, · αct · αsys / γct

ƒ ƒ

FEQT = ƒeq,ctd, = ƒeq,ctk, · αct · αsys / γct

αsys = 1.0 =⇒ 0.8 (d = 15 =⇒ 60 cm, Bild 4.1)

ƒ

γct = 1.25(≥ F0.6)

AQUA | Input Description

With these values the stress strain laws according to pictures 4.2 or 4.3. of the

DBV paper are created.

The increased saftey factor according 2.4.2.5 EN 1992 (2004) for cast in place

piles with kf = 1.1 has to be specified by the user explicitly.

The old DIN can be addressed with:

LB = light-weight concrete (DIN)

SB = pre-stressed concrete (DIN)

The default FCN is 25 for B and LB, and 45 for SB. FCT is defined by:

Defaults in accordance with old DIN 1045 / DIN 4227 / DIN 18806:

FCN 10 15 25 35 45 55

FC:

B (DIN 1045) 7 10.5 17.5 23 30

B (DIN 4227) - - 15.0 21 33

FBD: -

B (DIN 1045) 1.4 1.8 2.2 3.0

EC 22000 26000 30000 34000 37000 39000

FC 40.0 45.0 50.0 55.0 60.0 64.0

EC 40500 42000 43000 44000 44500 45000

for GAM and EC then complies with DIN 1055. A bilinear stress-strain curve is

usually employed for light-weight concrete.

For detailed analysis of creep and shrinkage according to DIN 4227 you need

the kind of cement and the consistency. You may specify this by appending a

Literal to the class of concrete

Input Description | AQUA

KP Normal cement (Z35 F/Z 45F) consistency plastic

KR Normal cement (Z35 F/Z 45F) consistency soft

SL slow hardening cement (Z 25, Z35L / Z45L) / stiff

PL slow hardening cement (Z 25, Z35L / Z45L) / plastic

RL slow hardening cement (Z 25, Z35L / Z45L) / soft

SR very fast hardening cement (Z 55) / stiff

PR very fast hardening cement (Z 55) / plastic

RR very fast hardening cement (Z 55) / soft

DIN 4227 has some contradictions about the bond stress. Chapter 13 gives

values which correspond quite well to the ratios given in table 7 of appendix A1.

But these values do not match those given at DIN 1045 Table 19. Thus we have

decided to enlarge the FBD values for concrete SB by a factor of 1.43. With that

amendment the value may be used for the bond design according to chapt. 13

of DIN 4227.

lected. SCM will default to 1.00. If you analyse composite sections you might

want to change the value. High strength concrete will have lesser ultimate

strains.

Although the OENORM B 4700 calls itself close to Eurocode, it deviates just

with the classification of concrete based on the cubic strength instead of the

cylindrical strength. As the designation is C resp. LC the user has to select the

option NORM OEN.

LB = light-weight concrete on cube strength (ÖNORM 4700)

C = regular concrete on cylindrical strength (ÖNORM 4700)

LC = light-weight concrete, cylindrical strength (ÖNORM 4700)

FC 15.0 18.8 22.5 30.0 37.5

FCT 1.9 2.2 2.6 3.0 3.5

EC 27500 29000 30500 32500 35000

AQUA | Input Description

The SIA 262 (2003) is very similar to the Eurocodes, but there are numerous

deviations (E-Modulus, bond strength, stress-strain law). As type we have there-

fore:

LC = cylindrical strength of light-weight concrete (SIA 262)

The design strength is calculated according section 4.2.1.2 and 4.2.1.3 with two

factors ηƒ c and ηt . The first factor is applied for the definition of FCN automati-

cally. As the second factor is depending on the design situation it can be modi-

fied similar to the Eurocode with a boxed value ALF-CC beforehand or later.

The elastic moduli are calculated based on the mean strength. For light-weight

concrete the values are corrected depending on the specific weight. The default

stress-strain diagram is always according to the deformation stress strain law of

EC-2, even for the design. SCM will be preset with 1.5.

FCN = ƒck 12 16 20 25 30 35 40 45 50

ƒck,cbe C 15 20 25 30 37 45 50 55 60

ƒck,cbe LC 13 18 22 28 33 38 44 50 55

SIAL = cube strength of light-weight concrete (SIA 162)

The elastic moduli are the mean values from Figure 31 in Section 5.18 of SIA.

Half of the elasticity moduli are used for light-weight concrete. The default

stress-strain diagram is the parabolic-rectangular one in accordance with Eu-

rocode 2 / DIN 1045 / OeNORM B 4200 / SIA 162. SCM will be preset with

1.2.

FCN-min 10.0 15.0 20.0 25.0 30.0 30.0

FC 6.5 10.0 13.0 16.0 19.5 23.0

FCT 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.5 2.5 2.5

EC 29000 31000 33500 35000 36000 37000

Input Description | AQUA

The ”Association francaise de normalisation” has published with the BAEL 91

(Rgle techniques de conception et de calcul des ouvrages et construction en

beton arm suivant la methode des tats limites) a design code with similar reg-

ulations as the Eurocode but also with some deviations in several points. We

have implemented the revision of 1999.

This code allows a characteristic strength of the concrete depending on the age

of the concrete and a calculation strength depending on the duration of the load-

ing t , to be defined by the user explicitly. Further we have:

FC = 0.85/Θ · ƒck

Θ = 1.00 (t > 24 h)

Θ = 0.90 (24h > t > 1 h)

Θ = 0.85 (1h > t )

FCT = 0.6 + 0.06 · ƒck (ƒck < 60)

= 0.275 · ƒck 2/ 3 (ƒck ≥ 60)

EC = 11000 · ƒck 1/ 3

FBD = 0.60 · Ψs 2 · ƒct,0.05 / γ ; Ψs = 1.5

stress-strain-laws.

There is also a class DUCT for the UHPRFC Ductal FM. For the stress strain

law the values GF is taken as w0.3/lc.

The Spanish EHE (Instruccin de hormign estructural) is very similar to the Eu-

rocode. Deviations are mainly in the designations, the elastic modulus and in

the design algorithms itself.

HP = Hormigón pretensado 25, 30, 35, 40, 45, 50

The Swedish BBK has rather complex provisions for the safety factors, which

are influenced by the safety class (see NORM) and are different for the elasticity

modulus and the strength. The new release (2004) uses now the designations

according to the EC, but keeps the safety concept of the old BBK. Then we have:

AQUA | Input Description

C = 16, 20, 25, 28, 30, 35, 40, 45, 50, 54, 55, 58, 60

LC = 8, 12, 16, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45, 50, 55, 60

As the BBK does not state any details about the transition zone in the work law,

the user has the possibility to influence with FCR between 0.6FCK and 1.0FCK

the shape of this curve.

The Swedish BBK has very complex provisions for the safety factors, which are

influenced by the safety class (see NORM). The following types are available:

For E-modulus and tensile strength specific formulas are provided in the design

codes. For the design it is allowed to use a rectangular stress block, but the

default is the Parabula-Rectangle-Diagram.

The classification of the Norwegian concretes NS is based on the cylindrical

strength. Avilable values are 20 / 25 / 30 / 35 /45 / 55 / 65 / 75 / 85 / 95. For

Lightweight concrete (LNS) the highest strength class is 75.

The design code ”Decreto Ministeriale Italiane” published in 1996 as well as

the 2005 version of the ”Norme Tecniche” classifies the concrete based on the

cubic strength Rck. Even the Version of 2008 favours this type of strength.

CAL = 2008 light weight concrete with cylindrical strength fck

(γ=1.50)

CAN = 2005 regular concrete with cube strength Rck (γ=1.90)

CAN = 1996 regular concrete with cube strength Rck (γ=1.60)

CAP = 1996 prestressed concrete with cube strength Rck (γ=1.50)

The default values for design strength and elastic modulus are as follows:

FCT = 0.27 · Rck 2/ 3 (1996) = 0.30 · ƒck 2/ 3 (2008)

0.3

EC = 5700 · Rck 1/ 2 (1996) = 22000 · (ƒcm / 10) (2008)

FBD = 2.25 · ƒct,0.05 / γ

Input Description | AQUA

The classification of the Hungarian design codes is based on the cylindrical

strength. Avilable values are 16 / 20 / 25 / 30 / 35 / 40 / 45 / 50 / 55.

As type we have:

The nominal strength FCN is the cube strength. The design strength is obtained

by

p

cube strength β = FC/0.67 with 0.24 β strain at full plasticity and an initial

p

stiffness of 5.5 β according to Figure 2.1. The safety factor SCM is preset to

1.5. The bond strength will be set to the non-physical maximum value for table

p

3.28 of BS 8110 of ƒc .

For Hong Kong slight modifications to British Standards are selected with the

p

country code 852. The initial stiffness will then be 5.0 β.

As class we have the specified compressive strength fc ’ in MPa:

The test values of the cylindrical strength have to exceed the class value by a

certain amount based on the standard deviation. Chapter 5.3 specifies default

values for this required distance as 7.0, 8.5 and 10.0 MPa for class values of fc ’

up to 21, until 35 and above.

Æ

As the value of ƒc 0 should not exceed the value of 25/3 MPa in general and dif-

ferent reductions have to be Æ

applied for lightweight concrete, we use the tensile

stress to define the value of ƒc 0 . The modulus of rupture fr is the upper fractile

value of the tension strength. ACI 9.5.2.3 defines:

q

ƒr = 0.75 · ƒc 0 < 0.75 · 25/ 3 (3.115)

AQUA | Input Description

q

ƒr = 0.70 · mn( ƒc 0 , 1.8 · ƒct−m )

q (3.116)

ƒr = 0.70 · 0.75 · ƒc 0

The ratio

Æ

of the fractiles is thus 1.26. The mean value fct−m will be preset to

0

0.5 · ƒc . All other values will be derived from this value by a factor. If needed

the lower fractile may be given, which will then set the upper value. But this

value is only used for those cases where explicitly the value fr is used within a

formula.

The bond strength will be set to the non-physical maximum value for chapter

p

12.2 of ACI 318 to a value of ƒc .

As class we have NBR or C, where the used cement type and the consistency

(Abatimento de acordo) according NBR NM 67 is appended to the strength class

for detailed analysis of creep and shrinkage:

KP Normal cement (CP I and CP II) consistency plastic (5-9 cm),

default

KR Normal cement (CP I and CP II) consistency soft (10-15 cm)

SL slow hardening cement (CP III and CP IV) / stiff

PL slow hardening cement (CP III and CP IV) / plastic

RL slow hardening cement (CP III and CP IV) / soft

SR very fast hardening cement (CP V-ARI) / stiff

PR very fast hardening cement (CP V-ARI) / plastic

RR very fast hardening cement (CP V-ARI) / soft

The modulus of elasticity is given by Ec = 5600 · fck 1/ 2 and Ecs = 0.85Ec . The

design curve is a Parabola-Rectangle with 0.85 · fcd, as tensile strength we have

fct,m = 0.3 · ƒck 2/ 3 ; fct,knƒ = 0.7 · fct,m ; fct,sp = 1.3 · fct,m . Bond strength fbd =

η1 · η2 · η3 · fctk,nƒ /γc ; η1 =2.25.

TYPE AS or TYPE NZS selects the respective standard. The characteristic com-

pressive strength (i.e. 20, 25,32, 40, 50 or 65 MPa) can be entered using FCN

(e.g. CONC TYPE AS FCN 50). Only selected material parameters are currently

pre-defined explicitly for AS and NZS standards. The modulus of elasticity is a

function of the mean strength value which is not provided in these design codes.

Input Description | AQUA

Japan has few official standards. As type we have the values from the books of

the Japan Road Association (2002):

The nominal strength FCN (21 to 60) as well as the elasticity and shear modulus

are given in table 3.3.3 (JRA). The design strength is 0.85 fcn .

According to GB 50010-2002 we have:

The nominal strength FCN (15 to 80) and the the design strength are taken from

table 4.1.3./4. Youngs modulus is derived from 4.1.5.

As type we have:

IS = Indian Standards IS 456 (10 bis 80)

IRC = Indian Roads Congress IRC 21 (15 bis 60)

With the IRC 112 a complety new design code has been released, which is

strongly related to the Eurocode EN 1992. The nominal strength FCN is now

the cylindrical strength. However there are a lot of deviations in the coefficients,

which are not all described here. For example the mean strength fcm is defined

as fck +10 and the tensile strength is about 13% less. More details may be found

in the chapter for the Eurocode.

The nominal strength FCN is the cube strength in the IS 456 / IRC 21. The

design strength there is obtained by

p

The elasticity modulus is preset according to IS to 5000 · ƒck , for IRC accord-

ing to table 9. For the Indish Standards the default is the ”limit state method”

which uses a standard parabola rectangle diagram. The working stress method

((IRC resp. Annex B of IS 456) may be selected via the type CE. The mean

p

tensile strength is preset to 0.7 · ƒck , the safety factor SCM to 1.5. The bond

AQUA | Input Description

As type we have:

where

SCM = 1.5

GAM = 24.0

Æ

EC = 4400. · ƒck

FC = 0.67 · ƒck

Æ (3.118)

FCT = 0.8 · ƒck

Æ

FCTK = 0.6 · ƒck

Æ

95%ƒctk = 1.0 · ƒck

Æ

FBD = 0.3 · ƒck / 1.5

This design code has a wide range of classifications. Thus the user has to enter

some specific values in some cases. Especially the safety factors for the loads

are depending on the environmental conditions and are not to be defined with

the material here.

10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45, 50, 55, 60

as well for old SNIP 2.03.01 with possible appendices

to the class value:

T thermal treatment

TW thermal treatment in Autoclave

A fine granular concrete group A (grain > 2.0)

AT thermal treatment fine granular group A

B fine granular concrete group B (grain < 2.0)

BT thermal treatment fine granular group B

W fine granular in Autoclave

LSNI Light weight concrete with compressive strength class the prop-

erty ”porous” may be selected by appending a letter ”P” to the

class value.

Input Description | AQUA

The elasticity modulus is taken from table 5.4.

A linear elastic material without tensile stresses is specified for CE. This can

be used for analysis of stress distributions of foundations or older design codes

with the working stress method. FC is the allowed compressive stress in those

cases. The modulus of this stress strain law should be less than EC in general

and may be specified with Item ECR.

TYPE=B,C,LC,SIA TYPE=LB

σ[N/ mm2 ] σ[N/ mm2 ]

ƒc ƒc

ε [%◦ ] ε [%◦ ]

−2.0 −3.5 −2.0 −3.5

ƒc ƒc σ

E=

ε

ε [%◦ ] ε [%◦ ]

ε −3.5 −2.0 −3.5

TYPR=C,R,RS TYPR=B

σ[N/ mm2 ] σ[N/ mm2 ]

ƒc ƒc

ε [%◦ ] ε [%◦ ]

εc1 εc −2.2 εc

AQUA | Input Description

STEE

NO Material number (1-999) − 1

TYPE Type of the material (see remarks) LT *

S Structural steel

B Reinforcing steel

Y Prestressing steel

AL Aluminium alloy

CLAS Steel class or quality ∗ *

FT Tensile strength N/ mm2 *

FP Elastic limit N/ mm2 *

ES Elastic modulus N/ mm2 *

MUE Poisson’s ratio − 0.3

GAM Unit weight kN/ m3 *

ALFA Thermal expansion coefficient 1/ K *

SCM Typical material safety factor *

EPST Ultimate strain o/ oo *

REL1 Coefficient of relaxation (0.70 fpk ) % *

REL2 Coefficient of relaxation (0.55 fpk ) LT/ % 0

R Relative bond strength − *

K1 Bond coefficient for crack width EN 1992 − 0.8/R

FDYN Allowed stress range N/ mm2 *

FYC Compressive yield strength (f0.02 ) N/ mm2 FY

FTC Compressive strength N/ mm2 FT

TMAX Maximum plate thickness mm *

GMOD Shear modulus N/ mm2 *

KMOD Bulk modulus N/ mm2 *

TITL Material name Lt32 *

Input Description | AQUA

There are some, but not very rigorous checks about the usage. While struc-

tural steel types (e.g. S 235, ST, AL etc) can be used only for cross sections,

prestressing steel is only allowed for reinforcements, cables and tendons.

Eurocode:

EN 1993-1-1

Tab. 3.1 t ≤ 40 mm

* S 235 235 360 - - - 210000 78.5

S 275 275 430 - - - 210000 78.5

S 355 355 490 - - - 210000 78.5

S 450 440 550 - - - 210000 78.5

S 275N 275 390 - - - 210000 78.5

S 355N 355 490 - - - 210000 78.5

S 420N 420 520 - - - 210000 78.5

S 460N 460 540 - - - 210000 78.5

S 275M 275 370 - - - 210000 78.5

S 355M 355 470 - - - 210000 78.5

S 420M 420 520 - - - 210000 78.5

S 460M 460 540 - - - 210000 78.5

S 235W 235 360 - - - 210000 78.5

S 355W 355 490 - - - 210000 78.5

S 460Q 460 570 - - - 210000 78.5

Eurocode:

EN 1993-1-1

Tab. 3.1 40 < t < 80 mm

S 235T 215 360 - - - 210000 78.5

S 275T 255 410 - - - 210000 78.5

S 355T 335 470 - - - 210000 78.5

S 450T 410 550 - - - 210000 78.5

S 275NT 255 370 - - - 210000 78.5

AQUA | Input Description

S 355NT 335 470 - - - 210000 78.5

S 420NT 390 520 - - - 210000 78.5

S 460NT 430 540 - - - 210000 78.5

S 275MT 255 360 - - - 210000 78.5

S 355MT 335 450 - - - 210000 78.5

S 420MT 390 500 - - - 210000 78.5

S 460MT 430 530 - - - 210000 78.5

S 235WT 215 340 - - - 210000 78.5

S 355WT 335 470 - - - 210000 78.5

S 460QT 440 550 - - - 210000 78.5

Eurocode:

EN 10025-6 TMAX ...

∗) ∗)

S 500Q - - - 210000 78.5

∗) ∗)

S 550Q - - - 210000 78.5

∗) ∗)

S 620Q - - - 210000 78.5

∗) ∗)

S 690Q - - - 210000 78.5

∗) ∗)

S 890Q - - - 210000 78.5

∗) ∗)

S 960Q - - - 210000 78.5

∗)

Material values in dependence on the defined max. thickness TMAX

For structural steel that should get the material values of the product standard

EN 10025-2 till -6 the plate thickness TMAX has to be input. E.g. the input

STEE 2 S 355M TMAX 100

defines in the first case the limit values of the stiffness for the structural steel of

the quality 355 according to EN 10025-2 for the plate thickness of 63 mm < t

≤80 mm and in the second case the limit values of the stiffness for the structural

steel of the quality 355M according to EN 10025-3 for the plate thickness of 80

mm < t ≤100 mm.

Note: In the National Annexes the material values may be specified differently.

Input Description | AQUA

DIN:

ST 33 190 330 - - - 210000 78.5

ST 37 240 370 - - - 210000 78.5

ST 52 360 520 - - - 210000 78.5

TMAX 40 (t ≤ 40 mm):

* S 235 240 360 - - - 210000 78.5

S 275 275 430 - - - 210000 78.5

S 355 360 510 - - - 210000 78.5

S 460 460 600 - - - 210000 78.5

TMAX 80 / 100 (40 < t ≤ 80 / 100 mm):

S 235 215 340 - - - 210000 78.5

S 275 255 410 - - - 210000 78.5

S 355 335 490 - - - 210000 78.5

* GU 52 260 520 - - - 100000 72.5

GU 17 240 370 - - - 210000 72.5

GU 20 300 500 - - - 210000 72.5

GU 200 200 380 - - - 210000 72.5

GU 240 240 450 - - - 210000 72.5

GU 400 250 390 - - - 169000 72.5

OENORM:

ST 44 285 430 - 230 -.2 206000 78.5

ST 55 355 540 - 285 -.2 206000 78.5

SIA: TMAX 40 (t ≤ 40 mm):

* S 235 235 360 - - - 210000 78.5

S 275 275 430 - - - 210000 78.5

S 355 355 510 - - - 210000 78.5

S 460 460 550 - - - 210000 78.5

TMAX 100 (40 < t ≤ 100 mm):

S 235 215 340 - - - 210000 78.5

AQUA | Input Description

S 275 255 410 - - - 210000 78.5

S 355 335 490 - - - 210000 78.5

S 460 430 530 - - - 210000 78.5

British

Standard: TMAX 16 (t ≤ 16 mm):

BS 275 275 430 - 205000 78.5

BS 355 355 500 - - - 205000 78.5

BS 460 460 550 - - - 205000 78.5

TMAX 40 (16 < t ≤ 40 mm):

BS 275 265 430 - 205000 78.5

BS 355 345 500 - - - 205000 78.5

* BS 460 440 550 - - - 205000 78.5

TMAX 63 (40 < t ≤ 63 mm):

BS 275 255 430 - 205000 78.5

BS 355 335 500 - - - 205000 78.5

BS 460 430 550 - - - 205000 78.5

TMAX 80 (63 < t ≤ 80 mm):

BS 275 245 430 - 205000 78.5

BS 355 325 500 - - - 205000 78.5

BS 460 410 550 - - - 205000 78.5

TMAX 100 (80 < t ≤ 100 mm):

BS 275 235 430 - 205000 78.5

BS 355 315 500 - - - 205000 78.5

BS 460 400 550 - - - 205000 78.5

TMAX 150 (100 < t ≤ 150 mm):

BS 275 225 430 - 205000 78.5

BS 355 295 500 - - - 205000 78.5

EA:

EA 37 235 360 - - - 210000 78.5

Input Description | AQUA

EA 42 275 430 - - - 210000 78.5

EA 52 355 510 - - - 210000 78.5

BSK TMAX 16 (t ≤ 16 mm):

BSK 235 235 340 - 210000 78.5

BSK 275 275 410 - 210000 78.5

BSK 355 355 490 - - - 210000 78.5

BSK 355N 355 470 - - - 210000 78.5

BSK 355M 355 450 - - - 210000 78.5

BSK 420 420 500 - - - 210000 78.5

BSK 460 460 530 - - - 210000 78.5

TMAX 40 (16 < t ≤ 40 mm):

BSK 235 225 340 - 210000 78.5

BSK 275 265 410 - 210000 78.5

BSK 355 345 490 - - - 210000 78.5

BSK 355N 345 470 - - - 210000 78.5

BSK 355M 345 450 - - - 210000 78.5

BSK 420 400 500 - - - 210000 78.5

BSK 460 440 530 - - - 210000 78.5

TMAX 63 (40 < t ≤ 63 mm):

BSK 275 255 410 - 210000 78.5

BSK 355 335 490 - - - 210000 78.5

BSK 355N 335 470 - - - 210000 78.5

BSK 355M 335 450 - - - 210000 78.5

BSK 420 420 500 - - - 210000 78.5

BSK 460 430 530 - - - 210000 78.5

TMAX 80 (63 < t ≤ 80 mm):

BSK 275 245 410 - 210000 78.5

BSK 355 325 490 - - - 210000 78.5

BSK 355N 325 470 - - - 210000 78.5

TMAX 100 (80 < t ≤ 100 mm):

BSK 235 215 340 - 210000 78.5

AQUA | Input Description

BSK 275 235 410 - 210000 78.5

BSK 355 315 490 - - - 210000 78.5

BSK 355N 315 470 - - - 210000 78.5

BSK TMAX 50 (t ≤ 50 mm):

BSK 460Q 460 550 - - - 210000 78.5

BSK 500Q 500 590 - 210000 78.5

BSK 550Q 550 640 - - - 210000 78.5

BSK 620Q 620 700 - - - 210000 78.5

BSK 690Q 690 770 - - - 210000 78.5

TMAX 100 (50 < t ≤ 100 mm):

BSK 460Q 440 550 - - - 210000 78.5

BSK 500Q 480 590 - 210000 78.5

BSK 550Q 530 640 - - - 210000 78.5

BSK 620Q 580 700 - - - 210000 78.5

BSK 690Q 650 760 - - - 210000 78.5

NS TMAX 40 (t ≤ 40 mm):

NS 235 235 360 - 210000 78.5

NS 275 275 430 - 210000 78.5

NS 275N 275 390 - 210000 78.5

NS 275M 275 380 - 210000 78.5

NS 355 355 510 - - - 210000 78.5

NS 355N 355 490 - - - 210000 78.5

NS 355M 355 470 - - - 210000 78.5

NS 420N 420 540 - - - 210000 78.5

NS 420M 420 520 - - - 210000 78.5

NS 460N 460 570 - - - 210000 78.5

NS 460M 460 550 - - - 210000 78.5

NS 460Q 460 570 - - - 210000 78.5

TMAX 80 (40 < t ≤ 80 mm):

NS 235 215 340 - 210000 78.5

NS 275 255 410 - 210000 78.5

Input Description | AQUA

NS 275N 235 370 - 210000 78.5

NS 275M 255 360 - 210000 78.5

NS 355 335 490 - - - 210000 78.5

NS 355N 335 470 - - - 210000 78.5

NS 355M 335 450 - - - 210000 78.5

NS 420N 390 520 - - - 210000 78.5

NS 420M 390 500 - - - 210000 78.5

NS 460N 430 550 - - - 210000 78.5

NS 460M 430 530 - - - 210000 78.5

NS 460Q 440 550 - - - 210000 78.5

DM-96 TMAX 40 (t ≤ 40 mm)

FEI 360 235 360 - - - 206000 78.5

FEI 430 275 430 - - - 206000 78.5

FEI 510 355 510 - - - 206000 78.5

TMAX 63,80,100 (t > 40 mm):

FEI 360 210 340 - - - 206000 78.5

FEI 430 250 410 - - - 206000 78.5

FEI 510 315 490 - - - 206000 78.5

TMAX 40 (t ≤ 40 mm):

FEG 400 180 - - - 206000 78.5

FEG 430 225 - - - 206000 78.5

FEG 520 255 - - - 206000 78.5

MSZ:

S 37 230 370 - 200 - 206000 78.5

S 45 290 450 - 240 - 206000 78.5

S 52 350 520 - 280 - 206000 78.5

AQUA | Input Description

AISC/ASTM; 200000 78.5

A 36 250 400

A 42 290 415

A 50 345 450

A 53 240 415

A 290 290 415

A 345 345 450

A 415 415 520

A 450 450 550

A 500A 230 310

A 500B 290 400

A 500C 315 425

A 500D 250 400

A 514 689 758 (TMAX 63,152 mm)

A 517 689 793 (TMAX 63,152 mm)

A 242 340 480 (COR-TEN, TMAX 19,25,102 mm)

A 588 340 480 (COR-TEN, TMAX 4,6,8 mm)

A 992 345 450

A 70W 485 586

A 100W 690 760

ABNT:

NBR 250 250 400 205000 78.5

NBR 350 350 450 205000 78.5

NBR 415 415 520 205000 78.5

Australian: Flats and Sections:

AS 400 400 520 TMAX 17 (0 mm < t ≤ 17 mm)

AS 400 380 520 TMAX 100 (17 mm < t ≤ 100 mm)

Input Description | AQUA

AS 350 360 480 TMAX 11 (0 mm < t ≤ 11 mm)

* AS 350 340 480 TMAX 40 (11 mm < t ≤ 40 mm)

AS 350 330 480 TMAX 100 (40 mm < t ≤ 100 mm)

AS 300 320 440 TMAX 11 (0 mm < t ≤ 11 mm)

AS 300 300 440 TMAX 17 (11 mm < t ≤ 17 mm)

AS 300 280 440 TMAX >17 (17 mm < t)

AS 250 260 410 TMAX 11 (0 mm < t ≤ 11 mm)

AS 250 250 410 TMAX 40 (11 mm < t ≤ 40 mm)

AS 250 230 410 TMAX >40 (40 mm < t)

Hexagons, Rounds and Squares:

AS 400 400 520 TMAX 50 (0 mm < t ≤ 50 mm)

AS 400 380 520 TMAX 100 (50 mm < t ≤ 100 mm)

AS 400 360 520 TMAX >100 (100 mm < t)

AS 350 340 480 TMAX 50 (0 mm < t ≤ 50 mm)

* AS 350 330 480 TMAX 100 (50 mm < t ≤ 100 mm)

AS 350 320 480 TMAX >100 (100 mm < t)

AS 300 300 440 TMAX 50 (0 mm < t ≤ 50 mm)

AS 300 290 440 TMAX 100 (50 mm < t ≤ 100 mm)

AS 300 280 440 TMAX >100 (100 mm < t)

AS 250 250 410 TMAX 50 (0 mm < t ≤ 50 mm)

AS 250 230 410 TMAX >50 (50 mm < t)

JIS

JIS 400 235 400 TMAX 40 (t ≤ 400 mm) 200000 77.0

400 215 400 TMAX 100 (40 mm < t ≤ 100 mm)

(SS 400, SM 400 and SMA 400W identical)

JIS 490 315 490 TMAX 40 200000 77.0

490 295 490 TMAX 100 ( 40 mm < t ≤ 100 mm)

JIS 520 355 520 TMAX 40 200000 77.0

520 335 520 TMAX 75 (40 mm < t ≤ 75 mm)

520 325 520 TMAX 100 75 mm < t ≤ 100 mm

(SM 520, SM 490Y and SMA 490W identical)

AQUA | Input Description

JIS 570 450 520 TMAX 40 200000 77.0

570 430 530 TMAX 75 (40 mm < t ≤ 75 mm)

570 420 530 TMAX 100 (75 mm < t ≤ 100 mm)

IS/IRC

IS 250 250 250 - - - 211000 77.0

GB GB 50017-2003

Q 235 215 360 TMAX 16 210000 78.5

235 205 TMAX 40 (16 mm < t ≤ 40 mm)

235 200 TMAX 60 (40 mm < t ≤ 60 mm)

235 190 TMAX 100 (60 mm < t ≤ 100 mm)

345 295 TMAX 35 (16 mm < t ≤ 35 mm)

345 265 TMAX 50 (35 mm < t ≤ 50 mm)

345 250 TMAX 100 (50 mm < t ≤ 100 mm)

390 335 TMAX 35 (16 mm < t ≤ 35 mm)

390 315 TMAX 50 (35 mm < t ≤ 50 mm)

390 295 TMAX 100 (50 mm < t ≤ 100 mm)

420 360 TMAX 35 (16 mm < t ≤ 35 mm)

420 340 TMAX 50 (35 mm < t ≤ 50 mm)

420 325 TMAX 100 (50 mm < t ≤ 100 mm)

SNIP SP 52-102 (Table B.5) / SNIP II-23-81, 2 (Table 51)

Input Description | AQUA

C 235 230 350 TMAX 20 206000 78.5

235 220 350 TMAX 40 (20 mm < t ≤40 mm)

245 240 360 TMAX 20 206000 78.5

245 230 360 TMAX 30 (20 mm < t≤ 30 mm

255 240 360 TMAX 20 206000 78.5

255 230 360 TMAX 40 (20 mm < t≤ 40 mm)

275 270 370 TMAX 10 206000 78.5

275 260 360 TMAX 20 (10 mm < t≤ 20 mm)

285 270 380 TMAX 10 206000 78.5

285 260 370 TMAX 20 (10 mm < t≤ 20 mm)

345 315 460 TMAX 20 206000 78.5

345 305 450 TMAX 40 (20 mm < t≤ 40 mm)

345 280 440 TMAX 80 (40 mm < t≤ 80 mm)

345 260 420 TMAX 100 (80 mm < t≤ 100 mm)

345K 335 460 TMAX 10 (4 < t≤ 10 mm) 206000 78.5

375 345 480 TMAX 20 206000 78.5

375 325 470 TMAX 40 (20 mm < t≤ 40 mm)

390 380 525 TMAX 50 (4 < t≤ 50 mm) 206000 78.5

440 430 575 TMAX 30 (4 < t≤ 30 mm) 206000 78.5

440 400 555 TMAX 50 (30 mm < t≤ 50 mm)

590 575 670 TMAX 40 (10 < t≤ 40 mm) 206000 78.5

The specifications which are a part of the steel quality and are printed in italics

(e.g. T, T8, 4) describe the thicknesses. They have to be input by the user only

in the case of a CADINP input.

