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Report No.

451(54/31/3)

Cultivation Practices in India

NSS 54th Round


January 1998 – June 1998

National Sample Survey Organisation


Department of Statistics and Programme Implementation
Government of India

August 1999
PREFACE

The Nation Sample Survey Organisation (NSSO) carried out a nationwide


survey on cultivation practices as a part of its 54th round (January to June
‘98). The enquiry was carried out in the rural areas of the entire country
through household survey to ascertain the problems and utilisation of facilities
in the field of agriculture and also their level of adoption in farms of different
sizes in the country. In the past, the NSSO has conducted similar enquiries,
either on the same topics or on those which are closely related to it.

The present report is on the spread of improved agricultural technology, viz.


use of improved high yielding varieties of seeds, fertilisers, manures,
pesticides, etc. and use of irrigation facilities and also use of improved
agricultural implements like tractors, power tiller, harvesters etc.

The field work of the survey was conducted by the Field Operation Division.
Data scrutiny and tabulation were done by the Data Processing Division. The
Survey Design & Research Division was responsible for designing of the
survey and preparation of the report.

I am grateful to the members of the Governing Council and member of the


Working Group for their valuable guidance at various stages of the survey
work. I also wish to thank the heads of various divisions of NSSO and their
colleagues for their efforts in conducting the survey and bringing out this
report. It is hoped that this report would serve as reference document to the
users of NSS data.

Comments and suggestions for the improvement of the report are most
welcome.

August 1999 Dr. N. S. SASTRY

Director General & Chief Executive Officer


National Sample Survey Organisation
Report No. 451
Cultivation Practices in India

Contents

Highlights

List of Appendix Tables

Chapter I Introduction 1

Chapter II Concepts and Definitions 5

Chapter III Sample Design and Estimation Procedure 7

Chapter IV Summary of Findings 14

Appendix I Detailed tables A-1

Appendix II A Note on Editing and Imputation of Survey Data of the Enquiry A-243
on Cultivation Practices

Appendix III A facsimile of schedule 31 (blocks 0, 1, 2, 13 and 14) A-251


Report No. 451
Cultivation Practices in India

Highlights

• Percentage of area under field crops cultivated using:


HYV or hybrid (improved) seeds ... ... ... ... 59
fertilisers ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 81
...
manure ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 74
...
pesticides ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 47
...
weedicides .. ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 22
...
irrigation ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 66
...
tractors / power tillers ... ... ... ... ... ... 54
...
harvestors / harvestor combines ... ... ... ... 6

• Percentage of area under field crops cultivated with improved seeds:


paddy: kharif . ... ... ... ... ... ... 51
...
rabi ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 66
..
wheat ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 63
...
other cereals ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 64
...
pulses ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 47
..
• Percentage of area under field crops located in villages with Govt. irrigation 25
canals:
• Percentage of irrigated area hiring irrigation services from other households in:
canal areas .. ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 40
..
non-canal areas ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 49
all ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 46
• Percentage of mechanically-tilled area using hired tractor / power-tiller:. 72

• Percentage of rural households engaged in field-crop cultivation: 61

• Percentage of field-crop cultivator (FCC) households owning 1 hectare or less of 62


land:
• Percentage of FCC households owning irrigation facilities and of them the percentage

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Report No. 451
Cultivation Practices in India

reporting the facilities remaining ‘out of use’ due to shortage of fuel or power or low
water level:
dugwell / electric Oil
tubewell pump pump
percentage owning 29 13 13
percentage reporting ‘out of use’ 26 48 14

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Report No. 451
Cultivation Practices in India

List of Appendix Table

Table no. Title Page

Table (1) Average area owned, net sown area (NSA), area cropped more
than once and irrigated & unirrigated gross cropped area (GCA)
under five major crops sown by households by size-class of
ownership holding, 1997-98 A-1
Table (2) Proportion of households and net sown area (NSA) accounted by
villages with government canal and differential between villages
with government canal and other villages in respect of extent of
irrigation (irrigated area per 1000 hectares of land under five
major crops sown by households) A-10
Table (3) Differential between villages with government canal and other
villages in respect of average area (0.00ha) under five crops sown
by households, by season and size- class of household ownership A-11
holding
Table (4) Per 1000 distribution of field -crop cultivator households by status
of irrigation of area under five major crops, separately for
different size-classes of household ownership holding, in villages
with government canals and other villages A-20
Table (5) Per 1000 distribution of area under five major crops by use of
tractor and size –class of household ownership holding A-45
Table (5.1) Cropwise per 1000 distribution of under five major crops by mode
of use of tractor, separately for different size-classes of
household ownership holding A-54
Table (6) Cropwise break-up of average area under five major crops sown
by a field -crop cultivator household, by size -classes of household
ownership holding A-152
Table (7) Cropwise per 1000 distribution of area under five major crops
sown by households by use of improved seeds A-161
Table (7.1) Percentage of area under a crop sown with any kind of improved
seeds by size-class of household ownership holding A-174
Table (8) Cropwise per 1000 distribution of area under five major crops by
use of fertiliser and manure A-183
Table (8.1) Cropwise per 1000 distribution of manure treated area under five
major crops sown by households by type of manure A-196

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Cultivation Practices in India

List of Appendix Table (contd.)

Table no. Title Page

Table (9) Cropwise per 1000 distribution of area under five major crops
sown by households by use of pesticides, etc., and weedicides A-209
Table (10) Per 1000 distribution of field-crop cultivator households by mode
of harvesting for each size–class of household ownership holding A-222
Table (10.1) Per 1000 distribution of area under five major crops by mode of
harvesting for each size-class of ownership holding A-231
Table (11) Number of households (H) reporting testing of soil of their fields
per 1000 cultivator households and number of cultivator households
(P) reporting having followed the recommendations per 1000
households reporting soil test A-240
Table (12) Number of cultivator households (H) reporting ownership of well/
tubewell per 1000 cultivator households and number of households
(P) reporting well/tubewell remaining unused for sometime due to
inadequacy of ground water per 1000 households owning A-241
well/tub ewell
Table (13) Number of cultivator households (H) reporting ownership of
irrigation pumps per 1000 cultivator households and number of
households (P) reporting irrigation pumps remaining unused for
some time due to unavailability of diesel or irregular supply of
electricity per 1000 households owning pumps A-242

v
Chapter I

Introduction

1.1 The Report in Perspective

1.1.1 An enquiry on cultivation practices was conducted as a part of the 54th round survey of
the National Sample Survey Organisation (NSSO) during January to June 1998. The enquiry
was carried out in the rural areas of the entire country through a household survey based on
random sampling. In the past, the NSSO had conducted similar enquiries, either on the same
topic or on those which are closely related to it, like land and livestock holdings, sources of
irrigation and agricultural implements. The present enquiry, on which this report is based, is
essentially designed to generate information only on the spread of improved agricultural
technology, embodying the use of improved high-yielding seeds, fertilisers and irrigation on the
one hand and mechanisation of agricultural operations on the other.

1.1.2 Objective: The technological change in agriculture that is currently under way in India was
initiated in the 1960s when the Government introduced and popularised in certain regions of the
country the high-yielding varieties (HYVs) of wheat and rice developed in Mexico and
Philippines respectively. Over the last three decades, there has been a marked increase in the
use of HYVs and hybrid seeds, and of the inputs like fertilisers, pesticides and irrigation which
are essential for raising them and mechanisation of agriculture throughout the country.
Nevertheless, it is widely held that not only has the geographical spread of the improved
technology been uneven, but the sharing of the benefits of technology by different sections of the
farmers has also been extremely unequal. Though the available macro-level data on the
consumption of fertilisers and pesticides, irrigated area and area under HYVs of the main cereal
crops like wheat, rice, maize, jowar and bajra do provide a fair idea of the geographical
spread, the data on the level of adoption of improved technology on farms of different sizes or
those on area treated with fertilisers or pesticides or tilled by tractors and power tillers are
virtually absent. The present enquiry aims at providing certain basic State-level statistics on farm
mechanisation and use of the improved ‘seed-fertiliser-water’ technology by farmers of varying
ownership holding of land. The enquiry is, however, confined to the study of field-crop
cultivation. Thus the aspects of technological change in plantation and horticulture, or in the
other sub-sectors of agriculture, are beyond the purview of this report.

1.2 The Present Report


Report No. 451 Chapter 1
Cultivation Practices in India Introduction

1.2.1 This report pertains to the use of advanced technology for the cultivation of field crops
based on data collected on crops cultivated, season of cultivation, area under each crop, use of
irrigation facility and other inputs and use of machinery, in the 54th round of the NSSO. Data
collected and used in this report can be briefly described as follows:

1. Data on crops cultivated, season of cultivation and area sown with it.

2. For each crop reported, data on use of machinery, such as tractors/power tillers, irrigation
pump sets and harvestors. For crops for which the soil was tilled with tractors/power tillers,
it was enquired whether they were taken on hire.

3. For each crop reported, data on use of inputs, viz., manure and its type, fertilisers, improved
seeds and its type, irrigation and whether irrigation services hired and weedicide and
pesticides, etc.

4. Household level information like


a) land owned, possessed, net sown area and area cropped more than once
b) whether soil was tested and whether recommendations followed
c) irrigation facilities and machinery and whether some of them remained
unused.

1.2.2 Layout of the report: The report contains four chapters, including the present one, and
two appendices. Chapter II provides a brief discussion on the definitions and concepts used for
the enquiry. Chapter III gives a fairly detailed description of the sample design and the
estimation procedure used for the survey. Chapter IV discusses the summary results of the
survey and attempts to provide a perspective for proper interpretation of the results. Appendix
I, which, in fact, forms the main body of the report, presents the detailed survey results on
cultivation practices in the form of tables. A brief note on the editing and imputation procedures
adopted for the survey data of the present enquiry is given in Appendix II. Appendix III is a
facsimile of blocks 0, 1, 2, 13 and 14 of schedule 31 which are relevant for this report.

1.2.3 The estimates presented in the report are based on the pooled data of the two sub-
samples of only the Central sample. (See the section “Method of Data Collection” for
discussion on sub-sample and Central sample.) The survey results presented in the report are
mostly in the form of ratios. The basic aggregate estimates and number of households, given in
the detailed tables of Appendix I, generally as marginal column totals, may be used for working
out rates and ratios for domains not presented in the report.

1.3 Fifty-fourth Round

1.3.1 Four main topics were covered in the 54th Round, namely,

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Report No. 451 Chapter 1
Cultivation Practices in India Introduction

(i) Drinking Water, Sanitation & Hygiene


(ii) Travel and Use of Mass Media and Financial Services
(iii) Cultivation Practices
(iv) Common Property Resources

In addition, the survey on household consumer expenditure and employment-unemployment


was as usual conducted in this round. The present report contains estimates on cultivation
practices. The results of the enquiries on the other three topics are being brought out in separate
reports.

1.3.2 The main schedules used in the 54th round, apart from Schedule 1.0 on consumer
expenditure and employment-unemployment, were: Schedule 3.3 on village facilities and
common property resources; and Schedule 31 on Drinking Water, Sanitation and Hygiene,
Travel and Use of Mass Media and Financial Services, Cultivation Practices and Common
Property Resources. The relevant portion of Schedule 31 has been provided in Appendix III.

1.3.3 For the enquiry on cultivation practices, the rural areas of the entire country, were
covered, with the exception of some interior areas of Nagaland and Andaman & Nicobar
Islands and the Ladakh and Kargil districts of Jammu & Kashmir.

1.4 Method of Data Collection

1.4.1 The present report is based mainly on the information on cultivation practices collected in
a part of Schedule 31. The data were collected from a sample of households by interview
method. The survey period for the 54 th Round was January to June 1998.

1.4.2 Reference period: The enquiry on cultivation practices was conducted generally with the
reference period of the agricultural year 1997-98. The survey period being a part of the
reference period in many cases, complete information on crops cultivated during the agricultural
year was not available when the household was surveyed. The additional information on
cultivation of crops that were to be undertaken during the remaining part of the agricultural year
was ascertained by asking the informant certain additional probing questions regarding his plans
for the rabi season. Similarly, the net sown area was worked out on the basis of actual area
sown in kharif and the additional area planned to be sown during the rabi season. For
questions like ‘whether well/tubewell remained unused’ and ‘whether pump sets remained
unused’, a reference period of 365 days preceding the date of survey was used.

1.4.3 Sample design: The sample design adopted for the survey was essentially a two-stage
stratified design, with census villages as the first-stage units (FSUs) and households as the
second-stage units (SSUs). The survey period was January - June 1998. The sample of FSUs
was drawn independently in the form of two sub-samples and an equal number of FSUs was
allocated to each sub-sample. (For a detailed discussion on sample design, see Chapter III.)

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Report No. 451 Chapter 1
Cultivation Practices in India Introduction

1.4.4 Sample size – first-stage units: In all, 10,978 villages were planned to be surveyed in
this round. Of these, 5,242 were allocated to the Central sample - the part surveyed mainly by
the NSSO field staff - and the rest to the State sample - the part surveyed by the State
agencies. In the urban sector, the allocations for the Central and State samples were 1,788 and
2,256 blocks respectively. This report, however, pertains to rural areas and thus is based on the
data collected from the villages in the Central sample alone.

1.4.5 Sample size – second-stage units: For Schedule 31, 16 households were planned to be
surveyed in each selected village. In all, 78,990 rural households were surveyed in the present
survey.

1.5 Earlier Surveys of NSSO Relating to Cultivation Practices

1.5.1 As early as in 1951-52 and 1952-53, NSS, in its 5th to 7th rounds conducted a survey
on some aspects of the cost of cultivation of minor cereals, pulses, sugarcane, oilseeds, potato,
spices and tobacco. In those surveys, detailed data were collected on periods of sowing and
harvesting by crops, area under crops, sources of seeds used, quantity and value of seeds used,
quantity and value of manure used, water charges per acre, human and animal labour days
utilised per acre and value of production per acre, etc. In the 8th round of the NSS (July 1953 -
June 1954), for the first time, information was collected on agricultural implements - whether
owned/hired mechanised agricultural operation in cultivation - whether used/not used, types of
seeds and manure used and sources of irrigation. Information was collected on farming
conditions and practices of agricultural operations, on adequacy of available human and animal
labour, source of human and animal labour and implements and their utilisation, area of plots
under sowing types: drilling, transplanting, etc., for different crops, area under manure by type of
manure and area under different sources of irrigation. The 11 th round of the NSS, conducted
during August 1956 - February 1957, covered aspects of agriculture in India. In this survey
detailed information on values of various inputs and outputs and yield per unit input was
collected. Again, in the 22nd round of the NSS conducted during July 1967 - June 1968, a
survey on farm practices was carried out. In this survey details of households using various
improved agricultural practices with reasons for non-use and availability of irrigation, improved
seeds and fertilisers was collected. Information on available animal labour and agricultural
implements, and the extent to which they were used, was collected in the 26th round of the
NSS, conducted during July 1971 - Sept. 1972. Lastly, in the 31st round of the NSS, a detailed
enquiry on irrigation was taken up during July 1976 - June 1977. In this survey too, information
on the use of improved seeds, chemical fertilisers, pesticides, etc. was collected, besides data
on irrigation.

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Cultivation Practices in India

Chapter II

Concepts and Definitions

2.1.1 The concepts and definitions of the terms used in this report are briefly discussed in this
chapter.

2.2.1 Household: A group of persons normally living together and taking food from a common
kitchen constitutes a household. The word “normally” means that temporary visitors are excluded
but temporary stay-aways are included. Thus a son or a daughter residing in a hostel for studies is
excluded from the household of his/her parents, but a resident employee or a resident domestic
servant or paying guest (but not just a tenant in the house) is included in the employer/host’s
household. “Living together” is usually given more importance than “sharing food from a common
kitchen” in drawing the boundaries of a household in case the two criteria are in conflict; however,
in the special case of a person taking food with his family but sleeping elsewhere (say, in a shop
or a different house) due to space shortage, the household formed by such a person’s family
members is taken to include the person also. Each inmate of a hotel, mess, boarding lodging
house, hostel, etc., is considered a single-member household except that a family living in a hotel
(say) is considered to be one household only; the same applies to residential staff of such
establishments.

2.3.1 Land owned: A plot of land is considered to be owned by the household if permanent
heritable possession, with or without right to transfer (sell) the title, is vested in a member or
members of the household.

2.3.2 Land possessed: Land possessed is given by land owned (including land held under long
term lease of 30 years or more) + land leased-in - land leased-out + otherwise possessed land.
The last class of land, i.e. otherwise possessed land, is understood to mean all public/institutional
land possessed by the household without title of ownership or occupancy right.

2.3.3 Net area sown: It consists of area sown with field crops and area under orchards and
plantations, counting only once the area sown more than once during the same year. [Area under
the 5 major crops consists of net area sown under the 5 most important field crops among the 12
crop-groups as defined below in para 2.4.1.]

2.3.4 Area sown more than once: It is the area sown more than once, or planned to be sown
more than once, during the same agricultural year. If the area is sown under 5 most important field
crops among 12 crop-groups more than once the area is taken as the product of net area sown
and number of times sown less one. Thus if 1 hectare of land is sown thrice in the agricultural year

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Report No. 451 Chapter II
Cultivation Practices in India Concepts and Definitions

1997-98 under a major field crop among 12 crop-groups, the area sown more than once will be
taken as 2 hectares.

2.4.1 Five major crops: These are five most important field crops identified on the basis of value
of production of the crops. The set of 5 major crops is not a fixed set but varies from household
to household. For any particular household it is understood as the 5 most important field crops
cultivated by the household in the agricultural year 1997-98 in terms of value of production of the
crops (field-crops excluding plantation-crops and orchards) from among a list of crop-season
combinations involving 12 crop-groups. Paddy: kharif and paddy: rabi, for example, are treated
as different “crops” for this purpose. The 12 crop-groups are as follows:
1. paddy 5. oil seeds 9. fodder
2. wheat 6. mixed crop 10. fruits and nuts
3. other cereals 7. sugar cane 11. other cash crops
4. pulses 8. vegetables 12. others

2.4.2 Season: The season of a crop is determined by the time of the year it is harvested. All crops
harvested during July to December are called kharif crops and those harvested during January to
June are called rabi crops.

2.4.3 Classification of field crop cultivators by ownership of holding: In the detailed tables,
given in Appendix I, 8 size classes have been used, which are as follows:

nil ( < 0.01 ha.) 1.01 - 2.00


0.01 - 0.20 2.01 - 4.00
0.21 - 0.50 4.01 - 10.00
0.51 - 1.00 10.01 & above
The households were classified accordingly depending upon the total area of land owned by its
members.

2.5.1 Improved seeds: Nucleus was the one freshly released by Government research stations
for multiplication in agricultural department farms or to some registered seed growers. From this
nucleus seed parent/foundation seeds were obtained for general distribution to cultivators. Thus
the parent seed certified as better yielding varieties and released for improved seeds by
Government agricultural departments were considered as certified seeds. Seeds obtained by
multiplication of these parent seeds were taken as uncertified improved seeds.

2.5.2 Fertilisers and manure: The pure compounds of N, P & K manufactured in factories that
are used as nutrients of plants are fertilisers whereas all other nutrients of plants are manures.

2.6.1 Cultivator households: A household was considered a cultivator household, for this
report, if it had reported some net sown area during the agricultural year 1997-98.

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Report No. 451 Chapter II
Cultivation Practices in India Concepts and Definitions

2.6.2 Field crop cultivator household: A household was taken a field crop cultivator household,
for this report, if it had sown any field crop during the agricultural year 1997-98.

2.6.3 Some abbreviations commonly used in the Report are given below:

ACG Average number of Crop Group


AFMC Area under Five Major Crops
FCC Field Crop Cultivator
GCA Gross Cropped Area
HYV High Yielding Variety
LHS Land Holding Survey
LUS Land Use Statistics
NSA Net Sown Area

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Report No. 451
Cultivation Practices in India

Chapter III

Sample Design and Estimation Procedure

3.0 Since in the 54th round of the NSS the survey on Cultivation Practices was conducted in the
rural areas only, the sample design and estimation procedure, too, have been stated below only
for the rural areas.

3.1 Sample Design

3.1.1 A stratified multi-stage sampling design was adopted for the survey. The first stage units
were census villages (panchayat wards in the case of Kerala). Households formed the
ultimate-stage units.

3.1.2 Sampling frame for first-stage units (FSUs): The list of census villages of the 1991
population census (the 1981 census list for J & K) constituted the sampling frame for most of the
States. For Kerala, however, the list of panchayat wards was used as the sampling frame for
selection of panchayat wards. For Nagaland, the villages located within 5 km of a bus route
constituted the sampling frame, whereas for Andaman & Nicobar Islands, the list of accessible
villages constituted the sampling frame.

3.1.3 Stratification: From the list of villages of each State/Union Territory (UT), initially three
separate strata were formed by considering villages (a) with very small population (b) with no
population and (c) with very high population. These are formally stated below:

stratum 1 : all uninhabited villages (as per the 1991 census)


stratum 2 : villages each with a population of 1 to 50 (including both the boundaries) as per the
1991 census
stratum 3 : villages each with a population of more than 15,000 as per the 1991 census

Each of the above three strata was formed only when there were at least 10 villages of the
specified population in the State/UT as per the 1991 population census. Otherwise, these villages
were included in the general strata as described below.

3.1.4 After formation of the strata 1, 2 and 3 (wherever applicable), the remaining villages of the
State/UT were consid ered for formation of the general strata. Each district with a population of
less than 2 million as per the 1991 census formed a separate stratum. A district having a

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Report No. 451 Chapter III
Cultivation Practices in India Sample Design and Estimation Procedure

population of 2 million or more was divided into two or more strata, depending on its population,
as per the usual procedure followed in the NSS. For Gujarat, some districts cut across NSS
regions. In such cases, the part of a district falling in an NSS region formed a separate stratum.

3.1.5 Allocation of first -stage units (FSUs): A total all-India sample of 5242 villages for the
Central sample were allocated to the States/UTs in proportion to their investigator strength.

3.1.6 Next a suitable sample size – minimum 2 and maximum 6 villages; the exact number
depending on the total number of villages in the frame - was allocated to stratum type 1 of rural
areas of each State and UT. In all, 68 sample villages were allocated to stratum 1 of the rural
areas, considering all those States/UTs where stratum type 1 was formed. From stratum 2, a
sample of a maximum of 6 villages was selected from each State and UT. The number of sample
villages from stratum 3 was either 2 or 4 depending upon whether the number of villages in the
frame of stratum type 3 was less than 20 or more. The remaining sample size (i.e. total allocation
for the rural areas less the allocations for strata 1,2 and 3) of rural areas of each State and UT
was allocated to the general strata (i.e. the strata other than strata 1, 2 and 3) in proportion to
their populations.

stratum type selection procedure


1 css with equal probability @
2 -do- *
3 -do- *
others css with pps *
(css : circular systematic sampling, pps : probability proportional to size, size =
population)
@ arrangement of villages in the frame is the same as that of the census
* after arranging the FSUs in an ascending ord er of population

3.1.7 Selection of first-stage units : The selection of the sample FSUs was done in the form
of two independent sub-samples as follows :

3.1.8 Selection of hamlet -groups in rural areas: There are villages in India which contain large
population. Listing all the households of such a village requires considerable amounts of time and
effort of field officials. To limit their work-load at this stage of the survey operation, the large
villages were further subdivided into a specified number of parts, by grouping contiguous natural
hamlets, in such a way that each group contained natural hamlets, approximately with an equal
fraction of the village population. These groups of hamlets were called hamlet-groups (hgs).
From the specified number of hamlet groups (depending upon the approximate present
population) thus formed, a random sample of the hamlet-groups was drawn for the subsequent
stages of the survey. The number of hamlet-groups formed and selected for the survey were as
follows:

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Report No. 451 Chapter III
Cultivation Practices in India Sample Design and Estimation Procedure

approx. present popu- no. of hgs no. of hgs


lation of village formed (D) selected for survey(d)

less than - 1200 no hg formation entire village is


selected for survey
1200 - 1999 4 2
2000 - 2499 5 2
2500 - 2999 6 2
3000 - 3499 7 2
3500 - 3999 8 2
4000 - 4499 9 2
4500 - 4999 10 2
5000 - 5499 11 3
. . .
. . .
. . .
9500 - 9999 20 3
10000 - 10499 21 4
. . .
. . .
. . .
14500 - 14999 30 4
15000 - 15499 31 5@
and so on
@ 5 hgs were selected for survey from each selected village having approx. present population of 15000 or more

However, for the rural areas of Himachal Pradesh, Sikkim, and Punch, Rajouri, Udhampur and
Doda districts of Jammu & Kashmir, the limit was D=1 for a population of less than 600, D=4
for a population of 600 - 1199; D=5 for a population of 1200 - 1499; D=6 for a population of
1500 - 1799 and so on. The number of hgs selected for the survey was d=2 for D=4 to 10, d=3
for D=11 to 20, d=4 for D=21 to 30 and d=5 for D>30.

3.1.9 Second-stage stratification (for selection of households): In rural areas, all the
households of a sample village, or the selected hamlet groups of it, were classified into 3
second-stage strata. The households engaged in free collection (other than fuelwood and marine
fishing) formed second-stage stratum 1. Other rural households were grouped into two second-
stage strata - those with wage/salary earning but possessing land less than 0.40 hectare formed
second-stage stratum 2 while the rest of the households formed second-stage stratum 3. The
households of second-stage stratum 3 in rural areas were arranged by area of land possessed

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Report No. 451 Chapter III
Cultivation Practices in India Sample Design and Estimation Procedure

before sample selection. In urban areas also, the households were grouped into three second -
stage strata, but by following a procedure different from that followed for rural areas.
3.1.10 Selection of households : For schedule 31, a sample of 16 households from each
selected village (or selected hamlet-groups) was selected for the survey.

3.1.11 The 16 households selected from each selected village (or selected hamlet-groups) were
allocated among the three second-stage strata in proportion to the number of households in the
respective frames with a minimum allocation of 4, 2 and 2 households, respectively, to second-
stage strata 1, 2 and 3.

3.1.12 While allocating the above total number of sample households among the three second-
stage strata, if allocation for one particular second-stage stratum was less than the minimum
allocation specified for the second-stage stratum, its quota was increased to the said minimum
number and the residual total allocation was allocated between the other two second-stage strata
in proportion to the total number of households in the respective frames. The sample households
were selected circular systematically with independent random starts from the respective frame of
households in each second-stage stratum.

3.2 Estimation Procedure

3.2.1 The estimation procedure adopted in the 54th round for schedule 31 is briefly indicated
here.

3.2.2 Notation: The notation used for describing the estimation procedure is as given below:
s = subscript for stratum
i = subscript for sample village
j = subscript for second-stage stratum of a sample village
k = subscript for sample household
b = subscript for sub-sample (b=1, 2)
z = size of the sample village used for selection
Z = total size for a stratum as per the frame
n = number of sample villages (i.e. no. used for tabulation) surveyed including
uninhabited and zero cases and excluding casualty and other not received cases
D = number of hamlet-groups formed in the sample village
d = number of hamlet-groups selected for survey
H = total number of households listed in the frame
h = number of sample households available for tabulation
y = value of any characteristic under estimation in a sample village/household
Y∃ = estimate of population total of the characteristic y

11
Report No. 451 Chapter III
Cultivation Practices in India Sample Design and Estimation Procedure

3.2.3 Estimates of aggregates:

For schedule 31, the formula used for the estimation of the aggregates of the s-th stratum and b-
th sub-sample is as specified below:

Z n D 1 H
Y∃ = n ∑ d z ∑ h ∑ y
sb 3
s sbi sbij
sb sbijk
sb i =1 sbi sbi j=1 sbij k

Note: (i) For strata 1,2 and 3 in the rural sector, z=1 and Z= total number of villages in the
frame of the respective strata whereas for other strata in the rural sector, z= population of the
sample village as per the frame used for selection and Z= total population of the stratum.

(ii) When D =1 , d = 1 and for D ≥ 4 , 2 ≤ d ≤ 5

(iii) When H>0 but h=0 for any second-stage stratum, that second-stage stratum was
merged with any of the other two second-stage strata. In particular, if h=0 for H>0 for the 1st
second-stage stratum, it was merged with the 3rd second-stage stratum. If second-stage stratum
2 became a casualty, it was merged with second-stage stratum 3. Lastly, if second-stage stratum
3 became a casualty, it was merged with second-stage stratum 1.