The strength values especially for the high strength steels may vary depending

on the manufacturer and the alloy considerably, a check of the assumed values

against the actual values is strongly recommended.

The maximum allowed plate thickness may be specified via TMAX, reducing

the strength values according to the design codes. As different strength values

within the section may lead to consistency problems for some design tasks, we

allow only for a unified approach based on the maximum thickness. It will be

checked during the generation of sections. For many grades one may append

an identifier for a maximum plate thickness for a direct definition.

AQUA | Input Description

Attention: The maximum thickness will be also used to control if the design of

a composite section with DESI in AQB will allow compressive strains beyond the

yield limit. For sections of classes 3 and 4, this limit will be observed by default.

For sections of class 1 or 2, the strain becomes unlimited by definition of TMAX

0.0.

The safety factor SCM is preset to 1.1 for most structural steel materials. The

safety factor becomes effective immediately for the calculation of the full plastic

internal forces of steel and composite sections.

For the Russian design steel the defaults are provided according to the control

procedure GOST 27771 (γ = 1.025). These values are almost identical to those

of the old SNIP, however the latter document provides higher values for thinner

elements and in some cases for rolled steel in a separate column. All these

extensions have to be specified by the user explicitly.

For the Hungarian MSZ the default values are not valid for all possible derivatives

of the material. Further the strength to be used for the design is given as FP as

a rounded value obtained from FY and a safety factor depending on the strength

itself.

FY FT EPST BC np TMAX

AWP 3004 180. 220 10 B 23 6.0

AWP 3005 150. 170 10 B 38 6.0

AWP 3103 120. 140 20 B 31 25.0

AWP 5005 95. 125 20 B 25 12.5

AWP 5052 160. 210 40 B 17 40.0

AWP 5049 190. 240 30 B 20 25.0

AWP 5454 220. 270 20 B 22 25.0

AWP 5754 190. 240 30 B 20 25.0

AWP 5083 250. 305 30 B 22 40.0

AWP 6061T4 110. 250 120 A 23 12.5

AWP 6061T6 240. 290 60 B 23 12.5 / 80.0

AWP 6082T4 110. 205 120 A 25 12.5

AWP 6082T6 240. 295 60 B 25 6.0 / 12.5 /100.0

AWP 7020T6 280. 350 90 A 19 12.5

AWP 8011 110. 125 20 B 37 12.5

Input Description | AQUA

FY FT EPST BC np TMAX

AW 6060T6 140. 170 80 A 16 15.0

AW 6060TX 150. 195 80 A 18 3.0 / 25.0

AW 6060DT 160. 215 120 A 20 20.0

AW 6061T4 110. 180 120 B 8 25.0

AW 6061T6 240. 260 80 A 55 20.0

AW 6063T5 110. 160 70 B 13 3.0 / 25.0

AW 6063T6 160. 195 80 A 24 25.0

AW 6063TX 180. 225 80 A 21 10.0 / 25.0

AW 6063DT 190. 220 100 A 31 20.0

AW 6005T6 200. 250 80 A 20 5.0 / 10.0 / 25.0

AW 6106T6 200. 250 80 A 20 10.0

AW 6082T4 110. 205 140 B 8 25.0

AW 6082T5 230. 270 80 B 28 25.0

AW 6082T6 260. 310 100 A 25 5.0 / 15.0

AW 6082ER 240. 295 100 A 17 15.0 / 40.0

AW 6082DT 240. 310 100 A 17 5.0 / 20.0

AW 7020T6 275. 350 100 A 19 15.0 / 40.0

AW 7020DT 280. 350 100 A 18 20.0

FY FT EPST BC np TMAX

Eurocode

AC 42100 147. 203 20.

AC 42200 168. 224 15.

AC 43000 63. 126 12.5

AC 43300 147. 203 20.

AC 44200 56. 119 30.

AC 51300 70. 126 20.

DIN:

AL 18 80 180 - 60.0 * -

AQUA | Input Description

AL 20 100 200 - 88.0 * -

AL 22 160 215 144.5 * -

AL 25 180 250 - 144.5 * 5.0

AL 27 140 270 - 110.5 * -

AL 28 210 275 - 168.0 *

AL 31 230 310 - 229.5 * 20.0

AL 35 290 350 - 246.5 * 30.0

EC 9 and the new DIN 4113 (2002) use the American system for classification

of aluminium alloys. As there are more than 300 different materials available,

with significant differences of properties, the user should check the thickness

limit and strength parameters thoroughly. For the default values the following

scheme has been used:

• For plates we use the type AWP to distinguish them properly from the profile

and tubes. For untreated alloys only the number of the alloy is necessary.

• For tubes and profiles the type AW is used and either ER or DT (drawn tubes)

or the important criteria of the heat treatment as T4, T5, T6 or TX for T66

has to be appended to the alloy as characters.

• For the castings the case of a cocille and temper F or T6 has been selected

as default.

As the reduction of the strength in the HAZ is depending on the welding process

and the thickness, the user has to define a separte Materialnumber for those

regions with a explicitly reduced values for FY and FT.

DIN 4113 requires the stress for aluminum to be reduced for creep effects ac-

cording to chapter 6.3 with a factor c between 0.8 and 1.0. As the exact evalua-

tion would be rather complex, this is accounted for by the global factor of safety

1/c. The default on the safe side is a value of 1.25. Better values have to be

specified explicitly by the user.

the reduction for the fire case is available via the stress strain law.

The values ES and GAM are for all classes with 70000 [ MPa] and 28.0 [ kN/m3]

preset, the values FP and EPSY are selected according to the data of table 10

of the DIN 4113.

Input Description | AQUA

Eurocode

B 220A 220 340 0 - - 200000 78.5

B 220B 220 340 0 - - 200000 78.5

B 220C 220 340 0 - - 200000 78.5

B 450A 450 472.5 25 - - 200000 78.5

B 450B 450 486 50 - - 200000 78.5

B 450C 450 517.5 75 - - 200000 78.5

B 500A 500 525 25 - - 200000 78.5

B 500B 500 540 50 - - 200000 78.5

B 500C 500 575 75 - - 200000 78.5

B 550B 550 594 50 - - 200000 78.5

B 600B 600 648 50 - - 200000 78.5

Y 1100 900 1100 3.5 - - 205000 78.5 ENC3

Y 1030 835 1030 3.5 - - 205000 78.5 ENC3

Y 1230 1080 1230 3.5 - - 205000 78.5 ENC3

Y 1450C 1100 1450 6.0 - - 130000 78.5 ENC2

Y 1570C 1300 1570 6.0 - - 205000 78.5 ENC2

Y 1670C 1385 1670 6.0 - - 205000 78.5 ENC2

Y 1770C 1470 1770 6.0 - - 205000 78.5 ENC2

Y 1860C 1545 1860 6.0 - - 205000 78.5 ENC2

Y 1770 1520 1770 6.0 - - 195000 78.5 ENC2

Y 1860 1600 1860 6.0 - - 195000 78.5 ENC2

Y 1960 1685 1960 6.0 - - 195000 78.5 ENC2

Y 2060 1600 2060 6.0 - - 195000 78.5 ENC2

Y 2160 1770 2160 6.0 - - 195000 78.5 ENC2

Y 1700 1460 1700 6.0 - - 195000 78.5 ENC2

Y 1820 1565 1820 6.0 - - 195000 78.5 ENC2

DIN:

BST 220 220 340 - - -.2 210000 78.5

BST 420 420 500 - - -.2 210000 78.5

AQUA | Input Description

BST 500 500 550 - - -.2 210000 78.5

PST 835 835 1030 7 735 -.2 205000 78.5 3.3

PST 1080 1080 1230 6 950 -.2 205000 78.5 3.3

PST 1100 1100 1450 6 - - 130000 78.5 7.5

PST 1375 1375 1570 6 1150 -.2 205000 78.5 7.5

PST 1420 1420 1570 6 1220 -.2 205000 78.5 2.0

PST 1470 1470 1670 6 1250 -.2 205000 78.5 7.5

PST 1570 1570 1770 6 1300 -.2 195000 78.5 7.5

OENORM:

BSOE 240 240 360 17 - .4 210000 78.5

BSOE 420 420 500 10 - .4 210000 78.5

BSOE 500 500 550 10 - .4 210000 78.5

BSOE 550 550 620 10 - .4 210000 78.5

BSOE 600 600 670 10 - .4 210000 78.5

PSOE 835 835 1030 7 - -.2 205000 78.5 3.3

PSOE 1080 1080 1230 6 - -.2 205000 78.5 3.3

PSOE 1375 1375 1570 6 - -.2 205000 78.5 7.5

PSOE 1420 1420 1570 6 - -.2 205000 78.5 2.0

PSOE 1470 1470 1670 6 - -.2 205000 78.5 7.5

PSOE 1570 1570 1770 6 - -.2 195000 78.5 7.5

SIA:

B 500A 500 525 20 - - 205000 78.5

B 500B 500 540 45 - - 205000 78.5

B 450C 450 520 65 - - 205000 78.5

Y 1030 830 1030 20 - - 205000 78.5 4.0

Y 1100 900 1100 20 - - 205000 78.5 4.0

Y 1230 1080 1230 20 - - 205000 78.5 4.0

Y 1570 1300 1570 20 - - 205000 78.5 4.0

Y 1670 1440 1670 20 - - 205000 78.5 4.0

Input Description | AQUA

Y 1770 1520 1770 20 - - 195000 78.5 2.5

Y 1860 1600 1860 20 - - 195000 78.5 2.5

BBK-04:

KS 260 260 - 50 - - 200000 78.5 ≤ 32

KS 500 500 - 50 - - 200000 78.5 ≤ 32

KS 600 600 - 50 - - 200000 78.5 ≤ 32

KSY 1030 835 1030 35 - - 205000 77.0 4.0

KSY 1670 1470 1670 35 - - 205000 77.0 4.0

KSY 1770 1500 1770 35 - - 205000 77.0 4.0

KSY 1860 1650 1860 35 - - 205000 77.0 4.0

KSY 2060 1790 2060 35 - - 205000 77.0 4.0

DS-411: ∅

BDS 410 410 - - - 200000 78.5 ≤ 32

BDS 500 500 - - - 200000 78.5 ≤ 32

BDS 550 550 - - - 200000 78.5 ≤ 32

NS-3473: ∅

BNS 500 500 - - - 200000 78.5 ≤ 32

BAEL-99:

FEE 215 215 215 - - 200000 78.5

FEE 235 235 235 - - 200000 78.5

FEE 400 400 400 - - 200000 78.5

FEE 500 500 500 - - 200000 78.5

AQUA | Input Description

DM-96:

FEB 22 215 335 - - 200000 78.5

FEB 32 315 490 - - 200000 78.5

FEB 38 375 450 - - 200000 78.5

FEB 44 440 540 - - 200000 78.5

FEB 39 390 440 - - 200000 78.5

Norme-2005

FEB 450 450 540 - - 200000 78.5

Norme-2008

FEB 450A 450 540 22.5 - - 200000 78.5

FEB 450C 450 540 67.5 - - 200000 78.5

MSZ:

B 240B 240 380 210 - 200000 78.5

B 360B 360 500 310 - 200000 78.5

B 500B 500 600 420 - 200000 78.5

Y 1030 830 1030 720 - 195000 78.5

Y 1230 1080 1230 920 - 195000 78.5

Y 1670 1435 1670 1230 - 195000 78.5

Y 1770 1520 1770 1320 - 195000 78.5

Y 1860 1580 1860 1375 - 195000 78.5

EHE:

B 400 400 440 50 - - 200000 78.5

B 500 500 550 50 - - 200000 78.5

Y 1570 1340 1570 35 - - 205000 78.5

Y 1670 1420 1670 35 - - 205000 78.5 2.0

Y 1770 1500 1770 35 - - 205000 78.5 2.0

Y 1860 1580 1860 35 - - 205000 78.5 2.0

Y 1960 1670 1960 35 - - 195000 78.5 2.0

Y 2060 1750 2060 35 - - 195000 78.5 2.0

Input Description | AQUA

British

Standard:

SBS 250 250 250 - - 200000 78.5

SBS 460 460 460 - - 200000 78.5

SBS 500 500 500 - - 200000 78.5

PSBS 1570 1256 1570 -5 - - 205000 78.5 8.0

PSBS 1620 1296 1620 -5 - - 205000 78.5 8.0

PSBS 1670 1336 1670 -5 - - 205000 78.5 8.0

PSBS 1720 1376 1720 -5 - - 205000 78.5 8.0

PSBS 1770 1416 1770 -5 - - 205000 78.5 8.0

PSBS 1860 1488 1860 -5 - - 205000 78.5 8.0

South Africa

TMH7:

SABS 250A 250 250 - - 200000 78.5

SABS 450B 450 450 - - 200000 78.5

SABS 500B 500 500 - - 200000 78.5

ACI/

AASHTO:

SACI 40 280 420 - - 200000 78.5

SACI 50 350 560 - - 200000 78.5

SACI 60 420 620 - - 200000 78.5

SACI 65 460 460 - - 200000 78.5

SACI 70 490 560 - - 200000 78.5

SACI 75 520 690 - - 200000 78.5

SACI 80 550 725 - - 200000 78.5

PSAC 160 1100 1250 - - 207000 78.5 2.0

PSAC 250 1730 1730 - - 197000 78.5 8.0

PSAC 270 1860 1860 - - 197000 78.5 8.0

NBR

AQUA | Input Description

CP 25 250 300 - - 210000 78.5

CP 40 400 440 - - 210000 78.5

CP 50 500 550 - - 210000 78.5

CP 60 600 660 - - 210000 78.5

CA 85 850 1050 - - 200000 78.5

CA 150RN 1280 1500 6.0 - -2 195000 78.5 7.5

CA 150RB 1350 1500 6.0 - -2 195000 78.5 3.0

CA 160RN 1360 1600 5.0 - -2 195000 78.5 5.0

CA 160RB 1440 1600 5.0 - -2 195000 78.5 2.0

CA 170RN 1490 1700 5.0 - -2 195000 78.5 5.0

CA 170RB 1580 1700 5.0 - -2 195000 78.5 2.0

CA 175RN 1490 1755 3.5 - -2 185000 78.5 7.0

CA 175RB 1580 1755 3.5 - -2 185000 78.5 2.5

CA 180RN 1530 1800 3.5 - -2 185000 78.5 7.0

CA 190RN 1610 1900 3.5 - -2 185000 78.5 7.0

CA 190RB 1710 1900 3.5 - -2 185000 78.5 2.5

IS/IRC

SIS 240 240 240 - - 200000 78.5

SIS 415 415 415 - - 200000 78.5

SIS 500 500 500 - - 200000 78.5

PSIS 800 800 1000 7 800 -.5 200000 78.5 2.5

PSIS 1050 1050 1250 6 1000 -.5 200000 78.5 2.5

PSIS 1350 1350 1650 6 1320 -.5 200000 78.5 8.0

PSIS 1500 1500 1800 6 1440 -.5 200000 78.5 8.0

PSIS 1600 1600 1900 6 1520 -.5 195000 78.5 8.0

GB.

SGB 235 210 235 - - 210000 78.5

SGB 335 300 335 - - 200000 78.5

SGB 400 360 400 - - 200000 78.5

Input Description | AQUA

PSGB 1470 1040 400 1470 - - 210000 78.5 5.0

PSGB 1570 1110 410 1570 - - 205000 78.5 5.0

PSGB 1670 1180 410 1670 - - 205000 78.5 5.0

PSGB 1770 1250 410 1770 - - 205000 78.5 5.0

PSGB 1570S 1110 390 1570 - - 195000 78.5 5.0

PSGB 1720S 1220 390 1720 - - 195000 78.5 5.0

PSGB 1860S 1320 390 1860 - - 195000 78.5 5.0

GBJ:

SGB I 235 235 - - 210000 78.5 8.0

SGB II 335 335 - - 210000 78.5 2.5

SGB IV 380 835 - - 190000 78.5 5.0

PSGB IV 751 835 - - 190000 78.5 5.0

AS/NZS:

SAS 250 250 250 - - 200000 78.5

SAS 400 400 400 - - 200000 78.5

SAS 450 450 450 - - 200000 78.5

SAS 500 500 500 - - 200000 78.5

PAS 1030 840 1030 - - 200000 78.5 3.0

PAS 1670 1340 1670 - - 205000 78.5 1.0

PAS 1700 1360 1700 - - 205000 78.5 1.0

PAS 1790 1468 1790 - - 195000 78.5 2.0

PAS 1830 1500 1830 - - 195000 78.5 2.0

PAS 1870 1533 1870 - - 195000 78.5 2.0

JIS:

SJS 235 235 380 - - 200000 77.0

SJS 295 295 440 - - 200000 77.0

AQUA | Input Description

SJS 345 345 490 - - 200000 77.0

SJS 390 390 560 - - 200000 77.0

PSJS 930 0.80ft 930 - - 200000 77.0

PSJS 1030 0.80ft 1030 - - 200000 77.0

PSJS 1080 0.80ft 1080 - - 200000 77.0

PSJS 1180 0.80ft 1180 - - 200000 77.0

PSJS 1420 0.93ft 1420 0.84ft 15 200000 77.0

PSJS 1470 0.93ft 1470 0.84ft 15 200000 77.0

PSJS 1520 0.93ft 1520 0.84ft 15 200000 77.0

PSJS 1620 0.93ft 1620 0.84ft 15 200000 77.0

PSJS 1720 0.93ft 1720 0.84ft 15 200000 77.0

PSJS 1860 0.93ft 1860 0.84ft 15 200000 77.0

ET RC-2001

SET 350 350 240 350 200000 78.5 40.

SET 450 450 280 450 200000 78.5 40.

SET 520 520 360 520 200000 78.5 36.

SET 520M 520 450 520 200000 78.5 -

SET 600 600 400 600 200000 78.5 36.

FY FT FP FYC ES GAM γs

SP

52-101-2003

SNIA 240 235 400 190 235 - 200000 78.5 1.10

SNIA 300 300 500 235 300 - 200000 78.5 1.10

SNIA 400 400 500 320 400 - 200000 78.5 1.13

SNIA 500 500 600 345 460 - 200000 78.5 1.15

SNIB 500 410 500 290 360 - 200000 78.5 1.20

FY FT FP FYC ES GAM γs

RK 5.03-

Input Description | AQUA

FY FT FP FYC ES GAM γs

33-2005

SNIA 600 600 800 360 540 - 200000 78.5 1.15

SNIA 800 800 1000 360 575 - 200000 78.5 1.15

SNIA 1000 1000 1000 360 600 - 200000 78.5 1.20

FY FT FP FYC ES GAM γs

SNIP

2.03.01:

SNIA I 225 235 175 225 - 210000 78.5 1.05

SNIA II 280 295 225 280 - 210000 78.5 1.05

SNIA III 365 390 290 365 - 200000 78.5 1.10

SNIA IV 510 590 405 450 - 190000 78.5 1.15

SNIA V 680 788 545 500 - 190000 78.5 1.15

SNIA VI 815 980 650 500 - 190000 78.5 1.20

SNIA VII 980 1175 785 500 - 190000 78.5 1.20

SNIB I 410 1000 290 375 - 170000 78.5 1.20

SNIB 1000 850 1000 680 500 - 200000 78.5 1.20

SNIB 1100 915 1100 730 500 - 200000 78.5 1.20

SNIB 1200 1000 1200 785 500 - 200000 78.5 1.20

SNIB 1300 1050 1300 835 500 - 200000 78.5 1.20

SNIB 1400 1170 1400 940 500 - 200000 78.5 1.20

SNIB 1500 1250 1500 1000 500 - 200000 78.5 1.20

For the steel type B it is possible to attach to the grade extra characters defining

the ductility:

B Reinforcing bars with high ductility (warm deformed)

C Reinforcing bars with very high ductility (warm deformed)

For the German steel type BST the characters SA/SB resp. MA/MB for bars

resp. meshes allow also to select between new DIN 1045-1 and old DIN 1045.

The safety factor SCM is preset for most reinforcing and prestressing steels to

1.15 and 1.05 (BS) respectively. The safety factor becomes effective immedi-

AQUA | Input Description

ately for the calculation of the full plastic internal forces of steel and composite

sections.

For non-linear analysis with a constant safety factor according to DIN 1045-1 the

strength of the concrete will be reduced, while those of the steel will be raised.

For this a special serviceability stress-strain law is generated with a safety factor

of 1.3.

The Russian SNIP has a reduced strength for shear links and inclined bars. This

value is taken from the value FP. In the very general case, it might be necessary

to use a separate material with a reduced strength.

For the hungarian MSZ the defualt values are not valid for all possible derivatives

of the material. Further the strength to be used for the design is given as FP as

a rounded value by the minimum from FY/1.15 and FT/1.3.

Attention:

Some material parameters may depend on other parameters not known to the

program. E.g. the dynamic stress range of the reinforcements is not only de-

pending on the diameter TMAX of the bars but also on the curvature and the

type of the material of the duct (steel, plastic). In all those cases it is necessary

to use different material numbers and to specify the deviating values explicitly.

3.14.4 Relaxation

Relaxation of tendons is implemented in AQUA/AQB as a product. While the

time factor is specified in AQB, AQUA defines the stress dependant factor for the

reference time of 1000 h. This may be accomplished either by a linear relation

established by two values at 0.55·fpk and 0.70·fpk or via selected literals for item

REL2 as quadratic function according to CEB / EN1992 or the general function

according to BPEL annexe 2 or AS 3600.

CEB model code 1990

CEB1 4.00 % 8.00 % 12.00 % normal

CEB2 1.00 % 2.00 % 5.00 % improved

CEB3 2.00 % 4.00 % 6.67 % bars

Euronorm EN 1992 (2004)

ENC1 5.39 · ρ1000 · e6.7μ (t/ 1000)0.75(1−μ) 10−5 ordinary (ρ1000 = 8.0)

ENC2 0.66 · ρ1000 · e9.1μ (t/ 1000)0.75(1−μ) 10−5 low relaxation(ρ1000 =2.5)

ENC3 1.98 · ρ1000 · e8.0μ (t/ 1000)0.75(1−μ) 10−5 bars (ρ1000 =4.0)

Input Description | AQUA

Eurocode EC 2 < 2004

ECL1 4.50 % 8.00 % 12.00 % ordinary

ECL2 1.00 % 2.50 % 4.50 % low relaxation

ECL3 1.50 % 4.00 % 7.00 % bars

BPEL 91

RN Annexe 2 8.00 % Annexe 2 relaxation normale

TBR 2.50 % très basse relaxation

0.0 % 1.00 % AS 3600/5100

AS 0.0 % 2.00 % Rb (Chapter 6.3.4)

0.0 % 3.00 %

at 0.40 fpk

IRC 0.0 % 5.00 % IRC 112

IRCL 0.0 % 2.50 %

at 0.50 fpk

In Germany the values of the general technical approval. The values of a typical

approval are provided as default, but may be redefined with MEXT if required.

The bond properties are specified highly different within the codes. They depend

both on the concrete and the steel properties. When defining the concrete the

maximum bond stress for optimal bond properties is specified. The value R

defines then the relative bond strength for this steel as specified in:

Tab. 15 DIN 1045-1 ( R = 0.3 ÷ 0.8)

Tab. 7 DIN 4227 A1 ( R = 0.3 ÷ 0.9)

ğ 9.3.1 GB 50010 (R = α/0.14 = 0.737 ÷ 1.077)

specified. The bond value is needed for

• Minimum reinforcements

• Crack width

• Fatigue

AQUA | Input Description

The relative bond properties are mainly intended in the design codes to account

for the reduced values of tendons. But it should also account for different diame-

ters and properties of passive reinforcements. For the crack width a mean value

has to be used where the diameter and the bond properties become effective.