The pooled estimate of the s-th stratum based on two sub-samples has been obtained as

Y∃ ∑ Y∃
2
1
=
s 2 b=1
sb

The pooled estimate Y∃ at the region/State/UT/all-India has been obtained by summing the
stratum estimates Y∃s over all the strata of the region/State/UT/all-India.

Y
3.2.4 Estimates of ratios: The estimate of the ratio R = (where X and Y are the
X
Y∃
population totals of the two characters) was obtained as R∃ = .
X∃

12
Report No. 451 Chapter III
Cultivation Practices in India Sample Design and Estimation Procedure

Table T0 : First-Stage and Second-Stage sample size

State/UT number of FSUs in number of sample


rural urban households surveyed
allotted surveyed allotted surveyed rural urban
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7)
Andhra Pradesh. 364 364 132 132 5721 2356
Ar. Pradesh * 52 49 8 7 719 126
Assam 214 206 28 28 3243 504
Bihar 478 477 72 72 7464 1283
Goa 18 18 12 12 256 212

Gujarat 190 190 96 96 2939 1701


Haryana 82 82 24 24 1222 430
Himachal Pradesh 132 127 12 12 1914 214
Jammu & Kashmir 192 116 60 27 1719 536
Karnataka 204 204 88 88 3152 1566

Kerala 204 204 72 72 2911 1296


Madhya Pradesh 372 372 112 112 5802 2010
Maharashtra 344 344 212 212 5359 3806
Manipur 60 60 24 16 873 414
Meghalaya 70 70 16 16 1040 277

Mizoram 42 42 36 36 594 648


Nagaland 56 56 12 11 895 196
Orissa 220 220 36 36 3401 646
Punjab 166 166 72 72 2533 1295
Rajasthan 228 228 64 64 3501 1129

Sikkim 60 60 8 8 936 144


Tamil Nadu 338 336 176 176 5324 3138
Tripura 108 76 20 20 1216 360
Uttar Pradesh 638 638 156 156 10003 2792
West Bengal 340 340 124 124 5312 2222

A & N Islands 38 38 12 12 502 216


Chandigarh 4 4 12 12 64 216
D & N Haveli 4 4 4 4 64 72
Daman & Diu 4 4 4 4 64 72
Delhi 10 10 68 68 119 1158

Lakshadweep 6 6 4 4 64 72
Pondicherry 4 4 12 12 64 216

All India 5242 5115 1788 1745 78990 31323

13
Report No. 451
Cultivation Practices in India

Chapter IV

Summary of Findings

4.1.1 The present enquiry on cultivation practices aims at assessing the level of adoption of
advanced agricultural technology by farmers of varying ownership holdings of land in different
parts of the country. The strategy of introducing high-yielding and short-duration varieties of
exotic seeds adopted during the Fourth Plan has brought about a lasting technological change in
Indian agriculture. In this report the term ‘advanced agricultural technology’ refers to the
cultivation practices consisting of all operations of crop production that are required for high-
yielding variety (HYV) and hybrid seeds.
4.1.2 The advanced technology has two specific components. First, the advanced ‘seed-
fertilizer-water’ technology is based on use of improved seeds, which are responsive to ample
doses of fertilizers and require an assured supply of water. This directly affects the agricultural
production by raising the productivity of land. The second component, ‘mechanised
technology’, i.e. use of capital-intensive farm machinery like tractors, power-tillers and
harvesters, plays a complementary role leading to faster turnout of operations like ploughing,
weeding and harvesting, with a substantial reduction in costs. This report attempts to present an
overview of the spread and progress of the advanced ‘seed-fertiliser-water’ technology on the
one hand and of the mechanisation in agricultural operations on the other.
4.1.3 The major findings of the enquiry on cultivation practices are summarised in this chapter.
It starts with a brief discussion on size of ownership holdings of the field-crop cultivator
households, i.e. those engaged in raising field crops. This is followed by an overview of the
crop composition in terms of area devoted to different groups of crops. The spread of ‘seed-
fertiliser-water’ technology is then discussed in some detail. Finally, the survey results indicating
the extent of mechanisation of cultivation are discussed in terms of use of tractors, power tillers
and harvesters.

4.2 Field-crop cultivation


4.2.1 The present enquiry on cultivation practices is confined to the study of field-crop
cultivation. The practices followed in plantation, horticulture, etc., are thus excluded from the
purview of this study. The survey was conducted during a period of six months, viz. January-
June 1998, while the data were required to be collected on crops cultivated during the
agricultural year 1997-98. Thus a large part of the sample was surveyed before the completion
of rabi cultivation in the reference agricultural year. In all such cases, the data on rabi cultivation
are based on the cultivator’s plans for the coming rabi season, as reported on the date of
survey, and his experiences during the last rabi season.

14
Report No. 451 Chapter IV
Cultivation Practices in India Summary of Findings

4.2.2 In recent times, farmers, especially those with a fair amount of land, have shown an
increasing tendency to raise a number of different crops in an agricultural year. Collection of
data separately on all the crops raised by such farmers during an agricultural year demands
considerable amounts of time and resources which can be afforded only in surveys devoted
entirely to cultivation practices. The present enquiry being just a small component of the survey
conducted in the NSS 54th round, it was decided to restrict the collection of crop-level details
to only the five most important of all the field-crops cultivated by a sample household during the
agricultural year. When a sample household was found to have grown more than five field
crops, the field staff was required to record the details of only the five major crops, identified
on the basis of value of produces. Thus, all the estimates on cultivation of field-crops presented
in this report are based on data recorded on at most five field-crops for each sample
household. The estimates of cropped area based on these data are called ‘area under 5 major
crops’ through out this report. Besides the details of field -crops cultivated by a household, data
on the total net sown area (NSA) and area sown more than once during the agricultural year
were also collected from each household. For this report, the households reporting some
amount of NSA during the agricultural year are treated as cultivator households. Thus, the
category ‘cultivator households’ includes also those households who were reported to have
some area under orchards or plantations but none devoted to cultivation of seasonal crops. As
distinct from a cultivator household, a field-crop cultivator (FCC) household is defined as
one which reported cultivation of at least one field crop during the agricultural year.

Table T1: Cultivator and Field-crop cultivator household and average area cultivated
India
Item estimate
1. Estimated number of cultivator households (00) 825,058
2. Estimated number of FCC households (00) 821,388
3. Percentage of cultivator households to all households 61.2
4. Percentage of FCC households to all households 60.9
5. Average NSA per FCC household (ha) 1.25
6. Average area sown more than once per FCC household (ha) 0.57
7. Gross cropped area (GCA) per FCC household (ha) 1.82
8. Area under 5 major crops per FCC household (ha) 1.75
9. Percentage of area under 5 major crops to GCA 96%

4.2.3 The national-level estimates relating to NSA and area under field-crops recorded in the
survey are given in Table T1. It reveals that almost all the cultivator households had raised some
field-crops during the agricultural year 1997-98. The percentage of cultivator households
(61.2%) was marginally higher than that of FCC households (60.9%).

4.2.4 The percentage of cultivator households, estimated from the present survey, however,
appears to be some what on the lower side when compared to the estimated percentage of
operating households (80%) based on the Land And Livestock Holdings Survey (LHS) of the
NSS 48th round (1991-92). In the LHSs of the NSSO, the category ‘operating households’
includes all those households which carry out any kind of agricultural production during the
reference agricultural year. Besides those raising any kind of crop, it included the households

15
Report No. 451 Chapter IV
Cultivation Practices in India Summary of Findings

engaged solely in other agricultural activities like animal husbandry, pisciculture, etc. From the
estimates of LHS 1991-92, given in Table T2, it appears that field -crops were raised outside
homestead in about three-fourths of the operational holdings. Since, 80% of the households
were operating households1, the percentage of households raising field-crops outside homestead
works out to about 60% – a figure close enough to the percentage of cultivator households
estimated in the present survey. Thus, it appears like that in the present survey, raising of
seasonal or field-crops in kitchen gardens or in any other part of the homestead was not
considered while recording cultivation of field-crops. There was no clear guidelines in this
respect in the instructions manual for the field staff.

Table T2: Percentage distribution of operational holdings reporting different types


of agricultural production (1991-92)
India
agricultural activ ity percentage
of holdings
only in homestead:
poultry or livestock only 7.6
kitchen garden only 1.6
any other combination 13.8
total within homestead 24.1
outside homestead:
raising field crops 75.9
Total 100.0

4.2.5 Table T1 also shows that, on an average, a FCC household had a NSA of 1.25 ha,
GCA of 1.82 ha and area under 5 major crops of 1.75 ha Significantly, it is seen that the share
of area under 5 major crops (henceforth called AFMC) in the GCA is as high as 96%. Besides
the area under crops other than the five most important ones recorded in the present survey, the
GCA includes area under orchards and plantations of the households. Thus, it appears that the
restriction of recording details of at the most five crops for a sample household has lead to an
under-coverage, only a small part of the total cropped area under field crops.

4.2.6 The percentages of cultivator and field -crop cultivator households, given in Table T3,
show that field crops were raised by virtually every cultivator household in all the States, except
Kerala. A perceptible difference between the percentages of cultivator households (79%) and
FCC households (76%) was found only in Kerala, which has about two-thirds of its NSA
under plantation crops like rubber, black pepper and coconut2.

1
Source: NSS Report No. 408: Livestock and Agricultural Implements in Household Operational Holdings, NSS 48th Round,
1992
2
Reference: Area, Production and Yield of Principal Crops, 1993-94, DES, M/o Agriculture.

16
Report No. 451 Chapter IV
Cultivation Practices in Figure
India 1 Summary of Findings
Percentage of FCC households using improved seeds
percentage of FCC households by
and
State
India
% of FCC hhs using improved seeds
TPR
% of FCC hhs
SKM

NAG

MIZ

MEG

MNP

ArP

WB

ORS

BHR

ASM

TN

KRL

KTK

AP

MAH

MP

RAJ

GUJ

UP

PJB

HAR

J&K

HP

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100

4.2.7 Table T3 also gives the percentage of AFMC in GCA for each State. It is seen that the
share of AFMC in GCA was about 90% or more in all the States, except for some of the
North-eastern hill States and Kerala. Relatively high shares of AFMC in GCA were found in
Himachal Pradesh (98%), Rajasthan (96%), Madhya Pradesh(96%) and Mizoram (96%).

17
Report No. 451 Chapter IV
Cultivation Practices in India Summary of Findings

4.2.8 Another feature of significance revealed by the table is that the five lowest percentages of
FCC households were observed in Tamil Nadu (35%), Punjab (36%), Tripura (43%), Andhra
Pradesh (44%) and Haryana (45%). The estimates relating to use of improved cultivation
practices, discussed later in this chapter, indicate more extensive spread of advanced
agricultural technology in all these States, except Tripura, than in the rest of the country. In fact,
the percentage of FCC households and the percentage of households using improved variety of
seeds for cultivation appear to be negatively related, as indicated by Figure 1.

Table T3: Percentage of cultivator households and field-crop cultivator (FCC)


households, and percentage of area under 5 major crops(AFMC)

Percentage of percentage of
state FCC cultivator AFMC to GCA
North Himalyan
Himachal Pradesh 86 86 98
Jammu & Kashmir 92 92 93
North
Haryana 45 45 93
Punjab 36 36 95
Uttar Pradesh 75 75 92
North-West
Gujarat 57 57 91
Rajashthan 79 79 96
West & Central
Madhya Pradesh 72 72 96
Maharashtra 53 53 92
South
Andhra Pradesh 44 44 91
Karnataka 64 64 93
Kerala 76 79 78
Tamil Nadu 35 35 88
East & North-East Plains
Assam 70 71 91
Bihar 62 62 91
Orissa 63 64 95
West Bengal 55 56 94
North-East Hills
Arunachal Pradesh 81 81 63
Manipur 85 85 79
Meghalaya 90 90 88
Mizoram 87 87 96
Nagaland 93 93 80
Sikkim 69 69 87
Tripura 43 44 76
India 61 61 93
Note: AFMC stands for the area under five major crops as described in para 4.2.5.

4.3 Distributions of field-crop cultivator households and cultivated area by ownership

18
Report No. 451 Chapter IV
Cultivation Practices in India Summary of Findings

holding of land
4.3.1 A characteristic feature of the Indian agricultural sector is the high inequality in the
distribution of land and material assets. The persistent nature of the unequal distribution of land
is borne out by the results of the decennial Land and Livestock Holdings Surveys of the NSSO
as well as the quinquennial Agricultural Census organised by the Ministry of Agriculture. The
results of the present survey too reflect this feature of the agrarian structure.
4.3.2 In Appendix I, a classification of households based on eight size classes of household
ownership holding of land has been used for the tables presenting survey results by ownership of
land. Here, in order to explore the determining role of farm size in adoption of improved
techniques of cultivation in different States, the eight size classes are merged into five broader
size-groups along the lines adopted in the Agricultural Census of India. The five size groups are
follows :

category ownership of land

marginal : less than 1.01 ha


small : 1.01 - 2.00 ha
semi-medium : 2.01 - 4.00 ha
medium : 4.01 - 10.00 ha
large : larger than 10.00 ha
The size groups will hence for the be called categories of ownership holdings.
4.3.3 Table T4 gives percentage distribution of the field-crop cultivator (FCC) households and
of the AFMC by size class of ownership holding. The table clearly reveals a highly uneven
distribution of the AFMC – a close approximation of gross cropped area during the agricultural
year 1997-98 – among the FCC households of India. In fact, the inequality must have been
more acute than what the table reflects. Owing to reasons mentioned earlier, the collection of
data on cultivation was restricted to five most important crops reported by a household in the
sample. Thus, the area under five major crops should necessarily be less than the gross
cropped area under the field -crops cultivated by the household, particularly when the number of
field crops cultivated exceeded five.
4.3.4 This limitation notwithstanding, the estimates given in Table T4 reflect the degree of
inequality in cultivated area. It is seen that while about 40% of the bottom FCC households had
cultivated only about 10% of the total are under five major crops, the top 7% of the FCC
households had a share exceeding 31%.
4.3.5 Another important feature of Indian agriculture revealed by Table T4 is the predominance
of marginal farmers. About 62% of the FCC households, it is seen, belonged to the marginal
category, owning one hectare or less of land. Together with the FCC households in the ‘small’
category, they constituted over four-fifths of the total FCC households, and their combined
share in the AFMC was just about 45%. At the other end less than 1% of the FCC households
belonged to the category ‘large’, but their share in the area was more than 8%.

19
Report No. 451 Chapter IV
Cultivation Practices in India Summary of Findings

Table T4: Percentage distribution of FCC households and of the AFMC by size
class of ownership holding
India
cumulative percentage
size -class percentage distribution of distribution of
(ha) FCC AFMC FCC AFMC
households households
Table T5: Percentage distribution of AFMC and FCC households by size category of
nil ( <ownership
0.01) holding 1.3 0.8 1.3 0.8
0.01 - 0.20 15.0 1.9 16.3 2.7
state 0.21 - 0.50 esti- 23.3
Marginal 7.2 small 39.6 medium
semi- 9.9
large all sizes
0.51 - 1.00 mate 22.0 13.4 61.6
medium 23.3
Himachal
1.01Pradesh
- 2.00 H 19.8 78 21.6 15 6
81.4 1 44.90 100
2.01 - 2.00 R 11.9 49 23.9 26 17
93.3 6 68.81 100
Jammu4.01& Kashmir
- 10.00 H 5.8 81 22.9 14 5
99.1 1 91.70 100
10.01 & above R 0.9 51 8.3 27 18
100.0 5 100.0 0 100
Haryana all sizes H 100.0 38100.0 26 21 - 14 2
- 100
R 15 18 25 30 11 100
Punjab H 31 29 22 16 4 100
4.3.6 Table T5 gives the percentage R 8
distribution of17FCC households
24 33 18
and the percentage 100of
Uttar Pradesh H 71 17 8 3 0 100
area under 5 major crops in different R
categories
35
of holdings
25
for
22
different
15
States. 2Besides100the
predominant
Gujarat proportion of marginal H farmers,47the general 21 feature 18 that emerges
12 from2 the table
100 is
that the distribution of AFMC is highly R unequal 15 in all the
17 States.26 33 10 100
Rajasthan H 38 22 20 16 4 100
R 11 13 22 34 19 100
4.3.7 High percentages of marginal
Madhya Pradesh H
farmers36 are a common
28
feature
24
of most
11
of the Indian
1
States.
100
As a result a growing pressuresR of population 10 on the
20 limited 31 land base,30 the percentage
9 100of
farmersMaharashtra
in this category has swelled H progressively42 over
27 the years.
19 Now,11apart from 2 the North-
100
Himalayan States and most of the North-East hill States, where the holdings are small100for
R 13 21 27 30 10
Andhra Pradesh H 59 21 13 7 1 100
topographical reasons, the percentage R
of marginal
24
farmers
21
exceeded
23
70 in
23
all the three
8
States
100
of
the East, in Kerala & Tamil Nadu
Karnataka H in the South 45 and Uttar28 Pradesh 16 in the10 north. In fact,2 as Table
100
T5 shows it to be as high as 92 in R Kerala and 14 85 in West
23 Bengal. 24 28 12 100
Kerala H 92 6 1 1 0 100
4.3.8 The two agriculturally developed R States56 of Punjab22 and Haryana
11 in 8the North4 stand out 100as
exceptions
Tamilin respect of percentage
Nadu H of marginal 72 as well
18 as large 8 farmers. 3 In these0 two States,
100
while the percentage of FCC households in the ‘marginal’ category was much lower than 100
R 38 27 20 14 2 most
Assam H 59 28 10 2 0 100
of the other States, the percentages R
of ‘large’28
farmers36
were among
26
the10
highest three.
0
Only
100
in
Rajasthan,
Biharwas the percentage ofHAFMC accounted 73 for
17 large farmers
7 higher
3 than in0 Punjab100 and
Haryana. R 35 25 21 13 6 100
Orissa H 73 18 7 2 0 100
R 39 27 20 9 4 100
4.3.9 West
In many
Bengal
States, the percentage
H
of85FCC households.
11 4
in the ‘large’
0
category
0
being
100
negligible, the number of such households
R in58 the sample
25 was less15 than adequate
3 for0 estimating
100
parameters relating
Arunachal to the use of H
Pradesh improved techniques
53 by them.13Table T612 gives the1 sample100
22 size
R 26 23 24 22
by category of holding for each State separately. The estimate for any category of holding for a 5 100
Manipur H 80 17 4 1 0 100
State based on a sample of fewer R
than 2561 households 26
is excluded
11
from
2
the discussion
0
on
100
cultivating practices that follows. H
Meghalaya 64 20 14 3 0 100
R 34 25 30 12 0 100
Mizoram H 87 11 2 1 0 100
R 80 14 5 1 0 100
Nagaland H 19 20 24 41 16 1 100
R 5 14 37 41 4 100
Sikkim H 78 15 7 1 0 100
R 50 26 20 3 1 100
Report No. 451 Chapter IV
Cultivation Practices in India Summary of Findings

Table T6: Distribution of sample households by size-category of ownership holding

size-category of ownwership holding


state marginal small semi- medium large all
medium
Andhra Pradesh 1461 499 347 164 25 2496
Arunachal Pradesh 293 125 90 86 8 602
Assam 1405 582 205 42 0 2234
Bihar 3422 781 331 111 14 4659
Gujarat 742 338 282 200 30 1592
Haryana 207 138 116 77 13 551
Himachal Pradesh 1284 241 99 22 7 1653
Jammu & Kashmir 1192 242 84 17 0 1535
Karnataka 911 522 308 184 28 1953
Kerala 2025 116 29 10 2 2182
Madhya Pradesh 1473 1108 954 434 62 4031
Maharashtra 1153 739 527 287 40 2746
Manipur 567 140 34 6 0 747
Meghalaya 562 193 136 29 0 920
Mizoram 427 54 16 3 0 500
Nagaland 151 177 356 136 8 828
Orissa 1556 378 146 32 3 2115
Punjab 273 254 190 133 33 883
Rajasthan 989 583 539 451 124 2686
Sikkim 539 92 42 4 1 678
Tamil Nadu 1385 321 136 42 3 1887
Tripura 439 40 16 2 0 497
Uttar Pradesh 5207 1205 606 226 19 7263
West Bengal 2467 302 97 9 1 2876
India 30354 9215 5712 2716 422 48419

4.4 Crop Composition

4.4.1 Crop diversification forms an important component of the strategy of agricultural


development, adopted in the 8th Plan, for improving the economic conditions of small and
marginal farmers. While primary information on area under principal crops is regularly published
by the Ministry of Agriculture, there are hardly any data on crop-diversification by size of farm
or on number of crops raised by a cultivator in an agricultural year. The present enquiry
provides some basic data essential for appraising the level of crop diversification as a part of
present cultivation practices. The present enquiry was, however, designed to collect detailed
information on field crops raised by a farmer-household during the agricultural year 1997-98.
For item purpose, crops reported by a farmer were recorded in codes using a classification of
twelve broad crop-groups, viz.:

1. Paddy 2. Wheat 3. Other Cereals 4. Pulses

21
Report No. 451 Chapter IV
Cultivation Practices in India Summary of Findings

5. Oilseeds 6. Mixed crops 7. Sugar Cane 8. Vegetables


9. Fodder 10. Fruits & nuts 11. Other cash-crops 12. Others
4.4.2 If a crop was raised more than once in different seasons of the agricultural year, crop
during each season was considered a separate crop, while the same crop grown during a
particular season, even if on more than one plot, was treated as single crop. However, although
the data collection was restricted to a maximum of five major crops raised by a sample
household the estimates based on them, covering about 93% of the GCA (see Table T3), are
expected to provide a fair idea of crop diversification in farms of various sizes. The kharif and
rabi paddy are taken as a separate crops, since raising of rabi paddy, by itself, is a sign of
diversification.
Table T7: Crop-groupwise percentage of FCC households and AFMC
India
crop-groupwise percentage of
crop group FCC hhs AFMC
cultivating
Paddy: kharif 57 25
: rabi 7 3
:total - 28
Wheat 44 21
other cereals 34 16
total cereals - 64
Pulses 25 8
total foodgrains - 72
Oilseeds 18 9
mixed crop 7 4
sugar cane 6 2
Vegetables 16 2
Fodder 12 2
fruits & nuts 5 1
other cash crops 12 7
Others 4 1
all crops - 100

4.4.3 Based on the data on five major crops reported by the sample households, the
percentage distribution of the AFMC by crop-group and number of households cultivating a
crop in the crop-group FCC household are given in Table T7. It may be observed that
(1) 72% of the AFMC was under foodgrains alone, with the cereal crop-groups accounting for
64%.
(2) Kharif paddy and wheat were sown in 25% and 21% of the AFMC, respectively, while
other cereals covered 16% . Percentage share of rabi paddy was, however, low (3%).
(3) Among other crops, pulses and oilseeds covered 8% and 9% of AFMC, respectively.
(4) About 57%, 44% and 34% of FCC households reported cultivation of kharif paddy, wheat
and ‘other cereals’, respectively, indicating that quite a sizeable percentage of FCC
households were engaged in cereal production. As for the other crop-groups, about 25%

22
Report No. 451 Chapter IV
Cultivation Practices in India Summary of Findings

of the FCC households reported cultivation of pulses, 18% cultivation of reported oilseeds
and 16% reported cultivation of vegetables.

Table T8: Percentage distribution of AFMC by crop-group


India
paddy other pul- food oil mixed sugar vege - fod- fruits other
size class kharif rabi wheat cereals ses grains seeds crop cane tables der & cash other total
(ha) nuts crop
nil (<0.01) 41 4 13 14 6 79 6 2 1 7 2 1 2 1 100
0.01 - 0.20 35 4 24 9 4 77 3 2 1 5 2 3 7 1 100
0.21 - 0.50 37 5 23 13 5 82 4 2 1 3 2 1 4 1 100
0.51 - 1.00 35 4 21 13 6 79 5 2 2 3 2 1 4 1 100
1.01 - 2.00 29 3 21 15 7 75 8 3 2 2 2 1 5 1 100
2.01 - 4.00 24 2 21 17 8 72 10 3 3 2 2 1 6 1 100
4.01 - 10.00 16 2 20 19 10 66 12 5 2 1 3 1 9 2 100
10.01 & 12 0 19 20 11 62 15 4 1 1 3 1 12 1 100
above
all classes 25 3 21 16 8 72 9 4 2 2 2 1 7 1 100

4.4.4 Table T8 gives the percentage distribution of AFMC by crop-group separately for each
size-class of ownership holding. The table reveals the following features of crop cultivation in
farms of varying sizes:

1. In all size classes, foodgrains have a predominant share (60% or more) in AFMC.
2. The higher the size-class the lower had the percentage of AFMC under foodgrains – a
phenomenon found to be generally true, leaving apart only the ‘virtually landless’ class of
“0.01 ha or less”. kharif paddy and wheat together played a determining role in this respect,
particularly for their dominant share in the AFMC under foodgrains.
3. Contrary to the pattern observed for foodgrains, pulses were cultivated by larger percentages
of FCC households in the higher size-classes. For “other cereals’ and oilseeds, the table
reveals similar patterns. However, for all these crop-groups, the percentages of AFMC in
‘virtually landless’ class did not conform to these patterns.

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4.4.5 Cultivation of crops in different size-classes of holding: The percentages of FCC

Table T9: Percentage of FCC households reporting cultivation of crops in different crop-groups for each
size -class

size class paddy paddy wheat other pulses oil mixed sugar vege- fodder fruits other other
(ha) kharif rabi cereals seeds crop cane tables & cash
nuts
nil (<0.01) 69 8 25 26 13 7 6 2 30 4 5 4 4
0.01 - 0.20 54 7 36 16 8 6 4 1 18 3 13 10 5
0.21 - 0.50 65 9 44 28 19 12 4 4 14 7 4 7 3
0.51 - 1.00 63 9 44 32 25 16 6 7 17 11 4 10 4
1.01 - 2.00 56 7 46 40 31 23 8 8 16 15 3 14 4
2.01 - 4.00 48 6 49 48 37 31 10 9 15 19 3 17 5
4.01 - 10.00 35 4 50 56 43 38 14 9 10 24 3 26 6
10.01 & 29 2 49 68 48 47 13 6 11 32 6 35 8
above
all sizes 57 7 44 34 25 18 7 6 16 12 5 12 4

households cultivating crops in different crop-groups are shown in Table T9 for each size-class
of holding. The following features of the table deserve to be noted:

1. Cereal crops were cultivated by a large percentage of FCC households, irrespective of


the size-class of holding.

2. The higher the size of holding, the higher was the percentage of FCC households
cultivating wheat, ‘other cereals’, pulses, oilseeds, ‘mixed crop’, sugarcane, ‘fodder’
‘other cash crops’ and ‘other crops,’ except for the ‘nil’ class in a few cases . However,
for both kharif paddy and rabi paddy, the pattern was the opposite, i.e., the higher the
size-class the lower was the percentage of FCC households cultivating paddy.

3. There was no strong evidence of any clear association between the size-class and the
percentage of FCC households growing vegetables and ‘fruits & nuts’.

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4.4.6 Average number of crops cultivated: Table T10 gives


Table T10: Average number of
average number of crop groups (ACG) cultivated by a FCC crops (ACG) cultivated by
household for each size-class of holding during the agricultural a FCC household
year 1997-98. The estimates of ACG show an increase with a India
rise in size of holdings with the exception of the ‘nil’ class. As size class ACG
(ha)
noted earlier, the estimate for the ‘nil’ class are not as robust
as those for the other classes, as they are based on a much nil ( < 0.01) 2.03
0.01 - 0.20 1.80
smaller sample size as compared to the other size classes. [See 0.21 - 0.50 2.20
Appendix Table (10).] 0.51 - 1.00 2.48
1.01 - 2.00 2.70
4.4.7: Inter-State variation in crop composition: State-level 2.01 - 4.00 2.97
variation in crop composition is shown in Table T11. The 4.01 - 10.00 3.19
table reveals: 10.01 & above 3.53
1. Foodgrains production accounted for 50% or more in all sizes 2.12
AFMC in all States, except for Kerala and Gujarat. In Kerala, about 44% of the AFMC
was under ‘other cash crops’ and over 17% under ‘fruits & nuts’ whereas foodgrains
covered only 22%. In Gujarat, foodgrain covered 48%, oilseeds 18% and ‘other cash crop’
19%.
2. All the States of the east and the north-east plains had a relatively high percentages of AFMC
under foodgrain crops. In fact, Orissa (96%) and Bihar (92%) were the two States with
highest shares under foodgrains. In all the other States of this region, the percentage of
AFMC under foodgrains was well above that at national the level. Assam, West Bengal and
some N-E hill States showed significant proportions of AFMC under rabi paddy, which is
also observed for Tamil Nadu.

4.4.8 InterState variation in share of foodgrains in AFMC & size of holdings: The
percentage of AFMC by category of holdings for all the States and for all India is shown in
Table T12. The following observations emerge from the table:
1. The north-western States, viz. Gujarat & Rajasthan, reveal a strong negative association
between percentage of AFMC under foodgrains and size-class – the decline being much
sharper in Gujarat than in Rajasthan. In fact, the declining trend is the sharpest in Gujarat
among all the States. For the States like Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh
also show such a declining trend.

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2. For States of the northern region, viz. Punjab, Haryana and Uttar Pradesh, no definite pattern
is visible in the percentage of AFMC under foodgrains against different size classes. For
Punjab and Haryana, in particular, a rising pattern is observed for marginal, small and semi-
medium categories, which slopes downward for medium and large categories. For Uttar
Pradesh, the pattern observed is different from that observed for Punjab and Haryana.

Table T11: Percentage distribution of AFMC by crop group for each state

paddy other pul- food oil mixed sugar Vege- fruit other all
state khari rabi wheat cereals ses grain seeds crop cane Table fod & cash other crops
f s s -der nuts crop
North Himalayan
Himachal Pr. 8 0 42 34 2 85 1 0 0 2 1 5 4 1 100
J&K 29 1 27 13 3 72 9 0 0 6 5 7 1 2 100
North
Haryana 19 0 38 9 5 71 7 0 1 1 9 0 6 4 100
Punjab 28 1 44 2 0 75 0 0 0 1 10 0 13 1 100
Uttar 24 1 38 11 8 81 3 2 6 2 4 0 1 1 100
Pradesh
North-West
Gujarat 8 1 12 22 5 48 18 6 3 2 4 1 19 1 100
Rajasthan 1 0 20 33 12 66 12 8 0 0 3 0 7 3 100
West & Central
Madhya Pr. 24 1 26 10 11 71 19 4 0 1 1 0 3 1 100
Maharashtra 10 0 7 38 10 65 6 4 3 2 1 2 17 1 100
South
Andhra Pr. 31 10 0 11 9 60 16 5 2 1 1 2 10 2 100
Karnataka 10 2 2 38 12 64 15 6 2 2 1 2 8 1 100
Kerala 14 5 0 2 0 22 5 5 0 3 0 17 44 4 100
Tamil Nadu 28 17 0 15 6 66 7 2 5 3 1 5 9 3 100
East & North-East Plains
Assam 60 13 3 1 4 81 2 0 1 12 0 0 0 3 100
Bihar 49 1 29 6 7 92 2 1 1 2 0 0 1 0 100
Orissa 80 3 0 3 9 96 1 0 0 2 0 0 1 0 100
West Bengal 56 15 6 1 1 79 4 0 0 8 0 1 8 2 100
North-East Hills
Arunachal Pr. 50 10 3 10 2 75 1 11 0 7 0 1 3 3 100
Manipur 67 18 0 1 1 87 0 3 0 7 0 0 0 2 100
Meghalaya 41 3 0 5 0 50 0 7 0 28 0 7 3 4 100
Mizoram 43 6 0 2 3 54 0 25 1 9 0 2 6 4 100
Nagaland 45 17 0 7 2 71 1 7 0 12 0 0 5 5 100
Sikkim 14 1 2 43 2 62 1 0 0 15 3 1 18 1 100
Tripura 54 29 4 0 0 87 0 0 0 12 0 1 0 0 100

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3. In the States of the east and north-east plains, the percentage of AFMC under foodgrains

Table T12: Percentage of AFMC under foodgrains by category of holdings

state marginal small semi- Medium large all sizes


medium
North Himalayan
Himachal Pradesh 88 82 83 * * 85
Jammu & Kashmir 63 78 84 * - 72
North
Haryana 68 70 74 70 * 71
Punjab 70 73 78 74 73 74
Uttar Pradesh 85 80 77 77 * 80
North-West
Gujarat 72 62 51 33 25 48
Rajasthan 74 68 67 63 63 66
West & Central
Madhya Pradesh 78 75 71 69 61 71
Maharashtra 73 68 68 60 54 65
South
Andhra Pradesh 72 66 57 54 35 60
Karnataka 68 63 65 62 60 64
Kerala 22 16 31 * * 22
Tamil Nadu 69 65 60 70 * 66
East & North-East Plains
Assam 76 83 84 83 - 81
Bihar 92 93 92 91 * 92
Orissa 96 95 98 99 * 96
West Bengal 78 79 82 * * 78
North-East Hills
Arunachal Pradesh 69 74 79 71 * 74
Manipur 84 89 92 86 - 86
Meghalaya 47 48 48 67 - 50
Mizoram 54 44 56 * - 54
Nagaland 73 77 82 59 * 71
Sikkim 65 60 51 69 * 62
Tripura 86 89 85 * - 87
India 80 75 72 66 62 72
Note: The ‘*’ mark given in cell in case the number of FCC households in the sample falls below 25.

steadily increases with the holding size.


4.5 Use of Improved Seeds
4.5.1 The technological breakthrough in Indian agriculture initiated by the introduction of the
short-duration HYV of food grains, especially rice and wheat, in the 1960s was restricted to

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certain areas of the country for more than a decade. Moreover, apart from wheat, rice, and
some improved varieties of hybrid maize, there was hardly any improved variety of seeds for
other crops till the 1980s. Since then, the use of improved seeds has progressed at a fairly rapid
pace covering a large part of the country as well as for a larger number of crops. But the
available data on spread of improved seeds have so far been limited to HYV rice, jowar,
bajra, maize, wheat and cotton. There are no data on the extent to which improved seeds for
different crops are being used and by which section of farmers. The present survey provides
some basic data on the extent and effectiveness of use of improved seeds by cultivators with
varying holding sizes.
4.5.2 For each field crop cultivated by a sample household, the survey investigator inquired
whether the seeds used were of an improved variety and if so, whether the entire crop or part of
it was raised from improved seeds. Improved seeds bought from authorized seed farms are
usually certified, while those bought from other sources are usually uncertified. The field officials
were required to ascertain whether the improved seeds used were certified or uncertified, if
purchased. In many cases, the farmers buy certified seeds once and to use the seeds grown out
of them for some generations of cultivation. In all such cases, the improved seeds were treated
as ‘home-grown’. Table T13 gives the percentage distribution of area under different crop
groups by use of improved seeds. The table provides separate estimates for use of ‘cultivate’,
‘uncertified’, ‘home-grown’ and ‘other’ kinds of improved seeds.

Table T13: Percentage distribution of area under improved seeds of crop group by type
of seeds
India
percentage distribution of area under percentage
improved seeds by type of seeds of area percentage
crop group certi- uncer- home- other all under impro- share of crop
fied fied grown types ved seeds in AFMC
paddy (kharif) 39 15 43 4 100 51 25
paddy (rabi) 39 16 39 6 100 66 3
wheat 46 13 38 2 100 63 21
other cereals 61 9 28 1 100 64 16
pulses 47 11 41 2 100 47 8
oil seeds 59 12 27 2 100 59 9
mixed crop 72 5 22 1 100 51 4
sugar cane 44 14 38 4 100 61 2
vegetables 63 20 26 4 100 53 2
fodder 35 17 43 5 100 54 2
fruits & nuts 49 20 24 8 100 48 1
other cash 76 12 11 2 100 82 7
crops
others 47 29 19 5 100 45 1
all crops 52 13 33 2 100 59 100

4.5.3 From Table T13, which presents the percentage of area under improved seeds and
percentage distribution of area under improved seeds by type of seeds, the following points
attract attention

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1. About 59% of the AFMC was cultivated with improved varieties of seeds. The range of
variation between crops in area under improved seeds was small - from 47% to 66%
except for ‘other cash crops’.
2. Till the mid -eighties, efforts to extend the improved practices of cultivation were largely
focussed on cereal crops. Thus, as expected, the percentage of AFMC under improved
seeds was found to be the highest in cereal group. Except for kharif paddy, improved seeds
were used for almost two-thirds of the area under cereal crops.
3. The share of cereal crops in the AFMC was about 65%. It is seen that kharif paddy had the
largest share (about 38%) in the AFMC under the ‘cereals’ group (see Figure 2). However,
as far as the use of improved seeds was concerned, kharif paddy showed the least
percentage of area (51%) under its coverage. For kharif paddy, the main crop of the rain-
fed agriculture of the east and north-east plains and the coastal south, the adoption of
improved seeds had been less wide-spread. Besides, of the area under improved seeds, as
high as 43% was cultivated with home-grown seeds, while certified seeds were used in 39%
of the area.

Figure 2
Percentage share of different cereal crop-groups
in AFMC under cereals
40
percentage share in AFMC under cereals

35

30

25

20

15

10

0
Paddy: kharif Paddy: rabi wheat other cereals

using improved seeds not using improved seeds

4 As for kharif paddy, certified seeds were used only in 46% and 39% of area under
improved seeds for wheat and rabi paddy, respectively. For the crop group, ‘other
cereals’, viz. jowar, bajra, maize, ragi, small millets and barley, area under certified seeds
constituted 61% of the area under improved seeds.
5. Among foodgrains, the use of improved seeds was the least for pulses: only 47% of the area
under pulses was cultivated with improved seeds. Moreover, a fairly large part (41%) of this

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area was cultivated with home-grown seeds.

6. Among the other crop-groups, oilseeds, with a share of about 9% in the total AFMC, had
about 59% of its area under improved seeds. The use of certified seed was also fairly high
(59% of the area under improved seeds).

7. The group ‘other cash crops’ consists of cotton, jute, mesta and tobacco in this survey. Of
these, cotton is undoubtedly the main. The rapid rise in cotton production in recent years 3
perhaps in due to increased use of improved seeds besides the incease in acreage under
cotton cultivation. This is evident from relatively high shares of ‘other cash crop’ in total
AFMC in the States like Maharashtra, Gujarat, Andhra Pradesh, Punjab, Haryana,
Karnataka and Rajasthan, as reflected in Table T11. Here also, it is worth mentioning that
about 76% of the area under improved seeds was cultivated with certified seeds.

Table T14: Percentage of area under improved seeds by crop-group and size class of holding
India
size class paddy paddy wheat other pulses oil seeds fodder others all
(ha) kharif rabi cereals crops
nil (< 0.01 ) 27 60 54 35 31 60 45 44 38
00.01 - 00.20 45 68 47 46 22 57 59 52 47
00.21 - 00.50 48 69 51 51 37 54 50 52 50
00.51 - 01.00 49 67 54 58 40 55 51 58 53
01.01 - 02.00 49 60 59 60 44 57 53 61 55
02.01 - 04.00 50 65 65 65 45 58 58 68 60
04.01 - 10.00 58 69 71 69 51 61 57 70 65
10.01 & above 71 81 79 70 56 61 63 74 70
all 51 66 63 64 47 59 56 65 59

4.5.4 Use of improved seeds and size of holding: Percentage area under improved seeds
by crop group is presented in Table T14. The estimates for ‘all crops’ clearly display a positive
relationship between area under improved seeds and size of holding. Modern farming based
largely on the use of HYV seeds, chemical fertilizers and pesticides, with as assured supply of
water for irrigation, demands high investment which the smaller farmers cannot afford. The
positive relationship between area under improved seeds and size of holding, therefore, reflects
the relative advantage of the bigger farmers over the smaller ones.
4.5.5 The table also reveals that, in about two-thirds of the area under rabi paddy, improved
variety of seeds was used uniformly across all size classes. On the other hand, area under
improved seeds for kharif paddy increased progressively with the rise of holding size. Similar
patterns were also observed for crop-groups like wheat, ‘other cereals’, pulses and fodder.

3
The cotton production has risen from 9.7 mill. bales in 1991-92 to 14.3 mill. bales in 1996-97.
Source: Agricultural Statistics at a glance, 1997, Ministry of Agriculture

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4.5.6 Crop-groupwise use of improved seeds: The percentage areas under improved seeds
by crop-group in different States are presented in Table T15.
1. For kharif paddy, the most important single crop-group in the country by its share in the total
cropped area, the use of improved seeds varies widely from 4% to 90% of the area. The
major rice-growing States of the south, north-west and north, each having about 20% or
more of their total cropped area under kharif paddy, are Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu,
Kerala, Karnataka, Gujarat, Punjab and Haryana [see Table T11]. The use of improved
seeds in all these States was found to be more extensive than in the States of the east and
north-east in general. Only the state of West Bengal, in the east, came closer to these States
in this respect. Madhya Pradesh, another major rice-growing state, had a very restricted use
of improved seeds for cultivation of kharif paddy. Significantly, Manipur, Meghalaya and
Tripura of the north-east hills had a moderately high percentages of area under kharif paddy
under improved seeds.

Table T15: Percentage of area under improved seeds by crop-group and state

state paddy paddy wheat other pulses oil fodder other all
kharif rabi cereals seeds crops
Himachal Pradesh 36 31 33 27 26 8 27 42 32
Jammu & Kashmir 69 92 72 51 60 54 63 69 66
Haryana 87 76 84 82 27 80 52 82 78
Punjab 90 51 87 54 43 73 71 79 84
Uttar Pradesh 51 64 58 44 34 47 63 52 52
Gujarat 77 79 90 86 81 71 50 95 84
Rajasthan 31 85 78 67 62 76 52 61 68
Karnataka 76 67 43 68 51 69 39 60 65
Kerala 77 72 100 23 29 14 0 28 37
Madhya Pradesh 21 69 46 51 31 52 26 49 40
Maharashtra 39 82 60 72 50 60 43 88 69
Andhra Pradesh 79 72 66 69 71 40 46 59 65
Tamil Nadu 72 70 89 64 73 71 38 64 68
Assam 41 38 80 50 25 34 40 52 43
Bihar 43 72 62 46 33 38 27 50 49
Orissa 36 55 54 38 59 33 0 60 40
West Bengal 73 72 70 81 69 68 2 71 72
Arunachal Pradesh 21 36 93 28 45 19 0 16 24
Manipur 65 66 100 58 68 4 44 35 61
Meghalaya 64 55 80 59 40 100 42 52 57
Mizoram 37 0 0 2 3 0 5 21 26
Nagaland 4 2 0 10 0 11 0 2 3
Sikkim 14 4 18 3 0 0 0 0 4
Tripura 61 66 91 0 0 0 0 58 63
India 51 66 63 64 47 59 56 65 59
Note: The ‘*’ mark given in cell in case the number of FCC households in the sample falls below 25.

2. The States of Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Assam, West Bengal, Arunachal Pradesh,
Manipur, Nagaland and Tripura, each of which had about 10% or more of its area under
rabi paddy [see Table T11], had more than 60% of their area under improved seeds Assam

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(38%), Arunacahal Pradesh (36%), and Nagaland (2%).


3. All the States of the north, north-west, east and north-east plains, Jammu & Kashmir and
Arunachal Pradesh had quite high percentages of areas under improved wheat seeds.
4. The crop-group ‘other cereals’ is important for both the north-Himalayan States, Uttar
Pradesh, all the States of the north-west, the south (except Kerala), the west and central
India. Sikkim was the only State in the north-east reporting high percentage(43%) of its
AFMC under ‘other cereal’ [see Table T11]. Use of improved seeds for cultivating ‘other
cereals’, which was very low in Himachal Pradesh and Sikkim, and low in Jammu &
Kashmir, Uttar Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh, was found to vary within a small range of
64% in Tamil Nadu to 86% in Gujarat.
5. Among the major pulse-producing States like Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan, Karnataka, Madhya
Pradesh, Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh and Orissa, the percentage of area under improved
seeds was relatively low in Uttar Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh, whereas in Andhra Pradesh,
it was quite extensive.
6. Gujarat, Rajasthan, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh and Andhra Pradesh were the only States
having 10% of total cropped area under ‘oilseeds’(see Table T11). Among these States, the
percentage of area under improved seeds varied from 40% in Andhra Pradesh to 76% in
Rajasthan. It was also high in Gujarat. Significantly, though only 7% of the AFMC in
Haryana and Tamil Nadu was under ‘oilseeds’, the use of improved varieties of seeds was
found to be very high in these two States. In fact, the percentage (80%) was the highest in
Haryana.

4.6 Use of Inputs for Modern Cultivation


4.6.1 The strategy adopted in the Fourth Plan to combat the prevalent food crisis was based
on an extensive use of HYV seeds and a package of improved practices, including application

Figure 3
Statewise percentage of AFMC cultivated with improved seeds
and AFMC irrigated
90
% AFMC under improved seeds

80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
0 20 40 60 80 100 120
% AFMC irrigated

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of chemical fertilisers and pesticides. This has resulted in a rapid growth in foodgrain production
during the last three decades. Today, improved cultivation practices are followed for a wide
variety of crops over a large part of the country. But, while use of fertilisers and pesticides has
played a vital role in agricultural growth, it has also raised issues of grave concern to the
environmentalists and social scientists. Besides their impact on production, little is known of their
effect on the other spheres. The data required to assess the extent of their use are either not
available or scanty. The annual data on aggregate consumption of fertilisers, pesticides,
weedicides and high quality seeds that are available do not reflect the extent of their use for
different crops or by different sections of farmers. The present survey attempts to generate
estimates of certain basic parameters relating to the use of these inputs.

4.6.2 In the present survey, some categorical data on the use of these inputs were collected for
each of the major crops (a maximum of five) reported by a sample household. The estimates
presented in this report being based on these data do not represent rates like quantity per unit
area, etc.. They simply indicate broad features of their use, like proportions of area on which
fertilisers, pesticides and weedicides were used entirely or partly or were not at all.

Table T16: Percentages of area under a crop group reporting use of improved seeds, chemical
fertilisers, manure, weedicides and pesticides
India
crop improved fertilisers manure either weedicides pesticides
seeds or
both*
paddy (kharif) 51 83 77 94 26 52
paddy (rabi) 66 89 73 94 35 74
wheat 63 93 72 98 28 44
other cereals 64 71 79 91 14 32
pulses 47 65 67 84 12 39
oil seeds 59 82 71 93 23 52
mixed crop 51 60 67 81 31 38
sugar cane 61 96 86 99 30 51
vegetables 59 77 76 92 21 59
fodder 56 73 67 86 16 29
fruits & nuts 48 71 73 84 23 56
other cash crops 82 91 78 97 24 76
others 45 66 59 74 24 41
all crops 59 81 74 93 22 47
* “either or both’ means ‘either of manures and fertilisers or both’

4.6.3 For modern cultivation, it is necessary to test the soil of cultivation fields so that
appropriate manures and\or fertilisers could be used. But at national level, only 3.4% of
cultivator households reported that they have tested soil of their fields in a soil testing laboratory.
Again, half of the households reported testing of soil have followed the recommendations of the
testing. [See Appendix Table (11).] Thus, the extent of soil testing is quite negligible. The need
for testing of soil of cultivation fields is yet to gain ground in the country.

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4.6.4 Table T16 gives the percentages of area under a crop group reported use of improved
seeds, chemical fertilisers etc. The percentages shown against ‘all crops’, evidently, represent
the percentages of AFMC. It is seen that the soil of over four-fifths of the AFMC was treated
with fertilisers and about three-fourths with manure. Either fertilisers or manure were applied on
93%, pesticides on about half and weedicides on almost a fourth of the AFMC. It is evident
from the percentages of area under improved seeds (59%) and area treated with chemical
fertilisers (81%) that use of chemical fertilisers was not restricted to crops raised from improved
seeds alone. The estimates indicate that there was at least 22% of the cropped area on which
the traditional variety of crops was raised with use of fertilisers. In other words, of the cropped
area sown with the traditional variety (41%), at least over half was treated with fertilisers.
4.6.5 This appears to be true not only in aggregate but also for each individual crop-group, as
the percentage of area treated with fertilisers invariably exceeds that under improved seeds.
This phenomenon is most pronounced for the crop-groups sugar cane, wheat and ‘other cash
crops’. It is seen that fertilisers were used on the area under each of them irrespective of the
variety of seeds used.
4.6.6 With the growing awareness of the adverse effects of chemical fertilisers, the need for
greater use of organic manures to substitute chemical fertilisers has been recognised in recent
years. The estimates given in the table reflect the present practice of nutrient management by
the farmers. It is seen that, in general, chemical fertilisers were used more extensively than
organic manures. The difference between the percentages of area treated with chemical
fertilisers and organic manures was most pronounced for the crop-groups wheat, rabi paddy
and ‘other cash crops’. Perceptibly wider use of manure than fertilisers was found only for the
crop-groups ‘mixed crop’ and ‘other cereals’.

4.6.7 The percentages of area under crops on which pesticides were applied reflect a fair
degree of dependence of the improved varieties of crops on pesticides. However, the use of
pesticides is found to have been, in general, less extensive than the use of improved seeds, with
rabi paddy standing out as a clear exception. For rabi paddy, it appears, the use of pesticides
was not restricted only to improved varieties.

4.6.8 As distinct from pesticides, which are applied to ward off pests and plant diseases,
weedicides are used to suppress weeds that use up the nutrients from the soil leaving the crop
undernourished. Moreover, unlike the use of pesticides, the use of weedicides replaces the
weeding operations dependent on human labour. The most extensive use of weedicides was
found in the cultivation of rabi paddy. Table T16 shows that 35% of the area under rabi paddy
was treated with weedicides and herbicides. The use of weedicides was also found to be as
high for the crop-groups ‘mixed crops’ and sugarcane. Among the crop-groups with relatively
high shares in AFMC, viz. the cereal crop-groups other than rabi paddy, pulses and oilseeds,
weedicides were most widely used for wheat cultivation, followed by cultivation of kharif
paddy. For the crop-groups ‘other cereals’ and pulses, weedicides were used in a small
percentage of area under them.

4.6.9 Spread of modern farming: Table T17 presents state-specific percentages of area

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under five major crops reporting the use of improved seeds, chemical fertilisers, etc.
1. The estimates corroborate the widely held view that the progress of adoption of improved
technology in agriculture has been uneven in different parts of the country. The table
indicates that the States of Punjab and Haryana in the north and Gujarat in the north-west
have progressed better than the rest of the country in this respect. At the other end, all the
States of the east and north-east, except West Bengal, Tripura and Bihar, are lagging far
behind.

Table T17: Percentage of area under five major crops in different States reporting use of improved seeds,
chemical fertilisers, manure, weedicides, pesticides and irrigation

state improved fertilisers manure either or weedicieds pesticides irrigation


seeds both*
North Himalayan
Himachal Pradesh 32 77 98 100 8 15 17
Jammu & Kashmir 66 92 86 99 21 32 48
North
Haryana 78 89 53 92 61 59 90
Punjab 84 99 69 100 79 88 97
Uttar Pradesh 52 92 74 97 17 28 91
North West
Gujarat 84 95 93 99 31 76 73
Rajasthan 68 61 76 88 10 26 61
West & Central
Madhya Pradesh 40 73 69 89 20 38 56
Maharashtra 69 79 72 91 13 49 44
South
Andhra Pradesh 65 94 86 97 22 82 72
Karnataka 65 82 83 95 23 55 41
Kerala 37 67 72 86 14 38 46
Tamil Nadu 68 88 84 95 51 84 84
East & North-East
Plains
Assam 43 48 54 68 13 30 19
Bihar 49 84 66 93 18 48 76
Orissa 40 65 88 92 15 35 30
West Bengal 72 94 73 97 26 84 72
North East Hills
Arunachal Pradesh 24 16 12 23 4 27 22
Manipur 62 58 50 71 21 60 37
Meghalaya 57 18 36 45 10 26 6
Mizoram 26 3 3 5 0 2 1
Nagaland 3 6 55 57 34 18 24
Sikkim 4 22 85 86 1 4 26
Tripura 63 70 84 90 54 70 60

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India 59 81 74 93 22 47 66
Note: * “either or both’ means ‘either of manures and fertilisers or both’

2. Punjab and Haryana demonstrated a close association between the use of improved
practices and the development of modern irrigation system. The use of seeds, fertilisers,
weedicides, pesticides and irrigation facilities were all very high or moderately high. In Uttar
Pradesh, the other State of this region, the level of adoption was as high, in terms of the
percentages of AFMC reporting use of these inputs, but for some of the inputs, the
percentages were clearly lower than even the national average.
3. In the north-west, the adoption of improved technology in Gujarat resembled closely that in
Punjab and Haryana, while Rajasthan’s performance was not really impressive.
4. The southern States, except Kerala, are characterised by a moderately high use of improved
seeds, and a moderate to high use of pesticides and irrigation.
5. Maharashtra and Madhya Pradesh have shown close resemblance in the use of these inputs,
except that improved seeds were more extensively used in Maharashtra. In all other
respects, these two States appeared to fall below the natio nal average.
6. Wider use of fertilisers than manures, indicated by the difference in percentages of AFMC
reporting their use, was observed to be the most pronounced in the three States of the north
and the States of Bihar and West Bengal in the East. In contrast, manure was used more
extensively than fertilisres in Orissa and Rajasthan.
7. The AFMC under irrigation seemed to have a bearing on the area under improved seeds
almost in all the States. The more (less) the percentage of AFMC under irrigation, the more
(less) was the percentage of AFMC under improved seeds barring a few exceptions. (See
Figure 3)

4.7 Use of Irrigation


4.7.1 The close association between the spread of improved cultivation practices and the use
of irrigation, which is clearly demonstrated in the preceding section, confirms the widely held
view that irrigation is one of the crucial factors in the input package for cultivation based on
improved seeds. Its role in fostering technological change in agriculture in Punjab, Haryana and
western Uttar Pradesh during the 1960s and 1970s and in States like Tamil Nadu, Gujarat and
West Bengal in more recent times, is now well recognised. This apart, irrigation plays a
protective as well as productive role in traditional cultivation as well. The present survey
attempts to provide an insight in to what one can broadly understand from the aggregate data on
irrigation available as a part of agricultural statistics in India. It seeks to answer questions
concerning issues like ‘uneven spread of public irrigation facilities, particularly canals’, ‘relative
importance of private irrigation resources in supplementing public investments’, and
‘dependence of farmers on irrigation services hired from privately-owned facilities in canal and
non-canal areas’.

4.7.2 For each of the five major crops reported by a household, the use of irrigation was

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ascertained and when the response was found to be in the affirmative, it was enquired whether
or not any irrigation services were hired from other households. The estimates on theuse of
irrigation presented in the report are based mainly on the responses to these two questions,
along with the area under the crop. In addition, a village-level item of information pertaining to
availability of water from government irrigation canals has also been used for this report. It also
contains estimates on ownership of irrigation facilities like dugwell, tubewell and pump sets and
their remaining idle due to low water level or lack of fuel or lack of electricity.
4.7.3 Table T18 gives certain estimates indicating the extent of use of irrigation and availability
of public and private irrigation facilities. Besides the estimates from the present surveys, the
table also includes some comparable estimates obtained from other sources.

4.7.4 The estimated percentage of irrigated area in AFMC is 65% according to the present
survey. But it is seen that this estimate diverges considerably from the percentage of total
irrigated area to total cropped area (37%) for the agricultural year 1993-94, as given by the
Ministry of Agriculture. It is indeed unacceptable that the spread of irrigation has progressed at
such a pace as these two estimates suggest. One can identify the following plausible reasons for
this divergence:

Table T18: Percentage of total cropped area irrigated and availability of irrigation facilities
India
item source estimate

1. percentage of irrigated area in AFMC (1997-98) NSS 54th round 66


comparable estimates :
percentage of GCA irrigated (1993-94) LUS*, M/O Agriculture 37
Percentage of GCA irrigated (1991-92) NSS 48th round (derived) 51
2. percentage share of villages with Govt. canal (1997-98) in NSS 54th round 26
area under 5 major crops (AFMC)
3. Percentage of FCC households owning dugwell/tubewell - do - 29
4. percentage of FCC households owning (1997-98) - do -
(i) electric pump 13
(ii) diesel pump 13
5. percentage of (all) households owning (1997-98) - do -
(i) electric pump 8
(ii) diesel pump 8
comparable estimates :
number of pumps per 100 households: (1991-92) NSS 48th round
(i) electric 6
(ii) others 7
6. percentage of pump-owning households reporting pump NSS 54th round
sets remaining idle due to lack of fuel/electricity
(i) electric pump 48
(ii) diesel pump 14
7. percentage of households owning dugwell/tubewell - do - 26
reporting well/tubewell remaining idle due to low water
levels.
* ‘LUS’ stands for Land Use Statistics

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(a) Over-representation of irrigated area in the coverage of AFMC in the present survey
seems likely. Most of the crops which were reported but not recorded owing to the
restriction on the number of crops to be recorded, must have been relatively less important.
Thus it is likely that the crops grown on area not covered in AFMC were more often
unirrigated than irrigated.
(b) Orchards and plantation areas were excluded from the coverage of the present enquiry as it
pertains only to field-crop cultivation.
(c) The field-staff was required to record the area under a crop reported by the household as
‘irrigated’ even when only a part of it was actually irrigated.