The second coefficient is used for those design codes using special values not

clearly deductible from the relative bond coefficients alone. This is especially

the base version of the Eurocode, but also the russian SNIP:

ğ 7.2.12 SP 52-101 ( K1 := φ2 = 0.5 ÷ 0.8)

The defaults are given in principal in the following table. However, there are

some deviations depending on the design code and the strength possible:

R K1

Reinforcing steel 1.0 0.8

Prestressing steel 0.75 1.6

The stress-strain law may have up to 4 segments:

• Up to the yield limit (EPSY,FY) EPSY may be defined absolute (positive) or

relative to the strain limit (negative)

• Up to the tensile strength (EPST,FT)

• Constant to the nearly infinity (1000 o/oo)

Depending on the steel type and grade the values EPSY and EPST as well as

FP will be preset. With explicit definitions you may suppress:

• If EPST is not greater than EPSY the third part will be omitted.

In general the stress-strain laws are identical for serviceability and ultimate limit

Input Description | AQUA

design. However, for reinforcing steel according to EC2 and DIN 1045-1 there

are numerous explicit changes.

As the safety factor concept will not generate an affine curve for the ultimate

state, the safety factor will be applied immediately.

Although the tensile strength for reinforcement steel with standard ductility will

be reached at 25 o/oo, it is not allowed to use this in the design according to DIN

1045-1. The stress strain laws for design and non linear analysis differ therefore

for those materials.

AQUA | Input Description

TIMB

NO Material number (1-999) − 1

TYPE Type of material LT *

see following table

CLAS Quality class / Strength − *

type of matrix for compound fibres

G Shear modulus N/ mm2 *

E90 Elastic modulus normal to fibre N/ mm2 *

QH Poisson’s ratio yz (polywood panels) − *

QH90 Poisson’s ratio xy / xz (solid wood) − *

GAM Unit weight kN/ m3 *

ALFA Temperature elongation coefficient 1/ ◦ K 0.0

SCM Material safety factor − 1.3/*

FM Bending strength N/ mm2 *

FT0 Tensile strength parallel to the fibre N/ mm2 *

FT90 Tensile strength normal to the fibre N/ mm2 *

FC0 Compressive strength parallel to fibres N/ mm2 *

FC90 Compressive strength normal to fibres N/ mm2 *

FV Shear strength at center (shear force) N/ mm2 *

FVR Shear strength at the edge (torsion) N/ mm2 *

FVB Shear strength for plate bending N/ mm2 *

FM90 Bending strength normal to fibres N/ mm2 *

G90 Shear modulus for plate bending N/ mm2 *

OAL Meridian angle of anisotropy degree 0.0

OAF Descent angle of anisotropy degree 0.0

KMO1 or long term loading − *

Table continued on next page.

Input Description | AQUA

KMO2 or middle term loading − *

KMO3 or short term loading − *

KMO4 or very short term loading − *

KDEF modification for long term deflections − *

TMAX maximum thickness for plates mm *

RHO characteristic density kg/ m3 *

TIMB allows the definition of all materials with a preferred fibre orientation. As

type you have the timber classes of Eurocode, respective DIN, OENORM and

SIA and the German compound fibre types. As the EN 1995 does not specify

any strength values, those values have to be specified for all other countries

explicitly.

With the EN 1995 (EC5) and the derived design codes correction factors kmod

have been introduced for the permissible stresses and kdeƒ for the deformations.

The distinct value is depending not only on the material but also on the service

class and the duration of the loading. The following table shows the values for

solid timber, however there are much more values available within the program

and the user may change theses values explicitly.

Service Class

Class of load duration

1 2 3

permanent 0.60 0.60 0.50

long term 0.70 0.70 0.55

medium term 0.80 0.80 0.65

short term 0.90 0.90 0.70

very short term 1.10 1.10 0.90

k-def 0.60 0.80 2.00

The service class may be either specified in general with the definition of the

design code NORM or be appended to the class definition with a colon. The

input of TIMB C 30:2 selects a solid soft wood of strength class 30 and the

service class 2.

The base values of the strength are given in EN 338 resp. EN 1194. But the

AQUA | Input Description

for cracks. In Germany this coefficient has been selected to provide the same

shear strength for all strength classes.

EN 1995, DIN 1052-2004:

C 14 / 16 / 18 / 20 / Solid soft wood

22 / 24 / 27 / 30 / Tab. F5

35 / 40 / 45 / 50

D 30 / 35 / 40 / 50 / Solid hard wood

60 / 70 Tab. F7

GL 24 / 28 / 32 / 36 homog. laminated timber Tab.F9

24C / 28C / 32C / 36C combined laminated timber Tab.F9

PLY 25 / 40 / 50 / 60 Plywood Tab. F11/F12

PART 1/4/5/6/7 Particle board,

Tab. F15/F16/F17/F18

OSB 2/3/4 OSB, Tab. F13/F14

FIB HB Hardboard Fibre board

MHB Medium hardboard

MDF Medium density

SB Soft Fibre board

SIA 265:

C 20 / 24 / 27 / 35 / 45 Solid soft wood, Tab. 6

D 30 Solid hard wood (Beech / Oak)

GL 24H / 28H / 36H homog. laminated timber Tab. 7

24K / 28K / 36K combined laminated timber Tab. 7

DIN 1052 A-1

S 7 / 10 / 13 Timber, Sorted acc. DIN 4076

MS 10 / 13 / 17 Timber, Sorted acc. DIN 4076

BS 11 / 14 / 16 / 18 glued laminated timber

DIN 1052 old

NA 1/2/3 Soft wood

Input Description | AQUA

BS 1/2 glued laminated timber

LA/LB/LC Hard wood

ÖNORM B3001

FTK/L/BE spruce,fir,pine / larch

beech,oak

GFK/CFK/ Values strongly depend Glas-/Carbon-/Synthetic-

SFK on fibre properties! compound fibre materials

EP 40000 / 5000 12.5 Epoxid resin

UP 30000 / 4500 12.5 Unsaturised poliester resin

VE 20000 / 3500 10.7 Vinil ester resin

treating is possible with composite sections or MLAY, the design codes provide

equivalent materials for that purpose. As the strength is no strongly dependant

on the thickness of the construction part, the definition of that value with TMAX

is mandatory.

The description of a transverse orthotropy material law has one direction that

has different properties (fibre direction), while the description in the plane per-

pendicular to this remains isotropic. The law defined with TIMB is formal equiv-

alent, however not identical with that defined via MATE. If x is chosen as this

special direction it holds:

σ (σy + σz )

ε = − μ90 · (3.119)

E E90

σy σz σ

εy = − μ· − μ?90 · (3.120)

E90 E90 E

σz σy σ

εz = − μ· − μ?90 · (3.121)

E90 E90 E

E

μ?90 = μ90 · (3.122)

E90

It should be noticed, that the poisson’s ratios μ90 and μ90 ∗ are no longer bound

to 0.5 and are strongly connected to the ratio of the elasticity moduli, as the

resulting stress-strain matrix has to be symmetric.

AQUA | Input Description

The order of the indices of stress and strain components notation is defined as

follows:

[ x y xy z ] plane strain condition, axial symmetry

[ x y xy ] plane stress

For the axial symmetric case x denotes the axis of rotation while y represents

the radial and z the tangential direction.

Furthermore holds:

The three-dimensional material stiffness matrix is obtained by inversion of the

strain-stress matrix and reads (z being the direction normal to the isotropic plane

= fibre direction):

μ1 +n·μ2

2 μ2

E1 · 1−n·μ2 2

E1 · 1+μ ·m E1 · 0 0 0

(1+μ1 )·m ( 1)

m

μ +n·μ2 1−n·μ2

μ2

E 1 · 1 2

E1 · 1+μ 2·m

E1 · 0 0 0

(1+μ1 )·m ( 1) m

μ2 μ2 1−μ1

D = E1 · m E1 · m E2 · 0 0 0 (3.124)

m

0 0 0 G1 0 0

0 0 0 0 G2 0

0 0 0 0 0 G2

E1

n = , m = 1 − μ1 − 2 · n · μ22 (3.125)

E2

Plane strain conditions: The x direction is defined as the fibre direction (=normal

to the isotropic plane). The reduced stress-strain matrix yields:

μ

E2 · 1−μ1 E1 · m2

m

0

μ2 1−n·μ 2

E1 · 1+μ 2·m

E1 · m 0

( 1)

D = (3.126)

0 0 G2

E · μ1 +n·μ2 2

μ2

1 (1+μ )·m E1 · m

0

1

E1

n= , m = 1 − μ1 − 2 · n · μ22 (3.127)

E2

Plane stress conditions: The x direction is defined as the fibre direction (=nor-

Input Description | AQUA

mal to the isotropic plane). The material stiffness matrix is obtained via inversion

of the reduced strain-stress matrix and reads:

E1 ·μ2

E2

0

1−n·μ22 1−n·μ2

2

E1 ·μ2

E1

D =

E1

, n =

0 (3.128)

1−n·μ 2 1−n·μ2 E2

2 2

0 0 G2

Axial symmetry:

The general case of anisotropy does not need to be considered since axial sym-

metry would be impossible to achieve under such circumstances. A case of

interest in practice is that of the fibre direction parallel to the rotational axis x, i.e.

the x direction is normal to the plane of isotropy. For such a case the material

stiffness matrix reads:

1−μ2

μ2 (1 + μ1 ) μ2 (1 + μ1 )

1

n

0

μ2 (1 + μ1 ) μ1 + nμ22

2

1 − nμ 0

D = A · 2 (3.129)

G90

0 0 A

0

μ2 (1 + μ1 ) μ1 + nμ2 0 1 − nμ22

2

E2 · n E1

A = , n = , m = 1 − μ1 − 2 · n · μ22 (3.130)

(1 + μ1 ) · m E2

thotropy:

For beams the fibre direction is identical with that of the beam axis.

For planar systems (TALPA) the value OAF is the angle between the fibre direc-

tion and the element x-direction. The values E90 and μ90 then hold within the

isotropic plane whose normal is given by the (skew) fibre direction.

For shells and plates it might be possible (eg. plywood) that there are fibres in

both x and y direction. The anisotropy effects thus reduces to different shear

moduli for in plane membrane shear (Gm=0.5E90 /(1+μ)) and the transverse

shear force directions (G). This may be accomplished either with an explicit

definition E90 == E or with a layered material (MLAY). For the case of vertical

boards tied together, you may use the orthotropy factors of thickness description

(→ QUIAD) or use a 3D model.

AQUA | Input Description

the three-dimensional orientation of the isotropic plane (=plane, whose normal

direction is the fibre direction) via meridian and descent angle, known from ge-

ology (compare MATE).

Input Description | AQUA

MASO

NO Material number (1-999) − 1

STYP Type of brick stone LT SB

CL Clay brick

CS Calcium silicate/lime sand

LC Lightweight concrete

C concrete brick

AC aerated concrete

MS manufactured stones

NS Natural stones

SCLA Strength of brick stone N/ mm2 *

MCLA Group or strength of mortar N/ mm2

i,ii,iia,iii,iiia Standard mortar

DM Thin bed mortar

LM21,LM36 Light mortar

numerical Qualified mortar

FB Compressive brick strength fb N/ mm2 *

FM Mortar strength fm N/ mm2 *

FV Maximum shear strength N/ mm2 *

FT Tensile strength N/ mm2 *

FTB tensile brick strength N/ mm2 *

SCM Material safety factor − *

E Elastic modulus N/ mm2 *

G Shear modulus N/ mm2 0.4E

MUE Poisson’s ratio − 0.25

GAM Unit weight kN/ m3 *

ALFA Temperature elongation coefficient 1/ K *

AQUA | Input Description

the properties are based on experiments (i) or on calculatoric values (ii) specified

with table 3.3 and formulas 3.1 to 3.2. In both cases there are groups 1 to

4 depending on the holes in the brick, which have to be defined appended to

STYP with a colon (eg. SB:3)

In all those cases where the design code describes a reduction of the K-value,

this may be defined with a definition like 80[%] for FK.

AQUA supports the German national annexe. Table Na.4 for HLzA/B etc. is

selectable with group 2, table NA.5 for HLzW etc. is selectable with group 3.

Table NA.9 is selectable for solid bricks (Vn, Vbn, Vm, Vmb) with group 1, solid

bricks (Vbl S und Vbl SW) with group 2, solid bricks (V und Vbl) with group 3 and

hollow bricks (Hbl S und Hbn) with group 4.

For masonry according to BS 5628-1/2 the Literals "‘BS-1"’ resp. "‘BS-2"’ with

the group identifier A to D appended with a colon has to be given for the STYP

definition. Selectable are the mortar designations I to IV. FT is the tensile

strength for bending according Table 3 ”parallel to bed joints”, FV is the ver-

tical shear strength according pict. 2 and clause (25, part 2), FV0K is the basic

shear value according clause 25 part 1, FBT is the bending tensile strength ac-

cording Table 3 ”perpendicular to bed joints”. FT and FBT vary considerably

and should therefore be specified.

Input Description | AQUA

SSLA

EPS Strain value o/ oo -

or type of state in a headder record LT

SERV Serviceability

ULTI Ultimate Limit

CALC Calculatoric values

SIG Stress value N/ mm2 -

or safety factor in headder record −

TYPE Type of vertex LT POL

POL discontinuous slope Neigung

SPL continuous slope

LIM no extension

EXT extension to infinite strains

TEMP Temperature level grd 0

EPST Thermal strain o/ oo -

EPSS Scaling or shifting of ordinates − -

SHIF shift by -EPST

<0 shift by EPSS*EPST

>1 scale with creep factor

I Initial crack

II Completed crack pattern

I_S I for short time loading

II_S II for short time loading

I_F I but first crack at fctk,0.05

I_FS I_S but first crack at fctk,0.05

MUET Reinforcement ratio As/Abeƒ ƒ − -

MNRB Material number of the concrete − 1

FCTF Factor for tensile concrete strength fctm − 1.0

Stress-Strain curves define the dependency of the stress from the strains. They

are required for the design and nonlinear analysis. There are three different

types to be distinguished:

AQUA | Input Description

• ULTI Curves for the ultimate resistance based on the design values.

• CALC Curves for a nonlinear analysis.

For a nonlinear analysis it is most reliable and most economical to use the

method of double book keeping (Quast) where the true deformations are evalu-

ated based on the mean values and the ultimate capacity is evaluated separately

with the design values. This is congruent to the classic approach of a linear anal-

ysis and a design as a post processing step. EN 1992-1 covers this in section

5.8.(3) with the very first sentence or the more detailed hints in the German NA

to this subject. This is controlled in AQB/ASE/STAR2 with an input of:

For stability problems it might be requested to apply a safety factor on the stiff-

ness too. If this factor is included in the stiffness or at the load is a matter of

taste, but the nonlinear nature of the problem does not allow to use the same

factor on either side of the equations. This is controlled in AQB/ASE/STAR2 with

an input of:

DESI ULTI KSV ULD ULD ; NSTR ULTI KSV SLD SLD

While the mean values of the concrete are specified in the design codes, there

is no definition for the reinforcing steel. A common assumption is to increas

the strength by a factor of 1.1. As this is comparable to the safety factor and

a yielding will decrease the stiffness considerably it is also common practice to

use the option SLD SL instead.

a single run. Then special curves are needed based on design values of the

strength, but a stiffness based on the mean values with a special saftey factor.

This is controlled in AQB with an input of:

EN 1992-1 covers this in section 5.8.(3) with the second and third sentence. As

the German NA provides an alternate version in section 5.7 with a global system

safety of 1.3, the user has to decide between those two methods by the definition

of the safety factor for the CALC curve. The default is according to 5.7. It has

to be pointed out, that this method does not include any safety on the stiffness.

Thus there are three possibilities to include that:

• Reduction of the ECM according Heft 600 DAfStB with 0.85, to be specified

Input Description | AQUA

• Division of the total curves by a factor 1.3, which is not provided here

• Ultimate load analysis with a factor of 1.3 and stress-strain curves without a

safety factor

If the default stress-strain curves are not applicable, stress-strain curves must

be defined immediately after the input of the material. For special applicationes

each set may have multiple temperature levels, to be defined in ascending order

of temperature. A stress-strain curve starts with one of the possible headers:

SSLA ULTI safety_factor [ LIM/EXT] [ TEMP tempval]

SSLA CALC safety_factor [ LIM/EXT] [ TEMP tempval]

The safety factors are predefined as specified with the material, but may be

changed if needed. In particular it is possible to modify a standard stress-strain

law with an own safety factor, by defining a header record only. The design

codes use the safety factors quite differently, some materials will be divided by

the safety factor in total, others reduce only the maximum stress value and keep

the elasticity modulus. A positive safety factor will select the first case, while

a negative value will select the second one. For the standard design tasks the

material safety factors are chosen by AQB depending on the loading condition

and design code.

For the CALC curves we have a slightly other rule to account for the German NA.

A negative safety factor will activate the curve according to chapter 5.7, while a

positive safety factor will trigger the rule according to chapter 5.8 with a safety

factor γce for Ecm . This factor is predefined in the INI-file, but may be overwritten

as boxed value with a TVAR GAM-CE. A safety factor of 0.0 will deactivate the

calculatoric curves.

The stress-strain curve follows. Each consists of several data points in an or-

dered sequence. For each data point it is specified whether it should behave as

a vertex (linear polygon line) or it should be part of a smooth curve (quadratic or

cubic parabola).

The user must make sure that a sufficiently large strain range gets covered

and that the zero point constitutes a data point of its own. Strains outside the

defined range will have for TYPE EXT the last defined stress value and will use

the tangent at the last point, provided this has a positive elasticity module. If the

TYPE is specified as LIM, stresses outside the defined range will become zero,

which however lead to trouble in numerical behaviour of non-linear iterations.

On the other hand the stresses outside the defined range are extrapolated by

AQUA | Input Description

an input of TYPE EXT. Default is EXT, however for ultimate limit state of concrete

it is LIM.

For concrete without explicit data points and without Temperature it is possible

to define with EPSS a factor for the strains. This may be used to account for

creep effects as specified in the EN 1992 with 1+ϕ. It should be noted however,

that in this case the creep becomes also effective for variable actions.

For a fiber or a FE-section the general analysis method will account for temper-

atures according to the Eurocodes EN 1992 to 1999 automatically. However for

special cases it is also possible to define between 2 and 15 discrete temperature

levels TEMP, to be interpolated. EPST defines the thermal elongation for that

temperature, the default will be taken from the Eurocode.

For a zonal method, the section will be subdivided in several zones (polygons)

by different material numbers, where every zone has a constant average tem-

perature to be specified for each of these materials with TEMP. One may shift the

stress strain curve wih a definition of EPSS SHIF by the thermal strain allowing

to activate all eigenstresses directly without the need to define a temperature at

the section itself in detail.

The contribution of the concrete between the cracks (Tension Stiffening) may be

taken into account by a modification of the stress strain law of the concrete or

the steel. With a single record SSLA SERV a modification of the reinforcement

stress strain law for that purpose is possible. However a solution is only possible

if the ratio of reinforcement is large enough to avoid the complete rupture of the

reinforcement, which is equivalent to the requirement that the initial crack stress

in the reinforcement must not exceed the yield limit.

section (or those with a similar evenly distributed reinforcement). For all other

Input Description | AQUA

cases, the design task should adopt the stress strain law accordingly.

AQUA | Input Description

MEXT

NO Number of material − 1

EXP Name of an exposure class Lt4 -

TYPE Type of constant LT !

VAL Value of material constant ∗ -

VAL1 First additional material value ∗ -

VAL2 Second additional material value ∗ -

VAL3 Third additional material value ∗ -

VAL4 4th additional material value ∗ -

VAL5 5th additional material value ∗ -

VAL6 6th additional material value ∗ -

VAL7 7th additional material value ∗ -

VAL8 8th additional material value ∗ -

VAL9 9th additional material value ∗ -

With MEXT you may define special material values for any type of material.

The values may be assigned to different regions (edges) of the material with

separate values. This is defined by a freely selectable literal EXP. Defaults for

those values may be specified in the INI-file. It has to be checked individually to

which extend the defined data is really used in the analysis modules.

The value AIR defines the air contact ratio between 0.0 and 1.0 to be used for the

creep and shrinkage process. Up to 10 values may be defined for the individual

construction stages.

The value CNOM defines the nominal cover for reinforcements. This value is

defined in many design codes based on the exposure class and my be provided

Input Description | AQUA

within the INI-files. The full range of tables may become quite lareg however.

The crackwidth CRW is used for the design of the crackwidth.

The coefficients cording EN 1992-1 for concrete are defined as follows:

VAL1 coefficient βc1 for creep (1.00)

VAL2 coefficient βc2 for creep evolution (1.00)

VAL3 coefficient βcd1 for drying shrinkage (1.00)

VAL4 coefficient βcd2 for drying evolution (1.00)

VAL5 coefficient βc1 for autogenous shrinkage (1.00)

VAL6 coefficient βc2 for autogenous shrinkage evolution (1.00)

VAL1 coefficient βbc1 for B.104.3 eq. B.125 (1.00)

VAL2 coefficient βbc2 for B.104.3 eq. B.126 (0.37 / 0.40)

VAL3 coefficient βcd1 for B.104.1 eq. B.124 (1.00)

VAL4 coefficient βcd2 for B.104.1 eq. B.124 (0.007 / 0.021)

VAL5 coefficient βc1 for B.104.1 eq. B.122 (1.00)

VAL6 coefficient βc2 for B.104.1 eq. B.123 (2.80)

VAL7 coefficient βc3 for B.104.1 eq. B.123 (1.10)

VAL8 coefficient βc4 for B.104.1 eq. B.123 (96.0)

Warning

1992-2 B.104. The use is recommended only with caution in exceptional

cases. The feature can be activated by adding "H" next to the concrete

class, e.g. C 60H.

a table. The default for ENC2 in Germany is a typical table for low relaxation

steel from a general technical approval (abZ). The definition of an explicit table

starts with a headder without EXP with up to 9 descending time values. The

AQUA | Input Description

following records contain on ascending order the losses in percent for selected

ratios of Ri/Rm. As EXP the literal "‘Rnn"’ has to be specified, where nn ist the

ration of Ri/Rm in percent.

1000 200 10 1

12 TYPE EIGE EXP ' R55 ' VAL 1.2 1.0

12 TYPE EIGE EXP ' R60 ' VAL 2.8 2.5 1.2

12 TYPE EIGE EXP ' R65 ' VAL 5.0 4.5 2.0 $$

1.3

12 TYPE EIGE EXP ' R70 ' VAL 7.0 6.5 3.0 $$

2.0 1.0

12 TYPE EIGE EXP ' R75 ' VAL 10.0 9.0 4.5 $$

3.0 2.5 1.2

12 TYPE EIGE EXP ' R80 ' VAL 14.0 13.0 6.5 $$

5.0 4.0 2.0 1.0

With KR, VAL defines the equivalent roughness according to Table 7.13 of EN

1991-1-4, which is especially needed for wind and wave loading on circular sec-

tions:

k [ mm] k [ mm]

glass 0.0015 galvanised steel 0.2

polished metal 0.002 spinning concrete 0.2

smooth painting 0.006 cast in situ 1.0

concrete

spray painting 0.02 rough timber 2.0

blasted steel 0.05 rust 2.0

cast iron 0.2 masonry 3.0

Hint: In table 4 of DIN 1055 part 4 slightly larger values are defined for k. The

value VAL1 is the friction coefficient to be used for forces from flow along a

surface, especially along a beam axis.

Input Description | AQUA

smooth (e.g. Steel, smooth concrete) 0.01

rough (e.g. rough concrete, tar roofs) 0.02

very rough (e.g. corrugated, ripped, folded) 0.04

With type TEMP the temperature environment and the transition conditions are

defined:

VAL1 The thermal resistance α with default unit [ W/ K/ m2 ]

VAL2 The emmission grade ϵ for the Boltzmann law [ − ]

AQUA | Input Description

BORE

NO Number of the soil profile − 1

X Coordinates of the start point [m] 1001 0.0

Y [m] 1001 0.0

Z [m] 1001 0.0

NX Direction of the soil profile − *

NY Default: in gravity direction − *

NZ (since not available in AQUA: NZ=1.0) − *

ALF Rotation angle of the local axis degree 0.0

HGWL lowest ground water level [m] 1006 0.0

HGWH highest ground water level [m] 1006 0.0

TITL Title of the soil profile LT32 *

With BORE a soil or bore profile is described defining material layers along an

axis. The use of which is different.

• Properties of the constrained soil modulus for the analysis of settlements or

a half space modelling with HASE.

• Soil bedding modulus for the pile elements. These values are derived from

the soil modulus above by a multiplication with a form factor with typical

values between 0.5 and 2.0. More precisely the soil modulus is transferred

to a Winkler bedding constant [ kN/m3 ] by a division with some structural

dimension and is then integrated by a multiplication with the width of the pile

section. Please refer to the explanations of the record BBLA for formulas

and examples.

For simple regular cases it is also possible to define design stresses for the soil

pressure with record BTAB. These values are than applicable without reference

to the strata data.

Input Description | AQUA

BLAY

S Ordinate along the profile axis [m] 1001 *

MNO Material number from this ordinate − *

ES Stiffness modulus from this ordinate kN/ m2 1096 *

MUE Poisson’s ratio −

VARI Type of stiffness ES variation within a layer Lt4 CONS

CONS constant

LINE linear

PARA parabolic

DES Increment of ES within a current layer kN/ m2 1096 *

PMAX Max. pressure at pile foot kN/ m2 1096 *

PMAL Max. lateral pressure kN/ m2 1096 *

C Cohesion kN/ m2 1096 *

PHI Soil-Pile friction angle deg *

GAM Specific weight kN/ m3 *

GAMA Specific weight under buoyancy kN/ m3 *

Hint

PHI, GAM and GAMA are not supported at the moment for the HASE cal-

culation.

BLAY is used for the definition of the soil layers of a corresponding BORE profile.

This data is then used in program HASE for the determination of the stiffness

and resistance properties of soil and piles.

BORE NO #nb X #x Y #y Z #z

BLAY S #s1 ES #Es1 VARi para PMAX #P1

BLAY S #s2 ES #Es2 VARi line DES #dEs2 PMAX #P2

BLAY S #s3 ES #Es3 VARi cons PMAX #P3

BLAY S #s4

AQUA | Input Description

• First layer L1 starts at the depth #s1 and ends at the next defined depth #s2.

L1 is assigned a parabolic stiffness distribution. Since there is no explicit

stiffness increase #dEs1 defined, a continuous distribution is realized - the

concluding stiffness value will be equal to the stiffness value of the subse-

quently defined BLAY (#Es2).

• Second layer L2 has a linear stiffness distribution. This time, #dEs2 is de-

fined, so the concluding stiffness value will be #Es2+#dEs2.

• Third layer L3 has a constant stiffness distribution with the value #Es3.

If there is only one BLAY defined, then the ending depth is by default 999m. If

the number of BLAY record is larger than 1, the last BLAY defines the ending

depth S while the other properties of this BLAY are ignored.

Apart from stiffness modulus ES, all other properties of the BLAY record (MNO,

MUE, PMAX, PMAL, C, PHI) are constant within a layer.

Stiffness modulus ES and Poisson’s ration MUE can alternatively be set by ref-

erence of a material number, where corresponding elastic material properties

are defined. If within the same BLAY record MNO and ES and/or MUE are de-

fined, the values defined within BLAY have precedence over those defined by

material MNO. If the Poisson’s ratio MUE is defined and larger than 0.0, then

ES is interpreted as the elastic modulus, and a Boussinesq method is used in

program HASE (see HASE manual for more details).

Input Description | AQUA

By default (no input) the non-linear resistance properties (PMAX, PMAL and C)

are switched off, meaning that the x-pile nodal forces are not limited (elastic

analysis). As in the default case, the input of a resistance property smaller or

equal zero will result in the x-pile contact forces to be unlimited. Any input of the

resistance properties larger than zero will activate the non-linearities along the

x-pile.

Hint

• As a prerequisite for a meaningful soil-layer interpolation, all defined

bore profiles (BORE) within a grid must have the same number of layers

(BLAY).

• For a consistent input of the BLAY-resistance properties it is required

that within a layer of each of the used bore profiles the resistance prop-

erties be either defined or undefined. Otherwise the interpolated prop-

erties can have unpredictable values. In other words, the input where

the resistance properties within a layer for some bore profiles are de-

fined, while for the others are not defined, will most likely yield unde-

sired results.