4.7.5 The first two reasons can easily be ignored as the coverage of the AFMC, in the
present survey, falls short the of the GCA by only about 7% [see Table T3], which is far too
small to explain the divergence. There is, however, the possibility of under-reporting of cropped
area, particularly of the less important unirrigated plots, by the respondents. There are reasons
to believe that the respondents tend to under-report area of land in NSSO surveys, as these are
carried out through personal interviews without making any use of the official records. The GCA
estimated in the present survey is found to be less than the corresponding figure of the Ministry
of Agriculture for 1993-94 by about 22%. 4
Table T19: Estimates of LHS 1991-92 (NSS, 48th Round) used for deriving percentage of
GCA irrigated in rural areas
India
item estimate
1. area operated (mha) 125.10
2. percentage of operated area:
(a) unirrigated & cropped once 35.31
(b) unirrigated & cropped more than once 11.59
(c) irrigated & cropped once 10.93
(d) irrigated & cropped twice 22.97
(e) irrigated & cropped more than twice 1.49
3. NSA (mha) unirrigated and cropped
(a) once 44.17
(b) more than once 14.50
4. NSA (mha) irrigated and cropped
(a) once 13.67
(b) twice 28.74
(c) more than twice 1.86
5. GCA (mha) unirrigated (approx.) 73.17
[ 3(a) + twice 3(b) ]
6. GCA (mha) irrigated (approx.) 76.73
[ 4(a) + twice 4(b) + thrice 4(c) ]
7. GCA (approx.) 149.90
[ (5) + (6) ]

4
The GCA estimates in the present survey is only about 144 mha, whereas that given by the Ministry of Agriculture is
about 184 mha for 1993-94.

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Report No. 451 Chapter IV
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8. Percentage of irrigated GCA (approx.) 51


Source : NSS Report No. 407:Some aspects of operational holdings.
4.7.6 The percentage of irrigated area in the AFMC estimated in the present survey, however,
compares better with the broadly comparable figure derived from the estimates of the Land and
Livestock Holding Survey (LHS) of the NSS 48th round (1991-92). An approximate estimate
of the percentage of GCA irrigated, derived from the survey estimates of operated area
cropped with irrigation and that without irrigation of the LHS, 1991-92, is found to be about
51% [see Table T19]. But the derived estimate too suffers from the limitation that a plot
irrigated once during the agricultural year has been considered to be irrigated for all the crops
raised on it, for deriving the figure. Thus the figure for the percentage of irrigated GCA derived
from the estimates of the LHS, 1991-92, in fact, gives an upper bound.
4.7.7 Like the derived estimate from LHS, 1991-92, the estimated percentage of irrigated
AFMC obtained from the present survey can be said to be on the higher side owing to reason
(c) cited in para 4.7.4. Though the elements of over-estimation embodied in the two estimates
are of unknown magnitudes, the difference between them suggests a fair degree of increase in
the use of irrigation during the six-year period ending 1997-98. The increasing percentage of
households owning pump sets provides further evidence in its favour.
4.7.8 Item 5 of Table T18 shows that while the percentages of households owning electric
pump sets and those owning diesel pump sets were both 8 in 1997-98, the number of electric
pump sets and that of diesel pump sets per 100 households were 6 and 7 respectively, in 1991-
92. Since a household may own more than one pump set, the number of pump sets per 100
households should be greater than the percentage of households owning pump sets at any point
of time. Given the growth of population and households even in rural India between1991-92
and January- June 1998, the difference between the estimates of the two rounds indicates a
marked rise in privately owned irrigation facilities during the period of 6 years and suggests a
growing use of irrigation for cultivation of field crops.
4.7.9 Besides pump sets, privately owned irrigation facilities comprises all dugwells and
tubewells owned by the households. It is seen that about 29% of the FCC households relied on
at least one of them for irrigation.
4.7.10 The farmers with privately-owned irrigation facilities are expected to have assured
supply of water for irrigation at their command. But uncertain power supply or non-availability
of fuel or low ground-water level limits the use of equipment for quite some time during a year.
Table T18 shows that among the FCC households owning an electric pump set, 48% had to
keep it idle for at least sometime during the 365 days preceding the date of survey. Similarly,
among those who owned an oil-driven pump set, about 14% could not use it due to lack of fuel.
Again, 26% of the households with a privately-owned dugwell or tubewell reported that it had
remained unused for some time during last 365 days due to low ground water level.
4.7.11 About the public irrigation facilities, only the village-level information on the availability of
water from government irrigation canals is used in this report. It is seen from item 2 of Table
T18 that the share of villages with a government canal in the AFMC was about 26%.

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4.7.12 Inter-State variation in modern irrigation facilities: Modern capital intensive


irrigation systems have emerged during the second half of the present century and have
contributed significantly to agricultural growth in many parts of the country. They can be
classified into two broad categories. First, the large or medium scale storage- and gravity-based
distribution through a network of canals is represented, in this report, by the availability of
government canal in the village. Its maintenance and management falls in the domain of public
governance. Second, the tubewell system, using pump sets for exploiting subsoil water
resources, is mostly privately owned. Table T20 shows the availability of these categories of
irrigation facilities and percentage of the AFMC irrigated in different States. The villages with
government irrigation canals will be referred to as “canal areas” in the rest of this chapter.

Table T20: Percentage of AFMC irrigated and availability of irrigation facilities

percentage of
cultivator households owning
State irrigated NSA in households pumps
AFMC canal owning well/
areas Tubewell electric oil
North Himalayan
Himachal Pradesh 17 3 3 1 1
Jammu & Kashmir 48 42 5 1 1

North
Haryana 90 58 52 28 30
Punjab 97 60 73 38 51
Uttar Pradesh 91 30 23 21 5

North-West
Gujarat 73 19 42 24 21
Rajasthan 61 16 50 24 20

West & Central


Madhya Pradesh 56 17 28 8 20
Maharashtra 44 18 34 4 29

South
Andhra Pradesh 72 32 36 6 30
Karnataka 41 25 23 2 19
Kerala 46 31 61 2 14
Tamil Nadu 84 31 49 15 33

East & North -East Plains


Assam 19 3 27 3 1
Bihar 76 26 21 15 2
Orissa 30 30 8 2 1
West Bengal 72 26 19 12 1

North-East Hills
Arunachal Pradesh 22 17 7 4 3
Manipur 37 23 11 10 4
Meghalaya 6 0 3 0 1
Mizoram 1 0 0 1 0
Nagaland 24 0 7 1 0
Sikkim 26 10 0 1 0
Tripura 60 13 19 4 2

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Report No. 451 Chapter IV
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4.7.13 All the three northern States reported more than 90% of their AFMC irrigated, but the
available irrigation facilities, whether public or privately owned, varied considerably. In Punjab
and Haryana, the two agriculturally most developed States of the country, about 60% of the
NSA was in the canal areas, while the figure for Uttar Pradesh was just 30%. In respect of
percentages of cultivator households owning pump sets, wells and tubewells too, the difference
between Uttar Pradesh and the other two States was quite pronounced.
4.7.14 Relatively high percentages of the irrigated AFMC were observed also in two southern
States, viz. Tamil Nadu(84%) and Andhra Pradesh(72%). In both these States, nearly a third of
the NSA was in canal areas. In Tamil Nadu, relatively large percentages of cultivator
households owned electric and oil pump sets. In the other two States of the south, percentages
of irrigated AFMC as well as percentages of cultivator households owning pump sets were
much lower the national average.

4.7.15 In the east, West Bengal and Bihar had moderately high percentages of irrigated AFMC
while Assam and Orissa were much worse off in this respect. Significantly, the share of canal
areas in the total NSA of Orissa(30%) was higher than that in West Bengal(26%) and
Bihar(26%), but the percentages of households owning electric and oil pump sets in Orissa
were among the lowest in the country. It appears that the cultivators of Orissa were more
dependent on government canals than on privately owned facilities for irrigation. On the other
hand, it appears that for the small proportion of the AFMC that was irrigated in Assam, the
main source was manually operated dugwells.
4.7.16 In the north-western States of Gujarat and Rajasthan, with relatively high percentages of
AFMC irrigated, the dependence was more on privately owned tubewells and pump sets than
on government irrigation canals. In Maharashtra and Madhya Pradesh also, the dependence
was more on privately owned facilities, though much lower percentage of the AFMC was
irrigated. In general, it is seen that the use of modern irrigation systems was much less common
in the other regions.
4.7.17 Hiring of irrigation services in canal and non-canal areas: There are, at present, no
data reflecting the role of private investment in supplementing the public efforts in irrigating the
cultivable land in the country. The data on sources of irrigation and ownership of pumps and
tubewells, available from the LHSs of the NSSO as well as the Agricultural and Livestock
Censuses of the Ministry of Agriculture, provide only a partial picture. A large part of the
cultivated land today is irrigated by hiring services from private sources, either in the form of
water purchased or pump sets taken on hire. In the present enquiry, data on hiring of irrigation
services from other households were collected from all the FCC households in the sample. The
estimated percentages of the AFMC irrigated by hiring services from other households are given
in Table T21 separately for canal and non-canal areas of all the States. However, Meghalaya
and Mizoram are omitted from the table, as only very small parts of their AFMC was reported
to have been irrigated. Again, the table does not include separate estimates for canal and non-
canal areas of Himachal Pradesh, Assam and Nagaland, as the proportion of NSA in canal
areas was 3% or less in these States. These estimates are excluded from the table, because they

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Report No. 451 Chapter IV
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Table T21: Percentage of AFMC irrigated using services hired from other households

state percentage of irrigated AFMC using hired services irrigated


canal areas non-canal areas All AFMC
North Himalayan
Himachal Pradesh * * 14 17
Jammu & Kashmir 3 7 5 48
North
Haryana 40 37 39 90
Punjab 18 21 19 97
Uttar Pradesh 61 69 67 91
North-West
Gujarat 45 35 38 73
Rajasthan 17 30 28 61
West & Central
Madhya Pradesh 18 34 30 56
Maharashtra 10 20 18 44
South
Andhra Pradesh 33 35 34 72
Karnataka 6 23 17 41
Kerala 7 7 7 46
Tamil Nadu 24 25 25 84
East & North-East Plains
Assam * * 31 19
Bihar 60 71 69 76
Orissa 18 37 27 30
West Bengal 57 72 67 72
North-East Hills
Arunachal Pradesh 31 7 15 22
Manipur 62 37 46 37
Nagaland * * 2 24
Sikkim 4 4 4 26
Tripura 23 33 33 60
India 40 49 46 66

are not expected to be stable or reliable.


4.7.18 It is seen that for 46% of the irrigated AFMC in the country, irrigation was hired from
other households. As expected, the cultivators in the canal areas were less dependent on the
hired private sources than in the non-canal areas. The percentage of the AFMC irrigated by
hiring services from other households was appreciably higher in the non-canal areas (49) than in
the canal areas (40).
4.7.19 The phenomenon of buying water or hiring irrigation services was most pronounced in
Bihar (69%), West Bengal (67%) and Uttar Pradesh (67%). In fact, these were the only States
with the percentages of AFMC irrigated by hiring the services from other households exceeded

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Report No. 451 Chapter IV
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the national average. Among these three States, the percentage was perceptibly higher in the
non-canal areas than in the canal areas, the difference being the most pronounced in West
Bengal. Among other States, a considerably higher percentages of AFMC irrigated by hiring
services in the canal areas than in the non-canal areas were observed in Orissa, Karnataka,
Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra. In contrast, the percentages were found to be
higher in the canal areas of Manipur, Gujarat, Arunachal Pradesh and Haryana than in the non-
canal areas.

4.8 Mechanisation in Agriculture


4.8.1 The beginning of mechanisation in Indian agriculture can be traced to the early 1960s.
Since then it has progressed at a fairly rapid pace. But certain important forms of farm
mechanisation are known to have remained largely concentrated in certain pockets, commonly
called ‘green revolution’ areas. The estimates obtained from the decennial LHSs of the NSSO,
which are reproduced in Table T22 5, clearly depict the development of mechanised cultivation
in terms of ownership of modern machinery like tractors, power tillers and pump sets. These

Table T22: Estimated number of tractors, power tillers and pumps in different NSS
rounds
India
farm equipment 71-72 81-82 91-92
(26th) (37th) (48th)
tractor (000) 75 486 1,363

power tiller (000) - 249 513

pumps – electric & oil 5 11 16


(mill.)

estimates, indicate a rapidly rising trend in the number of modern farm equipment owned but, do
not provide a good measure of their actual use. A large number of farmers hire in the services of
tractors, power tillers and harvesters from those who own them. Thus, the actual use of modern
farm machinery is much wider than what the data on ownership of equipment suggest. The
present survey provides some data on actual use of modern farm machinery, either hired or
owned. The percentage of rural households reporting use of a tractor or power tiller was 25%
in the present survey. This reflects a phenomenal rise in the use of tractors and power tillers
during the last three decades, since the percentage of households using tractors or power tillers
estimated in the NSS 22nd Round (1967-68) was merely 1.17%.6

5
These estimates are quoted from NSS Report No. 408, ‘Livestock and Agricultural Implements in
Household Operational Holdings’, NSS 48th Round, 1992 .

6
Note: This estimate is taken from NSS Report No. 202, based on the survey on cultivation practices
conducted in the 22nd Round of NSS with agricultural year 1967-68 as the reference period.

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4.8.2 For each of the five important crops cultivated by a sample household, it was enquired
whether the household had used any tractor or power-tiller, and if so whether it had been taken
on hire. The estimates on use of tractors and power tillers given in these reports are all based on
responses to these two questions. Table T23 gives the percentage of AFMC tilled with tractors
or power tillers and indicates what part of it was taken on hire separately for each size-class of
holdings. It is important to note that the estimates presented in this table represent the
percentage of the AFMC entirely or partly tilled with tractors or power tillers. It is seen from
Table (5) of Appendix I that about a third of the AFMC tilled with hired tractors or power
tillers was actually tilled partially with machines. Of the mechanically-tilled AFMC without using
hired services, partial tilling with tractor or power tiller was reported in only about 10%. Though
the distinction between ‘partly used’ and ‘entirely used’ is important, only the percentages of
mechanically-tilled AFMC, whether partly or entirely, are discussed in this chapter.

Table T23 : Percentage of AFMC tilled with tractor / power tiller and use of hired
tractors and power tillers
India
percentage of AFMC tilled with tractors p.c. of tractor-
/power tillers tilled AFMC
size-class (ha) hired others all tilled with hired
tractors*
nil ( < 0.01) 42 8 50 84
0.01 - 0.20 44 3 47 94
0.21 - 0.50 44 3 46 96
0.51 - 1.00 41 3 44 93
1.01 - 2.00 41 5 46 90
2.01 - 4.00 40 12 52 77
4.01 -10.00 37 26 63 59
10.01 &above 29 52 81 36
all sizes 39 15 54 72
* ‘Tractors’ stand for ‘tractors & power tillers’

4.8.3 It is seen that about 54% of the AFMC was tilled mechanically, either with tractors or
power tillers. Significantly, hired tractors and power tillers were used in about three-fourths of
the mechanically-tilled AFMC. Tilling land with hired equipment was extensive in all the size-
classes, including the ‘large’ category, with over 90% of the mechanically-tilled AFMC in the
‘marginal’ and ‘small’ holding categories. A sizeable part of the AFMC, ranging from 44% to
50%, in the ‘small’ and ‘marginal’ holdings, was mechanically tilled.

4.8.4 Inter-state variation in the use of tractors and power tillers: The percentages of
AFMC tilled with tractors or power tillers and the proportion of it tilled with hired services are
given in Table T24 separately for each State. It also shows the estimated number of tractors and
power tillers per 10,000 households obtained from the LHS, NSS 48th Round. However, the
States of Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland and Sikkim are excluded from the table, as

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TableT24: Percentage of mechanically-tilled AFMC and use of hired tractors and power tillers

p.c. of p.c. of tractor- no. of tractors/power tillers per


tractor- tilled AFMC 10,000 ha of operated area (1992)*
state tilled tilled with hired tractor power tiller
AFMC tractors*

Himachal Pradesh 15 93 53 3
Jammu & Kashmir 36 89 27 6

Haryana 94 57 387 317


Punjab 97 34 1024 584
Uttar Pradesh 76 79 215 58

Gujarat 67 72 103 0
Rajasthan 89 79 91 10

Madhya Pradesh 36 63 73 12
Maharashtra 16 75 34 2

Andhra Pradesh 51 75 48 1
Karnataka 27 74 50 11
Kerala 15 73 3 15
Tamil Nadu 59 80 66 18

Assam 11 64 0 23
Bihar 48 75 59 25
Orissa 12 75 5 2
West Bengal 47 92 37 86

Arunachal Pradesh 9 44 3 0
Manipur 48 94 6 6
Tripura 37 76 9 18
India 54 72 109 41
Source: NSS Report No. 408, Livestock and Agricultural Implements in Household Operational Holdings,
48th Round, 1992.

mechanical tilling was reported on only an insignificant part of the cultivated area in these States.
4.8.5 The estimates of percentage of mechanically-tilled AFMC for different States clearly
show that the mechanisation of Indian agriculture is largely concentrated in the States of the
north and those of the north-west. In Punjab and Haryana, about 97% and 94% of the
respective AFMCs were tilled entirely or partly with tractors and power tillers. Relatively high
percentages of mechanically-tilled AFMC were also reported in all the other States of the north
and north-west. In fact, only in these States were the estimates higher than the national-level
estimate. Besides these States, large proportions of mechanically-tilled AFMC were reported

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in Tamil Nadu(59%), Andhra Pradesh(51%), Bihar(48%) and West Bengal(47%). The


estimates of number of tractors and power tillers per 10,000 ha of operated area obtained from
the LHS, NSS 48th Round also suggest relatively high use of modern equipment for tilling the
land.
4.8.6 Table T24 also gives the percentages of mechanically-tilled AFMC using hired tractors or
power tillers. In general, the hiring of tractors and power tillers was reported in very high
percentage of mechanically-tilled AFMC. Among the States with 10% or more of mechanically-
tilled AFMC, it was low only in Punjab(34%) and Haryana (57%).
4.8.7 Use of machines for harvesting: The modern harvesters and harvester-combines are
used for mechnical harvesting. To assess the extent to which these are used, for harvesting the
crops, a question was asked to ascertain whether the harvesting for each of the five crops
reported by a household was done manually or mechanically. It was also asked whether the
equipment for harvesting was hired, if was done mechanically. Table T25 gives the percentage
of AFMC by mode of harvesting for all the States, except the North-Himalayan and North-
Eastern Hill States. Mechanical harvesting being a rare phenomenon, in general, and the
estimates for these States being based on a relatively small sample, the estimates for these
States are not discussed here.

TableT25: Percentage distribution of AFMC by mode of harvesting

state manual own hired all


equipment equipment
Haryana 92 2 5 100
Punjab 59 6 35 100
Uttar Pradesh 99 1 1 100
Gujarat 95 2 3 100
Rajasthan 98 1 1 100
Madhya Pradesh 99 0 1 100
Maharashtra 91 1 8 100
Andhra Pradesh 97 1 3 100
Karnataka 76 3 21 100
Kerala 97 2 1 100
Tamil Nadu 98 0 2 100
Assam 97 2 1 100
Bihar 99 1 1 100
Orissa 99 1 1 100
West Bengal 94 2 4 100
India 94 1 5 100

4.8.8 It is seen that mechanical harvesting was reported in only 6% of the AFMC of the
country. Only in 1% of the AFMC, crops were harvested using owned machines and about 5%
using hired machines. What clearly emerges from the table that the use of machines for
harvesting of crops is concentrated mainly in the States of Punjab and Karnataka. In all,
mechanical harvesting was done in about 41% and 24% of the AFMC in Punjab and

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Karnataka respectively. Among the other States, appreciable proportions of mechanically-


harvested AFMC were found in Maharashtra (9%), Haryana (7%) and West Bengal (6%).

47
Appendix I

Detailed Tables
Report no. 451
Appendix I
Cultivation Practices in India

Table (1) Average area owned, net sown area (NSA), area cropped more than once and irrigated & unirrigated gross cropped area
(GCA) under five major crops sown by households by size-class of ownership holding, 1997-98

average area (0.00 ha.)


size-class of cropped under five major crops* sown by number of
ownership owned net more than households households
holding (ha) sown once irrigated unirrigated all est.(00) sample
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9)

Andhra Pradesh

nil (< 0.01) - 0.02 0.01 0.02 0.00 0.03 42804 1998
00.01 - 00.20 0.04 0.04 0.01 0.04 0.01 0.04 24697 1257
00.21 - 00.50 0.36 0.33 0.11 0.31 0.11 0.42 15328 744
00.51 - 01.00 0.76 0.66 0.22 0.59 0.22 0.81 13766 639
01.01 - 02.00 1.41 1.26 0.42 1.17 0.37 1.53 11497 532
02.01 - 04.00 2.65 2.31 0.64 1.87 0.78 2.65 7233 358
04.01 - 10.00 5.40 4.68 1.33 3.91 1.52 5.43 3513 168
10.01 & above 16.99 13.19 1.98 8.34 5.20 13.54 495 25
all 0.67 0.59 0.17 0.50 0.19 0.69 119333 5721

Arunachal Pradesh

nil (< 0.01 ) - 0.39 0.16 0.01 0.36 0.37 387 145
00.01 - 00.20 0.10 0.05 0.02 0.02 0.03 0.05 179 70
00.21 - 00.50 0.36 0.29 0.09 0.09 0.21 0.30 202 83
00.51 - 01.00 0.84 0.53 0.11 0.16 0.36 0.52 225 110

01.01 - 02.00 1.66 0.97 0.31 0.31 0.67 0.97 295 126
02.01 - 04.00 3.03 2.08 0.92 0.50 1.37 1.86 165 90
04.01 - 10.00 6.24 2.26 1.16 0.26 1.48 1.74 162 87
10.01 & above 17.68 8.24 4.27 - 5.60 5.60 11 8
all 1.52 0.87 0.36 0.17 0.61 0.78 1625 719

Assam

nil (< 0.01 ) - 0.07 0.05 0.02 0.09 0.10 1965 194
00.01 - 00.20 0.09 0.03 0.01 0.00 0.03 0.04 10457 1013
00.21 - 00.50 0.34 0.23 0.11 0.06 0.25 0.31 5298 560
00.51 - 01.00 0.76 0.64 0.29 0.17 0.69 0.86 7270 636
01.01 - 02.00 1.44 1.26 0.47 0.27 1.31 1.58 7034 590
02.01 - 04.00 2.63 2.33 1.09 0.67 2.38 3.05 2570 208
04.01 - 10.00 4.87 4.45 2.28 1.27 4.81 6.09 520 42
10.01 & above - - - - - - - -
*Note
1. Paddy: kharif and paddy: rabi, for example, are treated as different “crops” for this purpose.
2. The set of 5 major crops is not a fixed set but varies from household to household; for any particular household it is understood
as the 5 most important field crops cultivated, in terms of value of production, by the household in 1997-98, from among a list of
crop -season combinations involving 12 crops and crop-groups spanning the entire range of crops cultivated in the country.

A-1
Report no. 451
Appendix I
Cultivation Practices in India

all 0.79 0.67 0.29 0.17 0.70 0.87 35114 3243

Table (1) Average area owned, net sown area (NSA), area cropped more than once and irrigated & unirrigated gross cropped area
(GCA) under five major crops sown by households by size-class of ownership holding, 1997-98

average area (0.00 ha.)


size-class of cropped under five major crops* sown by number of
ownership owned net more than households households
holding (ha) sown once irrigated unirrigated all est.(00) sample
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9)

Bihar

nil (< 0.01) - 0.13 0.07 0.10 0.08 0.18 20316 988
00.01 - 00.20 0.05 0.05 0.03 0.05 0.02 0.07 59569 2976
00.21 - 00.50 0.37 0.38 0.26 0.43 0.16 0.59 24233 1268
00.51 - 01.00 0.78 0.78 0.52 0.87 0.34 1.21 20336 983
01.01 - 02.00 1.43 1.39 0.95 1.53 0.58 2.11 16094 790
02.01 - 04.00 2.71 2.67 1.89 3.31 0.77 4.08 6889 334
04.01 - 10.00 5.64 5.43 3.53 6.18 1.31 7.49 2313 111
10.01 & above 19.04 18.07 12.93 26.08 3.24 29.32 278 14
all 0.59 0.59 0.40 0.68 0.21 0.90 150028 7464

Gujarat

nil (< 0.01) - 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.01 20034 1136
00.01 - 00.20 0.06 0.10 0.03 0.10 0.01 0.11 4159 246
00.21 - 00.50 0.38 0.39 0.25 0.38 0.18 0.56 7672 398
00.51 - 01.00 0.79 0.76 0.44 0.79 0.29 1.08 5928 290
01.01 - 02.00 1.44 1.37 0.71 1.29 0.55 1.85 6666 344
02.01 - 04.00 2.86 2.63 0.99 2.29 1.09 3.38 5688 292
04.01 - 10.00 5.94 5.39 1.46 4.95 1.36 6.32 3793 203
10.01 & above 14.66 12.21 2.70 9.96 3.33 13.29 529 30
all 1.17 1.08 0.40 0.99 0.37 1.35 54468 2939

Haryana

nil (< 0.01) - 0.01 0.01 0.02 - 0.02 11933 573


00.01 - 00.20 0.03 0.31 0.27 0.55 0.04 0.58 2342 116
00.21 - 00.50 0.37 0.55 0.47 0.93 0.05 0.98 1987 98
00.51 - 01.00 0.79 0.89 0.68 1.31 0.23 1.53 1895 88
01.01 - 02.00 1.44 1.52 1.18 2.27 0.31 2.58 3009 140
*Note
1. Paddy: kharif and paddy: rabi, for example, are treated as different “crops” for this purpose.
2. The set of 5 major crops is not a fixed set but varies from household to household; for any particular household it is understood
as the 5 most important field crops cultivated, in terms of value of production, by the household in 1997-98, from among a list of
crop -season combinations involving 12 crops and crop-groups spanning the entire range of crops cultivated in the country.

A-2
Report no. 451
Appendix I
Cultivation Practices in India

02.01 - 04.00 2.78 2.75 2.01 3.98 0.48 4.46 2362 116
04.01 - 10.00 5.64 5.25 3.74 6.94 0.93 7.87 1613 77
10.01 & above 11.98 10.85 9.09 18.66 - 18.66 248 14
all 1.00 1.02 0.77 1.49 0.16 1.66 25388 1222

*Note
1. Paddy: kharif and paddy: rabi, for example, are treated as different “crops” for this purpose.
2. The set of 5 major crops is not a fixed set but varies from household to household; for any particular household it is understood
as the 5 most important field crops cultivated, in terms of value of production, by the household in 1997-98, from among a list of
crop -season combinations involving 12 crops and crop-groups spanning the entire range of crops cultivated in the country.

A-3
Report no. 451
Appendix I
Cultivation Practices in India

Table (1) Average area owned, net sown area (NSA), area cropped more than once and irrigated & unirrigated gross cropped area
(GCA) under five major crops sown by households by size-class of ownership holding, 1997-98

average area (0.00 ha.)


size-class of cropped under five major crops* sown by number of
ownership owned net more than households households
holding (ha) sown once irrigated unirrigated all est.(00) sample
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9)

Himachal Pradesh

nil (< 0.01 ) - 0.03 0.02 - 0.05 0.05 626 122


00.01 - 00.20 0.10 0.07 0.07 0.04 0.11 0.14 2434 453
00.21 - 00.50 0.36 0.28 0.26 0.12 0.42 0.54 2984 559
00.51 - 01.00 0.75 0.52 0.49 0.16 0.84 1.00 2232 409
01.01 - 02.00 1.46 0.96 0.84 0.26 1.48 1.75 1286 243
02.01 - 04.00 2.85 1.60 1.34 0.35 2.48 2.83 522 99
04.01 - 10.00 5.86 2.64 2.44 0.76 4.23 4.99 108 22
10.01 & above 12.75 1.74 1.62 1.03 2.11 3.14 35 7
all 0.73 0.45 0.41 0.14 0.70 0.84 10226 1914

Jammu & Kashmir

nil (< 0.01 ) - 0.02 0.00 0.01 0.01 0.02 237 65


00.01 - 00.20 0.12 0.11 0.06 0.10 0.05 0.16 1432 329
00.21 - 00.50 0.38 0.37 0.18 0.32 0.19 0.51 2857 589
00.51 - 01.00 0.76 0.73 0.44 0.49 0.60 1.09 1978 392
01.01 - 02.00 1.45 1.24 0.90 0.79 1.23 2.02 1001 243
02.01 - 04.00 2.57 2.20 1.80 1.67 2.11 3.79 353 84
04.01 - 10.00 5.36 4.37 2.99 4.05 2.88 6.92 51 17
10.01 & above - - - - - - - -
all 0.68 0.62 0.40 0.46 0.50 0.95 7907 1719

Karnataka

nil (< 0.01 ) - 0.01 - 0.00 0.00 0.01 16411 780


00.01 - 00.20 0.06 0.04 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 10304 493
00.21 - 00.50 0.38 0.32 0.08 0.10 0.29 0.39 7526 358
00.51 - 01.00 0.78 0.72 0.19 0.31 0.55 0.86 10665 463
01.01 - 02.00 1.50 1.42 0.33 0.67 0.97 1.64 12550 533
02.01 - 04.00 2.79 2.61 0.62 1.40 1.61 3.01 7330 313
04.01 - 10.00 5.71 5.21 1.12 2.45 3.43 5.87 4250 184
*Note
1. Paddy: kharif and paddy: rabi, for example, are treated as different “crops” for this purpose.
2. The set of 5 major crops is not a fixed set but varies from household to household; for any particular household it is understood
as the 5 most important field crops cultivated, in terms of value of production, by the household in 1997-98, from among a list of
crop -season combinations involving 12 crops and crop-groups spanning the entire range of crops cultivated in the country.

A-4
Report no. 451
Appendix I
Cultivation Practices in India

10.01 & above 16.00 14.55 2.62 5.67 10.19 15.85 656 28
all 1.23 1.14 0.26 0.53 0.77 1.30 69692 3152

*Note
1. Paddy: kharif and paddy: rabi, for example, are treated as different “crops” for this purpose.
2. The set of 5 major crops is not a fixed set but varies from household to household; for any particular household it is understood
as the 5 most important field crops cultivated, in terms of value of production, by the household in 1997-98, from among a list of
crop -season combinations involving 12 crops and crop-groups spanning the entire range of crops cultivated in the country.

A-5
Report no. 451
Appendix I
Cultivation Practices in India

Table (1) Average area owned, net sown area (NSA), area cropped more than once and irrigated & unirrigated gross cropped area
(GCA) under five major crops sown by households by size-class of ownership holding, 1997-98

average area (0.00 ha.)


size-class of cropped under five major crops* sown by number of
ownership owned net more than households households
holding (ha) sown once irrigated unirrigated all est.(00) sample
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9)

Kerala

nil (< 0.01) - 0.00 0.00 - 0.00 0.00 1833 121


00.01 - 00.20 0.07 0.05 0.00 0.02 0.03 0.04 30300 1961
00.21 - 00.50 0.34 0.30 0.05 0.12 0.16 0.28 6868 449
00.51 - 01.00 0.74 0.66 0.10 0.26 0.31 0.58 3632 216
01.01 - 02.00 1.42 1.22 0.19 0.44 0.59 1.03 2030 119
02.01 - 04.00 2.76 2.20 0.26 1.04 0.86 1.90 532 32
04.01 - 10.00 6.32 4.78 0.87 2.47 1.78 4.25 185 11
10.01 & above 11.54 9.50 1.86 8.76 2.59 11.36 32 2
all 0.28 0.24 0.03 0.10 0.11 0.21 45411 2911

Madhya Pradesh

nil (< 0.01 ) - 0.03 0.02 0.03 0.02 0.05 15259 927
00.01 - 00.20 0.06 0.03 0.01 0.01 0.02 0.03 16226 902
00.21 - 00.50 0.38 0.34 0.13 0.18 0.28 0.46 10601 593
00.51 - 01.00 0.79 0.85 0.32 0.45 0.58 1.03 15480 800
01.01 - 02.00 1.48 1.37 0.64 0.92 1.04 1.95 21789 1122
02.01 - 04.00 2.74 2.52 1.08 1.77 1.73 3.50 18907 959
04.01 - 10.00 5.78 5.22 2.69 5.03 2.69 7.71 8193 437
10.01 & above 14.79 12.99 7.58 15.51 3.78 19.29 1028 62
all 1.52 1.41 0.66 1.12 0.87 1.99 107483 5802

Maharashtra

nil (< 0.01) - 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.01 0.01 34047 1630
00.01 - 00.20 0.04 0.04 0.01 0.01 0.03 0.04 20421 1074
00.21 - 00.50 0.36 0.31 0.08 0.11 0.26 0.36 9080 433
00.51 - 01.00 0.77 0.69 0.16 0.29 0.50 0.79 12672 586
01.01 - 02.00 1.47 1.29 0.27 0.60 0.88 1.48 16246 762
02.01 - 04.00 2.74 2.34 0.47 1.14 1.50 2.64 11577 543
04.01 - 10.00 5.66 4.73 1.02 2.44 2.91 5.35 6321 291
*Note
1. Paddy: kharif and paddy: rabi, for example, are treated as different “crops” for this purpose.
2. The set of 5 major crops is not a fixed set but varies from household to household; for any particular household it is understood
as the 5 most important field crops cultivated, in terms of value of production, by the household in 1997-98, from among a list of
crop -season combinations involving 12 crops and crop-groups spanning the entire range of crops cultivated in the country.

A-6
Report no. 451
Appendix I
Cultivation Practices in India

10.01 & above 16.81 11.79 2.78 8.20 4.43 12.64 883 40
all 1.08 0.91 0.20 0.45 0.57 1.02 111247 5359

*Note
1. Paddy: kharif and paddy: rabi, for example, are treated as different “crops” for this purpose.
2. The set of 5 major crops is not a fixed set but varies from household to household; for any particular household it is understood
as the 5 most important field crops cultivated, in terms of value of production, by the household in 1997-98, from among a list of
crop -season combinations involving 12 crops and crop-groups spanning the entire range of crops cultivated in the country.

A-7
Report no. 451
Appendix I
Cultivation Practices in India

Table (1) Average area owned, net sown area (NSA), area cropped more than once and irrigated & unirrigated gross cropped area
(GCA) under five major crops sown by households by size-class of ownership holding, 1997-98

average area (0.00 ha.)


size-class of cropped under five major crops* sown by number of
ownership owned net more than households households
holding (ha) sown once irrigated unirrigated all est.(00) sample
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9)

Manipur

nil (< 0.01 ) - 0.47 0.12 0.06 0.81 0.86 259 105
00.01 - 00.20 0.08 0.04 0.01 0.00 0.03 0.04 405 129
00.21 - 00.50 0.37 0.30 0.09 0.12 0.19 0.31 507 181
00.51 - 01.00 0.77 0.66 0.18 0.27 0.40 0.67 844 261
01.01 - 02.00 1.34 1.01 0.43 0.47 0.59 1.06 391 153
02.01 - 04.00 2.33 1.77 0.82 0.98 0.85 1.83 89 38
04.01 - 10.00 5.74 4.74 2.31 0.07 2.72 2.79 10 6
10.01 & above - - - - - - - -
all 0.66 0.58 0.20 0.23 0.39 0.62 2505 873

Meghalaya

nil (< 0.01) - 0.02 0.01 - 0.02 0.02 102 35


00.01 - 00.20 0.11 0.16 0.03 0.00 0.18 0.19 552 176
00.21 - 00.50 0.36 0.30 0.11 0.01 0.35 0.36 845 233
00.51 - 01.00 0.76 0.65 0.22 0.02 0.77 0.80 828 236
01.01 - 02.00 1.45 1.17 0.28 0.09 1.18 1.27 613 195
02.01 - 04.00 2.76 2.08 0.51 0.20 2.00 2.21 425 136
04.01 - 10.00 5.12 4.20 0.61 0.06 4.19 4.25 92 29
10.01 & above - - - - - - - -
all 1.02 0.83 0.21 0.05 0.87 0.92 3457 1040

Mizoram

Nil (< 0.01 ) - 0.56 0.08 - 0.61 0.61 121 92


00.01 - 00.20 0.05 0.59 0.06 0.00 0.63 0.64 394 319
00.21 - 00.50 0.33 0.57 0.03 - 0.60 0.60 52 53
00.51 - 01.00 0.80 0.74 0.09 0.04 0.77 0.81 60 50
01.01 - 02.00 1.56 1.04 0.00 0.03 0.96 0.99 72 60
02.01 - 04.00 2.58 1.73 0.09 - 1.57 1.57 16 17
04.01 - 10.00 6.67 2.00 - - 2.00 2.00 3 3
10.01 & above - - - - - - - -
*Note
1. Paddy: kharif and paddy: rabi, for example, are treated as different “crops” for this purpose.
2. The set of 5 major crops is not a fixed set but varies from household to household; for any particular household it is understood
as the 5 most important field crops cultivated, in terms of value of production, by the household in 1997-98, from among a list of
crop -season combinations involving 12 crops and crop-groups spanning the entire range of crops cultivated in the country.

A-8
Report no. 451
Appendix I
Cultivation Practices in India

all 0.36 0.68 0.06 0.01 0.70 0.71 718 594

*Note
1. Paddy: kharif and paddy: rabi, for example, are treated as different “crops” for this purpose.
2. The set of 5 major crops is not a fixed set but varies from household to household; for any particular household it is understood
as the 5 most important field crops cultivated, in terms of value of production, by the household in 1997-98, from among a list of
crop -season combinations involving 12 crops and crop-groups spanning the entire range of crops cultivated in the country.

A-9
Report no. 451
Appendix I
Cultivation Practices in India

Table (1) Average area owned, net sown area (NSA), area cropped more than once and irrigated & unirrigated gross cropped area
(GCA) under five major crops sown by households by size-class of ownership holding, 1997-98

average area (0.00 ha.)


size-class of cropped under five major crops* sown by number of
ownership owned net more than households households
holding (ha) sown once irrigated unirrigated all est.(00) sample
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9)

Nagaland

nil (< 0.01 ) - 0.46 0.28 - 0.50 0.50 52 39


00.01 - 00.20 0.11 0.06 0.04 0.00 0.07 0.07 39 43
00.21 - 00.50 0.34 0.19 0.14 0.03 0.20 0.22 45 61
00.51 - 01.00 0.81 0.62 0.42 0.09 0.71 0.80 77 71
01.01 - 02.00 1.66 1.26 0.79 0.14 1.44 1.57 192 179
02.01 - 04.00 2.94 2.10 1.27 0.26 2.19 2.45 331 358
04.01 - 10.00 6.78 4.99 2.87 2.79 4.21 7.00 127 136
10.01 & above 13.08 8.00 4.59 6.18 5.56 11.75 7 8
all 2.68 1.97 1.18 0.60 1.92 2.52 871 895

Orissa

nil (< 0.01 ) - 0.01 0.00 0.00 0.01 0.01 6215 341
00.01 - 00.20 0.06 0.05 0.01 0.01 0.04 0.05 22120 1211
00.21 - 00.50 0.36 0.34 0.06 0.09 0.30 0.38 12884 698
00.51 - 01.00 0.76 0.72 0.13 0.20 0.60 0.80 11131 575
01.01 - 02.00 1.39 1.25 0.22 0.45 0.97 1.41 7419 391
02.01 - 04.00 2.51 2.27 0.48 0.72 1.93 2.65 2936 149
04.01 - 10.00 5.35 4.88 0.90 2.45 3.31 5.76 624 33
10.01 & above 13.15 10.28 1.22 6.31 5.20 11.50 122 3
all 0.58 0.53 0.10 0.18 0.42 0.60 63451 3401

Punjab

nil (< 0.01 ) - 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.00 0.01 17638 1639
00.01 - 00.20 0.11 0.22 0.21 0.38 0.03 0.41 570 55
00.21 - 00.50 0.37 0.34 0.36 0.59 0.07 0.66 1181 103
00.51 - 01.00 0.77 1.01 1.04 1.95 0.02 1.97 1462 122
01.01 - 02.00 1.45 1.54 1.46 2.79 0.05 2.84 2952 257
02.01 - 04.00 2.70 2.79 2.80 5.15 0.17 5.32 2202 190
04.01 - 10.00 5.94 5.53 5.43 9.87 0.52 10.39 1588 134
*Note
1. Paddy: kharif and paddy: rabi, for example, are treated as different “crops” for this purpose.
2. The set of 5 major crops is not a fixed set but varies from household to household; for any particular household it is understood
as the 5 most important field crops cultivated, in terms of value of production, by the household in 1997-98, from among a list of
crop -season combinations involving 12 crops and crop-groups spanning the entire range of crops cultivated in the country.

A-10
Report no. 451
Appendix I
Cultivation Practices in India

10.01 & above 13.29 13.13 13.17 24.38 - 24.38 377 33


all 0.94 0.95 0.94 1.73 0.05 1.79 27971 2533

*Note
1. Paddy: kharif and paddy: rabi, for example, are treated as different “crops” for this purpose.
2. The set of 5 major crops is not a fixed set but varies from household to household; for any particular household it is understood
as the 5 most important field crops cultivated, in terms of value of production, by the household in 1997-98, from among a list of
crop -season combinations involving 12 crops and crop-groups spanning the entire range of crops cultivated in the country.

A-11
Report no. 451
Appendix I
Cultivation Practices in India

Table (1) Average area owned, net sown area (NSA), area cropped more than once and irrigated & unirrigated gross cropped area
(GCA) under five major crops sown by households by size-class of ownership holding, 1997-98

average area (0.00 ha.)


size-class of cropped under five major crops* sown by number of
ownership owned net more than households households
holding (ha) sown once irrigated unirrigated all est.(00) sample
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9)

Rajasthan

nil (< 0.01 ) - 0.13 0.08 0.12 0.09 0.20 4836 323
00.01 - 00.20 0.06 0.11 0.07 0.13 0.04 0.17 8536 497
00.21 - 00.50 0.38 0.40 0.27 0.47 0.18 0.65 8354 451
00.51 - 01.00 0.76 0.68 0.42 0.69 0.39 1.07 8870 461
01.01 - 02.00 1.45 1.29 0.70 1.30 0.61 1.91 11588 618
02.01 - 04.00 2.88 2.52 1.27 2.44 1.22 3.66 10029 561
04.01 - 10.00 6.09 5.11 2.13 3.98 3.03 7.01 8119 464
10.01 & above 15.68 12.45 4.76 8.07 7.65 15.71 2046 126
all 2.21 1.89 0.88 1.60 1.05 2.65 62377 3501

Sikkim

nil (< 0.01 ) - 0.09 0.05 0.02 0.10 0.13 254 257
00.01 - 00.20 0.10 0.10 0.06 0.03 0.12 0.15 151 174
00.21 - 00.50 0.37 0.30 0.13 0.08 0.29 0.37 191 227
00.51 - 01.00 0.75 0.59 0.25 0.18 0.55 0.73 125 138
01.01 - 02.00 1.34 1.07 0.50 0.31 1.03 1.34 85 92
02.01 - 04.00 2.53 2.01 0.71 0.74 1.54 2.28 39 43
04.01 - 10.00 4.11 3.93 1.76 2.50 1.39 3.89 3 4
10.01 & above 12.35 8.10 2.03 3.89 1.22 5.11 1 1
all 0.49 0.42 0.18 0.14 0.38 0.52 849 936

Tamil Nadu

nil (< 0.01 ) - 0.01 0.00 0.01 0.00 0.01 35242 1887
00.01 - 00.20 0.04 0.02 0.01 0.02 0.00 0.02 30168 1730
00.21 - 00.50 0.35 0.31 0.12 0.32 0.06 0.39 11556 677
00.51 - 01.00 0.75 0.68 0.26 0.66 0.16 0.82 9363 508
01.01 - 02.00 1.37 1.22 0.43 1.21 0.29 1.50 6181 335
02.01 - 04.00 2.53 2.15 0.93 2.32 0.27 2.58 2712 138

*Note
1. Paddy: kharif and paddy: rabi, for example, are treated as different “crops” for this purpose.
2. The set of 5 major crops is not a fixed set but varies from household to household; for any particular household it is understood
as the 5 most important field crops cultivated, in terms of value of production, by the household in 1997-98, from among a list of
crop -season combinations involving 12 crops and crop-groups spanning the entire range of crops cultivated in the country.

A-12
Report no. 451
Appendix I
Cultivation Practices in India

04.01 - 10.00 4.86 3.74 1.93 4.02 0.58 4.60 1048 46


10.01 & above 14.39 7.69 4.52 12.22 - 12.22 49 3
all 0.35 0.29 0.12 0.30 0.06 0.36 96319 5324

*Note
1. Paddy: kharif and paddy: rabi, for example, are treated as different “crops” for this purpose.
2. The set of 5 major crops is not a fixed set but varies from household to household; for any particular household it is understood
as the 5 most important field crops cultivated, in terms of value of production, by the household in 1997-98, from among a list of
crop -season combinations involving 12 crops and crop-groups spanning the entire range of crops cultivated in the country.

A-13
Report no. 451
Appendix I
Cultivation Practices in India

Table (1) Average area owned, net sown area (NSA), area cropped more than once and irrigated & unirrigated gross cropped area
(GCA) under five major crops sown by households by size-class of ownership holding, 1997-98

average area (0.00 ha.)


size-class of cropped under five major crops* sown by number of
ownership owned net more than households households
holding (ha) sown once irrigated unirrigated all est.(00) sample
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9)

Tripura

nil (< 0.01 ) - 0.02 0.01 0.01 0.00 0.01 1547 306
00.01 - 00.20 0.08 0.03 0.02 0.02 0.01 0.03 2052 492
00.21 - 00.50 0.37 0.29 0.16 0.18 0.13 0.32 1021 218
00.51 - 01.00 0.74 0.58 0.35 0.49 0.27 0.76 678 140
01.01 - 02.00 1.45 1.08 0.80 0.75 0.67 1.42 223 41
02.01 - 04.00 2.90 1.74 0.88 1.30 0.63 1.93 76 17
04.01 - 10.00 7.85 4.31 1.38 1.14 2.90 4.04 8 2
10.01 & above - - - - - - - -
all 0.30 0.21 0.12 0.15 0.10 0.25 5606 1216

Uttar Pradesh

nil (< 0.01 ) - 0.03 0.01 0.03 0.00 0.04 23667 1052
00.01 - 00.20 0.07 0.08 0.06 0.11 0.02 0.13 62366 2978
00.21 - 00.50 0.36 0.34 0.26 0.50 0.08 0.57 52259 2153
00.51 - 01.00 0.74 0.69 0.56 1.06 0.13 1.18 41524 1713
01.01 - 02.00 1.40 1.28 0.98 1.90 0.18 2.08 30206 1236
02.01 - 04.00 2.68 2.50 1.76 3.65 0.21 3.86 14409 620
04.01 - 10.00 5.58 5.08 3.23 7.03 0.41 7.44 5159 231
10.01 & above 13.35 10.19 7.21 12.67 0.72 13.38 417 20
all 0.74 0.68 0.50 1.00 0.09 1.09 230008 10003

West Bengal

nil (< 0.01 ) - 0.06 0.02 0.06 0.02 0.08 23373 1141
00.01 - 00.20 0.06 0.05 0.02 0.05 0.02 0.07 42971 2105
00.21 - 00.50 0.35 0.30 0.18 0.32 0.14 0.46 20270 1002
00.51 - 01.00 0.74 0.67 0.42 0.73 0.31 1.04 14792 654
01.01 - 02.00 1.39 1.25 0.73 1.30 0.54 1.84 6767 303
02.01 - 04.00 2.64 2.41 1.23 2.54 0.89 3.43 2164 97
04.01 - 10.00 4.21 3.85 3.12 5.42 1.36 6.78 191 9

*Note
1. Paddy: kharif and paddy: rabi, for example, are treated as different “crops” for this purpose.
2. The set of 5 major crops is not a fixed set but varies from household to household; for any particular household it is understood
as the 5 most important field crops cultivated, in terms of value of production, by the household in 1997-98, from among a list of
crop -season combinations involving 12 crops and crop-groups spanning the entire range of crops cultivated in the country.

A-14
Report no. 451
Appendix I
Cultivation Practices in India

10.01 & above 10.66 10.66 10.66 3.46 - 3.46 24 1


all 0.33 0.31 0.18 0.33 0.13 0.46 110552 5312

*Note
1. Paddy: kharif and paddy: rabi, for example, are treated as different “crops” for this purpose.
2. The set of 5 major crops is not a fixed set but varies from household to household; for any particular household it is understood
as the 5 most important field crops cultivated, in terms of value of production, by the household in 1997-98, from among a list of
crop -season combinations involving 12 crops and crop-groups spanning the entire range of crops cultivated in the country.

A-15
Report no. 451
Appendix I
Cultivation Practices in India

Table (1) Average area owned, net sown area (NSA), area cropped more than once and irrigated & unirrigated gross cropped area
(GCA) under five major crops sown by households by size-class of ownership holding, 1997-98

average area (0.00 ha.)


size-class of cropped under five major crops* sown by number of
ownership owned net more than households households
holding (ha) sown once irrigated unirrigated all est.(00) sample
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9)

A. & N. Islands

nil (< 0.01 ) - 0.11 0.01 0.06 0.06 0.12 322 349
00.01 - 00.20 0.07 0.01 - 0.00 0.01 0.01 22 28
00.21 - 00.50 0.37 0.16 0.08 0.18 0.06 0.24 8 15
00.51 - 01.00 0.79 0.29 0.03 0.19 0.13 0.32 29 37
01.01 - 02.00 1.56 0.67 0.04 0.16 0.54 0.70 32 37
02.01 - 04.00 2.85 1.59 0.35 0.73 1.16 1.89 25 26
04.01 - 10.00 4.51 2.00 0.36 1.16 1.14 2.30 8 8
10.01 & above 14.15 - - - - - 1 2
all 0.43 0.28 0.04 0.13 0.18 0.31 447 502

India

nil (< 0.01 ) - 0.03 0.02 0.03 0.02 0.04 283269 16571
00.01 - 00.20 0.06 0.05 0.03 0.05 0.02 0.08 354011 21047
00.21 - 00.50 0.36 0.34 0.19 0.33 0.16 0.49 204157 12280
00.51 - 01.00 0.76 0.71 0.38 0.66 0.35 1.01 186059 10616
01.01 - 02.00 1.44 1.31 0.65 1.18 0.65 1.83 166322 9465
02.01 - 04.00 2.73 2.48 1.15 2.23 1.15 3.38 99607 5824
04.01 - 10.00 5.73 5.04 2.20 4.54 2.19 6.73 48023 2759
10.01 & above 15.38 12.58 5.35 11.18 5.05 16.23 7246 428
all 0.84 0.76 0.36 0.69 0.35 1.04 1348695 78990

*Note
1. Paddy: kharif and paddy: rabi, for example, are treated as different “crops” for this purpose.
2. The set of 5 major crops is not a fixed set but varies from household to household; for any particular household it is understood
as the 5 most important field crops cultivated, in terms of value of production, by the household in 1997-98, from among a list of
crop -season combinations involving 12 crops and crop-groups spanning the entire range of crops cultivated in the country.

A-16
Report no. 451
Appendix I
Cultivation Practices in India

Table (2): Proportion of households and net sown area (NSA) accounted by villages with government canal and differential
between villages with government canal and other villages in respect of extent of irrigation (irrigated area per 1000
hectares of land under five major crops sown by households)

irrigated area per 1000 hectares of


land under five major crops* in no. of households
villages
state / UT H A with others all est. sample
govt. canal (00)
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8)

Andhra Pradesh 392 320 774 696 723 119333 5721


Arunachal Pradesh 99 165 487 195 217 1625 719
Assam 33 30 437 186 194 35114 3243
Bihar 205 255 900 708 760 150028 7464

Gujarat 305 193 901 683 729 54468 2939


Haryana 546 575 909 889 901 25388 1222
Himachal Pradesh 52 29 746 150 168 10226 1914
Jammu & Kashmir 440 415 651 348 479 7907 1719

Karnataka 262 249 637 330 408 69692 3152


Kerala 285 306 568 414 461 45411 2911
Madhya Pradesh 185 174 735 523 561 107483 5802
Maharashtra 203 178 587 413 444 111247 5359

Manipur 273 225 737 264 369 2505 873


Meghalaya 11 2 625 54 55 3457 1040
Mizoram - - - 12 12 718 594
Nagaland - - - 237 237 871 895

Orissa 281 302 596 160 296 63451 3401


Punjab 517 596 1000 926 971 27971 2533
Rajasthan 176 164 880 541 605 62377 3501
Sikkim 117 96 442 245 263 849 936

Tamil Nadu 340 313 882 818 839 96319 5324


Tripura 145 131 941 535 598 5606 1216
Uttar Pradesh 284 299 955 896 914 230008 10003
West Bengal 284 257 824 678 715 110552 5312
A & N.Island 117 295 777 325 420 447 502

India 268 246 837 600 663 1348695 78990


H: Number per 1000 of households residing in villages with govt. canal.
A: NSA per 1000 hectares of NSA in villages with govt. canal.
*Note
1. Paddy: kharif and paddy: rabi, for example, are treated as different “crops” for this purpose.
2. The set of 5 major crops is not a fixed set but varies from household to household; for any particular household it is understood
as the 5 most important field crops cultivated, in terms of value of production, by the household in 1997-98, from among a list of
crop -season combinations involving 12 crops and crop-groups spanning the entire range of crops cultivated in the country.