AQUA | Input Description

BBAX

S1 Start ordinate [m] 1001 *

S2 End ordinate [m] 1001 999.99

K0 Constant value of pile bedding kN/ m2 0

K1 Parabola variation 1096 0

K2 Linear variation ” 0

K3 Quadratic variation ” 0

M0 Load value (e.g. negative skin friction) [kN/ m] 1095 0

C0 Maximum skin friction [kN/ m] 1095 0

TANR Soil/pile friction angle coefficient −

TAND Soil/pile dilatancy angle coefficient −

KSIG Lateral pressure coefficient − 0.0

D0 Constant rotational stiffness [kNm] 1099 0

D2 Linear rotational stiffness [kNm] 1099 0

CA0 Constant axial damping kNsec/ m2 12200

CA2 Linear axial damping [kN] 1101 0

PMAX Max. pile foot force (Extended Piles, only) 0

Hint

The ordinates S1 and S2 are measured along the axis of the bore profile,

defined with the BORE command.

The axial bedding describes the skin friction of the pile in dependence from the

deformation and from the lateral bedding force of the pile. A positive value of the

load M0 acts on the pile in the direction of the pile head.

Input Description | AQUA

skin friction

displacement

Further explanations for the axial beddings are contained in the record BBLA.

AQUA | Input Description

BBLA

S1 Start ordinate [m] 1001 *

S2 End ordinate [m] 1001 999.99

K0 Constant value of the pile bedding kN/ m2 0

K1 Parabola variation 1096 0

K2 Linear variation ” 0

K3 Quadratic variation ” 0

P0 Form factors as variation along − 1

P1 the periphery − 1

P2 − 1

P3 − 1

PMA1 Maximum compression at S1 [kN/ m] 1095 -

PMA2 Maximum compression at S2 [kN/ m] 1095 -

CL0 Constant lateral damping kNsec/ m2 12200

CL1 Parabola variation ” 0

CL2 Linear variation ” 0

CL3 Quadratic variation ” 0

SM0 Constant mass distribution [t/ m] 1181 0

SM2 Linear variation of mass distribution [t/ m] 1181 0

Hint

The ordinates S1 and S2 are measured along the axis of the bore profile,

defined with the BORE command.

Elastic supports have many related parameters. Therefore those values are

combined to special property elements for a geometric line.

All the corresponding GLBA and GLBL records follow the GLN record in the

order defined by the s ordinate. All data for the s ordinate refer to the parametric

system of coordinates. The default is the global z axis, if the line consists only

of a start point without geometry segments.

Input Description | AQUA

1/ 2 2

z − z1 z − z1 z − z1

K = K0 + K1 · + K2 · + K3 · (3.131)

z2 − z1 z2 − z1 z2 − z1

The pile bedding at the beginning of the section is K0, and the one at its end is

K0+K1+K2+K3. The individual values correspond to constant, parabolic, linear

and quadratic distributions. The default value for S1 is the latest S2 value. The

The factors for the variation along the periphery are effective in the four quad-

rants (angle of 0, 90, 180 and 270 degrees). The angle refers to the local z

axis. For linear analyses the factor (P0+P2)/2 is used for the principal bending

(MY,VZ), while (P1+P3)/2 is used for the transverse bending (MZ,VY).

P2

P2

P1 y P3 P1 y

P3

P0

P0

z z

P2 P2

y y

P3 P3

P1 P1

P0 P0

z z

P1=1.0, P0=P2=P3=0.5 (non-linear) P1=0.0, P0=P2=P3=0.5 (non-linear)

The form factor is generated from the fact that the acting bedding force pL per

AQUA | Input Description

Es

pL = D · C · L = D · · L (3.132)

Deƒ ƒ

According DIN we have e.g. Deƒ ƒ = min(D,1.0). For more complex cases where

the bedding stress is not uniform but more like a cosine, there are of course

other values possible. Therefore several design codes recommend to use any

value between 0.5 and 2.0 to get the most unfavourable results. Thus SOFiSTiK

will not change the prescribed values in any kind.

For the bedding in axial direction a similar form factor may be defined based on

a shear modulus instead of the stiffness modulus following the relation:

Es

pA = π · D · C · = π · D · · (3.133)

2 · (1 + μ) · Deƒ ƒ

Thus the factors cancel each other in general and it is sufficient to use the

stiffness modulus Es for the axial bedding as well. In most cases the maximum

skin friction is the more essential part of the relation. However some value has

to be specified, otherwise there would be no skin friction at all.

directions available. The friction has very different causes:

The first part of the pressure is described by the vertical earth pressure and the

horizontal pressure coefficient. The second part is given by the elastic constants

which consist of a stiffness and a dilatation.

Input Description | AQUA

BTAB

OPT Input option: LT8 -

B foundation width

S soil pressure

A6.x:y soil table A6.1 - A6.8, with optional

appendix for the conistency y (only

tables A6.6 - A6.8):

:S stiff

:H semi-hard

:F hard

D embedment depth [m] 1006 *

V1 design stress at width b1 kN/ m2 1089 *

V2 design stress at width b2 kN/ m2 1089 *

V3 design stress at width b3 kN/ m2 1089 *

V4 design stress at width b4 kN/ m2 1089 *

V5 design stress at width b5 kN/ m2 1089 *

V6 design stress at width b6 kN/ m2 1089 *

V7 design stress at width b7 kN/ m2 1089 *

V8 design stress at width b8 kN/ m2 1089 *

V9 design stress at width b9 kN/ m2 1089 *

V10 design stress at width b10 kN/ m2 1089 *

FACS Factor on stresses (see DIN A6.4) − 1.0

BTAB allows the definition of design soil pressures which might be specified

instead of the geotechnical design for simple regular cases.

• The user defines only one value for the soil pressure V1 without specifying

any options for OPT

AQUA | Input Description

• The user defines for OPT explicitly a literal for the table in DIN 1054: A6.1,

A6.2, A6.5, A6.6, A6.7 or A6.8 with optional appendix for the conistency (only

for tables A6.6 - A6.8). E.g.:

BTAB OPT A6 .1

or

• The user defines a Header-Record with OPT B and the desired width values

V1 to V10, followed by an arbitrary number of soil pressures (OPT S) per

depth D for the selected width values. E.g.:

BTAB D OPT V1 V2 V3 V4 V5

- B 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5

1.0 S 210 210 210 210 210

2.0 S 280 420 560 700 700

3.0 S 380 520 660 800 800

4.0 S 480 620 760 900 900

Input Description | AQUA

SMAT

NO Number of spring material − !

LTYP Link type − *

STD Standard spring

IHNG Implicit Hinge

PMM PMM interaction

MTYP Material type − PLAS

PLAS Elasto-plastic, anisotropic

PISO Elasto-plastic, isotropic harden-

ing

PKIN Elasto-plastic, kinematic harden-

ing

HYPE Hyperelastic

Link capacity

P+ Tension (≥ 0) [kN] 1101 -

P- Compression (≤ 0) [kN] 1101 -(P+)

VY+ Shear Vy (≥ 0) [kN] 1102 -

VY- Shear Vy (≤ 0) [kN] 1102 -(VY+)

VZ+ Shear Vz (≥ 0) [kN] 1102 -

VZ- Shear Vz (≤ 0) [kN] 1102 -(VZ+)

MY+ Bending My (≥ 0) [kNm] 1104 -

MY- Bending My (≤ 0) [kNm] 1104 -(MY+)

MZ+ Bending Mz (≥ 0) [kNm] 1104 -

MZ- Bending Mz (≤ 0) [kNm] 1104 -(MZ+)

SNO Reference cross-section − -

SNIV Safety level LT C

C characteristic values

D design values (material safety

incl.)

Table continued on next page.

AQUA | Input Description

Interaction

ALPH Interpolation exponent My-Mz − 0.0

P1 unused

P2 unused

General

SMAT defines spring material with the corresponding properties (header record).

The definition of the material spring law is followed directly after by the command

SFLA, so that the SMAT and SFLA provide complete definition of the material

properties.

LTYP

The following link types are available:

IHNG Material for the definition of the force-displacement relationship of the

beam end reactions (Implicit Hinge) (see also SARB TYPE).

PMM Special material definition for the consideration of the P-My-Mz inter-

action. Available are the reactions analog to IHNG; the reactions My

and Mz are additionally coupled by the interpolation exponent α (see

ALPH).

If the link type is not explicitly defined, the evaluation is carried out based on the

following input, in particular based on the subsequently defined SARB types.

MTYP

The following material types are available:

PLAS Anisotropic elasto-plastic material law. For the initial loading the ma-

terial reaction is developed according to the defined work law (plastic

hardening). Unloading and reloading on the other hand are linear

elastic actions and are defined by the unloading/ reloading modulus

Er of the work law. The anisotropic model distinguishes tension and

compression, with mutually independent hardening behavior in the

respective directions. The provided work law may be non-symmetric,

Input Description | AQUA

PISO Elasto-plastic material law with isotropic hardening. Similar to PLAS,

except that the evolution of plastic hardening strains is not differenti-

ated according to tension and compression; plastic strains developed

during tension are effective with respect to compressive hardening

and vice versa.

This type of material is usually accompanied by a work law with sym-

metric branches for tensile and compressive response – its function-

ality, however, is not restricted to the symmetric case.

PKIN Elasto-plastic material law with kinematic hardening. For the kine-

matic hardening rule, the initial elastic range is preserved during

plastification – in contrast to the isotropic and anisotropic hardening

cases. In this model, the hardening effect is represented by a shift

rather than by an extension of the elastic domain.

This type of material is usually accompanied by a work law with sym-

metric branches for tensile and compressive response exhibiting pos-

itive final gradients – its functionality, however, is not restricted to the

symmetric case.

HYPE Hyperelastic material law. The material reaction develops according

to the defined work law, both for loading and unloading processes.

Since there is no differentiation between loading and unloading paths,

there is no plastic deformation – the material behaves elastic.

The material types PISO and PKIN are not available for the link types IHNG and

PMM.

please refer to subsection 3.24.1.

Link capacity

For the individual link reactions the upper and lower limits of the capacity can be

defined. These limits can then be referenced by the corresponding work laws

(see SFLA) during their definition 5 .

The values for the tension P+ and compression capacity P- play a special role.

With the definition of these capacities it is possible to formulate other reactions

R with respect to the axial load of the link element. The input of the normal

force dependent family of work law curves (see SFLA LEV) for the reaction R

5 Thisdefinition alone does not cause the actual limitation of the corresponding permissible

reaction force. The actual reaction, and with it the possible limitation of the permissible force,

must be defined together with the corresponding work law.

AQUA | Input Description

describes an interaction between the actual acting normal force and the reaction

R ( P-R interaction). For P ≥ P+ or P ≤ P− due to the interaction the reaction is

R ≡ 0.0; for the normal force levels in between, the permissible reaction R is

described by the user specified family of the work laws.

a cross-section trough the input of SNO. In this case the capacity values of the

cross- section for the chosen safety level SNIV (characteristic/design) are used.

Individual capacities can optionally be overwritten with the corresponding explicit

definition.

The capacity values are taken into consideration for the IHNG and PMM link

types.

ALPH

The interpolation exponent α ≥ 1.0 describes the interaction between the My

and Mz reactions according to

α α

My Mz

+ ≤1 (3.136)

My,m Mz,m

For example, with ALPH = 1.0 a linear interpolation between My and Mz is carried

out. With the increase of the exponent the fullness of the interpolation curve

increases as well; with ALPH = 2.0 the interpolation curve corresponds to an

ellipse.

The default value ALPH = 0.0 defines a decoupled behavior of the My and Mz

reactions ( mathematically this corresponds to α → ∞ in Eq. 3.136)

The interpolation exponent EXP is only active for the PMM link type.

Input Description | AQUA

200

-200

P

-400

-600

-800

-1000

-300 300

-200 200

-100 100

0 0

My 100 -100 Mz

200 -200

300 -300

In the example folder ase.dat/english/spring the differences between AQUA-

SMAT...MTYP PLAS-PISO-PKIN-HYPE are illustrated. For additional informa-

tion see ase.dat/english/spring/a1_spring_overview.dat.

ase.dat/english/spring/spring_law_1_plas.dat

ase.dat/english/spring/spring_law_2_piso.dat

ase.dat/english/spring/spring_law_3_pkin.dat

ase.dat/english/spring/spring_law_4_hype.dat

use the same SMAT work laws, as shown in Figure 3.27. The only difference is

that the work law for PKIN has an increasing end-tangent, see remarks to PKIN

in Figure 3.28. Normal plastic work laws (MTYP PLAS+PISO+HYPE) should

have a horizontal end-tangent to clearly define the final strength (Figure 3.27a).

The four material types PLAS, PISO, PKIN and HYPE result in a different

response under a single cyclic loading. Resulting spring force-displacement

curves are illustrated in Figure 3.28.

AQUA | Input Description

P [kN] P [kN]

500.0

200.0

(5)

0.0 0.0

u [mm] u [mm]

-400.0

-200.0

0.0

200.0

400.0

-400.0

-200.0

0.0

200.0

400.0

-200.0

-500.0

P P

Figure 3.27: Spring work laws

Plastic deformation induced hardening effects an extension of the elastic stress

domain. The anisotropic model distinguishes tension and compression, with

mutually independent hardening behavior in the respective directions. Tension

hardening, e.g., does not affect the current compressive strength 6 . The yield

function reflects an according differentiation between tensile and compressive

behavior:

for σ ≤ 0

|σ| − ƒ

y,c εp,c

ƒ :=

(3.137)

for σ > 0

σ − ƒy,t εp,t

In the example (Figure 3.28a), the initial tensile hardening (1) is followed by

an unloading step to σ = 0 (2). So far, no compressive hardening has been

triggered. Therefore, the continued unloading path follows the initial loading

path defined by the compressive branch of the work law (3).

Isotropic Hardening

In contrast to the anisotropic approach, plastic strains are effective for hardening

irrespective of their direction (compression/ tension). Tensile plastification, e.g.,

also induces compressive hardening and vice versa.7 Consequently, the yield

6 This assumption particularly holds for materials that exhibit different and quasi-

independent mechanisms for tensile and compressive behavior, e.g., concrete. The work laws

in this case are usually non-symmetric for tension and compression.

7 Work laws for isotropic hardening are usually symmetric for tension and compression –

Input Description | AQUA

N [kN]

springelement 10

(1)

300.0

200.0

100.0

0.0

(2)

v [mm]

-200

-150

-100

-50

50

100

150

200

-100.0

-200.0

-300.0

(3) (4)

N [kN]

400.0

springelement 10

(7)

300.0

(5)

200.0 200.0

(6)

100.0

0.0

v [mm]

-200

-100

100

200

300

0.0

v [mm]

(5 0 )

-100

-50

50

100

150

-100.0

-200.0

-200.0

0

(1 )

(c) MTYP PKIN (d) MTYP HYPE

function adopts the same hardening variable tensile and compressive behavior:

for σ ≤ 0

|σ| − ƒ

y,c −κp

ƒ :=

(3.138)

for σ > 0

σ − ƒy,t κp

κp := m εp,c , εp,t (3.139)

In the example (Figure 3.28a), the initial tensile hardening (1) is followed by an

unloading step to σ = 0 (2). For compression, the so far developed hardening

strain is also effective, causing a correpondingly extended elastic domain (4).

For many materials, it can be observed that plastic straining in tension also

induces a reduction of the compressive yield strength for a subsequent com-

pressive loading (and vice versa). For steel materials, this effect is known as

Bauschinger effect.

The kinematic hardening model aims at describing this effect and defines plastic

AQUA | Input Description

N [kN]

Federelement 1001

400.0

200.0

0.0

v [mm]

-400

-300

-200

-100

100

200

300

400

-200.0

-400.0

hardening as a translation of the initial yield strength ƒy0 without changing the

extension of the initial elastic domain. Mathematically, this notion is adopted by

introducing the so-called back stress q as a function of the plastic deformation

εp . 8 The yield function reads now

ƒ := σ − q εp − ƒy0 (3.140)

tions:

• The extension of the initial elastic stress space, defined by the initial yield

strength ƒy0 , remains unchanged.

• The allowable stress space is limited by the final tangents of the defined work

law.

• For sufficient plastification in positive or negative direction, the end tangent

is reached. Possibly, a stretching of the nonlinear portion of the work law

beyond ƒy0 is performed, siehe Figure 3.31.

Subsequently, we describe the response based on the provided work law ac-

cording to Figure 3.28c. Important is the first point in the work law (5) that

defines the length of the unloading part. The unloading part from point (1) does

not end at σ = 0 but at point (6). From there first the linear part is attached to

reach (5’). Then the nonlinear part of the worklaw (5)-(1) is streched (5’)-(1’) and

added to reach the lower end tangent of the negative part of the worklaw at (1’)

8 Worklaws for kinematic hardening are usually symmetric for tension and compression and

exhibit positive final gradients.

Input Description | AQUA

For multiple cyclic loading with increasing load factor PKIN shows the typical

kinematic hardening force-displacement curve (see Figure 3.29).

Figure 3.30 shows the kinematic hardening for a curved work law without linear

part (fy=0).

N [kN]

Federelement 1001

300.0

200.0

100.0

0.0

v [mm]

-200

-100

100

200

300

400

-100.0

-200.0

-300.0

The stretching of the nonlinear part of the work law for a curved work law with

linear part (fy=60) is demonstrated in figure 3.31. In a first unloading the new

zero point of the work law is reached (red circle). If at that point the original

work law curve would be added, you would never reach the lower end tangent

(two upper pictures). Therefore the nonlinear part of the work law is streched to

reach the lower end tangent (lower picture).

HYPE Hyperelastic

The response is nonlinear elastic, without plastic deformation. Upon load rever-

sal, HYPE follows the same path as in the loading phase (7) (Figure 3.28d).

GAP

Provision of an optional gap is accomplished independent of the work law by

defining a corresponding GAP spring property (e.g. via SOFIMSHA: SPRI).

A provided gap is symmetrically effective both for tension and compression. The

magnitude of the gap is not affected by possible plastic deformation, it remains

constant (cf. Figure 3.32).

AQUA | Input Description

P [kN]

400.0

200.0

0.0

u [mm]

-600.0

-400.0

-200.0

0.0

200.0

400.0

600.0

-200.0

-400.0

P

P [kN]

400.0

200.0

0.0

u [mm]

-600.0

-400.0

-200.0

0.0

200.0

400.0

600.0

-200.0

-400.0

P

P [kN]

400.0

200.0

0.0

u [mm]

-600.0

-400.0

-200.0

0.0

200.0

400.0

600.0

-200.0

-400.0

P

CRAC

An optional tensile strength can be provided independent of the work law via

definition of a corresponding CRAC spring property (e.g. SOFIMSHA: SPRI).

tion, CRAC assures that

• upon reaching the specified cracking strength, the transferable tensile force

drops to zero.

• continued loading is accompanied by corresponding crack-growth.

• upon load reversal, the crack-opening must be completely reversed before

compressive forces can be transfered again.

Input Description | AQUA

N [kN]

300.0

springelement 10

200.0

100.0

0.0

v [mm]

-100

-50

50

100

150

200

250

300

-100.0

-200.0

-300.0

AQUA | Input Description

SFLA

NO obsolete → SMAT NO − *

U Displacement [mm] or Rotation [mrd] ∗ !

F Force [kN] or Moment [kNm] 1

∗ !

or performance level label LT4 -

S Type of supporting point ∗ POL

POL Polygon point, sharp bend

SPL C2 -continuous point (cubic

spline)

or slope (stiffness) [kN/ m] , [kNm/ rd] ∗ -

SH Hardening modulus [kN/ m] , [kNm/ rd] ∗ -

FP Elastic (proportional) limit [kN] , [kNm] 1

∗ -

link type

General

With SFLA work laws for individual reactions of the spring material (→ SMAT)

can be defined. The work low describes the loading path under the uniaxial

monotonic loading. The material reaction under unloading and reloading condi-

tions takes place according to the chosen material type (→ SMAT MTYP).

linearly or with cubic splines. The input of of the points must be made in such a

way that U is arranged in monotonically ascending order.

1 In the case that corresponding link capacities have been defined via SMAT, a relative input

of F in [%] oder [−] is recommended. Doing so, a value < 0.0 refers to the MIN-values while

a value > 0.0 refers to the MAX-values of the capacities corresponding to the respective type

of reaction.

Input Description | AQUA

Hint

Partial material safety factors are not considered separately; they must be

incorporated in the specified work laws.

Hint

For strains beyond the defined range, a linear continuation using the tan-

gent of the bounding defined curve point is assumed (linear perturbation).

This holds both for tensile and compressive branches of the curve; a con-

tinuation from the tension domain into the compression domain and vice

versa is not performed, however.

TYPE

Depending on the link type (→ SMAT LTYP) the following reaction types TYPE9

are available:

PT Spring transverse force

M Spring moment

For the link types IHNG (Implicit Hinge) or PMM the following reaction types are

valid:

N Normal force

VY Shear force Vy

VZ Shear force Vz

MT Torsinal moment Mt

MY Bending moment My

MZ Bending moment Mz

LEV

The formulation of a normal force-dependent reaction R (P-R interaction) is

made possible by defining a family of work laws. Each family of curves is there-

9 The reaction type TYPE must be specified at the input of the first point of the line. This

definition is retained for the subsequent points, until a change of the type occurs. This change

of type at the same time marks the beginning of a new work law or the beginning of the new

family of work laws (see LEV)).

AQUA | Input Description

fore characterized by a defined normal force reference level LEV10 . The input of

the reference level is carried out relative to the link capacity SMAT P+/ P- (in [%]

or as factor [−] ).

Hint

The definition of a family of curves must take place according to the mono-

tonically increasing normal force reference level LEV.

The pictures 3.33 and 3.34 show for example the definition of a family of curves

for the reaction My and the resulting P − My interaction diagram.

MyM[kNm] S U

400.0

S U

S U

S U

200.0

S U

S U

-U -S 0 S U

0.0

-U -S

phi-yM[mrad]

-20.0

-10.0

0.0

10.0

20.0

-U -S

-U -S -200.0

-U -S

-U -S

-U -S

-400.0

P-level=M -1000.0[kN] P-level=M -980.0[kN]

P-level=M -950.0[kN] P-level=M -700.0[kN]

P-level=M -546.0[kN] P-level=M -200.0[kN]

P-level=M -70.2[kN] P-level=M 0.0[kN]

P-level=M 100.0[kN]

P [kN]

-400.0

-200.0

200.0

400.0

0.0

My [kNm]

0.0

-500.0

-1000.0

phi-y,pl= 0.0[mrad] phi-y,pl= 0.8[mrad]

phi-y,pl= 2.3[mrad] phi-y,pl= 5.4[mrad]

phi-y,pl= 11.6[mrad] phi-y,pl= 24.0[mrad]

10 The reference level LEV must be specified at the input of the first point of each family of

curves. This definition is retained for the subsequent points of the curve, unit a change of the

LEV occurs. This change marks the beginning of a new family of curves. A change in the

reaction type TYPE completes the definition of the family of curves for the previous TYPE.

Input Description | AQUA

For some common work laws a special definition in a single input line is possible:

• Linear elastic law: Only input of S.

• Bilinear (elastic-ideal plastic): Input of S and F.

• Trilinear: Input of S, FP (proportionality limit), SH (hardening modulus) and

F (plastic limit)

• Plastic limit (Limitation of the capacity): Only input of F.

Performance Limits

To categorize and simplify the evaluation of the link reaction (Performance), a

work law along the deformation axis can optionally be divided in arbitrary sec-

tions, also know as Performance Intervals. The subdivision takes place by the

definition of the Performance Limits, which mark the interval boundaries.

The input of the performance limits is automatically adjusted to the actual work

law definition by entering the corresponding pairs of U and F values:

letters. Example: ”S” for marking the deformation limit of the serviceability

limit sate.

• The input of the criteria must be arranged according to U in monotonically

increasing order.

• Limit for U = 0 must be specified.

The following input example sets 5 performance limits for the previously defined

My work law11 (see also Figure 3.33).

$ link material : $

SMAT NO 112 LTYP IHNG P+ 100 P - -1000 MY+ 400 $$

TITL ' Plastic Hinge '

...

$ family of curves for reaction My : $

...

$ curve for P - level 0.2*( P -) = -200 kN : $

SFLA S 400000 SH 20000 FP 0.8 [ -] F 1.0 [ -] LEV $$

-0.2 [ -] TYPE MY

11 The

points FP and F of the trilinear work low are defined relative (80% and 100%, re-

spectively) to the moment capacity MY+, defined in SMAT command.

AQUA | Input Description

SFLA U -10.0 ' -U '

SFLA U -5.0 ' -S '

SFLA U 0.0 '0 '

SFLA U 5.0 'S '

SFLA U 10.0 'U '

...

Thus, the following options for the performance are possible, depending on the

actual deformation [mrd] :

U− , S− −10.0 < < −5.0

S− , 0 −5.0 < < 0.0

(0, S) 0.0 < < 5.0

(S, U) 5.0 < < 10.0

>U > 10.0

U− = −10.0

S− = −5.0

0 = 0.0

S = 5.0

U = 10.0

limits can be specified.

• Within one family of curves, the consistency of the performance limits must

be ensured, i.e.

– The number of limits with U < 0.0 must be the same for all work laws of

the family of curves.

– The number of limits with U > 0.0 must be the same for all work laws of

the family of curves.

– The limit identifiers (labels) are the same for all the work laws of the family

of curves (the first input of the performance limits sets the identifiers for

the entire family of curves).

• The performance limits specified for one work law of a family of curves are

carried over recursively on all defined work laws (with lower normal force

Input Description | AQUA

reference level) of the same family, until the next normal force reference level

with the associated performance limits occurs.12

12 For example, to create a set of performance limits, which should be valid for the entire

family of curves, it is only required to specify these limits at the end of the complete definition

of the family of work law curves.

AQUA | Input Description

SVAL

NO Cross-section number − 1

MNO Material number or preferred beamtype −/ LT 1

CENT centric beam

BEAM excentr. beam (Reference axis)

TRUS only truss (no bending)

CABL only cables

A Cross section area m2 1012 1.0

AY Shear area for y m2 1012 -

AZ Shear area for z m2 1012 -

IT Torsional moment of inertia m4 1014 *

IY Moment of inertia y m4 1014 A3 /12

IZ Moment of inertia z m4 1014 IY

IYZ Moment of inertia yz m4 1014 0

CM Warping modulus m6 1016 0

YSC Coordinates of shear centre [mm] 1011 0

ZSC Relative to the gravity centre [mm] 1011 0

YMAX Ordinate of the right edge fibre [mm] 1011 *

ZMIN Ordinate of the top edge fibre [mm] 1011 *

ZMAX Ordinate of the bottom edge fibre [mm] 1011 *

WT Shear stress due to Mt = 1.0 1/ m3 1018 *

WVY Shear stress due to Vy = 1.0 1/ m2 1017 *

WVZ Shear stress due to Vz = 1.0 1/ m2 1017 *

This record allows the input of cross sections without the corresponding geomet-

ric data, which are necessary of course in detailed stress analysis, yield zone

theory or reinforced concrete dimensioning. Thus they can be used only for the

Input Description | AQUA

static analysis.

With NO and a Literal for MNO you may also subsequently specify which el-

ement type should be selected for elements with automatic type selection with

that section. This definition can be redefined at any time for any existing section.

All other input values will be ignored in that case.

degree of freedom does not lead to undefined rotation capability during the as-

sembly of the total static system (Error message: Parts of the system can move

freely.).

the given area A.

In accordance with Saint Venant’s estimate, the default value for the torsional

moment of inertia is

A4

T = (3.141)

4 · 2 · (y + z )

exact 0.140 0.458 3.13

approx. 0.152 0.486 3.01

The defaults for ymin up to zmax assume as a first guess a rectangular cross

section and apply then appropriate corrections from the radius of gyration.