A-10
Report no. 451
Appendix I
Cultivation Practices in India

Table (3): Differential between villages with government canal and other villages in respect of average area (0.00 ha)
under five major crops* sown by households, by season and size-class of household ownership holding

est. area
size-class of in villages with govt. canal in villages without govt. canal under major
crops
ownership holding (ha) kharif rabi all kharif rabi all (00 ha)
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8)

Andhra Pradesh

nil (< 0.01 ) 0.52 0.32 0.84 1.52 1.01 2.52 1109
00.01 - 00.20 0.20 0.10 0.30 0.13 0.05 0.19 1077
00.21 - 00.50 0.39 0.23 0.61 0.33 0.09 0.42 6374
00.51 - 01.00 0.65 0.34 0.99 0.61 0.20 0.81 11125
01.01 - 02.00 1.34 0.67 2.01 1.12 0.34 1.46 17640
02.01 - 04.00 2.22 0.79 3.02 1.94 0.68 2.62 19148
04.01 - 10.00 3.79 2.01 5.80 3.98 1.38 5.40 19089
10.01 & above 7.29 5.53 12.82 13.12 0.81 13.93 6700
all 1.05 0.53 1.58 1.18 0.36 1.54 82260

Arunachal Pradesh

nil (< 0.01 ) - - - 0.18 0.52 0.70 142


00.01 - 00.20 0.10 - 0.10 0.08 0.04 0.12 10
00.21 - 00.50 0.23 - 0.23 0.23 0.06 0.34 61
00.51 - 01.00 0.36 - 0.36 0.45 0.08 0.53 117
01.01 - 02.00 0.29 - 0.29 0.89 0.19 1.07 287
02.01 - 04.00 0.70 0.06 0.76 1.60 0.50 2.10 307
04.01 - 10.00 1.07 0.05 1.12 1.57 0.34 1.91 281
10.01 & above 3.50 3.50 7.00 4.40 0.73 5.13 62
all 0.61 0.10 0.71 0.73 0.25 0.99 1266

Assam

nil (< 0.01 ) - - - 0.22 0.15 0.37 204


00.01 - 00.20 - 0.07 0.07 0.06 0.06 0.13 394
00.21 - 00.50 0.33 0.21 0.55 0.24 0.16 0.40 1640
00.51 - 01.00 0.54 0.50 1.05 0.58 0.32 0.90 6278
01.01 - 02.00 0.96 0.79 1.75 1.13 0.45 1.59 11087
02.01 - 04.00 2.51 1.65 4.16 2.00 1.08 3.07 7850
04.01 - 10.00 3.80 3.03 6.83 3.89 2.15 6.04 3164
10.01 & above - - - - - - -
*Note
1. Paddy: kharif and paddy: rabi, for example, are treated as different “crops” for this purpose.
2. The set of 5 major crops is not a fixed set but varies from household to household; for any particular household it is
understood as the 5 most important field crops cultivated, in terms of value of production, by the household in 1997-
98, from among a list of crop-season combinations involving 12 crops and crop-groups spanning the entire range of
crops cultivated in the country.
A-11
Report no. 451
Appendix I
Cultivation Practices in India

all 0.93 0.73 1.66 0.82 0.41 1.23 30618

*Note
1. Paddy: kharif and paddy: rabi, for example, are treated as different “crops” for this purpose.
2. The set of 5 major crops is not a fixed set but varies from household to household; for any particular household it is
understood as the 5 most important field crops cultivated, in terms of value of production, by the household in 1997-
98, from among a list of crop-season combinations involving 12 crops and crop-groups spanning the entire range of
crops cultivated in the country.
A-12
Report no. 451
Appendix I
Cultivation Practices in India

Table (3): Differential between villages with government canal and other villages in respect of average area (0.00 ha)
under five major crops* sown by households, by season and size-class of household ownership holding

est. area
size-class of in villages with govt. canal in villages without govt. canal under major
crops
ownership holding (ha) kharif rabi all kharif rabi all (00 ha)
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8)

Bihar

nil (< 0.01 ) 0.49 0.22 0.71 0.65 0.41 1.06 3740
00.01 - 00.20 0.14 0.12 0.26 0.11 0.11 0.21 4376
00.21 - 00.50 0.40 0.37 0.77 0.31 0.25 0.57 14383
00.51 - 01.00 0.76 0.76 1.52 0.65 0.49 1.15 24522
01.01 - 02.00 1.19 1.23 2.43 1.17 0.89 2.06 33955
02.01 - 04.00 2.40 2.39 4.78 2.16 1.70 3.85 28125
04.01 - 10.00 4.47 4.09 8.56 3.80 3.19 7.00 17326
10.01 & above 13.27 13.12 26.38 15.93 15.23 31.17 8158
all 0.95 0.92 1.87 0.75 0.59 1.34 134585

Gujarat

nil (< 0.01 ) 0.46 0.13 0.58 0.73 0.10 0.83 113
00.01 - 00.20 0.10 0.06 0.17 0.64 0.07 0.71 467
00.21 - 00.50 0.35 0.30 0.65 0.35 0.19 0.54 4301
00.51 - 01.00 0.72 0.52 1.24 0.68 0.35 1.02 6386
01.01 - 02.00 1.27 0.83 2.11 1.18 0.63 1.82 12302
02.01 - 04.00 2.13 1.43 3.56 2.39 1.07 3.45 19218
04.01 - 10.00 4.25 3.04 7.29 4.76 1.44 6.21 23963
10.01 & above 2.68 4.85 7.52 9.86 4.08 13.94 7030
all 1.09 0.79 1.88 1.82 0.75 2.57 73780

Haryana

nil (< 0.01 ) 0.92 1.53 2.45 - - - 266


00.01 - 00.20 1.26 1.40 2.66 0.19 0.19 0.39 1365
00.21 - 00.50 0.70 0.75 1.44 0.27 0.36 0.64 1940
00.51 - 01.00 0.79 0.97 1.76 0.62 0.77 1.39 2907
01.01 - 02.00 1.20 1.47 2.67 1.13 1.41 2.55 7757
02.01 - 04.00 2.05 2.68 4.73 1.83 2.35 4.18 10536
04.01 - 10.00 3.84 4.71 8.55 2.91 4.02 6.92 12695
10.01 & above 9.47 10.65 20.12 8.92 11.31 20.23 4622
*Note
1. Paddy: kharif and paddy: rabi, for example, are treated as different “crops” for this purpose.
2. The set of 5 major crops is not a fixed set but varies from household to household; for any particular household it is
understood as the 5 most important field crops cultivated, in terms of value of production, by the household in 1997-
98, from among a list of crop-season combinations involving 12 crops and crop-groups spanning the entire range of
crops cultivated in the country.
A-13
Report no. 451
Appendix I
Cultivation Practices in India

all 1.77 2.17 3.94 1.43 1.85 3.28 42089

*Note
1. Paddy: kharif and paddy: rabi, for example, are treated as different “crops” for this purpose.
2. The set of 5 major crops is not a fixed set but varies from household to household; for any particular household it is
understood as the 5 most important field crops cultivated, in terms of value of production, by the household in 1997-
98, from among a list of crop-season combinations involving 12 crops and crop-groups spanning the entire range of
crops cultivated in the country.
A-14
Report no. 451
Appendix I
Cultivation Practices in India

Table (3): Differential between villages with government canal and other villages in respect of average area (0.00 ha)
under five major crops* sown by households, by season and size-class of household ownership holding

est. area
size-class of in villages with govt. canal in villages without govt. canal under major
crops
ownership holding (ha) kharif rabi all kharif rabi all (00 ha)
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8)

Himachal Pradesh

nil (< 0.01 ) - - - 0.40 0.35 0.75 34


00.01 - 00.20 0.12 0.12 0.24 0.10 0.10 0.20 351
00.21 - 00.50 0.31 0.30 0.61 0.28 0.26 0.54 1606
00.51 - 01.00 0.52 0.51 1.03 0.52 0.49 1.01 2228
01.01 - 02.00 0.67 0.75 1.41 0.93 0.83 1.76 2245
02.01 - 04.00 - - - 1.51 1.31 2.83 1474
04.01 - 10.00 - - - 2.70 2.29 4.99 538
10.01 & above - - - 1.58 1.56 3.14 111
all 0.30 0.30 0.61 0.52 0.47 0.99 8587

Jammu & Kashmir

nil (< 0.01 ) 0.25 - 0.25 0.26 0.24 0.51 5


00.01 - 00.20 0.15 0.09 0.25 0.12 0.08 0.20 225
00.21 - 00.50 0.33 0.11 0.44 0.32 0.27 0.59 1464
00.51 - 01.00 0.61 0.41 1.03 0.62 0.50 1.12 2149
01.01 - 02.00 1.21 0.99 2.20 1.11 0.80 1.91 2018
02.01 - 04.00 2.12 1.81 3.93 1.91 1.74 3.64 1335
04.01 - 10.00 3.82 3.33 7.15 3.57 2.78 6.34 351
10.01 & above - - - - - - -
all 0.63 0.43 1.06 0.57 0.46 1.03 7547

Karnataka

nil (< 0.01 ) 1.60 1.60 3.20 0.17 - 0.17 99


00.01 - 00.20 0.15 0.05 0.20 0.09 0.05 0.14 464
00.21 - 00.50 0.28 0.13 0.41 0.33 0.12 0.44 2910
00.51 - 01.00 0.66 0.28 0.94 0.68 0.19 0.87 9132
01.01 - 02.00 1.21 0.45 1.65 1.21 0.47 1.67 20571
02.01 - 04.00 2.21 1.01 3.22 2.17 0.87 3.04 22063
04.01 - 10.00 3.59 1.84 5.44 4.20 1.80 5.99 24961
10.01 & above 10.52 3.84 14.36 7.95 8.90 16.85 10397
*Note
1. Paddy: kharif and paddy: rabi, for example, are treated as different “crops” for this purpose.
2. The set of 5 major crops is not a fixed set but varies from household to household; for any particular household it is
understood as the 5 most important field crops cultivated, in terms of value of production, by the household in 1997-
98, from among a list of crop-season combinations involving 12 crops and crop-groups spanning the entire range of
crops cultivated in the country.
A-15
Report no. 451
Appendix I
Cultivation Practices in India

all 1.31 0.56 1.87 1.46 0.64 2.11 90596

*Note
1. Paddy: kharif and paddy: rabi, for example, are treated as different “crops” for this purpose.
2. The set of 5 major crops is not a fixed set but varies from household to household; for any particular household it is
understood as the 5 most important field crops cultivated, in terms of value of production, by the household in 1997-
98, from among a list of crop-season combinations involving 12 crops and crop-groups spanning the entire range of
crops cultivated in the country.
A-16
Report no. 451
Appendix I
Cultivation Practices in India

Table (3): Differential between villages with government canal and other villages in respect of average area (0.00 ha)
under five major crops* sown by households, by season and size-class of household ownership holding

est. area
size-class of in villages with govt. canal in villages without govt. canal under major
crops
ownership holding (ha) kharif rabi all kharif rabi all (00 ha)
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8)

Kerala

nil (< 0.01 ) - - - 0.03 0.03 0.06 1


00.01 - 00.20 0.05 0.01 0.06 0.05 0.01 0.06 1332
00.21 - 00.50 0.25 0.08 0.33 0.22 0.07 0.29 1935
00.51 - 01.00 0.48 0.22 0.70 0.42 0.17 0.59 2091
01.01 - 02.00 0.92 0.21 1.13 0.68 0.35 1.03 2082
02.01 - 04.00 0.93 0.60 1.53 1.35 0.95 2.30 1011
04.01 - 10.00 0.16 4.26 4.42 2.56 2.17 4.72 787
10.01 & above 10.00 0.80 10.80 4.00 8.00 12.00 360
all 0.20 0.08 0.28 0.19 0.09 0.27 9599

Madhya Pradesh

nil (< 0.01 ) 0.38 - 0.38 1.15 0.82 1.98 765


00.01 - 00.20 0.15 0.08 0.23 0.15 0.06 0.21 528
00.21 - 00.50 0.30 0.17 0.47 0.32 0.19 0.52 4893
00.51 - 01.00 0.64 0.41 1.05 0.67 0.40 1.07 15992
01.01 - 02.00 1.19 0.77 1.96 1.22 0.76 1.98 42582
02.01 - 04.00 1.97 1.80 3.77 2.20 1.27 3.48 66204
04.01 - 10.00 4.60 3.69 8.29 4.29 3.35 7.63 63206
10.01 & above 12.10 11.85 23.95 9.89 8.27 18.16 19829
all 1.54 1.22 2.76 1.67 1.11 2.78 213999

Maharashtra

nil (< 0.01 ) - - - 0.92 0.06 0.98 174


00.01 - 00.20 0.11 0.05 0.17 0.20 0.02 0.22 827
00.21 - 00.50 0.30 0.10 0.40 0.32 0.08 0.39 3301
00.51 - 01.00 0.62 0.25 0.87 0.65 0.16 0.82 10062
01.01 - 02.00 1.16 0.39 1.55 1.18 0.34 1.52 24077
02.01 - 04.00 1.92 0.67 2.60 2.04 0.68 2.73 30564
04.01 - 10.00 4.10 1.54 5.65 4.16 1.21 5.37 33809
10.01 & above 9.40 3.40 12.80 9.17 3.45 12.62 11154
*Note
1. Paddy: kharif and paddy: rabi, for example, are treated as different “crops” for this purpose.
2. The set of 5 major crops is not a fixed set but varies from household to household; for any particular household it is
understood as the 5 most important field crops cultivated, in terms of value of production, by the household in 1997-
98, from among a list of crop-season combinations involving 12 crops and crop-groups spanning the entire range of
crops cultivated in the country.
A-17
Report no. 451
Appendix I
Cultivation Practices in India

all 1.35 0.49 1.84 1.51 0.46 1.96 113969

*Note
1. Paddy: kharif and paddy: rabi, for example, are treated as different “crops” for this purpose.
2. The set of 5 major crops is not a fixed set but varies from household to household; for any particular household it is
understood as the 5 most important field crops cultivated, in terms of value of production, by the household in 1997-
98, from among a list of crop-season combinations involving 12 crops and crop-groups spanning the entire range of
crops cultivated in the country.
A-18
Report no. 451
Appendix I
Cultivation Practices in India

Table (3): Differential between villages with government canal and other villages in respect of average area (0.00 ha)
under five major crops* sown by households, by season and size-class of household ownership holding

est. area
size-class of in villages with govt. canal in villages without govt. canal under major
crops
ownership holding (ha) kharif rabi all kharif rabi all (00 ha)
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8)

Manipur

nil (< 0.01 ) 0.80 0.05 0.85 0.49 0.66 1.15 224
00.01 - 00.20 0.02 0.05 0.07 0.04 0.04 0.08 15
00.21 - 00.50 0.26 0.10 0.36 0.21 0.11 0.32 159
00.51 - 01.00 0.66 0.07 0.73 0.51 0.16 0.66 564
01.01 - 02.00 1.22 0.07 1.29 0.86 0.25 1.13 414
02.01 - 04.00 2.08 0.04 2.12 1.61 0.56 2.18 164
04.01 - 10.00 - - - 2.39 0.40 2.79 28
10.01 & above - - - - - - -
all 0.63 0.07 0.70 0.51 0.22 0.74 1566

Meghalaya

nil (< 0.01 ) - - - 0.10 0.04 0.13 2


00.01 - 00.20 - 0.09 0.09 0.22 0.05 0.27 102
00.21 - 00.50 - - - 0.28 0.11 0.39 302
00.51 - 01.00 - 0.50 0.50 0.55 0.28 0.83 658
01.01 - 02.00 - - - 0.84 0.44 1.28 777
02.01 - 04.00 - - - 1.51 0.69 2.21 938
04.01 - 10.00 - - - 3.64 0.61 4.25 391
10.01 & above - - - - - - -
all - 0.47 0.47 0.72 0.30 1.02 3171

Mizoram

nil (< 0.01 ) - - - 0.55 0.17 0.72 74


00.01 - 00.20 - - - 0.63 0.11 0.74 251
00.21 - 00.50 - - - 0.69 0.03 0.72 31
00.51 - 01.00 - - - 0.76 0.12 0.88 48
01.01 - 02.00 - - - 1.06 0.03 1.08 72
02.01 - 04.00 - - - 1.70 0.07 1.77 25
04.01 - 10.00 - - - 1.93 0.07 2.00 7
10.01 & above - - - - - - -
*Note
1. Paddy: kharif and paddy: rabi, for example, are treated as different “crops” for this purpose.
2. The set of 5 major crops is not a fixed set but varies from household to household; for any particular household it is
understood as the 5 most important field crops cultivated, in terms of value of production, by the household in 1997-
98, from among a list of crop-season combinations involving 12 crops and crop-groups spanning the entire range of
crops cultivated in the country.
A-19
Report no. 451
Appendix I
Cultivation Practices in India

all - - - 0.71 0.11 0.81 508

*Note
1. Paddy: kharif and paddy: rabi, for example, are treated as different “crops” for this purpose.
2. The set of 5 major crops is not a fixed set but varies from household to household; for any particular household it is
understood as the 5 most important field crops cultivated, in terms of value of production, by the household in 1997-
98, from among a list of crop-season combinations involving 12 crops and crop-groups spanning the entire range of
crops cultivated in the country.
A-20
Report no. 451
Appendix I
Cultivation Practices in India

Table (3): Differential between villages with government canal and other villages in respect of average area (0.00 ha)
under five major crops* sown by households, by seas on and size-class of household ownership holding

est. area
size-class of in villages with govt. canal in villages without govt. canal under major
crops
ownership holding (ha) kharif rabi all kharif rabi all (00 ha)
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8)

Nagaland

nil (< 0.01 ) - - - 0.96 0.67 1.63 26


00.01 - 00.20 - - - 0.09 0.03 0.12 3
00.21 - 00.50 - - - 0.19 0.09 0.27 10
00.51 - 01.00 - - - 0.49 0.31 0.80 62
01.01 - 02.00 - - - 0.90 0.69 1.59 302
02.01 - 04.00 - - - 1.45 1.02 2.47 813
04.01 - 10.00 - - - 4.55 2.36 7.00 891
10.01 & above - - - 8.01 3.74 11.75 84
all - - - 1.67 1.03 2.71 2190

Orissa

nil (< 0.01 ) 0.05 0.01 0.07 0.46 0.01 0.47 64


00.01 - 00.20 0.15 0.02 0.17 0.18 0.02 0.20 1130
00.21 - 00.50 0.37 0.06 0.43 0.35 0.05 0.40 4953
00.51 - 01.00 0.69 0.12 0.81 0.72 0.10 0.83 8882
01.01 - 02.00 1.21 0.24 1.45 1.27 0.16 1.43 10467
02.01 - 04.00 2.14 0.56 2.69 2.32 0.39 2.70 7779
04.01 - 10.00 4.50 1.44 5.94 5.13 0.76 5.89 3596
10.01 & above 12.20 5.80 18.00 8.00 - 8.00 1406
all 0.81 0.18 0.99 0.83 0.11 0.94 38276

Punjab

nil (< 0.01 ) 4.00 3.10 7.10 2.11 2.11 4.22 257
00.01 - 00.20 0.38 0.37 0.75 0.17 0.21 0.39 234
00.21 - 00.50 0.34 0.36 0.69 0.32 0.37 0.69 781
00.51 - 01.00 0.98 0.99 1.97 0.95 1.02 1.97 2881
01.01 - 02.00 1.57 1.68 3.25 1.19 1.29 2.49 8373
02.01 - 04.00 2.92 2.87 5.79 2.37 2.46 4.83 11713
04.01 - 10.00 5.65 5.45 11.10 4.67 4.81 9.48 16504
10.01 & above 12.39 12.60 24.99 11.07 12.09 23.16 9200
*Note
1. Paddy: kharif and paddy: rabi, for example, are treated as different “crops” for this purpose.
2. The set of 5 major crops is not a fixed set but varies from household to household; for any particular household it is
understood as the 5 most important field crops cultivated, in terms of value of production, by the household in 1997-
98, from among a list of crop-season combinations involving 12 crops and crop-groups spanning the entire range of
crops cultivated in the country.
A-21
Report no. 451
Appendix I
Cultivation Practices in India

all 2.97 2.96 5.93 1.88 1.99 3.88 49942

*Note
1. Paddy: kharif and paddy: rabi, for example, are treated as different “crops” for this purpose.
2. The set of 5 major crops is not a fixed set but varies from household to household; for any particular household it is
understood as the 5 most important field crops cultivated, in terms of value of production, by the household in 1997-
98, from among a list of crop-season combinations involving 12 crops and crop-groups spanning the entire range of
crops cultivated in the country.
A-22
Report no. 451
Appendix I
Cultivation Practices in India

Table (3): Differential between villages with government canal and other villages in respect of average area (0.00 ha)
under five major crops* sown by households, by season and size-class of household ownership holding

est. area
size-class of in villages with govt. canal in villages without govt. canal under major
crops
ownership holding (ha) kharif rabi all kharif rabi all (00 ha)
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8)

Rajasthan

nil (< 0.01 ) - 0.44 0.44 1.36 2.00 3.37 985


00.01 - 00.20 0.82 1.14 1.96 0.18 0.17 0.35 1461
00.21 - 00.50 0.34 0.32 0.66 0.39 0.32 0.71 5472
00.51 - 01.00 0.59 0.62 1.21 0.63 0.46 1.09 9512
01.01 - 02.00 1.16 1.10 2.26 1.12 0.84 1.97 22182
02.01 - 04.00 2.04 2.26 4.30 2.19 1.51 3.70 36728
04.01 - 10.00 4.14 4.86 9.00 4.50 2.37 6.87 56934
10.01 & above 8.91 9.50 18.41 10.31 5.16 15.47 32144
all 1.95 2.14 4.09 1.99 1.22 3.21 165418

Sikkim

nil (< 0.01 ) 0.13 0.08 0.21 0.31 0.28 0.59 32


00.01 - 00.20 0.26 0.03 0.28 0.14 0.07 0.22 22
00.21 - 00.50 0.33 0.07 0.40 0.24 0.15 0.40 72
00.51 - 01.00 0.55 0.12 0.67 0.52 0.24 0.75 92
01.01 - 02.00 0.75 0.17 0.92 0.86 0.54 1.41 114
02.01 - 04.00 2.01 0.08 2.09 1.52 0.82 2.35 89
04.01 - 10.00 - - - 2.46 1.43 3.89 13
10.01 & above - - - 2.84 2.27 5.11 4
all 0.45 0.08 0.53 0.49 0.29 0.78 438

Tamil Nadu

nil (< 0.01 ) 0.42 0.10 0.52 0.21 0.19 0.40 299
00.01 - 00.20 0.10 0.06 0.15 0.10 0.07 0.17 690
00.21 - 00.50 0.26 0.18 0.44 0.25 0.17 0.42 4450
00.51 - 01.00 0.54 0.37 0.91 0.47 0.37 0.84 7714
01.01 - 02.00 1.00 0.70 1.69 0.91 0.59 1.50 9283
02.01 - 04.00 1.64 1.27 2.90 1.53 0.92 2.45 7008
04.01 - 10.00 2.98 2.48 5.46 3.30 1.47 4.77 4817
10.01 & above 10.00 2.00 12.00 6.21 6.21 12.43 603
*Note
1. Paddy: kharif and paddy: rabi, for example, are treated as different “crops” for this purpose.
2. The set of 5 major crops is not a fixed set but varies from household to household; for any particular household it is
understood as the 5 most important field crops cultivated, in terms of value of production, by the household in 1997-
98, from among a list of crop-season combinations involving 12 crops and crop-groups spanning the entire range of
crops cultivated in the country.
A-23
Report no. 451
Appendix I
Cultivation Practices in India

all 0.64 0.45 1.09 0.60 0.39 0.99 34863

*Note
1. Paddy: kharif and paddy: rabi, for example, are treated as different “crops” for this purpose.
2. The set of 5 major crops is not a fixed set but varies from household to household; for any particular household it is
understood as the 5 most important field crops cultivated, in terms of value of production, by the household in 1997-
98, from among a list of crop-season combinations involving 12 crops and crop-groups spanning the entire range of
crops cultivated in the country.
A-24
Report no. 451
Appendix I
Cultivation Practices in India

Table (3): Differential between villages with government canal and other villages in respect of average area (0.00 ha)
under five major crops* sown by households, by season and size-class of household ownership holding

est. area
size-class of in villages with govt. canal in villages without govt. canal under major
crops
ownership holding (ha) kharif rabi all kharif rabi all (00 ha)
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8)

Tripura

nil (< 0.01 ) - - - 0.51 0.03 0.54 15


00.01 - 00.20 0.13 0.05 0.18 0.07 0.05 0.13 66
00.21 - 00.50 0.27 0.12 0.39 0.16 0.19 0.35 323
00.51 - 01.00 0.63 0.16 0.79 0.44 0.35 0.79 515
01.01 - 02.00 0.93 0.51 1.44 1.01 0.48 1.49 318
02.01 - 04.00 1.74 1.24 2.98 1.17 0.64 1.81 147
04.01 - 10.00 - - - 3.44 0.60 4.04 32
10.01 & above - - - - - - -
all 0.48 0.21 0.69 0.34 0.24 0.58 1415

Uttar Pradesh

nil (< 0.01 ) 0.68 0.53 1.21 0.62 1.02 1.64 942
00.01 - 00.20 0.13 0.13 0.26 0.13 0.14 0.27 8230
00.21 - 00.50 0.31 0.32 0.63 0.27 0.30 0.58 29992
00.51 - 01.00 0.62 0.65 1.27 0.58 0.61 1.19 49080
01.01 - 02.00 1.05 1.12 2.17 1.01 1.09 2.10 62695
02.01 - 04.00 1.81 2.05 3.88 1.94 2.03 3.97 55575
04.01 - 10.00 3.36 4.78 8.14 3.44 3.93 7.37 38392
10.01 & above 5.39 8.84 14.24 6.95 7.11 14.06 5587
all 0.73 0.83 1.56 0.68 0.74 1.42 250492

West Bengal

nil (< 0.01 ) 0.28 0.08 0.36 0.72 0.27 0.99 1795
00.01 - 00.20 0.13 0.10 0.22 0.11 0.07 0.18 2917
00.21 - 00.50 0.29 0.20 0.49 0.29 0.18 0.47 9347
00.51 - 01.00 0.67 0.42 1.09 0.67 0.37 1.04 15448
01.01 - 02.00 1.29 0.60 1.89 1.21 0.64 1.85 12485
02.01 - 04.00 2.56 0.97 3.53 2.29 1.11 3.40 7423
04.01 - 10.00 2.44 1.90 4.34 4.22 3.50 7.73 1293
10.01 & above - - - 0.60 2.86 3.46 83
*Note
1. Paddy: kharif and paddy: rabi, for example, are treated as different “crops” for this purpose.
2. The set of 5 major crops is not a fixed set but varies from household to household; for any particular household it is
understood as the 5 most important field crops cultivated, in terms of value of production, by the household in 1997-
98, from among a list of crop-season combinations involving 12 crops and crop-groups spanning the entire range of
crops cultivated in the country.
A-25
Report no. 451
Appendix I
Cultivation Practices in India

all 0.52 0.29 0.81 0.55 0.30 0.85 50792

*Note
1. Paddy: kharif and paddy: rabi, for example, are treated as different “crops” for this purpose.
2. The set of 5 major crops is not a fixed set but varies from household to household; for any particular household it is
understood as the 5 most important field crops cultivated, in terms of value of production, by the household in 1997-
98, from among a list of crop-season combinations involving 12 crops and crop-groups spanning the entire range of
crops cultivated in the country.
A-26
Report no. 451
Appendix I
Cultivation Practices in India

Table (3): Differential between villages with government canal and other villages in respect of average area (0.00 ha)
under five major crops* sown by households, by season and size-class of household ownership holding

est. area
size-class of in villages with govt. canal in villages without govt. canal under major
crops
ownership holding (ha) kharif rabi all kharif rabi all (00 ha)
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8)

A. & N. Islands

nil (< 0.01 ) - - - 1.10 0.07 1.17 39


00.01 - 00.20 0.02 - 0.02 0.01 0.01 0.02 0
00.21 - 00.50 0.32 0.26 0.58 0.09 0.08 0.17 2
00.51 - 01.00 0.56 0.08 0.64 0.27 0.19 0.46 9
01.01 - 02.00 1.34 0.19 1.52 0.85 0.10 0.95 22
02.01 - 04.00 2.61 0.30 2.91 1.68 0.44 2.12 48
04.01 - 10.00 3.00 0.63 3.63 2.40 0.41 2.82 17
10.01 & above - - - - - - -
all 1.25 0.19 1.44 1.02 0.18 1.20 138

India

nil (< 0.01 ) 0.50 0.32 0.82 0.66 0.46 1.13 11503
00.01 - 00.20 0.15 0.12 0.26 0.12 0.08 0.20 26575
00.21 - 00.50 0.33 0.24 0.57 0.30 0.21 0.51 100803
00.51 - 01.00 0.65 0.48 1.13 0.62 0.39 1.02 188584
01.01 - 02.00 1.18 0.85 2.03 1.13 0.69 1.82 304245
02.01 - 04.00 2.07 1.67 3.75 2.10 1.25 3.34 336368
04.01 - 10.00 4.08 3.56 7.64 4.16 2.40 6.57 323143
10.01 & above 9.82 8.61 18.44 9.83 5.89 15.73 117611
all 1.00 0.79 1.80 1.05 0.64 1.69 1408832

*Note
1. Paddy: kharif and paddy: rabi, for example, are treated as different “crops” for this purpose.
2. The set of 5 major crops is not a fixed set but varies from household to household; for any particular household it is
understood as the 5 most important field crops cultivated, in terms of value of production, by the household in 1997-
98, from among a list of crop-season combinations involving 12 crops and crop-groups spanning the entire range of
crops cultivated in the country.
A-27
Report no. 451
Appendix I
Cultivation Practices in India

Table (4): Per 1000 distribution of field-crop cultivator households by status of irrigation of area under five
major crops, separately for different size-classes of household ownership holding, in villages with
government canals and other villages

State: Andhra Pradesh


estd. no. of FCC
size-class of irrigated area households
ownership unirri- with irrigation all under 5
holding (ha) gated services hired others all major estd. (00) sample
crops*
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9)

Villages with government canal

nil(< 0.01 ) 43 350 606 957 1000 474 564 20


00.01 - 00.20 178 322 499 822 1000 680 2251 99
00.21 - 00.50 201 312 487 799 1000 3010 4903 229
00.51 - 01.00 163 286 552 837 1000 4155 4195 176
01.01 - 02.00 123 237 640 877 1000 6665 3312 136
02.01 - 04.00 282 233 485 718 1000 5346 1773 78
04.01 - 10.00 63 130 808 937 1000 6348 1095 47
10.01 & above 104 - 896 896 1000 2204 172 6
all 169 273 558 831 1000 28882 18264 791

Villages without government canal

nil(< 0.01 ) 119 324 557 881 1000 324 172 10


00.01 - 00.20 139 453 407 861 1000 387 2087 102
00.21 - 00.50 309 258 433 691 1000 3327 7989 394
00.51 - 01.00 297 222 480 703 1000 6849 8546 414
01.01 - 02.00 256 268 475 744 1000 10826 7458 360
02.01 - 04.00 220 267 513 780 1000 13400 5188 265
04.01 - 10.00 162 172 666 838 1000 12741 2360 117
10.01 & above 17 170 813 983 1000 4496 323 19
all 257 258 485 743 1000 52350 34123 1681

All villages

nil(< 0.01 ) 74 311 615 926 1000 1109 816 35


00.01 - 00.20 159 383 459 841 1000 1077 4366 203
00.21 - 00.50 270 277 454 730 1000 6374 12989 627
00.51 - 01.00 254 241 505 746 1000 11125 12848 596
01.01 - 02.00 215 257 527 785 1000 17640 10837 499

*Note
1. Paddy: kharif and paddy: rabi, for example, are treated as different “crops” for this purpose.
2. The set of 5 major crops is not a fixed set but varies from household to household; for any particular household it is
understood as the 5 most important field crops cultivated, in terms of value of production, by the household in 1997-
98, from among a list of crop-season combinations involving 12 crops and crop-groups spanning the entire range of
crops cultivated in the country.