SVAL can also be used for defining a modified cross section. This can be done

either by using a negative NO to modify an already defined cross section, or by

making a copy of an existing cross section by means of a negative MNO. The

values A through CM may be then then defined with a unit of [−] ,[0/ 0] or [0/ 00]

as factors for the corresponding values, and are thus preset to 1.0[−] . The new

cross section has no geometric properties any more.

Example:

PROF 2 HEB 300

SVAL -1 IT 0.5 [ -]

AQUA | Input Description

SECT 4; SV IT 0.5 [ -] ; PROF 1 HEB 300

Cross section 1 receives 50% of the torsional moment of inertia. The geometry

of the cross section gets erased. Cross section 3 has 50% of the torsional mo-

ment of inertia of cross section 2 and a slightly higher Iz but no geometry. Cross

section 2 was not modified. Cross section 4 is a cross section with IT reduced

by half and with complete geometry. (Only possible with AQUA license)

Input Description | AQUA

SREC

NO Cross section number − 1

H Total height [mm] 1011 -

B Width for rectangular, T-beam [mm] 1011 1000

HO Thickness of the plate (upper part) [mm] 1011 0

BO Width of the plate (upper part) [mm] 1011 0

SO Offset of reinforcement position - [mm] 1024 H/10

SU Offset of reinforcement position + [mm] 1024 SO

SS Offset of side reinforcement [mm] 1024 SO

MNO Material number − *

MRFL Material link reinforcement − *

RTYP Reinforcement subtype LT *

CORN single points at corner

CU perimetric reinforcement

SYM symmetrical reinforcement

ASYM asymmetrical reinforcements

for more options see below

ASO Minimum reinforcement position - cm2 1020 0

ASU Minimum reinforcement position + cm2 1020 0

DASO Diameter of top reinforcement [mm] 1023 *

DASU Diameter of bottom reinforcement [mm] 1023 DASO

DASS Diameter of side reinforcement [mm] 1023 DASO

A Distance of reinforcements [mm] 1011 *

AMIN Minimum distance of reinforcements [mm] 1011 *

AMAX Maximum distance of reinforcements [mm] 1011 *

ASL Area of shear link reinforcements cm2 / m 1021 *

INCL Inclination of shear links cot|deg 0

Table continued on next page.

AQUA | Input Description

REF Location of local coordinate origin LT C

C gravity centre

Y+/Y-/M in beam direction

right/left/middle

Y+Z-/Y-Z-/Z- in beam direction up-

per right/left/middle

Y+Z+/Y-Z+/Z+ in beam direction lower

right/left/middle

Y+P/Y-P/PM in beam direction plate

right/left/middle

SC shear centre

YM explicit offset of the mid point [mm] 1011 -

ZM explicit offset of the mid point [mm] 1011 -

AY Shear deformation area for VY −/ m2 0.

AZ Shear deformation area for VZ −/ m2 0.

BCYZ Buckling curve selector LT *

SPT Number of stress points (0/ 2/ 4/ 6) LT 0

BEFF Width of equivalent hollow section [mm] 1011 *

Depending on the definition of values one of the following section types is gen-

erated:

H,B Rectangular cross section

H...BO T-Beam cross section

Input Description | AQUA

When nothing is input for REF, the origin of the coordinate system of the cross

section is assumed to be at the gravity centre. This is of relevance for beams

with a reference axis. The required dimensions of the cross section can be

calculated by AQB. For this task, B or H can be input negative when only that

dimension should be changed.

The distribution of the reinforcement is controlled with the option RTYP, the diam-

eter DASO/U, the distance A and some entries for maximum distances between

bars of the selected INI-File of the design code. A definition of the total numbers

of bars is possible by the usage of the unit [-] for ASO resp. ASU.

Columns:

CU ASO as layer 0 at all 4 sides with bar spacing (circumferential)

SYM ASO as layer 0 each at upper and lower side, however if the

distance is greater than MaxBarDistanceC (300 mm), same

as U

SZM ASO as layer 0 each at right and left side, however if the dis-

tance is greater than MaxBarDistanceC (300 mm), same as

U

CORN ASO as layer 0 concentrated in the corners, bars between ac-

cording to the selected design code

CORN:n as CORN, but bars in corners with multiplicity of n (1≤n≤7)

CORN:nZ as CORN:n, but oriented left/right

CORN:nB as CORN:n, but with bundles (bars with a larger equivalent

p

diameter D · n)

In all cases the diameter will be preset to the smallest allowed value from the

INI-File (MinBarDiameterC = 12mm), and the absolute minimum reinforcement

according to the number of bars (total minimum of 4) with that diameter.

As the reinforcement is saved as single bars, there will be some maximum al-

lowable distances AMAX established in the design codes for columns, bending

members and torsional members. The bars in the corners are positioned with

the minimum distance AMIN, along the layouts with A. Unless AMAX is defined

quite large, intermediate constructive bars will be inserted with that maximum

distance in between.

Beams:

ASYM two main layers ASU at lower (1) and ASO at upper (2) side,

optional intermediate bars in layer (3) at the sides

ASZM similar to [ASYM] but right (1) and left (2)

AQUA | Input Description

If the distance of the reinforcement layers (1) and (2) becomes greater than the

limit MaxBarDistanceT (350 mm), additional reinforcement at the side of the web

will be introduced with layer (3). Although this is mandatory for torsion, you might

suppress this by entering a zero value for IT or a large value for AMAX, but then

these sections will not be designable for torsion any more. This layer (3) may

become partially active for biaxial bending for the ultimate design.

Further we introduce a reinforcement at the lower side of the plate with layer

number 4, if the upper layer is within the topmost third of the plate height.

The cover of the reinforcement from the side edge is preset to the minimum

cover from the upper or lower edge, but not larger than one-fourth of the width.

It may be changed with item SS.

Please note, that DIN 1045-1 uses the cover of the compressive reinforcement

(effective distance - D/2) as a limit for the lever arm during the shear design

of the cracked section. Thus the diameter has always an effect on the shear

design.

For ASL a minimum value for the shear links may be specified. The default is

zero for symmetric reinforcements (compression members) and taken from the

design code otherwise. As some design tasks require to distinguish between

the minimum and the provided reinforcements, the definition should specify only

the minimum reinforcements. The value may be specified in cm2 / m 1021 or

cm2 / m2 1022 or as ratio in [-].

MRF = 0 must be specified for unreinforced concrete sections. The input of MRF

or MRFL is not allowed for steel or timber cross sections.

The full height of the web and the entire plate are used in determining the tor-

sional moment of inertia and the torsional shear stresses; for the equivalent

hollow cross section used in computing the torsion reinforcement only the web

or only the flange is used, depending on which part is larger. The check of the

shear stress due to shear force takes place at the most unfavourable location

(at the height of the gravity centre for the web or at the intersection of web and

Input Description | AQUA

flange). To avoid constraint torsion for concrete constructions the effective tor-

sional moment of inertia can be reduced by IT explicitly or with the unit [%] to a

relative value. A value of 0.0 is allowed but may lead to kinematic systems.

material type – and accounted for consistently for beam analysis according to

Timoshenko-theory. This behavior can be overruled by explicit specification of

the respective shear deformation areas Ay and AZ with a value in m2 or by a

factor with the explicit unit of [%] . Specifying 0.0 deactivates the effect of shear

deformation areas for the beam analysis.

AQUA | Input Description

SCIT

NO Cross section number − 1

D Outer diameter [mm] 1011 -

T Thickness (0.0 = solid section) [mm] 1011 -

SA Outer reinforcement offset [mm] 1024 T/10

SI Inner reinforcement offset [mm] 1024 SA

MNO Material number of cross section − *

MRFL Material of shear reinforcement − MRF

RTYP Reinforcement subtype COLU

COLU Column

HOOP hooped column

BEND Bending member

ASA Outer reinforcement cm2 1020 -

ASI Inner reinforcement cm2 1020 -

DAS Diameter of reinforcement [mm] 1023 28

A Maxium distance of reinforcements or [mm] 1011 *

count[-] on bars

ASB Area of shear link reinforcements cm2 / m 1021 *

AY Shear deformation area for VY −/ m2 *

AZ Shear deformation area for VZ −/ m2 *

The distance SI is taken relativ to the inner radius for an annular section, but on

the outer radius for a solid section. Reinforcement may be also specified with

explicit unit in [cm2 /m]. There will be at least four locations for the reinforce-

ments. The default will provide six bars, the number is controlled with item A. If

that value is defined negative or with the explicit unit [-], the given value is taken

as the number of bars directly.

Input Description | AQUA

columns do not have a minimum shear link area. If a bending member with

a longitudinal minimum reinforcement is required, an explicit value for A will trig-

ger this. If a column should get a minimum shear link, the explicit definition of

ASB in cm2 / m 1021 or cm2 / m2 1022 or as ratio in [-]is required.

The definition of CTRL RFCS in AQUA is also effective for the SCIT section.

Values for IT, AY and AZ are either absolute values or if defined with unit [%] as

factors to the theoretical values.

AQUA | Input Description

TUBE

NO Cross section number − 1

D Outer diameter [mm]

T Wall thickness [mm] 0

(0= solid circle)

MNO Material number of cross section − 1

BC Buckling strain curve LT a/c

0 (none),

a (warm),

b (cold)

c (solid circle)

d (special purpose only)

e (old AISC for special purpose)

be defined via SCIT or SECT/CIRC/SV or SVAL.

Input Description | AQUA

CABL

NO Section number − 1

D Nominal diameter [mm] -

TYPE Type of cable section (see remarks) LT -

INL Type of Inlay LT FE

FE, FEN, FEC = Fiber Inlays

SE, SES, SEL = Steel Inlays

MNO Material number of a prestressing steel − 1

or metallic cross section area mm2

K Rupture or cable factor − *

or characteristic breaking load kN

W Weight factor (kg/m/mm2 ) * 100 ∗ *

or weight kg/ m

KE Loss factor (clamping of endpoints etc.) − 1.0

REF Reference of factors F/K/W LT *

DIN according to DIN 3051

EN according to EN 12385-4

Cables without a type will be taken as a round steel bar. The following cable

types are available:

8x7 EN 12385-4 Tab. 6

6x19 EN 12385-4 Tab. 7

8x19 EN 12385-4 Tab. 8

6x36 EN 12385-4 Tab. 9

8x36 EN 12385-4 Tab. 10

6x35N EN 12385-4 Tab. 11

6x19M EN 12385-4 Tab. 12

AQUA | Input Description

17x7 EN 12385-4 Tab. 14

18x7 EN 12385-4 Tab. 14

34x7 EN 12385-4 Tab. 15

35x7 EN 12385-4 Tab. 16

1x19 DIN Spiral cable with 19 wires

1x37 DIN Spiral cable with 37 wires

1x61 DIN Spiral cable with 61 wires

...

1x547 DIN Spiral cable with 547 wires

3053 DIN 3053 Spiral cable 1x19

3054 DIN 3054 Spiral cable 1x37

3055 DIN 3055 Stranded cable 6x7

3056 DIN 3056 Stranded cable 8x7

3057 DIN 3057 Strand 6x19 Filler

3058 DIN 3058 Strand 6x19 Seale

3059 DIN 3059 Strand 6x19 Warrington

3060 DIN 3060 Strand 6x19

Input Description | AQUA

3062 DIN 3062 Strand 8x19 Seale

3063 DIN 3063 Strand 8x19 Warrington

3064 DIN 3064 Strand 6x36 Warrington-Seale

3065 DIN 3065 Strand 6x35 Warrington covered

3066 DIN 3066 Strand 6x37 Warrington-Seale

3067 DIN 3067 Strand 8x36 Warrington-Seale

3068 DIN 3068 Strand 6x24 Standard

3069 DIN 3069 multiple Strand 18x7

3070 DIN 3070 Flat strand 10x10

3071 DIN 3071 multiple Strand 36x7

VVS-1 BTS full locked coil cables in opposite/crosslay stranding

VVS-1P BTS full locked coil cables in equal lay/compound stranding

VVS-2 BTS full locked coil cables in opposite/crosslay stranding

VVS-2P BTS full locked coil cables in equal lay/compound stranding

VVS-3 BTS full locked coil cables in opposite/crosslay stranding

VVS-3P BTS full locked coil cables in equal lay/compound stranding

VVS-4 BTS full locked coil cables in opposite/crosslay stranding

VVS-4P BTS full locked coil cables in equal lay/compound stranding

PG-nnn Pfeifer cables PG-5 to PG-125 (Y 1770C with ES 160000)

PV-nnn Pfeifer cables PV-40 to PV-2000 (Y 1570C with ES 160000)

The ultimate forces of the cables are obtained only based on the tensile strength

values given above)

205000)

HIAM-nn Stahlton cables HIAM-56 to HIAM-421 (Y 1670C with ES

205000)

Cable sections differ from circular sections in several reducing factors which are

preselected for the specific design code and the type of inlay:

FE = Fibre inlay

FEN = Natural fibre inlay

FEC = Chemical fibre inlay

SE = Steel inlay

AQUA | Input Description

SEL = Steel strand inlay

given:

In DIN 3051 part 3 the factors have been defined in a different way as:

d2 · π

Metallic cable section qm = ƒ · 4

The loss factor ke taking into account the type of fixing of the cable endings is

defined elsewhere e.g. in DIN 18800. The formula given in EN appendix A.2 for

the ultimate force for cables with diameters larger than 60 mm is not applied. It

does not contain a strength and is not applicable in general cases.

The user has to check all factors in detail, as they depend on the type of anticor-

rosive lining and the intended usage (e.g. for cableways). Cable sections may

only be used for cable elements or automatic elements, which derive their type

from the cable section type.

ATTENTION: Prestressing steel cables have a different safety factor for concrete

and steeel design. Please be sure that the value is selected properly or specify

the correct value with the steel material. The correct modulus of elasticity is

not given in the DIN or EN, but has to be taken from the manufacturers data.

Common values are:

Spiral cable Galfan EN 12385 160 ± 10 kN/mm2

Spiral cable stainless steel EN 12385 130 ± 10 kN/mm2

Strand ropes 100 ± 10 kN/mm2

Input Description | AQUA

PROF, Reinforcement, CUT, SPT, SFLA, WIND, WPAR

SECT

NO Cross section number − 1

MNO Material number for cross section − 1

MRF Material number of reinforcement − *

MRFL Material link reinforcement − *

ALPH Angle of rotation Degrees 0

YM Offset of all cross section ordinates [mm] 1011 0

ZM Offset of all cross section ordinates [mm] 1011 0

FSYM Suppress rotation of principal axes LT NO

YES IYZ always set to zero

NONE IYZ set to zero when smaller than

0.001·(IY+IZ)

BTYP preferred beam type LT BEAM

CENT centric beam

BEAM excentr. with reference axis

TRUS only truss (no bending)

CABL only cables

COMP centric compressive member

COLU excentr. column

BCY Buckling strain curve for y-y axis LT *

BCZ Buckling strain curve for z-z axis LT BCY

KTZ Small part addition (presently not used) − *

TITL Cross section designation Lt32 -

mesh of the section

LTEM Load case of a temperature field − -

T Time value of the temperature field sec last

LTAU Loadcase number of the FEM database in − 9900

which the unit shear stress distributions are

saved (for each construction stage 4 load

cases)

AQUA | Input Description

Freely defined cross sections always begin with the record SECT, which defines

the cross section number. All subsequent input records describe this one cross

section, which may consist of several partial cross sections (external outline, in-

ner perimeter, reinforcement arrangement etc.). The input for each cross section

ends either by the next SECT record or by the END record.

Freely defined cross sections are divided into three groups (see 1.1):

* thin-walled cross sections

* FE-sections

which is in general on the reference axis defined by the two nodes of a beam.

All coordinate data of the input records which follow a SECT record refer to

this coordinate system. The directions of the axes are identical to those of the

local beam element and defined in accordance with Chapter 2.1 (y to the left,

z downward). The local coordinate axes y’ and z’ of a centric beam are only

shifted parallel to the cross section coordinate system, so that the origin is at the

centre of gravity of the cross section.

Prestressing Tendons (AQBS, GEOS) always refer to the input coordinate sys-

tem. It may be appropriate to take this into account when selecting the zero

point.

If desired, however, it is also possible to rotate the cross section by any angle or

into the direction of the principal axes as well as to translate it (items ALPH, YM

and ZM). The definition of ALPH will force AQB to do the stress analysis for the

rotated principal axis system. The input of CTRL AXIS -2 within AQB has then

no effect on this section any more.

On the other hand a definition of FSYM YES will suppress the rotation of the

principal axis completely. This is intended for sections describing only half of a

full symmetric section, but may have very dangerous effects if applied to general

sections. The value of Iyz has considerable effects on deformations and also

forces within constrained systems. This option enforces also uniaxial bending

(Vy=0, Mz=0) within AQB.

With BTYP you may specify your preferred beam element type for that section.

This info may be used for the mesh generation and the specifivcation of minimum

reinforcements.

For the design of a reinforced concrete cross section with AQB, it is always

necessary, to specify the location of the intended reinforcement - single, linear,

Input Description | AQUA

Freely defined cross sections cannot be dimensioned with STB/STBA. MRF de-

fines the material number of reinforcement. Only if the link reinforcement has a

different quality of material a combined value is to be entered. Then this com-

bined value represents the default for the records CUT.

ALPH can be used to rotate the cross section about the x axis. A value of 999

for ALPH causes a rotation of the cross section in the principal directions by an

angle less or equal to 90 degrees. During all rotations, it is not the reference co-

ordinate system but the cross section elements that are rotated. The material

number should, in general, be specified by SECT. The declaration of a material

number with individual cross section elements is only appropriate for composite

cross sections. In case of composite sections, ideal cross section values are

calculated, based on the material defined in SECT; e.g.:

(A · E)

A = (3.142)

Ereƒ

There are some other properties controlled by the type of the reference material.

For timber and steel shear deformation areas and stresses will be calculated in-

cluding also ideal section values, while for concrete the classical concrte design

techniques will be applied.

All cross section elements are addressed with an arbitrarily selected identifi-

cation number, which has up to four characters in general. In AQB and Re-

sultViewer you may specify a mask to select specific elements for the output.

You might for example then select all elements with a zero at the end.

The buckling strain curve can be input for checks according to DIN 18800 and

EC3. The permissible input values are 0 (none), a, b, c or d. Appropriate tech-

nical knowledge is required for making this choice in case of general cross sec-

tions. AQUA, however, attempts to model most cases with the following de-

faults:

strong weak

axis axis

Profiles without welding joints

Annular and SH-shapes a a

U, L and solid circle shapes c c

Double T-shapes h/b > 1.2 t ≤ 40mm a b

t > 80mm d d

others b c

AQUA | Input Description

strong weak

axis axis

all others

I-strong > 1.67 · I-weak and

I-t < 0.50 · I-weak

tmax ≤ 40 mm b c

tmax > 40 mm c d

I-strong < 1.67 · I-weak or

I-t > 0.50 · I-weak

tmax ≤ 40 mm b b

tmax > 40 mm c c

The buckling curve ”e” may be input to select the old AISC-curve with the Euler

hyperbola for λ > 0.5 and a quadratic parabola for the plastic region. The safety

factors have to be large enough for this curve!

Hint

For some records (e.g. TVAR and PROF) it makes a difference if those

records are defined within a section or separately. A definiton of SECT 0

will allow to terminate the current section.

It is very common, especially in the bridge design, that very similar sections

are derived from a template. AQUA will therefore not only allow this parametric

approach, but it will also store the parametric information along with the cross

section in the database, in order to allow easy prototyping.

Primary solution for that task are formula expressions to be defined for any coor-

dinate or permanent radius (CIRC, CRF) with up to 256 characters in the form of

”=formula”. These formulas will be saved with the section and may be reevalu-

ated for any section with different values along an axis (see GAX/GAXP) or with

explicit definitions locally with TVAR commands.

#INCR The inclination to the right as arcus

Input Description | AQUA

#S_XI(x) Array of s-values of the support lines along the axis

#S_XI(2.5) is the S-value in the middle of 2nd and 3rd support

As a reference you may use every stress point, polygon vertex, panel or circular

element. The reference is done via this explicit 4-character identifier. The spec-

ified coordinates are relative to that reference. However if the coordinates are

not a formula and either CTRL REFD 0 has been specified or the reference is

preceeded by an @ the coordinates are taken as absolute, which is used for the

export of sections.

It is also possible to specify the position of the reference point by an axis, for that

case the reference has to be specified as the ID of that axis with a colon prefix,

e.g. ”:AX_0”. The local coordinates (y,z) are then given by the 3D-distance to

the same parameter on the reference axis projected in the plane of the section.

If points with multiple identifiers are present, then only the first occurrence of

that point is used and the others are neglected. If a reference point is not part of

the section itself, you should use the material number 0 for it. However, you may

have an arbitrary number of nested references, i.e. a reference point may use a

reference itself. For thin walled elements start and end point may be addressed

by a reference with an index.

As the references may be used on single points, start points and end points, the

following examples use a generic description. Thus REF holds for REFP resp.

REFA or REFD.

PT PTZ

PT z

z

PT0 PTY

y y

• You may define the coordinates relative to the reference point in absolute

Cartesian coordinates y and z (left picture) by specifying:

REF PT0

AQUA | Input Description

taken from the given formula for this type of reference.

• You may define the coordinates relative to two reference points in absolute

cartesian coordinates y and z by specifying:

REF PTY PTZ

Now the y-ordinate is taken relative to PTY while the z-ordinate is taken

relative to PTZ. If a reference of only one coordinate is desired the reference

of the other coordinate may be specified as ’0000’ relative to the origin of

the coordinate system. As shortcut it is also possible to specify only a single

reference with a preceeding > to inherit only the right ordinate y or a ˆ for

the elevation value (z).

be used with an alternate sign, allowing easy description of mirroring.For the

coordinates itself, the double of the coordinate values of the mirroring center

or line have to be specified. (yne =2•ymrr -yorg )

REF PTY -PTY Mirroring to the y-axis

REF -PTY PTY Mirroring to the z-axis

PTD

PTD

PT0 PT0

The point PTD (at item REFD, RFDA or RFDE) defines the direction of the refer-

ence relative to the PT0 point- Instead of a point it is also possible to specify the

name of a variable or a formula containing the angle of the direction in radians:

”=#VARNAME”

The y-coordinate is then measured in the radial direction along, while the z-

coordinate is perpendicular and positive to the left. The input is done via:

REF PT0 +PTD affine scaling only along direction

REF PT0 *PTD affine sclaing in both directions

Input Description | AQUA

For a variant construction the (+) will maintain the ratio of distances in the radial

direction and maintain the value perpendicular to that.

PT3

PTD

PT0 PT

If three points are given, then the third point may be provided with a prefix oper-

ator defining the distance or elevation to be taken from that point and searching

the corresponding point on the line REF-RFD:

REF PT0 PTD ˆ PT3 Elevation (z)

REF PT0 PTD PT3 Perpendicular point

If for the first two cases the third point is specified as the point itself, this will

create points with the same selected coordinate, which is needed for example

for points with a fixed distance, but a height depending on the cross inclination.

For a circle you may specify an additional point. The distance of this point to the

centre will then specify the radius of the circle. For steel shapes the angle of

orientation is used in a similar way.

AQUA33.DAT in the example directory AQUA.DAT.

3.31.2 FE-Sections

For advanced design tasks like a hot design it is not sufficient to describe the

section just by its outer contour. For such cases it is necessary to us a finite

element mesh of the section. These meshes may be generated by AQUA or may

be imported from a secondary database. The secondary database will contain in

general also temperature distribution fields. It is also possible to clone a section

from the same database, which is especially useful for sections with different

reinforcement layouts based on the same thermal master analysis, performed

only once. The defintion of the name ”SECT:nnn” will use a FE-mesh of this

section nnn directly. In that case an import of reinforcements via RF is also

AQUA | Input Description

possible.

The section will be converted to single integration points given by the center of

all QUAD elements. These may be imported group wise with POLY to specify

any construction sequences or in total if no such definition is made.

As this feature allows the evaluation of all sectional values for any type of section

(e.g. secondary torsion for a solid section) it is the most general type of section

definition. All additional elements (Stress points, reinforcements, shear cuts) are

defined as usual.

With the definition of LTAU the unit warping and the shear stress distributions will

be saved to the original database. So it becomes possible to view those results

with WING/WINGRAF.

Input Description | AQUA

CS

NO First active number in − *

construction sequence

TITL Title of construction stage LT32 -

ATIL Last active number in − -

construction sequence

LTEM Load case of a temperature field − -

T Time value of the temperature field sec last

With CS you may specify a cross section for (up to 9) construction stages. All

elements following this record will be added within that stage. The current con-

struction stage will also contain all the elements of the previous construction

stages.

If part of the section is active only temporarily, a value for ATIL may be specified.

This is then the last construction stage where this part is active. The CS-stage

records have to be given in monotonic ascending sequence of NO, but for this

case multiple records with the same NO value may be given. However the des-

ignation should be given with the first record of such a CS block.

10 20 21 22 24 30 40 ∞

on the section itself it does not need to be defined. The same holds for any other

construction phase like pre-stress stages. The input scheme is given by:

CS 20 ATIL 22 ; red section parts, QGroup 2

CS 22 ATIL 24 ; blue section parts, QGroup 3

CS 24 ATIL 39 ; yellow section parts, QGroup 4

CS 30 ; green section parts, QGroup 5

AQUA | Input Description

NO is the total section for the final phase 40, QGroup "‘C040"’

NO.1 is the 1st construction stage, phases 10-19, QGroup "‘C010"’

NO.2 is the 2nd construction stage, phases 20-21, QGroup "‘C020"’

NO.3 is the 3rd construction stage, phases 22-23, QGroup "‘C022"’

NO.4 is the 4th construction stage, phases 24-29, QGroup "‘C024"’

NO.5 is the 5th construction stage, phases 30-39, QGroup "‘C030"’

the next defined construction stage, only for phase 24 the end value has to be

specified explicitly. The transition to the final stage may be defined either by an

explicit construction stage 40 or by the latest removal of any other phase. There

is no generation of intermediate values, a CS 20 ATIL 33 will not generate a

construction stage at 34.

The specified QGroups are the primary and secondary groups assigned to the

elements in the secondary database of the section (CTRL STYP FEMX only)

The construction stages are assigned to the individual elements with the group

definition of the analysis program, a construction stage number defined there

is inserted between the defined numbers here. The number NO will be incre-

mented by default. You may want to use larger gaps to allow prestressing stages

to be mixed in. With the construction stages defined in AQUA as 10, 20 and 30

the selection of stage 25 would use the 20-section and all tendons up to stage

25.

For every construction stage it is also possible to specify with SV for every mate-

rial a factor for the elasticity and the shear modulus after the CS record. Further

it is possible to specify a construction phase as hot design phase, if the section

is imported with a HYDRA analysis.

Input Description | AQUA

SV

IT Torsional moment of inertia m4 1014 -1.0

AK Area of Bredt’s box m2 1012 *

YSC Coordinates of the shear center in the LT/ ∗ *

ZSC reference coordinate system LT/ ∗ *

CM Warping modulus m6 1016 *

CMS Warping shear modulus m4 1014 *

AY Shear deformation area y m2 1012 *

AZ Shear deformation area z m2 1012 *

AYZ Shear deformation area yz *

LEVY Minimum lever arm for VY [mm] 1011 -

LEVZ Minimum lever arm for VZ [mm] 1011 -

DEFF effective thickness of sectional part [mm] 1011 2A/U

FACE Factor E-modulus for construction stage − 1.0

FACG Factor G-modulus for construction stage − FACE

AG Additional weight [kN/ m] 1191 0.0

NPLC Plastic compressive axial resistance [kN] 1101 *

VYPL Plastic shear y-y resistance [kN] 1102 *

VZPL Plastic shear z-z resistance [kN] 1102 *

MTPL Plastic primary torsional resistance [kNm] 1103 *

MYPL Plastic bending y-y resistance [kNm] 1104 *

MZPL Plastic bending z-z resistance [kNm] 1104 *

MBPL Plastic bimoment resistance kNm2 1105 *

MT2P Plastic secondary torsional resistance [kNm] 1103 *

only have to specify explicit deviations.

AQUA | Input Description

AK defines the area of the equivalent hollow cross section according to Bredt.

This value is used for determining the longitudinal reinforcement and the link

reinforcement due to torsion. However, in general AK should be defined implicitly

by specifying the torsion resisting reinforcements.

An absolute value (0. or positive) can be input for IT. If a negative value is

input, the moment of inertia computed by the program is multiplied by a factor.

The value -0.5, for example, results in a cross section with 50 percent of the

torsional moment of inertia.

YSC and ZSC can define a mandatory centre of rotation or, in case of only one

value, a restraining plane. The literal ’C’ can be used in both cases to set this

ordinate to the value of the center of gravity.

If shear deformations are not to be taken into account, despite a detailed shear

stress evaluation, AY, AZ , AYZ and CMS should be set to ”0.”

For shear force dimensioning in state II, minimum lever arms can be specified

with LEVY and LEVZ, in order to obtain more economical results (e.g. 0.90d) or

cover extreme cases (e.g. moment=0). Positive values are absolute, negative

values are relative to the height or width of the section.

For the analysis of creep and shrinkage effects an effective depth deƒ ƒ is re-

quired. This value is defined by the area of the section A and the length of the

periphery U which has air contact by the formula 2A/U. The air contact ratio

may be defined for the vertices of a polygon and for circles. If not otherwise

stated, outer peripheries will have a ratio of 1.0 and inner peripheries of 0.0.

However you may specify the value for every material within a section via record

SV explicitly.

For construction stages it is possible to define with SV MNO two factors for the

elasticity and the shear modulus. They will be mainly used for the evaluation

of the sectional values. A consistent treating in AQB for all effects is still under

investigation.

In many practical cases it is recommended that the user defines his own plastic

forces and moments or limits the ones computed by AQUA if special consider-

ations are to be taken into account. The latter could easily be achieved either

by a direct input of the plastic value that shall directly overwrite the one com-

puted by AQUA, or by defining a fractional part by means of [ -] resp. [ %] in the

frame of the CadInp language, thus scaling the default one. For example, setting

MBPL to 0.8[ -] would result in AQUA using 80% of the originally computed plas-

tic bimoment. The default for each entry is 1.0[ -] or 100%, i.e. unless explicitly

defined by the user, AQUA would not change the value of a plastic force or a

Input Description | AQUA

moment.

It is worth noting that only characteristic plastic forces and moments could be

defined or altered in such a way. If so, AQUA will produce a corresponding

design value by dividing the input value by the material safety factor.

behavior (different yield strengths in tension and compression), the meaning of

NPLC and NPLT might become of importance. In this case, AQUA would use

the value of NPLT for the plastic axial capacity in tension and NPLC for the fully

compressed plastic section. For none-composite, homogenous sections, only

the input of NPLC is required and applicable to the entire section.

AQUA | Input Description

POLY

TYPE Type of polygon LT O

O Polygon via VERT definition

OPY same symmetric w.r.t y-axis

OPZ same symmetric w.r.t z-axis

RECT centric rectangle

with width/height DY/DZ

REC+ positive rectangle

(eccentric position below)

REC- negative rectangle

(eccentric position above)

GRP Group of a FE-Mesh selected

with SECT FEM

MNO Material number (0 = hole) − (SECT)

or the group to be imported for GRP

ZM coordinate offset for the polygon [mm] 1011 0

DY Size of the rectangle [mm] 1011 !

DZ Size of the rectangle [mm] 1011 !

SMAX Maximum edge length of polygon [mm] 1011 -

EXP Literal of exposure class for that edge Lt4 -

Unless a REC*-type has been selected, the record POLY must be followed by the

input of the polygon vertices with VERT . The sequence of the polygon (clock-

wise or counter-clockwise) has no effect. The polygon will be closed by the pro-

gram automatically. In case of symmetry, the polygon is extended by mirroring

before being closed.

thus defined by a polygon or circle with material number 0. The definition of a

special inner polygon with the same material number or the formerly common

method of combining several polygons (outer perimeter and inner perimeters)

into one single polygon by making two passes along the same edge should be

avoided.

Input Description | AQUA

The input of YM and ZM causes a corresponding shift of the given polygon. The

coordinates of VERT or DVER refer then to the shifted (by YM, ZM) coordinate

system. The symmetry data also refers to the shifted coordinate system. Thu,

similar openings can be generated easily.

rectangle with sides DY and DZ, with its centre or upper or lower midside point

at the coordinates YM,ZM.

AQB prints stresses only in the defined polygon or stress points. Thus a coarse

sub division of longer edges might be useful. This can be done with a value

SMAX or as an alternate way with the value PHI at VERT. However in this case

it is recommended for symmetrical polygons to define additional vertices on the

symmetry axis to allow a subdivision of the closing edges. For the REC*-types

SMAX is preset to DZ/4.

The exposition class EXP allows the definition of special material parameters

(MEXT) to individual poygon edges. The value specified here becomes the de-

fault for that polygon.

AQUA | Input Description

VERT

NO Designation of the polygon vertex Lt4 *

Y Coordinates of the polygon vertex [mm] 1011 0

Z relative to YM, ZM [mm] 1011 0

R Radius [mm] 1011 -

PHI Maximum sector angle Degrees *

TYPE Type of vertex LT *

O Outer perimeter

TP Intersection of tangents

EXP Literal of exposure class / Lt4 *

Degree of air contact (0.0 to 1.0)

from that point

REFD Reference direction point Lt8 *

REFS Reference initial coordinates for templates Lt8 *

(see also POLY)

AQUA generates internal numbers in sequence.

The polygon is defined by the sequence of the vertices, not by their numbers.

The number of points is limited to 255 per polygon.

• for tangential points a fillet is created at that vertex with the given radius. If

the radius is defined negative, a chamfer is created instead with the value of

R used as a distance along the edges.

• for other cases additional points are inserted between this and the previously

defined vertex in order to simulate a circular arc with an angle < 180 degree.

The aperture angle is defined by CTRL HMIN/HTOL. If R is positive, the area

of the polygon will be increased. With an explicit definition of PHI however,

Input Description | AQUA

explicit vertices will be generated. In that case the sign of PHI will define the

orientation of the arc.

the polygons within those areas become non effective for selected forces by the

internal introduction of deductional polygons.

The old method of short cuts within the polygon definition sohould not be used

any more. There non effective points are specified either with the definition of

NEFF or INEF for the TYPE of the vertex or by giving values for YEFF or ZEFF

to introduce additional vertices at these limits automatically.

The sectional values of the total sections are only used for the calculation of

the area as well as the torsional stress and the integral equation solution. All

geometrical moments of inertia are computed based on the effective parts only

(refer to the AQB manual). It is to be noted that the effective width is actually

dependent on the load case and the on the purpose of design.

(MEXT) to individual poygon edges. For the degree of air contact the geometric

mean value is used. i.e. if one of the two vertices of an edge has the degree

0.0, the total edge will have this value.

AQUA | Input Description

CIRC

NO Designation of the circular element Lt4 *

Y Coordinates of the centre point in the [mm] 1011 0

Z reference coordinate system [mm] 1011 0

R Radius of the circle [mm] 1011 -

MNO Material number (composite sections) − (SECT)

0 hole

EXP Literal of exposure class / Lt4 -

Degree of air contact (0.0 to 1.0)

REFD Reference direction point Lt8 -

REFS Reference initial coordinates Lt8 -

REFR Reference radius point Lt8 -

Internal sequential numbering takes place when nothing is input for NO. NO can

be selected arbitrarily. When CIRC is overlapping another material, a whole of

that material is automatically calculated.

Input Description | AQUA

CUT

NO Designation of shear or partial section Lt3 !

YB Ordinates of the cut segment [mm] 1011 *

ZB [mm] 1011 *

YE [mm] 1011 *

ZE [mm] 1011 *

MS Moment perpendicular to section [kNm/ m] 1112 0.

WTM Torsional resistance for the centre 1/ m3 1018 *

WTD Additional resistance for the edges 1/ m3 1018 *

MRF Material no of shear reinforcement − (SV)

LAY Shear reinforcement layer − 1

ASUP Minimum shear reinforcement ∗ *

NONE no output or

M,A,E,MA,ME,AE,MAE

VZFK Partial factor for shear force VZ − *

BMAX Width of the equivalent hollow section ∗/ LT *

BRED Deductible width due to hollow pipes etc. [mm] 1011 0.

CINT Roughness coefficient of construct. joint − *

MUE Friction coefficient of construct. joint − *

SXE ”crack spacing parameter” für AASHTO ∗ 0

TANA Minimum inclination of truss diagonal − -

Table continued on next page.

AQUA | Input Description

REFA Reference point for start point Lt8 -

RFDA Reference direction point for start point Lt8 -

RFSA Reference initial coordinates for templates Lt8 -

for start point (see also POLY)

REFE Reference point for end point Lt8 -

RFDE Reference direction point for end point Lt8 -

RFSE Reference initial coordinates for templates Lt8 -

for end point (see also POLY)

With a CUT one specifies a part of the section to be used for shear design and/or

the minimum reinforcement or crack width of a partial section. The input of

shear sections is necessary for the checking of shear stresses in concrete cross

sections. Without input for CUT, up to two axis parallel sections are defined

through the gravity centre (see CTRL STYP). As these do not necessarily pass

through the smallest width of the tensile zone, a warning is issued when the

user enters complicated polygons without shear sections. It is the responsibility

of the user to define enough shear cuts to account for all unfavourable locations

within a section.

The TYPE of the cut defines some important properties for the design. The

following values are available:

• WEB Web of a cross section

WRED Web with reduced allowed strength

• FLAN Flange of a cross section

FFUL Flange with enhanced strength allowance

• JOIN Construction joint

INDE indented shear joint

ROUG rough shear joint

EVEN even shear joint

SMOO smooth (very even) shear joint

The coefficients CINT and MUE are defined in EN 1992 or DIN 1045-1

(2008). For design according to the old DIN 1045-1 (ch.10.3.6) the value

CINT has to be specified with the value of βct > 1.

• SLAB For special cases (e.g. hollow plates) it is possible to design a cut

Input Description | AQUA

sections, while WEB / FFUL is defining a compact section. There are some

design tasks requiring the knowledge of the minimum web thickness, which is

found by scanning the shear cuts of type WEB.

For DIN 1045 (1978) this info is used to allow the shear region 3. However in this

case, the requested minimum height of 30 cm may override a definition here.

AASHTO 2005 distinguishes for the shear design (5.8.3.) between two alter-

nates depending on the presence of sufficient minimum shear reinforcement. If

less minimum reinforcement should be provided, a ”crack spacing parameter”

has to be specified depending on the maximum aggregate size ag [ mm] and a

maximum distance between longitudinal crack reinforcements s :

35

se = s < 2000mm (3.143)

g + 16

The definition of the sign of the section, its internal forces and torsional resis-

tances can be seen in the following figure. The sign of INCL applies to a rotation

from the bar axis towards the normal direction n. A cut can be defined

parallel to the axis by the input of YB or ZB only. In such cases the literal S can

be used for describing the location of the centre of gravity.

However, the cut can also be defined by the input of multiple segments each with

same identifier NO and two points (YB,ZB) and (YE,ZE). Then every segment

may treat a different material and shear link properties. Intermediate segments

not cutting any part of the section are not to be defined.

AQUA | Input Description

• The separated part is on the left of the cut segment for CTRL FACE POS

(default), where left is taken relative to the direction A-E.

• The separated part is on the right of the cut segment for CTRL FACE NEG,

where right is taken again relative to the direction A-E.

• It is recommended to separate the simpler part of a section. Holes in the

separated parts as well as any additional other parts should be avoided.

They may be properly detected only if defined in the correct sequence.

Input Description | AQUA

Hint: The possibilities shown here for the inner flange can treat a transverse

shear Vy only with the complete methods (CTRL STYP BEM 1 / 2 / 3 or higher).

Additionally for each edge, not only special torsional resistances can be defined

for each edge, but a proportional factor for the shear force as well. This makes it

possible to describe outer dowel joints, reduced web widths, and cuts in multiply

connected sections. These factors specify the portion of the total shear force

V·S/I applied to the partial cut. The integral equation algorithm (CTRL STYP

BEM 1 / 2 / 3) will establish these factors based on the integrals of the shear

stress along the cuts automatically. For a manual definition the sign is very

important and it has to be assured that the sum of the factors is 1.0. If the center

of the separated part has the same ordinates that the center of the section, no

shear can be calculated any more based on the force method.

BMAX defines whether an equivalent hollow cross section should be used (e.g.

for reinforced concrete cross sections). If the cut width is greater than BMAX,

the found cuts are automatically subdivided into two partial cuts, each of them

processing the external width of the equivalent hollow cross section. The width

can be defined directly in m, but two literals can be defined too:

DIN An inscribed circle is estimated due to the area and the moment of

inertia. A sixth of the diameter is used.

The default value of BMAX for steel or wooden sections and multiple cuts from

several CUT records is 999. (no consideration), and for all other cuts EC2 or DIN

depending on the material type. An increase in this value results in a smaller

equivalent cross section, thus leading to greater shear reinforcement but smaller

shear stress. Design of the shear reinforcement only takes place for cuts when

a genuine or an equivalent hollow cross section has been defined.

The following defaults apply for WTM and WTD: If the cross section has inner

perimeters, or an equivalent hollow cross section has been defined by means of

BMAX, then a closed cross section is assumed. WTM is then computed based

AQUA | Input Description

conditions is satisfied, WTM is assumed zero, WTD is set equal to b-min/IT and

the middle output point is omitted.

For precise calculations in accordance with the theory of elasticity, the shear

stress values can be computed by means of the integral equation method (CTRL

STYP BEM 2 / 3).

The effective width for the shear force can be reduced by BRED. This is appro-

priate, for example, when ungrouted ducts weaken the web and the width must

be reduced accordingly.

The forces N and M perpendicular to the cut are only used to describe the stress.

There will be no design for bending and normal force with the links as reinforce-

ment. Thus a tensile force may lower the required link area while the total steel

area becomes higher.

Attention!

In cracked state the reinforcement is used in the shear checks only when it

is situated inside the separated polygon. In particular, a partial area without

reinforcement leads to a shear stress 0.0 if it is in the tensile zone! Therefore

we use a minimum shear stress which is taken from the uncracked state and a

reduction factor based on the lever arms.

The individual segments of one cut are treated separately during the design. The

extreme values of reinforcement of every shear cut, which are stored separately

for each rank of links, are always per physical section, the following rules apply:

forcement has to be placed in every web, The total shear link area is n times

the printed value for n webs.

• If a cut in a compact section intersects the equivalent hollow section twice,

the reinforcement is the double of the most unfavorable segment. This as-

sures, that the total reinforcement is computed by superposition of the shear

and torsion components as required by some design codes.

• Cuts having the same link rank enter the maximum value to the resulting

reinforcement. This value has to be place then in every segment. A typical

case are multiple cuts for the same web referencing the same shear link.

• Cuts having different link ranks enter the results separately for each rank

with the corresponding maximum. Different link ranks should thus always be

used when different reinforcement is to be placed in the individual parts of

the cut, e.g. for multiple webs of a hollow section.

Input Description | AQUA

The minimum reinforcements ASUP may be specified in cm2 / m 1021 which is

referred to the length or with or in cm2 / m2 1022 or as ratio in [-] which is referred

to the length and the width of the cut as specified in most design codes. If not

defined, the default according to the design code will be selected. If ASUP is de-

fined as zero, it will be tried not to use any shear links (slabs and beams of minor

importance). A special minimum reinforcement enlarged by a factor of 1.6 ac-

cording the Nachrechnungsrichtline resp. DIN_EN 1992-1-1 9.5b or DIN 1045-1

13.2.3 (5) as ”articulated sections with pretensioned tensile flanges” requires

the definition of Literal ’PFLA’ for ASUP. As some design tasks require to dis-

tinguish between the minimum and the provided reinforcements, the definition

should specify only the minimum reinforcements.

Special attention should be paid when making shear cuts through composite

cross sections. First, it holds generally that a shear cut should cut through parts

with the same material number. In case a segment cuts through several mate-

rials, one should input several cuts with the same number but different material

numbers. On the other side it has to be checked thoroughly, that all areas not

cut directly are associated to the correct side of the cut.

AQUA | Input Description

ment

PANE

NO Designation of the panel element Lt4 *

YB Coordinates of start point [mm] 1011 (YE)

ZB * Default: YE,ZE of the last element [mm] 1011 (YA)

YE Coordinates of the end point [mm] 1011 YB

ZE [mm] 1011 ZB

T [mm] 1011 -

MNO − (SECT)

Panel thickness

Material number (composite sections)

RFDA Reference direction point for start point Lt8 -

RFSA Reference initial coordinates for templates Lt8 -

for start point (see also POLY)

REFE Reference point for end point Lt8 -

RFDE Reference direction point for end point Lt8 -

RFSE Reference initial coordinates for templates Lt8 -

for end point (see also POLY)

R Radius mm -

PHI Maximum sector angle degree 15

NONE no output or

M,A,E,MA,ME,AE,MAE or NONE

FIXE Location of clamped edge from end ∗ *

TYPE Special Options LT -

NEFF not effective

NCHK no stress check to be applied

Table continued on next page.

Input Description | AQUA

NNCH both options

AS reinforcement positive in cm2 /m cm2 / m 1021 -

ASMA negative in cm2 cm2 1020 -

LAY LT 0

MRF Material number of reinforcement − (SECT)

TORS Torsional action (see Reinforcement) LT ACTI

PASS / ACTI / ADDI

DAS Diameter for crack width [mm] 1023 -

A Distance between the bars [mm] 1011 1[ m]

Uniform normal and shear stresses are generally assumed across the thickness

of thin-walled elements. Therefore the moment of inertia about the longitudinal

axis (B-E) is zero. The shear stresses due to torsion, however, are distributed

linearly across the thickness. The thickness is considered likewise for the max-

imum stress. A mixture of the cross section elements POLY or CIRC inside a

cross section is not permitted.

program does not recognise any penetrations of thin- walled elements. In the

determination of shear stresses, elements are considered to be connected with

each other when their coordinates are no further than 0.5 mm (or snap defined

by CTRL SCUT) apart.

If NO is not specified, then an internal sequential numbering will take place. OUT

AQUA | Input Description

specifies for which points (Middle M,Beginning A,End E) results are requested.

(See AQUA, AQB)

simulate a circular arc (180◦ maximum). The aperture angle is defined as less

than PHI per segment (Default defined by CTRL HMIN/HTOL). The orientation

of the arc is defined by the sign of PHI respective R. Positive values describe an

arc rotating about the positive x-axis.

built-in) and to combine several plates to an integral field. To allow this we have

the convention that plates will be combined if

- do not deviate in thickness more than a factor of 1.25 (may be changed

with CTRL FIXL)

- deviate in their identification only within the 4th character

- do not have stiffeners at the end points

As stiffener we declare all plates intersecting with an angle greater than 45 de-

grees. The length of the plate has no influence. A stiffener will move the location

of the built-in face by the projection of its thickness to the inner of the plate.

The user may define the built-in face with an explicit value measured from the

beginning or the end respectively, which may be defined by the following rules:

- positive values define a support towards the interior of the plate

- negative values define a support outside of the plate. This feature is

necessary to describe fields subdivided in individual plates.

- very large values (larger than the length) or the literal OFF will deacti-

vate the check.

Input Description | AQUA

PLAT

NO Number of the plate element Lt4 *

YB Coordinates of the start point A in the [mm] 1011 *

ZB reference coordinate system [mm] 1011 *

* Default: YE,ZE of the last element

YE Coordinates of the end point E in the [mm] 1011 YB

ZE reference coordinate system [mm] 1011 ZB

T Plate thickness [mm] 1011 -

MNO Material number (composite sections) − (SECT)

RFDA Reference direction point for start point Lt8 -

RFSA Reference initial coordinates for templates Lt8 -

for start point (see also POLY)

REFE Reference point for end point Lt8 -

RFDE Reference direction point for end point Lt8 -

RFSE Reference initial coordinates for templates Lt8 -

for end point (see also POLY)

PHI Maximum sector angle degree 15

NONE no output or

M,A,E,MA,ME,AE,MAE

FIXE Location of clamped edge from end [mm] 1011 *

TYPE Special Options LT -

NEFF not effective

NCHK no stress check to be applied

NNCH both options

AQUA | Input Description

Uniform normal and shear stresses are generally assumed across the thickness

of thin-walled elements. Therefore the moment of inertia about the longitudinal

axis (A-E) is zero. The shear stresses due to torsion, however, are distributed

linearly across the thickness. The thickness is considered likewise for the maxi-

mum stress. A mixture is permitted only with section elements PROF or WELD,

but PROF must be defined as thin-walled.

program does not recognise any penetrations of thin- walled elements. In the

determination of shear stresses, elements are considered to be connected with

each other when their coordinates are no further than 0.5 mm (or snap defined

by CTRL SCUT) apart.

specifies for which points (Middle M, Beginning A, End E) results are requested.

(See AQUA, AQB)

simulate a circular arc (180◦ maximum). The aperture angle is defined as less

than PHI per segment (Default defined by CTRL HMIN/HTOL). The orientation

of the arc is defined by the sign of PHI respective R. Positive values describe an

arc rotating about the positive x-axis.

For a buckling design (c/t, section class 4) it is necessary to know the effective

length c. This value is defined for every plate by the location of the supports,

which may be defined by the following rules:

- positive values define a support towards the interior of the plate

Input Description | AQUA

necessary to describe fields subdivided in individual plates.

- very large values (larger than the length) or the literal OFF will deacti-

vate the check.

PLAT ' 1012 ' -210 0 +210 0 T 10 FIXA -40 FIXE -40

PLAT ' 1013 ' +210 0 +250 0 T 10 FIXA -460 FIXE +0

If the user does not specify distances explicitly, it will be tried to guess the sup-

port condition and to combine consecutive plates to a single field if the following

conditions hold:

- do not deviate in thickness more than a factor of 1.25 (may be changed

with CTRL FIXL)

- deviate in their identification only within the 4th character

- do not have stiffeners at the end points. As stiffener we declare all plates

intersecting with an angle greater than 45 degrees. The length of the

plate has no influence. A stiffener will move the location of the built-in

face by the projection of its thickness to the inner of the plate.

AQUA | Input Description

WELD

NO Designation of the element Lt4 *

YB Coordinates of the beginning point in the [mm] 1011 *

ZB reference coordinate system [mm] 1011 *

* Default: YE,ZE of the last element

YE Coordinates of the end point in the [mm] 1011 YB

ZE reference coordinate system [mm] 1011 ZB

T Effective thickness [mm] 1011 -

MNO Material number (composite sections) − (SECT)

RFDA Reference direction point for start point Lt8 -

RFSA Reference initial coordinates for templates Lt8 -

for start point (see also POLY)

REFE Reference point for end point Lt8 -

RFDE Reference direction point for end point Lt8 -

RFSE Reference initial coordinates for templates Lt8 -

for end point (see also POLY)

This element connects thin-walled section elements PLAT and PROF shear-

resistant, without influencing the section values for bending and normal force.

Thus one can describe:

- Buckling fields of thin-walled sections (T>0)

- Shear bonds in composite sections (T < 0)

- Trussed walls (T < 0)

For real welds the equivalent seam thickness is to be used for T. The element

is then used for the determination of the shear stresses in welds. The use of a

special material number, which is not used otherwise within the section is not

allowed.

For bracing walls the effective thickness T is given through the shear stiffness

Input Description | AQUA

Sd of the frame divided by the product of the WELD-shear modulus and the

length of the shear connection in the section plane. T = Sd /(G·L)

The coordinates of the end points must be placed exactly within 0.5 mm (or snap

defined by CTRL SCUT) to the end points of the corresponding elements.

AQUA | Input Description

PROF

NO Number of the shape / section Lt4 *

TYPE Profile type (see next page) LT IPE

Z1 Identifier of shape ∗ *

Z2 Additional identifier of shape ∗ -

Z3 Additional identifier of shape ∗ -

MNO Material number of shape − (SECT)

YM Coordinates of reference point [mm] 1011 0

ZM [mm] 1011 0

REFP Reference point for total shape Lt8 -

REFD Polar direction of reference point Lt8 -

REFS Reference initial coordinates for templates Lt8 -

(see also POLY)

REFR Reference point for rotation Lt4 -

DTYP Representation − S

T thin-walled

S solid (thick) cross section

TP T positive z ordinates only

SP S positive z ordinates only

(bisected shapes not for L,T,Z

and SH profiles)

TABT thin-walled (light version)

TABS solid (light version)

TATP TP (light version)

TASP SP (light version)

o-o Central symmetry to origin

Table continued on next page.

Input Description | AQUA

y-y Axial symmetry to y axis

z-z Axial symmetry to z axis

QUAD Three times mirroring

C Gravity center

SC Shear center

Y+Z-/Y-Z-/Z- top right/left/middle

Y+/Y-/M right/left/middle

Y+Z+/Y-Z+/Z+ lower right/left/middle

MATI Material of a filling for hollow sections − 0

VB Explicit definition of width B ∗ -

VS Explicit definition of web thickness S ∗ -

VT Explicit definition of flange thickness T ∗ -

VR1 Explicit definition of root radius R1 ∗ -

VR2 Explicit definition of root radius R2 ∗ -

VB2 Explicit defnition of lower width B2 ∗ -

VT2 Explicit lower flange thickness T2 ∗ -

(dimensions are in units, which are stipu-

lated by the profile type)

DIN detailed distribution of DIN

EC simplified values of Eurocode

BCYZ Explicit definition for a buckling stress curve LT *

(see record SECT)

Record PROF may be entered without a preceding SECT. In that case a sec-

tion with the given shape-number NO will be generated. If no AQUA licence

is available or if selected explicitly via DTYP a section with simplified sectional

properties is generated (AQUA-light-version). This is in particular valid for:

no detailed comparative stresses.

AQUA | Input Description

selected you will get a list of possible shapes, if you have selected a shape type

you will get the list of all shapes of that type, if you have selected only partial

identifiers you will get the set of matching shapes.

I Double T-Beam with inclined flanges I 300

DIN 1025 Blatt 1 I 80 to I 600

IPE Double T-Beam with parallel flanges IPE 270

DIN 1025 Blatt 5 IPE 80 bis IPE 600

HE European shapes with parallel flanges HE 300 M

HE 300 B

HE 400 299

HEAA extra light version HEAA 200

HEA wide double T-Beams, light version HEA 300

HEB wide double T-Beams, normal version HEB 200

HEM wide double T-Beams, heavy version HEM 600

HSL extra light type HSL 100

HD wide column shapes HD 320 97.6

HL special large sizes HL 1000 AA

HP wide shapes with uniform thickness HP 220 57.2

UPE Channels with parallel flanges UPE 100

UAP Channels of Arbed Saarstahl UAP 200

T T-shapes with inclined web/flange T 80

TB T-shapes heavy version TB 60

Z Z-shape acc. to DIN 1027 Z 100

L hot formed L-shapes, all identifiers allowed

thickness at second position: L 20 3

thickness at third position: L 90 60 8

CDL cold formed L-shapes, all identifiers allowed

SH hot formed hollow sections (EN 10210-2)

SHC cold formed hollow sections (EN 10219-2)

all identifiers width x height (20 to 600)

thickness at third position

Input Description | AQUA

Hint: there are various variations with different

radii

if needed please specify VR1 and VR2

BAR Round bars according EN 10060 BAR 100

WARM Hot manufactured tubes (EN 10210) WARM 711 8.0

COLD Cold manufactured tubes (EN 10219) COLD 711 8.0

CDS Cold manufactured shapes (EN 10162) CDS 100 80 6

BARQ Quadratic steel bars (EN 10059) BARQ 100

BARF Flat steel bars (EN 10058) BARF 100 10

UB Universal Beam Section of British Steel 3 Identifiers

UC Universal Column Section of British Steel 3 Identifiers

UBP Universal Bearing Pile 3 Identifiers

RSJ Joists 3 Identifiers

WT halfed W-shape

M American M-Shape of AISC 2 Identifiers

MT halfed M-shape

S American S-Shape of AISC 2 Identifiers

ST halfed S-shape

HPus American HP-Shape of AISC 2 Identifiers

C_us American Channels of AISC 2 Identifiers

MCus AISC Miscellaneous Channels of AISC 2 Identifiers

L_us American angles of AISC 3 Identifiers

PIPE American pipes standard / extra / double 2 Identifiers

MBis Indian MB - shape 1 (2) Identifiers

HBis Indian ISHB - shape 1 Identifier

MCis Indian MC - shape 1 Identifier

L_is Indian angle - shape 3 Identifiers

AQUA | Input Description

Shapes according to Australian / New Zealand AS / NZS 4600

UBas UB shapes 2 values

UCas UC shapes 2 values

UBPas UBP shapes 2 values

PFCas PFC shapes 1 values

L_as EA and UA shapes 2 or 3 values

Specify thickness as actual value!