A-20
Report no. 451
Appendix I
Cultivation Practices in India

02.01 - 04.00 236 256 509 764 1000 19148 7035 347
04.01 - 10.00 131 158 711 869 1000 19089 3455 164
10.01 & above 47 111 842 953 1000 6700 495 25
all 227 261 512 773 1000 82260 52840 2496

*Note
1. Paddy: kharif and paddy: rabi, for example, are treated as different “crops” for this purpose.
2. The set of 5 major crops is not a fixed set but varies from household to household; for any particular household it is
understood as the 5 most important field crops cultivated, in terms of value of production, by the household in 1997-
98, from among a list of crop-season combinations involving 12 crops and crop-groups spanning the entire range of
crops cultivated in the country.

A-21
Report no. 451
Appendix I
Cultivation Practices in India

Table (4): Per 1000 distribution of field-crop cultivator households by status of irrigation of area under five
major crops, separately for different size-classes of household ownership holding, in villages with
government canals and other villages

State: Arunachal Pradesh


estd. no. of FCC
size-class of irrigated area households
ownership unirri- with irrigation all under 5
holding (ha) gated services hired others all major estd. (00) sample
crops*
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9)

Villages with government canal

nil(< 0.01 ) - - - - - - - -
00.01 - 00.20 1000 - - - 1000 0 4 1
00.21 - 00.50 1000 - - - 1000 7 30 8
00.51 - 01.00 508 - 492 492 1000 2 6 3
01.01 - 02.00 803 - 197 197 1000 9 33 12
02.01 - 04.00 - 189 811 1000 1000 22 29 20
04.01 - 10.00 - 500 500 1000 1000 37 33 23
10.01 & above 1000 - - - 1000 20 3 1
all 483 159 358 517 1000 98 138 68

Villages without government canal

nil(< 0.01 ) 936 - 64 64 1000 142 198 68


00.01 - 00.20 738 - 262 262 1000 6 66 30
00.21 - 00.50 401 24 575 599 1000 51 155 71
00.51 - 01.00 663 4 334 337 1000 112 208 102
01.01 - 02.00 659 44 298 341 1000 276 254 111
02.01 - 04.00 712 49 239 288 1000 285 136 70
04.01 - 10.00 959 9 31 41 1000 244 128 63
10.01 & above 1000 - - - 1000 42 8 7
all 719 20 261 281 1000 1158 1153 522

All villages

nil(< 0.01 ) 914 23 62 86 1000 142 203 70


00.01 - 00.20 665 60 274 335 1000 10 79 34
00.21 - 00.50 487 44 469 513 1000 61 190 81
00.51 - 01.00 637 14 348 363 1000 117 221 108
01.01 - 02.00 664 38 298 336 1000 287 292 125

*Note
1. Paddy: kharif and paddy: rabi, for example, are treated as different “crops” for this purpose.
2. The set of 5 major crops is not a fixed set but varies from household to household; for any particular household it is
understood as the 5 most important field crops cultivated, in terms of value of production, by the household in 1997-
98, from among a list of crop-season combinations involving 12 crops and crop-groups spanning the entire range of
crops cultivated in the country.

A-22
Report no. 451
Appendix I
Cultivation Practices in India

02.01 - 04.00 586 74 340 414 1000 307 165 90


04.01 - 10.00 763 110 127 237 1000 281 161 86
10.01 & above 1000 - - - 1000 62 11 8
all 678 47 275 322 1000 1266 1321 602

*Note
1. Paddy: kharif and paddy: rabi, for example, are treated as different “crops” for this purpose.
2. The set of 5 major crops is not a fixed set but varies from household to household; for any particular household it is
understood as the 5 most important field crops cultivated, in terms of value of production, by the household in 1997-
98, from among a list of crop-season combinations involving 12 crops and crop-groups spanning the entire range of
crops cultivated in the country.

A-23
Report no. 451
Appendix I
Cultivation Practices in India

Table (4): Per 1000 distribution of field-crop cultivator households by status of irrigation of area under five
major crops, separately for different size-classes of household ownership holding, in villages with
government canals and other villages

State: Assam
estd. no. of FCC
size-class of irrigated area households
ownership unirri- with irrigation all under 5
holding (ha) gated services hired others all major estd. (00) sample
crops*
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9)

Villages with government canal

nil(< 0.01.) - - - - - - - -
00.01 - 00.20 1000 - - - 1000 1 11 1
00.21 - 00.50 119 309 572 881 1000 81 149 10
00.51 - 01.00 125 203 673 875 1000 178 170 13
01.01 - 02.00 172 319 509 828 1000 316 180 12
02.01 - 04.00 - - 1000 1000 1000 210 50 5
04.01 - 10.00 333 - 667 667 1000 196 29 3
10.01 & above - - - - - - - -
all 154 234 612 846 1000 981 590 44

Villages without government canal

nil(< 0.01 ) 951 32 17 49 1000 204 552 63


00.01 - 00.20 863 32 105 137 1000 386 3060 300
00.21 - 00.50 794 57 149 206 1000 1489 3802 411
00.51 - 01.00 757 102 141 243 1000 5822 6522 572
01.01 - 02.00 795 56 150 205 1000 10535 6624 556
02.01 - 04.00 727 49 224 273 1000 7515 2434 196
04.01 - 10.00 675 52 274 325 1000 2821 479 38
10.01 & above - - - - - - - -
all 787 64 148 213 1000 28773 23473 2136

All villages

nil(< 0.01) 951 32 17 49 1000 204 552 63


00.01 - 00.20 862 35 102 138 1000 394 3132 307
00.21 - 00.50 769 69 161 231 1000 1640 4041 432
00.51 - 01.00 740 111 149 260 1000 6278 6940 603
01.01 - 02.00 773 67 161 227 1000 11087 6968 582

*Note
1. Paddy: kharif and paddy: rabi, for example, are treated as different “crops” for this purpose.
2. The set of 5 major crops is not a fixed set but varies from household to household; for any particular household it is
understood as the 5 most important field crops cultivated, in terms of value of production, by the household in 1997-
98, from among a list of crop-season combinations involving 12 crops and crop-groups spanning the entire range of
crops cultivated in the country.

A-24
Report no. 451
Appendix I
Cultivation Practices in India

02.01 - 04.00 713 47 241 287 1000 7850 2536 205


04.01 - 10.00 664 48 289 336 1000 3164 520 42
10.01 & above - - - - - - - -
all 770 72 158 230 1000 30618 24689 2234

*Note
1. Paddy: kharif and paddy: rabi, for example, are treated as different “crops” for this purpose.
2. The set of 5 major crops is not a fixed set but varies from household to household; for any particular household it is
understood as the 5 most important field crops cultivated, in terms of value of production, by the household in 1997-
98, from among a list of crop-season combinations involving 12 crops and crop-groups spanning the entire range of
crops cultivated in the country.

A-25
Report no. 451
Appendix I
Cultivation Practices in India

Table (4): Per 1000 distribution of field-crop cultivator households by status of irrigation of area under five
major crops, separately for different size-classes of household ownership holding, in villages with
government canals and other villages

State:Bhar
estd. no. of FCC
size-class of irrigated area households
ownership unirri- with irrigation all under 5
holding (ha) gated services hired others all major estd. (00) sample
crops*
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9)

Villages with government canal

nil(< 0.01 ) 481 284 236 519 1000 466 657 37


00.01 - 00.20 211 613 176 789 1000 1078 4214 208
00.21 - 00.50 101 615 284 899 1000 3860 5020 252
00.51 - 01.00 88 604 308 912 1000 5569 3669 175
01.01 - 02.00 43 510 447 957 1000 7601 3131 148
02.01 - 04.00 42 273 686 958 1000 8259 1727 87
04.01 - 10.00 26 201 773 974 1000 6276 733 39
10.01 & above - - 1000 1000 1000 2842 108 6
all 117 534 349 883 1000 35951 19258 952

Villages without government canal

nil(< 0.01 ) 495 298 207 505 1000 3259 3063 159
00.01 - 00.20 277 543 180 723 1000 3282 15419 801
00.21 - 00.50 333 566 101 667 1000 10357 18279 975
00.51 - 01.00 322 504 174 678 1000 18736 16340 797
01.01 - 02.00 295 450 255 705 1000 26288 12777 632
02.01 - 04.00 175 376 449 825 1000 19210 4984 242
04.01 - 10.00 56 404 540 944 1000 11050 1580 72
10.01 & above - 203 797 1000 1000 5316 171 8
all 301 498 201 699 1000 97498 72612 3686

All villages

nil(< 0.01) 496 294 211 504 1000 3740 3743 197
00.01 - 00.20 262 558 180 738 1000 4376 19828 1015
00.21 - 00.50 283 578 139 717 1000 14383 23571 1234
00.51 - 01.00 278 523 199 722 1000 24522 20184 976
01.01 - 02.00 247 461 292 753 1000 33955 15932 781

*Note
1. Paddy: kharif and paddy: rabi, for example, are treated as different “crops” for this purpose.
2. The set of 5 major crops is not a fixed set but varies from household to household; for any particular household it is
understood as the 5 most important field crops cultivated, in terms of value of production, by the household in 1997-
98, from among a list of crop-season combinations involving 12 crops and crop-groups spanning the entire range of
crops cultivated in the country.

A-26
Report no. 451
Appendix I
Cultivation Practices in India

02.01 - 04.00 139 344 517 861 1000 28125 6811 331
04.01 - 10.00 47 340 614 953 1000 17326 2313 111
10.01 & above - 124 876 1000 1000 8158 278 14
all 262 506 232 738 1000 134585 92660 4659

*Note
1. Paddy: kharif and paddy: rabi, for example, are treated as different “crops” for this purpose.
2. The set of 5 major crops is not a fixed set but varies from household to household; for any particular household it is
understood as the 5 most important field crops cultivated, in terms of value of production, by the household in 1997-
98, from among a list of crop-season combinations involving 12 crops and crop-groups spanning the entire range of
crops cultivated in the country.

A-27
Report no. 451
Appendix I
Cultivation Practices in India

Table (4): Per 1000 distribution of field-crop cultivator households by status of irrigation of area under five
major crops, separately for different size-classes of household ownership holding, in villages with
government canals and other villages

State: Haryana
estd. no. of FCC
size-class of irrigated area households
ownership unirri- with irrigation all under 5
holding (ha) gated services hired others all major estd. (00) sample
crops*
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9)

Villages with government canal

nil(< 0.01 ) - 1000 - 1000 1000 266 109 5


00.01 - 00.20 - 564 436 1000 1000 1338 503 23
00.21 - 00.50 46 644 310 954 1000 1363 943 42
00.51 - 01.00 63 497 439 937 1000 1675 950 43
01.01 - 02.00 39 322 640 961 1000 4166 1562 65
02.01 - 04.00 33 270 697 967 1000 5741 1214 52
04.01 - 10.00 71 151 778 929 1000 8014 937 40
10.01 & above - - 1000 1000 1000 2438 121 5
all 43 386 572 957 1000 25000 6339 275

Villages without government canal

nil(< 0.01 ) - - - - - - - -
00.01 - 00.20 - 751 249 1000 1000 27 70 4
00.21 - 00.50 129 587 284 871 1000 578 908 48
00.51 - 01.00 160 378 462 840 1000 1232 889 42
01.01 - 02.00 123 297 580 877 1000 3482 1359 71
02.01 - 04.00 39 246 715 961 1000 4467 1069 59
04.01 - 10.00 68 91 842 932 1000 4188 624 33
10.01 & above - - 1000 1000 1000 1607 82 6
all 102 329 569 898 1000 15581 5000 263

All villages

nil(< 0.01 ) - 1000 - 1000 1000 266 109 5


00.01 - 00.20 - 587 413 1000 1000 1365 573 27
00.21 - 00.50 87 616 297 913 1000 1940 1851 90
00.51 - 01.00 110 440 450 890 1000 2907 1839 85
01.01 - 02.00 77 322 601 923 1000 7757 2973 138

*Note
1. Paddy: kharif and paddy: rabi, for example, are treated as different “crops” for this purpose.
2. The set of 5 major crops is not a fixed set but varies from household to household; for any particular household it is
understood as the 5 most important field crops cultivated, in terms of value of production, by the household in 1997-
98, from among a list of crop-season combinations involving 12 crops and crop-groups spanning the entire range of
crops cultivated in the country.

A-28
Report no. 451
Appendix I
Cultivation Practices in India

02.01 - 04.00 35 250 715 965 1000 10536 2362 116


04.01 - 10.00 67 123 810 933 1000 12695 1613 77
10.01 & above - - 1000 1000 1000 4622 229 13
all 68 359 574 932 1000 42089 11548 551

*Note
1. Paddy: kharif and paddy: rabi, for example, are treated as different “crops” for this purpose.
2. The set of 5 major crops is not a fixed set but varies from household to household; for any particular household it is
understood as the 5 most important field crops cultivated, in terms of value of production, by the household in 1997-
98, from among a list of crop-season combinations involving 12 crops and crop-groups spanning the entire range of
crops cultivated in the country.

A-29
Report no. 451
Appendix I
Cultivation Practices in India

Table (4): Per 1000 distribution of field-crop cultivator households by status of irrigation of area under five
major crops, separately for different size-classes of household ownership holding, in villages with
government canals and other villages

State:Himachal Pradesh
estd. no. of FCC
size-class of irrigated area households
ownership unirri- with irrigation all under 5
holding (ha) gated services hired others all major estd. (00) sample
crops*
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9)

Villages with government canal

nil(< 0.01) - - - - - - - -
00.01 - 00.20 256 - 744 744 1000 33 140 25
00.21 - 00.50 134 - 866 866 1000 114 187 32
00.51 - 01.00 133 48 819 867 1000 97 94 17
01.01 - 02.00 - - 1000 1000 1000 19 14 3
02.01 - 04.00 - - - - - - - -
04.01 - 10.00 - - - - - - - -
10.01 & above - - - - - - - -
all 169 10 821 831 1000 263 434 77

Villages without government canal

nil(< 0.01 ) 1000 - - - 1000 34 45 8


00.01 - 00.20 746 33 221 254 1000 317 1543 295
00.21 - 00.50 799 30 171 201 1000 1484 2732 514
00.51 - 01.00 797 36 167 203 1000 2098 2079 380
01.01 - 02.00 717 61 222 283 1000 2210 1253 236
02.01 - 04.00 681 46 273 319 1000 1423 502 95
04.01 - 10.00 539 95 367 461 1000 517 95 20
10.01 & above 876 - 124 124 1000 111 35 7
all 768 38 194 232 1000 8194 8284 1555

All villages

nil(< 0.01 ) 1000 - - - 1000 34 45 8


00.01 - 00.20 704 30 266 296 1000 351 1691 322
00.21 - 00.50 757 28 215 243 1000 1606 2939 550
00.51 - 01.00 766 36 198 234 1000 2228 2208 404
01.01 - 02.00 708 60 232 292 1000 2245 1277 241

*Note
1. Paddy: kharif and paddy: rabi, for example, are treated as different “crops” for this purpose.
2. The set of 5 major crops is not a fixed set but varies from household to household; for any particular household it is
understood as the 5 most important field crops cultivated, in terms of value of production, by the household in 1997-
98, from among a list of crop-season combinations involving 12 crops and crop-groups spanning the entire range of
crops cultivated in the country.

A-30
Report no. 451
Appendix I
Cultivation Practices in India

02.01 - 04.00 676 44 279 324 1000 1474 522 99


04.01 - 10.00 593 83 323 407 1000 538 108 22
10.01 & above 876 - 124 124 1000 111 35 7
all 737 36 227 263 1000 8587 8825 1653

*Note
1. Paddy: kharif and paddy: rabi, for example, are treated as different “crops” for this purpose.
2. The set of 5 major crops is not a fixed set but varies from household to household; for any particular household it is
understood as the 5 most important field crops cultivated, in terms of value of production, by the household in 1997-
98, from among a list of crop-season combinations involving 12 crops and crop-groups spanning the entire range of
crops cultivated in the country.

A-31
Report no. 451
Appendix I
Cultivation Practices in India

Table (4): Per 1000 distribution of field-crop cultivator households by status of irrigation of area under five
major crops, separately for different size-classes of household ownership holding, in villages with
government canals and other villages
S tate: Jammu & Kashmir
estd. no. of FCC
size-class of irrigated area households
ownership unirri- with irrigation all under 5
holding (ha) gated services hired others all major estd. (00) sample
crops*
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9)

Villages with government canal

nil(< 0.01 ) - - 1000 1000 1000 1 3 1


00.01 - 00.20 151 18 831 849 1000 104 421 85
00.21 - 00.50 119 22 859 881 1000 572 1306 260
00.51 - 01.00 237 15 748 763 1000 727 708 136
01.01 - 02.00 245 43 713 755 1000 903 411 101
02.01 - 04.00 258 - 742 742 1000 685 174 43
04.01 - 10.00 177 - 823 823 1000 262 37 11
10.01 & above - - - - - - - -
all 176 21 803 824 1000 3253 3058 637

Villages without government canal

nil(< 0.01) 59 - 941 941 1000 4 8 3


00.01 - 00.20 224 18 758 776 1000 121 619 133
00.21 - 00.50 259 25 716 741 1000 891 1502 318
00.51 - 01.00 353 65 583 647 1000 1421 1270 256
01.01 - 02.00 566 94 340 434 1000 1116 586 141
02.01 - 04.00 674 45 281 326 1000 650 179 41
04.01 - 10.00 557 - 443 443 1000 89 14 6
10.01 & above - - - - - - - -
all 344 46 610 656 1000 4293 4178 898

All villages

nil(< 0.01 ) 46 - 954 954 1000 5 11 4


00.01 - 00.20 194 18 787 806 1000 225 1039 218
00.21 - 00.50 194 23 783 806 1000 1464 2807 578
00.51 - 01.00 311 47 642 689 1000 2149 1978 392
01.01 - 02.00 433 73 494 567 1000 2018 997 242
02.01 - 04.00 469 23 509 531 1000 1335 353 84

*Note
1. Paddy: kharif and paddy: rabi, for example, are treated as different “crops” for this purpose.
2. The set of 5 major crops is not a fixed set but varies from household to household; for any particular household it is
understood as the 5 most important field crops cultivated, in terms of value of production, by the household in 1997-
98, from among a list of crop-season combinations involving 12 crops and crop-groups spanning the entire range of
crops cultivated in the country.

A-32
Report no. 451
Appendix I
Cultivation Practices in India

04.01 - 10.00 282 - 718 718 1000 351 51 17


10.01 & above - - - - - - - -
all 273 36 691 727 1000 7547 7236 1535

*Note
1. Paddy: kharif and paddy: rabi, for example, are treated as different “crops” for this purpose.
2. The set of 5 major crops is not a fixed set but varies from household to household; for any particular household it is
understood as the 5 most important field crops cultivated, in terms of value of production, by the household in 1997-
98, from among a list of crop-season combinations involving 12 crops and crop-groups spanning the entire range of
crops cultivated in the country.

A-33
Report no. 451
Appendix I
Cultivation Practices in India

Table (4): Per 1000 distribution of field-crop cultivator households by status of irrigation of area under five
major crops, separately for different size-classes of household ownership holding, in villages with
government canals and other villages

State: Karnataka
estd. no. of FCC
size-class of irrigated area households
ownership unirri- with irrigation all under 5
holding (ha) gated services hired others all major estd. (00) sample
crops*
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9)

Villages with government canal

nil(< 0.01 ) 1000 - - - 1000 78 24 1


00.01 - 00.20 504 - 496 496 1000 226 1144 54
00.21 - 00.50 467 27 506 533 1000 960 2351 104
00.51 - 01.00 396 38 566 604 1000 2708 2885 119
01.01 - 02.00 332 73 595 668 1000 5276 3189 129
02.01 - 04.00 196 10 794 804 1000 5068 1573 69
04.01 - 10.00 207 54 739 793 1000 5028 925 38
10.01 & above - 92 908 1000 1000 3778 263 12
all 356 40 604 644 1000 23123 12354 526

Villages without government canal

nil(< 0.01 ) 480 520 - 520 1000 21 122 6


00.01 - 00.20 487 53 460 513 1000 237 1682 83
00.21 - 00.50 792 53 155 208 1000 1949 4383 218
00.51 - 01.00 686 112 202 314 1000 6424 7384 326
01.01 - 02.00 589 112 299 411 1000 15295 9133 393
02.01 - 04.00 542 85 373 458 1000 16996 5592 239
04.01 - 10.00 487 41 472 513 1000 19933 3325 146
10.01 & above 437 82 481 563 1000 6619 393 16
all 613 90 297 387 1000 67473 32016 1427

All villages

nil(< 0.01 ) 566 434 - 434 1000 99 146 7


00.01 - 00.20 494 32 474 506 1000 464 2826 137
00.21 - 00.50 678 44 278 322 1000 2910 6735 322
00.51 - 01.00 605 91 304 395 1000 9132 10269 445
01.01 - 02.00 522 102 376 478 1000 20571 12321 522

*Note
1. Paddy: kharif and paddy: rabi, for example, are treated as different “crops” for this purpose.
2. The set of 5 major crops is not a fixed set but varies from household to household; for any particular household it is
understood as the 5 most important field crops cultivated, in terms of value of production, by the household in 1997-
98, from among a list of crop-season combinations involving 12 crops and crop-groups spanning the entire range of
crops cultivated in the country.

A-34
Report no. 451
Appendix I
Cultivation Practices in India

02.01 - 04.00 466 68 466 534 1000 22063 7165 308


04.01 - 10.00 426 44 530 574 1000 24961 4250 184
10.01 & above 262 86 652 738 1000 10397 656 28
all 541 76 383 459 1000 90596 44369 1953

*Note
1. Paddy: kharif and paddy: rabi, for example, are treated as different “crops” for this purpose.
2. The set of 5 major crops is not a fixed set but varies from household to household; for any particular household it is
understood as the 5 most important field crops cultivated, in terms of value of production, by the household in 1997-
98, from among a list of crop-season combinations involving 12 crops and crop-groups spanning the entire range of
crops cultivated in the country.

A-35
Report no. 451
Appendix I
Cultivation Practices in India

Table (4): Per 1000 distribution of field-crop cultivator households by status of irrigation of area under five
major crops, separately for different size-classes of household ownership holding, in villages with
government canals and other villages

State: Kerala
estd. no. of FCC
size-class of irrigated area households
ownership unirri- with irrigation all under 5
holding (ha) gated services hired others all major estd. (00) sample
crops*
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9)

Villages with government canal

nil(< 0.01 ) 690 - 310 310 1000 - 54 3


00.01 - 00.20 557 40 403 443 1000 411 6509 409
00.21 - 00.50 438 43 519 562 1000 716 2187 137
00.51 - 01.00 339 30 631 661 1000 694 993 61
01.01 - 02.00 377 - 623 623 1000 511 452 28
02.01 - 04.00 283 - 717 717 1000 205 134 8
04.01 - 10.00 - - 1000 1000 1000 223 51 3
10.01 & above - - 1000 1000 1000 184 17 1
all 497 37 466 503 1000 2944 10395 650

Villages without government canal

nil(< 0.01 ) 1000 - - - 1000 1 21 1


00.01 - 00.20 704 12 284 296 1000 921 15592 992
00.21 - 00.50 560 43 398 440 1000 1219 4216 282
00.51 - 01.00 479 72 449 521 1000 1397 2382 140
01.01 - 02.00 542 20 438 458 1000 1570 1525 88
02.01 - 04.00 295 125 580 705 1000 806 351 21
04.01 - 10.00 313 - 687 687 1000 564 119 7
10.01 & above - - 1000 1000 1000 176 15 1
all 639 25 336 361 1000 6654 24220 1532

All villages

nil(< 0.01 ) 778 - 222 222 1000 1 75 4


00.01 - 00.20 661 20 319 339 1000 1332 22100 1401
00.21 - 00.50 518 43 439 482 1000 1935 6402 419
00.51 - 01.00 438 60 502 562 1000 2091 3374 201

*Note
1. Paddy: kharif and paddy: rabi, for example, are treated as different “crops” for this purpose.
2. The set of 5 major crops is not a fixed set but varies from household to household; for any particular household it is
understood as the 5 most important field crops cultivated, in terms of value of production, by the household in 1997-
98, from among a list of crop-season combinations involving 12 crops and crop-groups spanning the entire range of
crops cultivated in the country.

A-36
Report no. 451
Appendix I
Cultivation Practices in India

01.01 - 02.00 504 16 480 496 1000 2082 1976 116


02.01 - 04.00 292 91 618 708 1000 1011 485 29
04.01 - 10.00 220 - 780 780 1000 787 170 10
10.01 & above - - 1000 1000 1000 360 32 2
all 596 29 375 404 1000 9599 34615 2182

*Note
1. Paddy: kharif and paddy: rabi, for example, are treated as different “crops” for this purpose.
2. The set of 5 major crops is not a fixed set but varies from household to household; for any particular household it is
understood as the 5 most important field crops cultivated, in terms of value of production, by the household in 1997-
98, from among a list of crop-season combinations involving 12 crops and crop-groups spanning the entire range of
crops cultivated in the country.

A-37
Report no. 451
Appendix I
Cultivation Practices in India

Table (4): Per 1000 distribution of field-crop cultivator households by status of irrigation of area under five
major crops, separately for different size-classes of household ownership holding, in villages with
government canals and other villages

State: Madhya Pradesh


estd. no. of FCC
size-class of irrigated area households
ownership unirri- with irrigation all under 5
holding (ha) gated services hired others all major estd. (00) sample
crops*
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9)

Villages with government canal

nil(< 0.01 ) 680 - 320 320 1000 16 42 2


00.01 - 00.20 544 218 239 456 1000 112 491 26
00.21 - 00.50 396 155 449 604 1000 1120 2368 134
00.51 - 01.00 300 124 576 700 1000 3120 2976 159
01.01 - 02.00 252 163 585 748 1000 7247 3702 190
02.01 - 04.00 174 107 719 826 1000 10305 2733 146
04.01 - 10.00 120 56 824 880 1000 11823 1426 75
10.01 & above - 78 922 1000 1000 4788 200 11
all 266 132 602 734 1000 38530 13938 743

Villages without government canal

nil(< 0.01 ) 669 180 151 331 1000 749 379 19


00.01 - 00.20 733 110 157 267 1000 407 1911 110
00.21 - 00.50 670 148 181 330 1000 3706 7178 399
00.51 - 01.00 627 154 219 373 1000 12807 11993 612
01.01 - 02.00 564 180 256 436 1000 35208 17794 915
02.01 - 04.00 526 134 339 474 1000 55479 15959 802
04.01 - 10.00 371 121 509 629 1000 50932 6668 356
10.01 & above 172 87 741 828 1000 15042 828 51
all 559 150 291 441 1000 174330 62709 3264

All villages

nil(< 0.01 ) 670 162 167 330 1000 765 421 21


00.01 - 00.20 693 129 179 307 1000 528 2467 139
00.21 - 00.50 603 150 247 397 1000 4893 9680 539
00.51 - 01.00 561 149 290 439 1000 15992 15036 774

*Note
1. Paddy: kharif and paddy: rabi, for example, are treated as different “crops” for this purpose.
2. The set of 5 major crops is not a fixed set but varies from household to household; for any particular household it is
understood as the 5 most important field crops cultivated, in terms of value of production, by the household in 1997-
98, from among a list of crop-season combinations involving 12 crops and crop-groups spanning the entire range of
crops cultivated in the country.