SHas SHS and RHS shapes 3 values

CCas CC shapes (cold formed) 3 values

CAas CA shapes (cold formed) 3 values

Parallel Bending-Shape (GOST 26020) GOST 12 B 2

Parallel Column Shape (GOST 26020) GOST 30 K 3

Parallel high strength shape (GOST 26020) GOST 45 S 2

U_gost Russian U-Shape (GOST 8240) U_GO 30

Parallel U-Shape (GOST 8240) U_GO 30 P

L_gost Russian L-Shape (GOST 8509/8510) L_GO 60 60 8

(See SYM to define singel pile or wall)

LARS Larssen-U-shapes from Hoesch LARS 603

AU Arbed / Arcelor U shapes AU 17

PAL Arcelor cold deformed U-shapes PAL 31 40

PAU Arcelor cold deformed U-shapes PAU 24 50

PU U-Shapes PU 12

L 3S / JSP 3

AZ Arbed Z-Shapes AZ 28

PAZ Arcelor cold deformed Z-Shapes PAZ 55 70

PZ SkylineSteel Z-Shapes PZ 35

Input Description | AQUA

Profiles are primarily tabulated geometric types. Exotic shapes may be defined

via explicit values VD to VR2. But you have to specify a basic type of the shape

and the normally required identifiers in any case. If you select non tabulated

identifiers (e.g. HEM 172), all explicit dimension values have to be specified.

defining the values of the width B and/or the grps T positive or negative: This

input always defines polygons or thin-walled section elements and not any fixed

cross section properties. Therefore the analysis of thin-walled section types is

performed with small deviations from the tabulated cross section values. For

torsional values with very thin shapes with significant fillets, more severe devi-

ations may occur. The default for DTYP is changed to T, if beforehand a thin

walled element in that cross section has been defined. If the profile is included

(oartly or complete) in concrete (also core concrete) a hole in the surrounding

concrete is created automatically unless MREF is specified with zero.

By default profiles are oriented with their legs in the direction of the y and z

coordinate axes, so that the y axis shows the larger moment of inertia. Channels

(U-Profiles) are oriented with their opening to the right. Angles (L-Profiles) stand

like the letter L (height Z1, width Z2, but the values can be interchanged). ALPH

can rotate the cross section about the x axis. When nothing is input for REF, the

reference point of the shape (YM,ZM) is located at the gravity centre for double

T and SH-shapes, left outside at mid-height for Channels, bottom left outside for

Angles and top middle for T-shapes. The coordinates of these reference points

and the angle of rotation may be defined with reference to other points, but the

shape and its size itself may of course not be influenced by other reference

points of. The shapes can be coupled with other cross section elements, but

then the type of element must match. Thus thin walled elements (PANE, PLAT,

WELD) may be combined only with DTYP D profiles, while thickwalled elements

are allowed with DTYP V profiles, overlapping definitions with other materials

AQUA | Input Description

will generate automatic holes. And it must be kept in mind that the transfer of

shear forces for thin walled profiles is only possible at ends, vertices, or at the

centre point (Double T and Channels). In case of solid cross sections the edges

must lie exactly on top of each other. As can be seen in the following example,

the bisected shapes must therefore be positioned on the outer edge of the other

profile’s web.

a) Cross girder made out of 4 bisected HEB 400:

SECT 1

PROF 101 HEB 400 ALPH 0 DTYP T

102 HEB 400 ALPH 90 DTYP T

SECT 1

Input Description | AQUA

180.

102 HEA 300 ZM 145 DTYP TP

WELD 200 150 -7 150 7 14

200 -150 -7 -150 7 =

SECT 1

PLAT 101 120 -106.2 120 106.2 3.6 R $$

-106.2

AQUA | Input Description

-106.2

102 -120 -106.2 -120 106.2 3.6 R $$

-106.2

102 -120 106.2 -120 -106.2 3.6 R $$

-106.2

PLAT 201 120 -110 -120 -110 4.0

202 120 110 -120 110 =

connections

WELD 300 120 110 120 106.2 6.0

300 -120 110 -120 106.2 =

300 120 -110 120 -106.2 =

300 -120 -110 -120 -106.2 =

For the combination of solid polygon items, one has to check that the polygon

components are perfectly aligned with each other along their edges, so that the

shear connection can be identified. For the definition of the following section one

has to stipulate the exact coordinates and the exact height of the second divided

HEM 1000:

PROF 10 HEM 1000 ALPH 0 YM 0.0 ZM 0.0 $$

DTYP S

PROF 11 HEM 1000 ALPH 90 YM +10 .5 ZM 0.0 $$

DTYP SP VD 1008 -21

PROF 12 HEM 1000 ALPH 270 YM -10.5 ZM 0.0 $$

DTYP SP VD 1008 -21

PROF 13 HEM 500 ALPH 0 YM 0.0 ZM -504.0 $$

DTYP SP

PROF 14 HEM 500 ALPH 180 YM 0.0 ZM 504.0 $$

DTYP SP

PROF 15 HEM 500 ALPH 90 YM 504.0 ZM 0.0 $$

Input Description | AQUA

DTYP SP

PROF 16 HEM 500 ALPH -90 YM -504.0 ZM 0.0 $$

DTYP SP

133

132

103 134

102

152 112

123 163

OO

SM

154 114

153 113

122 162

105

144 106

142

143

A defined profile is mirrored three times with SYM QUAD. With the input

The geometry of the shapes can be modelled only roughly. The most important

data is the weight of a single pile Z3 in kg/m and a few more dimensions. AQUA

will create the locks as equivalent solid sections such that the total area (based

on a weight of 7850 kg/m3) is achieved. Input of R1 is the half diameter of the

lock (U-shapes only), R2 is the angle of the web against the horizontal length of

the wall and B2 may be used to specify the width of the ”upper” flanges. For

the sheet piles the input for SYM defines:

AQUA | Input Description

z-z Wall with 1 m width (locks not fixed)

o-o Wall with 1 m width (locks are fixed, only for U shapes)

Input Description | AQUA

SPT

NO Designation of the point Lt4 *

Y Coordinates of the point in the [mm] 1011 0

Z reference coordinate system [mm] 1011 0

WTY Torsional stress tau-xy due to Mt=1 1/ m3 1018 -

WTZ Torsional stress tau-xz due to Mt=1 1/ m3 1018 -

WVY Shear stress tau-xy due to Vy=1 1/ m2 1017 -

WVZ Shear stress tau-xz due to Vz=1 1/ m2 1017 -

SIGY Stress in transverse direction [MP] 1092 -

TEFF Effective thickness [mm] 1011 *

CDYN Notch and loading type LT -

SIGC allowed stress range σ -d(−1) [MP] 1092 *

p

TAUC allowed stress range τ -d(−1) [MP] 1092 σ/ 3

MNO Material number for composite sections − (SECT)

(= 0 if it is a pure reference point)

FIX Degree of restraint for c/t check − -

REFD Reference direction point Lt8 -

REFS Reference initial coordinates for templates Lt8 -

(see also POLY)

Additional output points for normal and shear stresses or arbitrary reference

points may be defined with SPT. The design for fatigue is only possible with those

points. A stress point will create its own stress results in the database visible with

WinGRAF along a beam or may be addressed in MAXIMA for the superposition

of stresses at that point. For most cases the evaluation of maximum stresses

might be sufficiently performed with all polygon vertices and the intermediate

points of the thin walled elements.

If the user does not select stress points, automatic points may be created con-

trolled by CTRL SCUT. For construction stages it should be noted, that these

points will be generated for the final section. If those points will be in a non

AQUA | Input Description

effective part of the section for a single construction stages, no stresses will be

obtained for those points.

The normal stresses can be calculated from the X and Y coordinates using

Swain’s formula.

τz = Mt · Wtz + Vz · Wz (3.144)

r

τ= (τy

2 + τ2 )

z

The stress coefficients will be determined completely for thin walled sections

if the stress point is within a sectional element. If the Integral equations are

active for the shear stress (CTRL STYP BEM) you will get unit shear stress for

all polygon vertices and stress points inside a polygon. For some design tasks

an effective width is needed, which will only be provided automatically for thin

walled sections.

For the fatigue design according to DIN 15018/4132 you may also specify liter-

als for item CDYN indicating the working conditions and notch types (B1W0 to

B6K4) as well as explicit allowed stress values SIGC and TAUC.

For the fatigue design according to DS 804 / DS 805 the notch groups (WI, WII or

WIII as well as KII, KII, KIV, KV, KVI, KVII, KIIX(!), KIX and KX) may be selected.

SIGC and TAUC are as stress sways the double value of those of the first row of

the tables of appendix 6. Precise defaults are available for S 235 and S 355 (DS

804), smaller class values will be treated according to the formulas of DS 805.

Specifying only SIGC and TAUC will select the check of the absolute stress

range as required for solid sections.

For the stress superposition in MAXIMA, the corners and edge-mid points of the

encased rectangle will be available for all sections without the need of a SPT

definition.

For a plate buckling design via a c/t ratio it is necessary to define the effective

thickness TEFF and two stress points with identical identifier describing the end

points of the plate. The points have to be defined at the mid line at the location

of the built in effect. For a free end the definition FIX FREE can be given.

Input Description | AQUA

NEFF

TYPE Not effective for (any combination from:) Lt4 YZN

N Normal force

Y,MZ y-ordinate = bending Mz

Z,MY z-ordinate = bending My

V without interpolated vertices

SIG automatic based on stresses

YMIN Start ordinate of the NEFF region [mm] 1011 -9999

ZMIN Start ordinate of the NEFF region [mm] 1011 -9999

YMAX End ordinate of the NEFF region [mm] 1011 +9999

ZMAX End ordinate of the NEFF region [mm] 1011 +9999

MNO Material number (no definition = all) − -

WIDT optional thickness of a rectangle [mm] 1011 -

NO Designation of the non effective part Lt4 1

SMAX stress in point (YMAX,ZMAX) [MP] 1092 SMIN

RFDI (YMIN,ZMIN) Lt4 -

RFSI Lt4 -

REFA References for the point Lt4 -

RFDA (YMAX,ZMAX) Lt4 -

RFSA Lt4 -

walled section to be non effective for different types of forces or moments. The

default NYZ, deactivating all longitudinal stress components is the correct choice

for elements which are not effective at all (e.g. local buckling). If the non uniform

distribution of longitudinal stresses is to be modeled, the normal force should

remain effective. AQB uses the total section for the normal force due to prestress

and all creep and shrinkage evaluations. For the shear stiffness the total section

is used in all cases, but the non effective parts have a constant shear stress due

AQUA | Input Description

the windows overlap, so this must be avoided.

For the definition of the NEFF-area it is possible to define the corner points

(ymin,zmin) and (ymax,zmax) of a rectangular window or with a specification of

WIDT a rectangle along a line from (ymin,zmin) to (ymax,zmax).

The NEFF window will create additional polygon vertices for the entries and exits

points. This option may be deactivated with an extra character "‘V"’ appended to

the TYPE. For NEFFs defined within a construction stages this option is always

enforced.

For sections of class 4 the procedure in the design code deactivates the non

effective areas beforehand.

357.14

-357.14

This can be facilitated by defining non effective areas in AQUA beforehand al-

lowing a simple stress check or even an interaction of ultimate forces in AQB.

general an iterative process. AQUA does not use sectional forces to be used for

a not yet existing section but an explicit stress distribution The most simple case

is to assume a maximum uniform compressive stress, just by selecting SMIN

without any coordinates. (EN 1993-1-5 4.3 (3))

For uni-axial bending the stress is defined by just two points on the principal axis

hitting the elastic center of the section.

But even for bi-axial bending the stress plane may be defined by just two points

if we require that the stress does not vary perpendicular to the connecting stress

defining line. The exact values may be obtained from an iterative analysis with

Input Description | AQUA

SMIN(YMIN,ZMIN)

Figure 3.62: Stress definition with two points on the stress line perpendicular to

the neutral line

σ = E · [ε0 + (z − zs ) · ky − (y − ys ) · kz

(3.145)

The stress for two arbitrary points (not required to be within the section) sym-

metric to the centroid along the stress line may be taken as

σmn (ys − · kz , zs + · ky ) = E · ε0 + · ky2 + · kz2 (3.146a)

σm (ys + · kz , zs − · ky ) = E · ε0 − · ky2 − · kz2 (3.146b)

r

= h/ ky2 + kz2 (3.146c)

beams with a reference axis.

These NEFF are effective for thin walled sections and solid section with defined

c/t-stress points.

AQUA | Input Description

WPAR

CS Construction stage no − 0

KR Absolute roughness [mm] *

default according to material (MEXT)

ICE Thickness of ice cover or marine growth [mm] 1011 0

TRAF Height of additional area of wind attack due [mm] 1011 0

to traffic

YMIN Explicit dimensions of wind attack area [mm] 1011 *

YMAX (* = dimension of section) [mm] 1011 *

ZMIN [mm] 1011 *

ZMAX [mm] 1011 *

YREF Reference point for Windforces [mm] 1011 *

ZREF (* = Half of height/width) [mm] 1011 *

For the analysis of wind loading you may specify different parameters of the wind

loading for construction stages. This is mainly the wind attack area due to ice,

traffic and building extensions. The effectiveness of these definitions has to be

aligned to the selection of reference length in record WIND.

The reference point of the wind forces will be by default in the geometric midpoint

of the section. Its location relative to the shear center of the section may create

extra torsional moments. In special cases you may even redefine the complete

set of wind coefficients. The selected CS-number is valid for all consecutive

stages selected in SOFiLOAD with a group.

Input Description | AQUA

WIND

ALPH Angle for load application (-180≤ α ≤180) Degrees *

or type of derivative: LT

H1, H2, H3, H4, A1, A2, A3, A4

CWY Lateral drag coefficient cd − *

CWZ Vertical lift coefficient cl − *

CWT Torsional moment coefficient cm − *

REF Reference dimension LT BH

B always the width

H always the height

BH H for CWY, B for CWZ, BH for CWT

WB as B but in rotated reference

WH as H but in rotated reference

WBH as BH but in rotated reference

CLAT Transverse driving coefficient − 0.8

S Strouhal number − 0.15

VR0 reduced velocity U/ (ƒ · B) − -

V0 and values of the derivative − -

... with up to 20 pairs per record

VR19 − -

V19 − -

The force coefficients are needed for the calculation of wind or wave loads in

dependence of the flow direction. For circular sections very detailed values are

known depending on the Reynolds number and roughness and available within

the programs. But there are some explicit definitions possible (e.g. cables al-

ways with Cd = 1.2). As there are no directional dependencies in that case, a

single record is sufficient and the resulting force is given by the equation from

Morrison:

1 ∂U

Fd = ρ · Cd · B · U2 + ρ · Chyd · A · (3.147)

2 ∂t

AQUA | Input Description

These force components act always in the flow direction. If a value for cz is

specified, this force is calculated with the absolute value of the cosine, allowing

to describe simple cases also with a single record.

For other section types more complex force coefficients may be needed, defining

forces transverse to the flow direction or torsional moments depending on the

angle of attack of the flow. Than CWY to CWT have to be defined depending on

an angle. These values have to be stipulated according to an angle sequence.

Curves are extended for angles outside the range 0 to 90 or 0 to -180, if they

were not defined explicitly for this range. More than a total of 99 values will not

be permitted however. For rectangular sections and standard steel shapes again

detailed values are known and available as default. For the latter interpolating

curves are generated automatically.

cause the literature often uses very different coefficients. In wind engineering

the generally used coordinate system is to align the x-axis in wind direction and

the z-axis vertical to the top:

• The angle for load application is the angle against the (lateral) local y-axis

of the cross section. 0 degrees correspond to an angle from left to right in

negative direction of the y-axis, +90 degrees from below to above in direction

of negative z-axis. This definition corresponds to the normal designations,

yielding forces in negative direction with the positive signs of the force coef-

ficients.

+ cwz

α < 0° + cwt

y

WI N D α = 0° + cwy

α > 0°

z

Figure 3.63: Angle of attack of wind

• The References WB, WH and WBH are similar to their counterparts without

the W, but the coefficients CWY and CWZ are in wind direction and trans-

verse upwards as measured in a wind tunnel. They are converted to the

values of the schema mentioned above.

flow simulations. In order to expand the band width with regard to smaller

modifications (e.g. ice arrangement), the flow areas for lateral and vertical

flows are recommended to determine separately. For torsion both dimen-

sions are then used. Thus is valid:

Input Description | AQUA

+ cl + cl

+ cm + cm

α < 0° α > 0°

y y

WI N D + cd + cd

z z

pz = − q · cz · (ym − ymn)

(3.148)

mt = − q · ct · (ym − ymn) · (zm − zmn)

pt = − q · ct · (zm − zmn)

These definitions seem to be strange, with an input to REF one can also stipulate

either the height or the width as reference for all coefficients. It has to be stated

however, that this will disable a sound interpolation and some of the WPAR

effects. The reason is that for an interpolation of a section the wind coefficients

will not be interpolated but copied from the start section. Thus, if the values are

all taken on the width, a change of the height will not change any wind force.

Many values specified in the literature may be generalized easily if defined with

the REF BH.

Scanlan. For every defined angle up to eight consecutive records with up to 20

data pairs may be defined.

1 ξ0 Bα 0 ξ

L

Fm = 2

ρU B KH1 + KH2 + K H3 α + K H4

2 2

(3.149)

2 U U B

1 ξ0 Bα 0 ξ

M

Fm = ρU B2 2

KA1 + KA2 + K A3 α + K A4

2 2

(3.150)

2 U U B

All these values are thus referenced on the total chord width b. When importing

data it has to be taken care or the fact, that Scanlan used the half chord B

and his vertical force is defined positive downwards. Thus not only the values

have to be corrected, but also the sign of H2,H3,A1 and A4 has to be changed.

The derivatives of the specified wind coefficients are used to create asymptotic

values of the curves for static loading (K=0).

AQUA | Input Description

LAY

NO Number of layer (0-9) − 0

TID optional text identifier of layer Lt4 -

TYPE Type of layer LT *

MIN Minimum reinforcement

OPT optional reinforcements

SEQ sequential reinforcements

MRF Material number of reinforcement − (SECT)

all elements of a single layer will be activated in total to achieve a useful distribu-

tion for all layers together.To achieve this in a consistent manner, all elements of

layer must have the same material and type and should be activated in the same

embedding material and construction stage. This is achieved easily by specify-

ing a LAY before defining the elements. The definition of a short text (TID) may

be used to clarify the location of the layer for the print. The default for TYPE is

MIN for Layer 0 and 9 for all other layers.

The reinforcement elements and its distribution are defined by means of five

parameters. The diameter should be always defined.

ASMA is the maximum reinforcement in the same unit (if only ASMA

is defined, AS = ASMA will be assumed.)

LAY is the ident of the layer type (M for type MIN, S for type SEQ, Z

for type OPT) and the layer number (0-9).

The default is taken from the preceding LAY record.

D is the diameter of an individual bar

A is the distance between the bars or the number of bars.

DIST The distribution of the bars within the element

In general, all reinforcements are saved as single bars to allow unlimited usage

of the sections for non linear design. Several possibilities for the distribution are

Input Description | AQUA

EVEN generates a bar in the middle of all segments, thus all areas

have the same weight.

FULL generates bars at the start and end point and between

INS omits the start and end point.

ADJA omits the end point only.

ADJE omits the start point only.

NONE generates a distributed line or circular reinforcement.

The following scheme shows the distribution of the reinforcement bars e.g. in

the case of the partitioning of the line reinforcement in four segments:

B E

EVEN

FULL

INS

ADJA

ADJE

not recommended any more. In that case a reinforcement/length is created with

AS/A, where A is preset to 1.0. A total reinforcement value may be obtained for

this special case with A=0.0.

In all other cases of DIST the value of A is preset with the maximum reinforce-

ment bar distance specified in the INI-file, respective a maximum distance of

400 mm. Negative definitions of A will be taken directly as number of bars.

For the reinforcement area and especially to distinguish the behaviour with an

interpolated section three cases are distinguished, controlled primarily by the

definition of a specific unit.

mm2 defines the total reinforcement area

mm2 / m defines the grade of reinforcements

[−] defines a factor on the single bar with Diameter D

(Units [o/ o] and [o/ oo] have the same effect)

If AS is not defined, the total area of reinforcements will be obtained by the count

on the generated single bars.

The three most important variants of the input of a line reinforcement with rein-

AQUA | Input Description

forcement AS and the maximum reinforcement ASMA are realized in the cross

section editor. The corresponding inputs for AQUA are:

DIST EVEN $ $

D 20 A 4 [ -]

Over a line length of 440 mm 4 reinforcing bars with the diameter 20 are

generated respectively in the middle of the four segments. The reinforce-

ment AS which is to be considered is used automatically with 12.56 cm2 .

The maximum reinforcement ASMA can be input with cm2 .

2. Input of the reference length A and of a grade of reinforcements AS,ASMA

DIST EVEN $ $

D 20 A 100.

should be considered respectively in the middle of the corresponding seg-

ment using the reference length A 100 mm. In this case the program de-

termines four segments with a length of 110 mm. Without an explicit input

the program generates automatically 3.14 cm2 per reinforcement bar for

the reinforcement AS. This corresponds to a grade of reinforcement AS of

28.56 cm2 / m . The maximum reinforcement can be input with cm2 / m .

3. Input of the reference lenght A and a total reinforcement area for AS,ASMA

DIST EVEN $ $

D 20 A 100. AS 12.56 cm2

reinforcement area of 12.56 cm2 (corresponds to 4 diameter 20) is given

for a diameter 20. In this case the progam determines four segments of

110 mm with a reinforcing bar in the middle of a segment with 3.14 cm2 .

The maximum reinforcement can be defined also in cm2 .

For the definition of perimetric reinforcements the first variant of the input of the

reinforcement with the quantity of the reinforcing bars is not possible. In the

cross section editor the variants 2 and 3 are available for the definition of the

reinforcement in analog mode.

Input Description | AQUA

The ratios of the layers to each other are controlled by the layer type. There are

layers with the minimum reinforcement (MIN, M0 - M9) and optional layers (OPT,

Z0-Z9). M-layers have minimum reinforcement and, in the absence of any other

instructions, they are laid by at least the specified AS values. On the other hand,

Z-layers may be not activated at all. The layer number has no influence on the

selection of a particular layer by the dimensioning program. For ideal sectional

values in AQUA only the minimum values of the reinforcements will be used.

If, however, processing in the order of the layer numbers is desired, the layer

numbers S0 - S9 should be used as a special case. S-layers cannot be used

in combination with M- or Z-layers. As an exception to this rule, however, a

minimum reinforcement can be defined for the lowest layer by M0.

For special detailing purpose it is also possible to define shear links with the

layers B1 to B31 at LRF, CRF or CURF. For the analysis these definitions are

used only for presetting some values for CUT.

Each layer is allowed to have only one material number. For the further pro-

cessing to be consistent, it is also useful that every one layer lies only in one

material number since only then the right deduction areas or equivalent cross

section values can be determined.

Reinforcement with the same layer number is always laid in proportion to the

input AS-values. In general each layer can only be increased to the value where

its first reinforcement reaches its maximum value.

- symmetric reinforcement

Compression and tension reinforcement are defined symmetric with re-

spect to the gravity centre of the cross section and with the same layer

number. Minimum reinforcement requires layer type M.

- non-symmetric reinforcement

Compression and tension reinforcement are assigned different layer

numbers.

The keyword TORS and the literal ACTI/ADDI can be used for each reinforce-

ment element to indicate that this reinforcement should be used for torsion. This

has the following effects:

AQUA | Input Description

compared to the total active (ACTI and ADDI) areas divided by the periphery

length and is then made available with an increase of the involved layers.

The torsional reinforcement elements do not need to have the same layer

number (e.g. top/bottom). In case of an increase due to torsion, however,

each layer is increased as a whole, including reinforcements not activated

for torsion.

• Only the reinforcements designated with ACTI define the equivalent Bredt’s

box with its area. AQUA establishes itself a reasonable sequence of the ele-

ments and checks the defined area against the cross section area. The result

may be checked as shear section ”AKT” in the ResultViewer. If needed you

may change it with an explicit value with SVAL AK.

inforcement directly in cm2 /m or in the form of single points with discrete spacing.

For the efficiency of the entire box the entire effective reinforcement is distributed

about the entire perimeter. Thus it is the users responsibility to check that the

predetermined distribution is sufficient for the torsional loading.

Crack Widths

The item AR can be used for each reinforcement element in order to introduce

additional properties for checking the crack width. D specifies already the di-

ameter for which the crack width must be maintained. AR defines the reference

area for a single check of the crack width, as required for instance by DIN 4227

10.2 Section 3. Here AR defines the reinforcement ratio μ-z by means of:

(AS · ƒ ctor)

μ−z = (3.151)

AR

Input Description | AQUA

RF

NO Designation of the element Lt4 *

Y Coordinates of the point [mm] 1011 0

Z in the sectional coordinate system [mm] 1011 0

AS Reinforcement cm2 1020 -

ASMA Maximum reinforcement cm2 1020 -

for more details see Reinforcement

MRF Material number of reinforcement − (LAY)

TORS Torsional contribution LT PASS

PASS no contribution

AKTI fully active

ADDI partially active

i.e. active but not defining Akt

D Diameter [mm] 1023 -

AR Reference area for cracked widths m2 1012

TEMP Temperature for hot design degC *

REFD Reference direction point Lt8 -

REFS Reference initial coordinates for templates Lt8 -

(see also POLY)

If a FEM section with a temperature field has been selected, the temperatures

TEMP will be interpolated from that mesh. If the master section is within the

same data base, a definition of RF without coordinates will import all the rein-

forcements matching the selection criteria specified wit NO (e.g. "‘A?" or "‘*").

AQUA | Input Description

LRF

NO Designation of the reinforcement line Lt4 *

YB Coordinates of the start point [mm] 1011 *

ZB in the sectional coordinate system [mm] 1011 *

YE Coordinates of the end point [mm] 1011 YB

ZE in the sectional coordinate system [mm] 1011 ZB

AS Reinforcement cm2 1020 -

ASMA Maximum reinforcement cm2 1020 *

for units and details see Reinforcement

MRF Material number of reinforcement − (LAY)

TORS Torsional contribution LT PASS

PASS no contribution

AKTI fully active

ADDI partially active

i.e. active but not defining Akt

D Diameter [mm] 1023 -

A Reference length for AS and ASMA [mm] 1011 1.0[ m]

or number of bars / [−]

DIST Distribution of bars LT EVEN

AR Reference area for cracked widths [mm] 1011 -

RFDA Reference direction point for start point Lt8 -

RFSA Reference initial coordinates for templates Lt8 -

for start point (see also POLY)

REFE Reference point for end point Lt8 -

RFDE Reference direction point for end point Lt8 -

RFSE Reference initial coordinates for templates Lt8 -

for end point (see also POLY)

Input Description | AQUA

[mm] 1011

Default

R Radius for arrangement in arc -

PHI Angle for arrangement in arc Degrees 15.

b b

The default for YB and ZB are the last defined values of YE and ZE of the

previous line reinforcement.

If a radius is input, then single reinforcement points are defined on the arc ( <

180 degree) above the defined chord. For each segment the aperture angle is

set smaller than PHI (default from CTRL HMIN/HTOL), the orientation of the arc

is defined by the sign of PHI or R.

The points are always arranged in the middle of the considered sectors. Hence,

the beginning and the end point of the arc are not reinforcement points. If an

angle of 180 degrees is subdivided into 30-degree segments, the single points

lie at angles 15, 45, 75 as well as 105, 135 and 165 degrees.

AQUA | Input Description

CRF

NO Designation of the reinforcement circle Lt4 *

Y Coordinates of the center of the circle [mm] 1011 0

Z in the sectional coordinate system [mm] 1011 0

R Radius of the reinforcement circle [mm] 1011 -

PHI Single angle Degrees -

AS Reinforcement cm2 1020 -

ASMA Maximum reinforcement cm2 1020 *

Units and details see Reinforcement

MRF Materialnumber of reinforcement − (LAY)

TORS Torsional contribution LT PASS

PASS no contribution

AKTI fully active

ADDI partially active

i.e. active but not defining Akt

D Diameter [mm] 1023 -

A Reference length of AS and ASMA [mm] 1011 1.0[m]

or number of bars / [−]

DIST Distribution of bars LT EVEN

AR Reference area for crack widths [mm] 1011 -

PHI Angle for arrangement in arc Degrees 15.

REFD Reference direction point Lt8 -

REFS Reference initial coordinates for templates Lt8 -

(see also POLY)

REFR Reference radius point Lt4 -

When PHI is input, only a single reinforcement point is created at the corre-

Input Description | AQUA

AQUA | Input Description

CURF

H Inset of reinforcement from perimeter cm/ mm -

EXP Literal of the exposure class Lt -

adds to H the values defined at MEXT with

CNOM+D/2

AS Reinforcement cm2 1020 -

ASMA Maximum reinforcement cm2 1020 -

for units and details see Reinforcement

MRF Materialnumber of reinforcement − (LAY)

TORS Torsional contribution LT PASS

PASS no contribution

ACTI fully active

ADDI partially active

D Diameter [mm] 1023 -

A Distance of bars [mm] 1011 *

DIST Distribution of bars LT EVEN

AR Reference area for cracked widths [mm] 1011 -

CURF can be used to define circumferential reinforcement for the last defined

polygon. The distance may be defined by two components, a constant offset

H and a variant cover defined for the material with MEXT CNOM. Any input for

EXP will add the value CNOM+D/2 for all edges. If no CNOM is defined only H

is used as true cover.

For the exposition class a match is defined using the wild card rules. Thus if

all edges should be treated a value of "‘*"’ or equivalent has to be specified.

Any other definition will create a reinforcement only for those edges matching

the selection criteria. Thus it is possible to define different reinforcements for

different edges. The definitions for the distribution DIST will be applied for any

connected number of edges.

Input Description | AQUA

The value of A specifies the maximum distance of the generated single rein-

forcements. However, unless DIST INS is specified, at least one reinforcement

bar is placed at each corner. The meaning of AS, ASMA may be pre length, in

total or by bar and are controlled by the unit (eg. mm2 or cm2 / m). If definition

of A as number of bars is not possible here. The use of the line reinforcement

LRF with the radius R and the angle PHI is recommended for polygonal circles

instead of the perimetric reinforcement.

Because it is useful for the design method that the centre of reinforcement co-

incides with the centre of the cross section, AQUA attempts to change the re-

inforcement distribution with a least-square method so that this aim is fulfilled.

The sum of the perimetric reinforcement is kept unchanged, however the rein-

forcement densities are increased or decreased at the single edges. With CENT

0.0 or definition of AS as per bar the method can be deactivated.

AQUA | Input Description

TVAR

NAME Name of a variable Lt16 !

VAL Value of the variable or Lt64 !

expression in the format ”=expression”

SCOP Scope of variable − *

If specified, the variable will be saved to the

database

CMNT Comment to the variable Lt32 -

SOFiSTiK variables, defined via STO# or LET# are globally valid. For more

complex tasks like template section generation, it becomes necessary to define

variables valid only within a scope. TVAR allows a very general definition of

those numeric variables within a freely selectable scope. The definition of literals

or the definition of tables or functions is not possible.

TVAR without the definition of a scope saves the value for the current section.

Thus the use of this variable becomes possible for template formulas even if

that variable is not defined globally. Multiple definitions should be used for very

special cases only.

• Highest Rank have variables defined along an axis during interpolation along

the axis.

• Secondary rank have all variables defined in public scopes (0 to 99999),

either with CADINP and LET# or with TVAR and an explicit scope.

• Finally for all variables the default-value will become effective, which is the

value which has been defined at the time when the section has been created.

If no other scope has been used, this will be the value defined with TVAR for

the section. These values are saved with the section in the database and

will be updated with every INTE command.

The name of the variable may be followed by a simple numerical index. For VAL

it is also allowed to specify a list of up to 8 values, which will be then assigned

to the following indices:

Input Description | AQUA

TVAR ALF '= ARC ( ATN ( +#INC , +1 ) ) , ARC ( ATN ( - #INC , -1) ) ' $$

SCOP 1

called boxed values. They are defined in the INI files in general. A survey of the

accepted names is given in the file master.ini.

For special cases, these values may be defined with TVAR. If for example a

reduction of the elasticity modulus for the CALC curve is required, it is possible

to specify factors ALF-CE and GAM-CE :

TVAR GAM - CE 1.25 SCOP DESI

AQUA | Input Description

INTE

NO Number of new section −/ LT !

ADD Insert a section definition

ALL Rebuild all cloned sections

NS0 Number of 1st reference section − -

NS1 Number of 2nd reference section −/ LT -

S Interpolation or station value − -

NREF Number of a beam reference axis − -

ICS Shift of construction stages − 0

ICS2 − *

...

ICS9 − *

will change the coordinates of a master section either by interpolation with a

second section or by variables along an axis. In a second step all defined ref-

erence rules of the master section will be applied. All non geometric data is

taken from the master section, thus the interpolation between two sections will

not necessarily be identical if the sections are exchanged.

• If NO is defined as Literal ADD, an already defined or newly interpolated

section section will be inserted within the current section definition. This is

especially useful for those cases where sections exist from a general import

and have to be amended with additional data.

• Just copy a section definition. For a cross section template currently defined

variables (TVAR) may be evaluated. This method is selected by entering

NS0 only. If an identical copy is wanted NS1 may be defined as literal CLON.

• You may use linear interpolation between two sections having an identical

layout. For this method two cross section numbers and an interpolation factor

Input Description | AQUA

• Last but not least you may extrude a cross section template NS0 with ref-

erence points along a general curved axis. This is selected by entering a

reference number NREF of the beam axis, the common station value S for

all the axes and the reference cross section NS0.

With all methods, the construction stage numbers may be canged with a defini-

tion of ICS to ICS9. If only ICS is defined all higher construction stages will be

shifted accordingly.

You may also work on all sections marked as to be interpolated in the database,

by specifying a section number NO as ALL or zero. Depending on the speci-

fication of NREF, all sections along that axis or along all available axis will be

treated. When performing this action AQUA will use free section numbers above

100 and above the cross section template for the new sections. These sections

are deleted and reassigned if this procedure is repeated and will be printed in

detail only if ECHO SDEF EXTR is given.

AQUA will check the generated sections against duplicates and may use a sec-

tion multiple times. A definition of INTE 0 1 will suppress this behaviour.

sections, however only the geometric definitions will be inserted into the current

section.

AQUA | Input Description

IMPO

MAT Number of a material ( ALL = all) −/ LT -

SECT Number of a section ( ALL = all) −/ LT ALL

FROM Name of a database to read from Lt255 !

TO specify a new section number − -

CS a new first construction stage − -

With the record IMPO you may import materials and sections from a database to

the current project database. The imported sections may obtain a new section

number and the first construction stage may be shifted to a different number.

The import is done before any other input data is treated, an imported section

therefore thus may have a different type of material with the same number. An

import of materials will delete all existing materials and sections unless CTRL

REST 2 has been defined before the IMPO-record.

Input Description | AQUA

EXPO

MAT Number of a material ( 0 = all) − 0

SECT Number of a section ( 0 = all) − 0

TO Name of a file to write to Lt96 *

PASS Password of the CDB to be exported Lt16 -

With the record EXPO you may export the materials and sections in the

database to an input file for AQUA. This may be useful in special cases. If MAT

or SECT is defined negative, then the export of materials and cross sections is

deactivated respectively.

If the filename is not specified the data will be appended to the most recently

defined file or a file with the name project_AQU.DAT is generated.

The units of the values will be set to the current setting of UNIE from record

PAGE. The language of the new file will be the same as the current CADINP

input file.

AQUA | Input Description

ECHO

OPT A literal from the following list: LT FULL

MAT Material parameters

SNO Saving options at section

SECT Cross section elements

REFP Generated elements and refer-

ences

SDEF Cross section values restart

SYST System statistic

PICT Properties of Pictures

IEQ Edges of the topological analysis

WIND Wind coefficients

SPRI Spring characteristic curves

BORE Bore profile values

FULL Select all options

OFF nothing computed / output

NO no output

YES regular output

FULL extensive output

EXTR extreme output

VAL2 Additional value − -

In case of no ECHO input all options are set to YES (ECHO MAT has NO). The

input of the option alone is therefore sufficient for increasing the value to FULL.

The record name ECHO must be entered for every record.

MAT

NO Only name of design code and materials

YES Material constants

Input Description | AQUA

EXTR Plus thermal and hydraulic material constants

The ECHO-options may be defined anywhere in the data record, the last defi-

nition will be applied to all sections. However it is possible with a definition of

ECHO SNO n1 n2 to remember the currently active values for the print out of

sections n1 to n2.

SECT

YES Overview of cross section values only

FULL Plus the most important values for each cross sec-

tion

EXTR Plus the individual elements of the cross section

added

REFP

NO No printout

YES For section templates all references of coordinates

are added to the printout

FULL The generated reinforcement bars will be printed

EXTR The generated FE-points will be printed

SDEF

YES The cross sections which have been input in this cal-

culation run only

FULL plus the unmodified cross sections in the database

EXTR plus all interpolated sections

SYST

YES Statistics of total sum of sections and masses in the

system (only available for restart)

PICT

NO No pictures to be included

YES Nice pictures with shading

FULL Contours including basis static elements

EXTR Detailed picture including labels

With input VAL2 one may switch from the automatic orientation

to an explicit orientation of the sectional coordinate system. For

the values from 1 to 4, the y-axis is aligned to the left-hand side,

downwards, to the right-hand side, upwards. Other values are

AQUA | Input Description

IEQ

NO No additional printout

FULL Detailed printout of the analyzed topology of the sec-

tion for the mesh generation or the integral equation

method.

WIND only in connection with ECHO QUER

NO No output

YES Values and graphic of the wind coefficients

SPRI

NO No output

YES Values and graphic of the spring characteristic curve

BORE

NO No output

YES Table with the bore profile values

Description of Output | AQUA

4 Description of Output

The output begins with the information about the used design code:

Default design code is ... The used design code is output here.

class The class input at NORM CAT is printed

here

(e.g. safety class according to the design

code).

Altitude above sea level

Wind zone

Snow load zone

Earthquake zone

Only the material numbers with the material designations are printed with the

default ECHO MAT NO. The tables of material properties are output with ECHO

MAT YES.

Youngs-modulus Elastic modulus for deformation analysis

(DIN 1045-1 Ecm !)

Poisson-Ratio Poisson’s ratio

Shear-modulus Shear modulus

Compression modulus Compression modulus

Weight Specific weight

Weight buoyancy for soil mechanics only

Temp.elongat.coeff. Temperature elongation coefficient

Young-modulus E-90 Anisotropic elastic modulus

Poisson Ratio m-90 Anisotropic Poisson’s ratio

Nordic angle Meridian angle of anisotropy

AQUA | Description of Output

Safetyfactor Material safety

calc strength fy Design strength

ult. strength ft Ultimate strength

Concrete Material

Nomin. strength fcn Nominal strength (cube or cylinder

strength)

Tens. strength fctm Middle tensile strength

5% t. strength fctk Fractile of tensile strength

95% t. strength fctk Fractile of tensile strength

Bond strength fbd

Service strength

Fatigue strength

Steel Material

Compr.yield val. fyc Compression yield value

Tens. strength ft Tensile strength

Compr.strength fc Compression strength

Ultim. plast. strain Ultimate strain

relative bond coeff. Relative bond coefficient

EC2 bondcoeff. K1 Bond coefficient K1 from EC2

Hardening modulus

Propotional limit

Dynamic stress range

max. thickness Maximum material thickness

Relaxation at .55ft Relaxation coefficient at 0.55·ft

Relaxation at .70ft Relaxation coefficient at 0.70·ft

Description of Output | AQUA

Timber Material

Tensile strength ft,0 Tensile strength in fibre direction

Tensile strength ft,90 Tensile strength vertical to fibre direction

Compr.strength fc,0 Compressive strength in fibre direction

Compr.strength fc,90 Compressive strength vertical to fibre di-

rection

Shear strength fv Shear strength

Shear strength fv,T Torsional strength

Masonry / Brickwork

Compressive strength

Tens. strength ft Tensile strength

Shear strength fv

Adhesional strength

Tensile brick strength

Material No. Material number and material designation

Nonlinear Material

Yield stress fy

Hardening modulus

Viscosity law

Exponent creep law

Viscosity

AQUA | Description of Output

Friction angle

Cohesion

Tensile strength ft

Dilatancy angle

Compressive strength

Ultim. plast. strain Ultimate plastic strain

ultimate frict. angle Ultimate friction angle

ultimate cohesion

Viscosity law

Exponent creep law

Viscosity

Friction angle

Cohesion

Tensile strength ft

Dilatancy angle

Compressive strength

Ultim. plast. strain Ultimate plastic strain

ultimate frict. angle Ultimate friction angle

ultimate cohesion

Friction angle

Cohesion

Tensile strength ft

Dilatancy angle

Compressive strength

reloading modulus

Exponent

ultimate factor

Reference pressure

Description of Output | AQUA

Swelling isotropic Isotropic swelling moduus

min. stress limit

equilibrium stress

Viscous retardation

Fault friction angle

Fult cohesion

Fault tens. strength Fault tensile strength

Fault dilatation

Nordic angle

Inclination angle

Fault friction angle

Fault cohesion

Fault tens. strength Fault tensile strength

Fault dilatation

Nordic angle

Friction angle

Cohesion

Tensile strength ft

Dilatancy angle

Compressive strength

Friction angle

Cohesion

Tensile strength ft

Dilatancy angle

Compressive strength

Ultim. plast. strain Ultimate plastic strain

AQUA | Description of Output

ultimate cohesion

Parameter P1

Parameter P2

Tensile strength ft

Parameter P4

Compressive strength

Ultim. plast. strain Ultimate plastic strain

Parameter P7

Parameter P8

Parameter P1

Parameter P2

The defined stress-strain curves are output by ECHO MAT FULL. With ECHO

MAT EXTR, the standard curves are output as well:

sig-m (MPa) Stress-strain for serviceability

sig-u (MPa) Stress-strain for ultimate load

sig-r (MPa) Stress-strain for calculated mean values

E-t (MPa) Tangential elastic modulus at this location

safetyfactor Material safety

The tangential elastic modulus is given in each case for the following range of

the stress-strain curve.

Cs[ kN/m3] Elastic bedding principal direction

Ct[ kN/m3] Elastic bedding transverse direction

ft[ MPa] Tensile strength

Description of Output | AQUA

tan[ -] Friction coefficient

c[ MPa] Cohesion

dil[ -] Dilatancy coefficient

w[ kN/m3] Mass density

TEMP Temperature or pore pressure level

S [ J/Km3] Specific storage coefficient

Kxx[ W/Km] Permeabilities or conductivities

Kyy[ W/Km]

Kzz[ W/Km]

If bedding profiles were entered with the records BORE, BLAY, BBAX, BBLA,

then the output of the values is released with ECHO BORE YES. Where the

labels mean the following:

Y[ m]

Z[ m]

dX[ -] Direction of the bore profile

dY[ -]

dZ[ -]

a[◦] Rotation angle of the local axis

Mat Material number from this ordinate

K0-a,K1-a,K2-a,K3-a Constants of the foundation profile

AQUA | Description of Output

C0 Maximum skin friction in kN/m

TANR Soil/pile friction angle in degrees

TAND Dilatation angle in degrees

KSIG Lateral pressure value

tial direction (lateral) in kN/m2

P0,P1,P2,P3 Factors for circumferential variation

Pmax Maximum foundation value at starting and

ending depth in kN/m

In the usual case (ECHO SECT YES), an overview of all the cross section prop-

erties is output at the end of each calculation. Where the abbreviations mean

the following:

Mat Material number of the cross section

MNs Material number of the reinforcement

A Cross section area

It Torsional moment of inertia

Ay/Az/Ayz Shear deformation areas

Iy/Iz/Iyz Area moments of inertia

ys/zs Coordinates of the gravity centre

ysc/zsc Coordinates of the shear centre

modulus Elastic and shear moduli

g Specific weight

In case a description was defined (which is the default for standard cross sec-

tions), then it is appended after each cross section number.

After the calculation of the system a summary of the cross section types can be

printed then via a restart and ECHO SYST YES:

Description of Output | AQUA

Total Length

Total Weight

max. Length

Title

If ECHO SECT FULL is defined, a list of additional values is output for each

defined cross section. (cross section moduli, partial cross section areas, etc.).

Following a repetition of the cross section properties from the overview, the prin-

cipal moments of inertia and the locations of the principal axes are output.

Cross section properties are also released separately for each material in the

case of composite sections. For cross sections with effective width, the total

cross sectional properties of the unrestricted effective cross section are also

released.

In case the materials have safety factors, then some analysis methods require

that the stiffness to to be reduced by the safety factors. As this would result in

totally different values for composite cross sections, an extra table for the design

sectional values was introduced.

restart. This is because in such a case only the newly defined cross sections

get printed out. Even in the case, however, one can output all the cross sections

with ECHO SDEF FULL.

The following data are output in the table of additional cross section properties:

ymin,ymax Maximum & minimum section coordinates

zmin,zmax (relative to the gravity centre)

hymin,hzmin Minimum lever arm for shear reinforcement

AK Core cross section for computing the tor-

sional reinforcement

AQUA | Description of Output

ment ratios

MoL Material number of the link reinforcement

1/WT Maximum shear stress due to torsional mo-

ment 1

1/WT2 Maximum shear stress due to secondary

torsional moment MT2=1

1/WVy Maximum shear stress due to shear force

VY=1

1/WVz Maximum shear stress due to shear force

VZ=1

Wmax Maximum value of the unit lateral warping

CM Warping modulus

CMS Warping shear modulus

ASwyy Warping area integral w·y·y

ASwzz Warping area integral w·z·z

ry Sectional dimension (Iyyy +Iyzz )/Iyy -2ym

rz Sectional dimension (Izzz +Iyyz )/Izz -2zm

The table of the effective static properties and table of the design values of cross

section are printed then:

MNs Material number of the reinforcement

A Cross section area

Iy/Iz/Iyz Area moments of inertia

ys/zs Coordinates of the gravity centre

modulus Elastic and shear moduli

g Specific weight

Description of Output | AQUA

MNs Material number of the reinforcement

A Cross section area

It Torsional moment of inertia

Ay/Az/Ayz Shear deformation areas

Iy/Iz/Iyz Area moments of inertia

ys/zs Coordinates of the gravity centre

modulus Elastic and shear moduli

g Specific weight

MNs Material number of the reinforcement

A Cross section area

It Torsional moment of inertia

Ay/Az/Ayz Shear deformation areas

Iy/Iz/Iyz Area moments of inertia

ys/zs Coordinates of the gravity centre

modulus Elastic and shear moduli

g Specific weight

The fully plastic internal forces are output for steel or composite sections with

STEE reference.

Vy[ kN] Shear forces

Vz[ kN]

Mt[ kNm] Torsional moment

My[ kNm] Bending moments

Mz[ kNm]

y[ m] Plastic centre of gravity

AQUA | Description of Output

z[ m]

BUCK Buckling strain curves y and z axis or

COMB for identification of combinations

E characteristic values elastic (reaching the yield stress)

D design values fully plastic

F design values elastic (reaching the design yield stress)

The first line contains the single forces and moments (Points A and B of the

interaction diagram). The plastic forces are followed by the values of point C

marked as COMB. (For most composite cross sections point C of the interaction

curve is given by double the value of the axial force in point B.)

As long as the tensile and compressive strengths of the material do not match,

the values will be denoted with an inverse sign, whereas shear force and tor-

sional moments are based only on the other strength.

If prestressed reinforcement has been defined, the internal forces due to pre-

stress are output.

An additional table includes the output of the design data. The values which are

printed at thet-p, thet-y, thet-z and thet-yz are with masses multiplied moments

of inertia (= rotational masses).

tions)

periphery-O/-I Outer and inner area

deff Effective thickness for creep and shrinkage

t-min Minimum plate thickness in mm

t-max Maximum plate thickness in mm

SMP Weight addition for small parts in percent

thet-p Mass moment of inertiaρ·(Iy +Iz )=ρ·Ip

thet-y ρ·Iy

thet-z ρ·Iz

thet-yz ρ·Iyz

Description of Output | AQUA

If reinforcement has been defined, then the output for each layer includes the

sum of the input steel areas, the upper and lower limits of the reinforcement,

and the gravity centre of the reinforcement.

mS Material number of cross section

mR Material number of reinforcement

area Sum of the input steel areas

lower-A Lower limit of steel areas

= zero for extra positions

= minimum value for M-position

= maximum value of next lower position

in case of sequential position numbering

yL Location of gravity centre of the layer

zL

L-tors Torsional effectiveness

If the position is laid by a factor of 1.0,

the accounted torsional reinforcement is

area/L-tors (cm2 /m)

N-p Statically determinate prestressing axial

force

M-p Statically determinate prestressing mo-

ment

Additionally to the cross section values also the individual elements of the cross

sections are printed as well with ECHO SECT FULL. Most descriptions are al-

ready familiar from the input description. If reference points were defined, then

these references are printed with ECHO REFP FULL in the corresponding ta-

bles.

AQUA | Description of Output

eff Effectiveness (- = not effective)

y Coordinates of the polygon

z

r Fillet radius

1/WMy,Mz Inverses of the section moduli for bending

My and Mz (Swain’s formula)

1/WT Shear stress due to torsional moment

Mt=1.0

1/WVy,1/WVz Shear stress due to shear force Vy or

Vz=1.0

Solid: first row = τy , second row = τz

Thin: first row = 0, second row = τ

W0 Unit warping

exp Exposition class or degree of air contact

Rectangular cross-section/T-beam

Ho/Bo Upper heigth/width of the cross section

Aso/Asu Reinforcement above/below

As-type Ditribution type of the reinforcement

Do/Du/Ds Bar diameter above/below/on the side

So/Su/Ss Reinforcement distance above/below/on

the side

a/a-min/a-max Distance of bars

B-eff Width of the equivalent hollow section

incl Inclination of shear links

Ass Area of shear links

Ra Outer radius

Ri Inner radius

Rsa Radius of the outer reinforcement

Description of Output | AQUA

Asa Outer reinforcement

Asi Inner reinforcement

D Diameter of the reinforcement

a Distance of bars

D Nominal diameter

T Wall thickness for tube

Type Cable type

strands Number of strands

wire Number of wires per strand

W*100 Weight factor

C Sectional or fill factor

K Rupture or cable factor

ke Loss factor

Zr,k/Zr,d Failure load

Circular element

Id Designation

Mat Material number

ym Distance of the strand to the overall centre

of

zm gravity of the cable

R Radius of the strand

exp Exposition class

B[ mm] Profile width

AQUA | Description of Output

t[ mm] Flange thickness

r[ mm] Radius transition arch web - flange

yr[ mm] Coordinates of the profile reference point

zr[ mm] within the cross section

[ grd] Rotation

Type Type of section

WEB/WRED Web with/without shear re-

gion 3

FLAN/FFUL Flange with/without shear re-

gion 3

Mat Material number of the partial section

beta Parameter of friction in construction joint

mue Friction coefficient of construction joint

y-A/z-A Coordinates of the partial section

y-E/z-E

b0/bt Width of section / effective width

1/WTm/1/WTd Reciprocal torsional stress moduli

FVy/FVz Proportion factors for shear force

Ns/Ms Lateral bending internal forces

MoR Material number of the link reinforcement

Lay Layer of the link reinforcement

Asl Minimum link reinforcement

beta inclination of links w.r.t. bar axis

Mat Material number

y Coordinates of the point

z

Description of Output | AQUA

Mt=1.0

1/WVy/1/WVz Shear stress due to shear force Vy or

Vz=1.0

Solid: first row = τy , second row = τz

Thin: first row = 0, second row = τ

sig-t Stress in transverse direction

W0 Unit warping

Mat Material number

T Temperatur

y Coordinates of the point

z

A Effective area

t Thickness

sigma-t Prestress

1/WMy/1/WMz Inverses of the section moduli for bending

My and Mz (Swain’s formula)

1/WT Shear stress due to torsional moment

Mt=1.0

1/WVy/1/WVz Shear stress due to shear force Vy or

Vz=1.0

Solid: first row = τy , second row = τz

Thin: first row = 0, second row = τ

W0 Unit warping

sig/tau-dyn Permissible range of steel stresses or

notch type

Id. Designation

Mat Material number

y-A/z-A Coordinates of beginning

AQUA | Description of Output

t Thickness

w-B/w-E Unit warping at beginning/end

1/WT/1/WT2 Shear stress due to MT=1.0 or MT2=1.0

1/WVy/1/WVz Shear stress due to VY=1.0 or VZ=1.0

xS Distance of buckling from end points

dimensionless, in relation to the plate

length

Id. Designation

Mat Material number of reinforcement

y Coordinates of the reinforcement

z

T Temperature

sigma Prestress

As Base value or minimum reinforcement

As-max Maximum reinforcement

Lay Layer number

D Diameter

a Distance of bars

Ar Reference area for cracked widths

Id. Designation

Mat Material number of reinforcement

No Identification number

ya/za Beginning point of the linear reinforcement

ye/ze End point of the linear reinforcement

As Base value or minimum reinforcement

As-max Maximum reinforcement

Lay Layer number

Description of Output | AQUA

D Diameter

a Distance of bars

Ar Reference area for cracked widths

Dist Distribution of bars

Circular reinforcement

Id. Designation

Mat Material number of reinforcement

ym/zm Coordinates of reinforcement centre

R Radius of the circular reinforcement

As Base value or minimum reinforcement

As-max Maximum reinforcement

Lay Layer number

D Diameter

a Distance of bars

Ar Reference area for cracked widths

Dist Distribution of bars

The parameters of wind loading defined in record WPAR are output as follows

(ECHO WIND YES):

rel.roughnss Relative roughness

iceing Thickness of ice cover

traffic Height of additional area of wind attack due

to traffic

y-min Dimensions of wind attack area

y-max

z-min

z-max

AQUA | Description of Output

The table of wind coefficients is output for steel profiles (record PROF) or in case

of an explicit input with WIND:

cw-y Lateral coefficient

cw-z Vertical coefficient

cw-t Torsional coefficient

ref Reference dimension

c-m Hydrodynamic coefficient

c-lat Transverse driving coefficient

Strohal Strouhal number

a-gallop Galloping-Coefficient

The output of the analyzed topology of the cross sections for the integral equa-

tion method reads:

Reg Region

edge Boundary number

node-a Start node

node-b End node

M area number

MNo Material number

Conn. Hint to a connecting edge

YA, ZA Coordinates at beginning

YE, ZE Coordinates at end

With SFLA it is possible to define a direct non-linear law for forces or moments

for every spring. It is printed then with ECHO SPRI YES:

Description of Output | AQUA

u[ mm] or [ mrad] Displacement or rotation

or [ o/oo] or [ 1/km] or strain or curvature

Typ the defined TYPE of the line is printed here

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