A-38
Report no. 451
Appendix I
Cultivation Practices in India

01.01 - 02.00 511 176 313 489 1000 42582 21560 1108
02.01 - 04.00 477 129 393 523 1000 66204 18818 954
04.01 - 10.00 329 109 562 671 1000 63206 8158 434
10.01 & above 138 85 776 862 1000 19829 1028 62
all 506 146 347 494 1000 213999 77168 4031

*Note
1. Paddy: kharif and paddy: rabi, for example, are treated as different “crops” for this purpose.
2. The set of 5 major crops is not a fixed set but varies from household to household; for any particular household it is
understood as the 5 most important field crops cultivated, in terms of value of production, by the household in 1997-
98, from among a list of crop-season combinations involving 12 crops and crop-groups spanning the entire range of
crops cultivated in the country.

A-39
Report no. 451
Appendix I
Cultivation Practices in India

Table (4): Per 1000 distribution of field-crop cultivator households by status of irrigation of area under five
major crops, separately for different size-classes of household ownership holding, in villages with
government canals and other villages

State: Maharashtra
estd. no. of FCC
size-class of irrigated area households
ownership unirri- with irrigation all under 5
holding (ha) gated services hired others all major estd. (00) sample
crops*
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9)

Villages with government canal

nil(< 0.01 ) - - - - - - - -
00.01 - 00.20 534 241 225 466 1000 100 605 29
00.21 - 00.50 540 50 411 460 1000 665 1663 80
00.51 - 01.00 411 72 517 589 1000 2071 2380 112
01.01 - 02.00 338 60 602 662 1000 4914 3169 143
02.01 - 04.00 337 9 654 663 1000 5239 2014 91
04.01 - 10.00 303 78 619 697 1000 6721 1191 51
10.01 & above - - 1000 1000 1000 708 55 2
all 389 63 548 611 1000 20418 11077 508

Villages without government canal

nil(< 0.01 ) 877 - 123 123 1000 174 178 7


00.01 - 00.20 698 128 174 302 1000 727 3307 159
00.21 - 00.50 735 97 168 265 1000 2636 6686 319
00.51 - 01.00 664 98 237 336 1000 7992 9730 447
01.01 - 02.00 625 77 299 375 1000 19072 12549 593
02.01 - 04.00 563 46 391 437 1000 25187 9224 432
04.01 - 10.00 452 48 500 548 1000 26855 5019 234
10.01 & above 268 33 699 732 1000 10073 771 35
all 618 78 304 382 1000 92716 47463 2226

All villages

nil(< 0.01 ) 877 - 123 123 1000 174 178 7


00.01 - 00.20 672 146 182 328 1000 827 3913 188
00.21 - 00.50 696 88 216 304 1000 3301 8349 399
00.51 - 01.00 615 93 292 385 1000 10062 12111 559

*Note
1. Paddy: kharif and paddy: rabi, for example, are treated as different “crops” for this purpose.
2. The set of 5 major crops is not a fixed set but varies from household to household; for any particular household it is
understood as the 5 most important field crops cultivated, in terms of value of production, by the household in 1997-
98, from among a list of crop-season combinations involving 12 crops and crop-groups spanning the entire range of
crops cultivated in the country.

A-40
Report no. 451
Appendix I
Cultivation Practices in India

01.01 - 02.00 568 73 359 432 1000 24077 15774 739


02.01 - 04.00 524 39 436 476 1000 30564 11295 527
04.01 - 10.00 425 54 521 575 1000 33809 6238 287
10.01 & above 265 29 706 735 1000 11154 883 40
all 576 75 350 424 1000 113969 58740 2746

*Note
1. Paddy: kharif and paddy: rabi, for example, are treated as different “crops” for this purpose.
2. The set of 5 major crops is not a fixed set but varies from household to household; for any particular household it is
understood as the 5 most important field crops cultivated, in terms of value of production, by the household in 1997-
98, from among a list of crop-season combinations involving 12 crops and crop-groups spanning the entire range of
crops cultivated in the country.

A-41
Report no. 451
Appendix I
Cultivation Practices in India

Table (4): Per 1000 distribution of field-crop cultivator households by status of irrigation of area under five
major crops, separately for different size-classes of household ownership holding, in villages with
government canals and other villages

State: Manipur
estd. no. of FCC
size-class of irrigated area households
ownership unirri- with irrigation all under 5
holding (ha) gated services hired others all major estd. (00) sample
crops*
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9)

Villages with government canal

nil(< 0.01 ) 685 - 315 315 1000 8 10 3


00.01 - 00.20 946 - 54 54 1000 4 58 18
00.21 - 00.50 334 269 398 666 1000 50 142 44
00.51 - 01.00 252 541 207 748 1000 130 179 42
01.01 - 02.00 180 559 261 820 1000 114 89 24
02.01 - 04.00 - 1000 - 1000 1000 40 19 4
04.01 - 10.00 - - - - - - - -
10.01 & above - - - - - - - -
all 343 410 247 657 1000 347 496 135

Villages without government canal

nil(< 0.01 ) 966 22 12 34 1000 147 173 75


00.01 - 00.20 875 86 39 125 1000 8 87 33
00.21 - 00.50 633 65 301 367 1000 90 284 121
00.51 - 01.00 595 126 279 405 1000 423 640 210
01.01 - 02.00 608 220 172 392 1000 277 247 112
02.01 - 04.00 532 342 126 468 1000 124 57 30
04.01 - 10.00 489 458 53 511 1000 28 10 6
10.01 & above - - - - - - - -
all 660 126 214 340 1000 1096 1498 587

All villages

nil(< 0.01 ) 954 19 26 46 1000 224 198 80


00.01 - 00.20 926 40 35 74 1000 15 189 57
00.21 - 00.50 574 117 309 426 1000 159 483 174
00.51 - 01.00 527 213 259 473 1000 564 832 256
01.01 - 02.00 519 295 186 481 1000 414 353 140

*Note
1. Paddy: kharif and paddy: rabi, for example, are treated as different “crops” for this purpose.
2. The set of 5 major crops is not a fixed set but varies from household to household; for any particular household it is
understood as the 5 most important field crops cultivated, in terms of value of production, by the household in 1997-
98, from among a list of crop-season combinations involving 12 crops and crop-groups spanning the entire range of
crops cultivated in the country.

A-42
Report no. 451
Appendix I
Cultivation Practices in India

02.01 - 04.00 399 507 94 601 1000 164 76 34


04.01 - 10.00 489 458 53 511 1000 28 10 6
10.01 & above - - - - - - - -
all 606 183 210 394 1000 1566 2139 747

*Note
1. Paddy: kharif and paddy: rabi, for example, are treated as different “crops” for this purpose.
2. The set of 5 major crops is not a fixed set but varies from household to household; for any particular household it is
understood as the 5 most important field crops cultivated, in terms of value of production, by the household in 1997-
98, from among a list of crop-season combinations involving 12 crops and crop-groups spanning the entire range of
crops cultivated in the country.

A-43
Report no. 451
Appendix I
Cultivation Practices in India

Table (4): Per 1000 distribution of field-crop cultivator households by status of irrigation of area under five
major crops, separately for different size-classes of household ownership holding, in villages with
government canals and other villages

State: Meghalaya
estd. no. of FCC
size-class of irrigated area households
ownership unirri- with irrigation all under 5
holding (ha) gated services hired others all major estd. (00) sample
crops*
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9)

Villages with government canal

nil(< 0.01 ) - - - - - - - -
00.01 - 00.20 1000 - - - 1000 0 1 1
00.21 - 00.50 - - - - - - - -
00.51 - 01.00 - - 1000 1000 1000 5 10 3
01.01 - 02.00 - - - - - - - -
02.01 - 04.00 - - - - - - - -
04.01 - 10.00 - - - - - - - -
10.01 & above - - - - - - - -
all 69 - 931 931 1000 5 11 4

Villages without government canal

nil(< 0.01 ) 1000 - - - 1000 2 17 6


00.01 - 00.20 973 - 27 27 1000 102 385 120
00.21 - 00.50 966 13 21 34 1000 302 782 210
00.51 - 01.00 959 19 22 41 1000 653 786 222
01.01 - 02.00 836 13 151 164 1000 777 605 193
02.01 - 04.00 805 26 169 195 1000 938 425 136
04.01 - 10.00 930 - 70 70 1000 391 92 29
10.01 & above - - - - - - - -
all 917 14 69 83 1000 3166 3093 916

All villages

nil(< 0.01 ) 1000 - - - 1000 2 17 6


00.01 - 00.20 973 - 27 27 1000 102 385 121
00.21 - 00.50 966 13 21 34 1000 302 782 210
00.51 - 01.00 947 19 34 53 1000 658 796 225
01.01 - 02.00 836 13 151 164 1000 777 605 193
*Note
1. Paddy: kharif and paddy: rabi, for example, are treated as different “crops” for this purpose.
2. The set of 5 major crops is not a fixed set but varies from household to household; for any particular household it is
understood as the 5 most important field crops cultivated, in terms of value of production, by the household in 1997-
98, from among a list of crop-season combinations involving 12 crops and crop-groups spanning the entire range of
crops cultivated in the country.

A-44
Report no. 451
Appendix I
Cultivation Practices in India

02.01 - 04.00 805 26 169 195 1000 938 425 136


04.01 - 10.00 930 - 70 70 1000 391 92 29
10.01 & above - - - - - - - -
all 914 14 72 86 1000 3171 3103 920

*Note
1. Paddy: kharif and paddy: rabi, for example, are treated as different “crops” for this purpose.
2. The set of 5 major crops is not a fixed set but varies from household to household; for any particular household it is
understood as the 5 most important field crops cultivated, in terms of value of production, by the household in 1997-
98, from among a list of crop-season combinations involving 12 crops and crop-groups spanning the entire range of
crops cultivated in the country.

A-45
Report no. 451
Appendix I
Cultivation Practices in India

Table (4): Per 1000 distribution of field-crop cultivator households by status of irrigation of area under five
major crops, separately for different size-classes of household ownership holding, in villages with
government canals and other villages

State: Mizoram
estd. no. of FCC
size-class of irrigated area households
ownership unirri- with irrigation all under 5
holding (ha) gated services hired others all major estd. (00) sample
crops*
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9)

Villages with government canal

nil(< 0.01 ) - - - - - - - -
00.01 - 00.20 - - - - - - - -
00.21 - 00.50 - - - - - - - -
00.51 - 01.00 - - - - - - - -
01.01 - 02.00 - - - - - - - -
02.01 - 04.00 - - - - - - - -
04.01 - 10.00 - - - - - - - -
10.01 & above - - - - - - - -
all - - - - - - - -

Villages without government canal

nil(< 0.01 ) 1000 - - - 1000 74 104 72


00.01 - 00.20 990 10 - 10 1000 245 320 250
00.21 - 00.50 1000 - - - 1000 31 40 42
00.51 - 01.00 951 8 41 49 1000 48 55 47
01.01 - 02.00 957 - 43 43 1000 72 66 54
02.01 - 04.00 1000 - - - 1000 25 14 16
04.01 - 10.00 1000 - - - 1000 7 3 3
10.01 & above - - - - - - - -
all 986 6 8 14 1000 501 601 484

All villages

nil(< 0.01 ) 1000 - - - 1000 74 104 72


00.01 - 00.20 991 9 - 9 1000 251 339 263
00.21 - 00.50 1000 - - - 1000 31 43 45
00.51 - 01.00 951 8 41 49 1000 48 55 47

*Note
1. Paddy: kharif and paddy: rabi, for example, are treated as different “crops” for this purpose.
2. The set of 5 major crops is not a fixed set but varies from household to household; for any particular household it is
understood as the 5 most important field crops cultivated, in terms of value of production, by the household in 1997-
98, from among a list of crop-season combinations involving 12 crops and crop-groups spanning the entire range of
crops cultivated in the country.

A-46
Report no. 451
Appendix I
Cultivation Practices in India

01.01 - 02.00 957 - 43 43 1000 72 66 54


02.01 - 04.00 1000 - - - 1000 25 14 16
04.01 - 10.00 1000 - - - 1000 7 3 3
10.01 & above - - - - - - - -
all 986 6 8 14 1000 508 624 500

*Note
1. Paddy: kharif and paddy: rabi, for example, are treated as different “crops” for this purpose.
2. The set of 5 major crops is not a fixed set but varies from household to household; for any particular household it is
understood as the 5 most important field crops cultivated, in terms of value of production, by the household in 1997-
98, from among a list of crop-season combinations involving 12 crops and crop-groups spanning the entire range of
crops cultivated in the country.

A-47
Report no. 451
Appendix I
Cultivation Practices in India

Table (4): Per 1000 distribution of field-crop cultivator households by status of irrigation of area under five
major crops, separately for different size-classes of household ownership holding, in villages with
government canals and other villages

State: Nagaland
estd. no. of FCC
size-class of irrigated area households
ownership unirri- with irrigation all under 5
holding (ha) gated services hired others all major estd. (00) sample
crops*
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9)

Villages with government canal

nil(< 0.01 ) - - - - - - - -
00.01 - 00.20 - - - - - - - -
00.21 - 00.50 - - - - - - - -
00.51 - 01.00 - - - - - - - -
01.01 - 02.00 - - - - - - - -
02.01 - 04.00 - - - - - - - -
04.01 - 10.00 - - - - - - - -
10.01 & above - - - - - - - -
all - - - - - - - -

Villages without government canal

nil(< 0.01 ) 1000 - - - 1000 26 16 13


00.01 - 00.20 933 67 - 67 1000 3 24 20
00.21 - 00.50 885 - 115 115 1000 10 37 46
00.51 - 01.00 778 - 222 222 1000 62 77 71
01.01 - 02.00 768 20 213 232 1000 285 179 172
02.01 - 04.00 678 3 319 322 1000 775 314 349
04.01 - 10.00 235 4 760 765 1000 871 121 133
10.01 & above - - 1000 1000 1000 84 7 8
all 657 9 334 343 1000 2115 775 812

All villages

nil(< 0.01 ) 1000 - - - 1000 26 16 13


00.01 - 00.20 933 67 - 67 1000 3 24 20
00.21 - 00.50 885 - 115 115 1000 10 37 47
00.51 - 01.00 778 - 222 222 1000 62 77 71

*Note
1. Paddy: kharif and paddy: rabi, for example, are treated as different “crops” for this purpose.
2. The set of 5 major crops is not a fixed set but varies from household to household; for any particular household it is
understood as the 5 most important field crops cultivated, in terms of value of production, by the household in 1997-
98, from among a list of crop-season combinations involving 12 crops and crop-groups spanning the entire range of
crops cultivated in the country.

A-48
Report no. 451
Appendix I
Cultivation Practices in India

01.01 - 02.00 781 19 200 219 1000 302 190 177


02.01 - 04.00 692 3 305 308 1000 813 329 356
04.01 - 10.00 274 4 722 726 1000 891 127 136
10.01 & above - - 1000 1000 1000 84 7 8
all 671 8 321 329 1000 2190 807 828

*Note
1. Paddy: kharif and paddy: rabi, for example, are treated as different “crops” for this purpose.
2. The set of 5 major crops is not a fixed set but varies from household to household; for any particular household it is
understood as the 5 most important field crops cultivated, in terms of value of production, by the household in 1997-
98, from among a list of crop-season combinations involving 12 crops and crop-groups spanning the entire range of
crops cultivated in the country.

A-49
Report no. 451
Appendix I
Cultivation Practices in India

Table (4): Per 1000 distribution of field-crop cultivator households by status of irrigation of area under five
major crops, separately for different size-classes of household ownership holding, in villages with
government canals and other villages

State: Orissa
estd. no. of FCC
size-class of irrigated area households
ownership unirri- with irrigation all under 5
holding (ha) gated services hired others all major estd. (00) sample
crops*
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9)

Villages with government canal

nil(< 0.01 ) 524 - 476 476 1000 5 72 5


00.01 - 00.20 525 55 420 475 1000 303 1802 99
00.21 - 00.50 566 80 354 434 1000 1547 3589 200
00.51 - 01.00 409 141 451 591 1000 2544 3131 158
01.01 - 02.00 355 117 528 645 1000 3540 2443 128
02.01 - 04.00 284 65 652 716 1000 2049 761 41
04.01 - 10.00 286 191 523 714 1000 1168 197 11
10.01 & above - - 1000 1000 1000 771 43 2
all 451 100 449 549 1000 11927 12038 644

Villages without government canal

nil(< 0.01 ) 822 - 178 178 1000 59 126 15


00.01 - 00.20 810 72 118 190 1000 793 3984 219
00.21 - 00.50 840 50 109 160 1000 3320 8276 445
00.51 - 01.00 809 71 120 191 1000 6094 7355 378
01.01 - 02.00 662 152 186 338 1000 6654 4638 239
02.01 - 04.00 792 57 150 208 1000 5574 2055 101
04.01 - 10.00 668 111 222 332 1000 2341 398 20
10.01 & above 1000 - - - 1000 635 79 1
all 791 78 131 209 1000 25469 26911 1418

All villages

nil(< 0.01 ) 714 - 286 286 1000 64 198 20


00.01 - 00.20 725 69 206 275 1000 1130 5949 326
00.21 - 00.50 762 58 180 238 1000 4953 12133 657
00.51 - 01.00 687 94 219 313 1000 8882 10803 553

*Note
1. Paddy: kharif and paddy: rabi, for example, are treated as different “crops” for this purpose.
2. The set of 5 major crops is not a fixed set but varies from household to household; for any particular household it is
understood as the 5 most important field crops cultivated, in terms of value of production, by the household in 1997-
98, from among a list of crop-season combinations involving 12 crops and crop-groups spanning the entire range of
crops cultivated in the country.

A-50
Report no. 451
Appendix I
Cultivation Practices in India

01.01 - 02.00 560 138 302 440 1000 10467 7280 378
02.01 - 04.00 663 58 279 337 1000 7779 2881 146
04.01 - 10.00 529 134 337 471 1000 3596 609 32
10.01 & above 650 - 350 350 1000 1406 122 3
all 688 85 227 312 1000 38276 39975 2115

*Note
1. Paddy: kharif and paddy: rabi, for example, are treated as different “crops” for this purpose.
2. The set of 5 major crops is not a fixed set but varies from household to household; for any particular household it is
understood as the 5 most important field crops cultivated, in terms of value of production, by the household in 1997-
98, from among a list of crop-season combinations involving 12 crops and crop-groups spanning the entire range of
crops cultivated in the country.

A-51
Report no. 451
Appendix I
Cultivation Practices in India

Table (4): Per 1000 distribution of field-crop cultivator households by status of irrigation of area under five
major crops, separately for different size-classes of household ownership holding, in villages with
government canals and other villages

State: Punjab
estd. no. of FCC
size-class of irrigated area households
ownership unirri- with irrigation all under 5
holding (ha) gated services hired others all major estd. (00) sample
crops*
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9)

Villages with government canal

nil(< 0.01 ) - - 1000 1000 1000 109 15 1


00.01 - 00.20 192 410 398 808 1000 94 125 13
00.21 - 00.50 24 523 453 976 1000 335 484 44
00.51 - 01.00 - 313 687 1000 1000 1232 625 50
01.01 - 02.00 - 125 875 1000 1000 4871 1501 123
02.01 - 04.00 - 91 909 1000 1000 6497 1122 91
04.01 - 10.00 - 99 901 1000 1000 10790 972 77
10.01 & above - 37 963 1000 1000 6278 251 21
all 7 176 817 993 1000 30206 5097 420

Villages without government canal

nil(< 0.01 ) 324 274 402 676 1000 148 35 4


00.01 - 00.20 248 371 381 752 1000 139 357 34
00.21 - 00.50 147 306 547 853 1000 446 646 55
00.51 - 01.00 28 180 792 972 1000 1649 836 72
01.01 - 02.00 56 213 731 944 1000 3502 1408 131
02.01 - 04.00 82 119 799 918 1000 5216 1080 99
04.01 - 10.00 146 59 795 854 1000 5714 603 56
10.01 & above - 93 907 1000 1000 2922 126 12
all 93 190 717 907 1000 19736 5092 463

All villages

nil(< 0.01 ) 225 191 584 775 1000 257 50 5


00.01 - 00.20 233 381 385 767 1000 234 482 47
00.21 - 00.50 94 399 507 906 1000 781 1130 99
00.51 - 01.00 16 237 747 984 1000 2881 1462 122

*Note
1. Paddy: kharif and paddy: rabi, for example, are treated as different “crops” for this purpose.
2. The set of 5 major crops is not a fixed set but varies from household to household; for any particular household it is
understood as the 5 most important field crops cultivated, in terms of value of production, by the household in 1997-
98, from among a list of crop-season combinations involving 12 crops and crop-groups spanning the entire range of
crops cultivated in the country.

A-52
Report no. 451
Appendix I
Cultivation Practices in India

0z1.01 - 02.00 27 167 805 973 1000 8373 2909 254


02.01 - 04.00 40 105 855 960 1000 11713 2202 190
04.01 - 10.00 56 83 861 944 1000 16504 1575 133
10.01 & above - 56 944 1000 1000 9200 377 33
all 50 183 767 950 1000 49942 10188 883

*Note
1. Paddy: kharif and paddy: rabi, for example, are treated as different “crops” for this purpose.
2. The set of 5 major crops is not a fixed set but varies from household to household; for any particular household it is
understood as the 5 most important field crops cultivated, in terms of value of production, by the household in 1997-
98, from among a list of crop-season combinations involving 12 crops and crop-groups spanning the entire range of
crops cultivated in the country.

A-53
Report no. 451
Appendix I
Cultivation Practices in India

Table (4): Per 1000 distribution of field-crop cultivator households by status of irrigation of area under five
major crops, separately for different size-classes of household ownership holding, in villages with
government canals and other villages

State: Rajasthan
estd. no. of FCC
size-class of irrigated area households
ownership unirri- with irrigation all under 5
holding (ha) gated services hired others all major estd. (00) sample
crops*
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9)

Villages with government canal

nil(< 0.01 ) - 1000 - 1000 1000 7 16 1


00.01 - 00.20 436 205 359 564 1000 897 457 22
00.21 - 00.50 188 285 526 812 1000 646 979 49
00.51 - 01.00 79 195 726 921 1000 1660 1377 65
01.01 - 02.00 79 173 748 921 1000 3810 1684 88
02.01 - 04.00 26 81 893 974 1000 6608 1535 86
04.01 - 10.00 26 83 891 974 1000 10793 1199 73
10.01 & above 56 - 944 944 1000 6723 365 26
all 94 154 752 906 1000 31144 7613 410

Villages without government canal

nil(< 0.01) 272 172 557 728 1000 978 290 18


00.01 - 00.20 468 336 197 532 1000 564 1616 88
00.21 - 00.50 295 302 402 705 1000 4785 6720 361
00.51 - 01.00 319 232 448 681 1000 7820 7205 379
01.01 - 02.00 308 161 532 692 1000 18372 9333 495
02.01 - 04.00 329 153 518 671 1000 30079 8130 452
04.01 - 10.00 502 131 368 498 1000 46141 6715 378
10.01 & above 629 70 301 371 1000 25421 1643 98
all 362 193 445 638 1000 134161 41651 2269

All villages

nil(< 0.01 ) 258 215 528 742 1000 985 306 19


00.01 - 00.20 461 307 232 539 1000 1461 2073 110
00.21 - 00.50 279 308 414 721 1000 5472 7782 415
00.51 - 01.00 280 228 492 720 1000 9512 8603 445

*Note
1. Paddy: kharif and paddy: rabi, for example, are treated as different “crops” for this purpose.
2. The set of 5 major crops is not a fixed set but varies from household to household; for any particular household it is
understood as the 5 most important field crops cultivated, in terms of value of production, by the household in 1997-
98, from among a list of crop-season combinations involving 12 crops and crop-groups spanning the entire range of
crops cultivated in the country.

A-54
Report no. 451
Appendix I
Cultivation Practices in India

01.01 - 02.00 273 162 565 727 1000 22182 11017 583
02.01 - 04.00 280 143 576 720 1000 36728 9684 539
04.01 - 10.00 430 123 447 570 1000 56934 7914 451
10.01 & above 525 57 418 475 1000 32144 2009 124
all 320 189 492 680 1000 165418 49388 2686

*Note
1. Paddy: kharif and paddy: rabi, for example, are treated as different “crops” for this purpose.
2. The set of 5 major crops is not a fixed set but varies from household to household; for any particular household it is
understood as the 5 most important field crops cultivated, in terms of value of production, by the household in 1997-
98, from among a list of crop-season combinations involving 12 crops and crop-groups spanning the entire range of
crops cultivated in the country.

A-55
Report no. 451
Appendix I
Cultivation Practices in India

Table (4): Per 1000 distribution of field-crop cultivator households by status of irrigation of area under five
major crops, separately for different size-classes of household ownership holding, in villages with
government canals and other villages

State: Sikkim
estd. no. of FCC
size-class of irrigated area households
ownership unirri- with irrigation all under 5
holding (ha) gated services hired others all major estd. (00) sample
crops*
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9)

Villages with government canal

nil(< 0.01 ) 909 - 91 91 1000 2 10 9


00.01 - 00.20 519 - 481 481 1000 5 19 23
00.21 - 00.50 166 - 834 834 1000 8 19 21
00.51 - 01.00 267 68 664 733 1000 9 13 15
01.01 - 02.00 318 82 600 682 1000 10 11 10
02.01 - 04.00 - - 1000 1000 1000 6 3 3
04.01 - 10.00 - - - - - - - -
10.01 & above - - - - - - - -
all 387 24 589 613 1000 40 75 81

Villages without government canal

nil(< 0.01 ) 728 - 272 272 1000 30 49 65


00.01 - 00.20 669 - 331 331 1000 16 74 86
00.21 - 00.50 564 24 412 436 1000 63 158 192
00.51 - 01.00 465 17 517 535 1000 81 107 118
01.01 - 02.00 515 17 468 485 1000 103 72 80
02.01 - 04.00 478 - 522 522 1000 81 35 38
04.01 - 10.00 - 298 702 1000 1000 13 3 4
10.01 & above - - 1000 1000 1000 4 1 1
all 556 16 428 444 1000 392 499 584

All villages

nil(< 0.01 ) 766 - 234 234 1000 32 60 76


00.01 - 00.20 645 - 355 355 1000 22 95 111
00.21 - 00.50 528 21 451 472 1000 72 180 216
00.51 - 01.00 449 23 528 551 1000 92 123 136

*Note
1. Paddy: kharif and paddy: rabi, for example, are treated as different “crops” for this purpose.
2. The set of 5 major crops is not a fixed set but varies from household to household; for any particular household it is
understood as the 5 most important field crops cultivated, in terms of value of production, by the household in 1997-
98, from among a list of crop-season combinations involving 12 crops and crop-groups spanning the entire range of
crops cultivated in the country.

A-56
Report no. 451
Appendix I
Cultivation Practices in India

01.01 - 02.00 500 25 475 500 1000 114 85 92


02.01 - 04.00 432 - 568 568 1000 89 38 42
04.01 - 10.00 - 298 702 1000 1000 13 3 4
10.01 & above - - 1000 1000 1000 4 1 1
all 541 17 442 459 1000 438 586 678

*Note
1. Paddy: kharif and paddy: rabi, for example, are treated as different “crops” for this purpose.
2. The set of 5 major crops is not a fixed set but varies from household to household; for any particular household it is
understood as the 5 most important field crops cultivated, in terms of value of production, by the household in 1997-
98, from among a list of crop-season combinations involving 12 crops and crop-groups spanning the entire range of
crops cultivated in the country.

A-57
Report no. 451
Appendix I
Cultivation Practices in India

Table (4): Per 1000 distribution of field-crop cultivator households by status of irrigation of area under five
major crops, separately for different size-classes of household ownership holding, in villages with
government canals and other villages

State: Tamil Nadu


estd. no. of FCC
size-class of irrigated area households
ownership unirri- with irrigation all under 5
holding (ha) gated services hired others all major estd. (00) sample
crops*
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9)

Villages with government canal

nil(< 0.01 ) 92 423 485 908 1000 78 149 9


00.01 - 00.20 179 196 625 821 1000 272 1768 98
00.21 - 00.50 37 269 694 963 1000 1450 3303 189
00.51 - 01.00 95 254 651 905 1000 2192 2400 128
01.01 - 02.00 98 151 750 902 1000 2763 1632 84
02.01 - 04.00 93 136 771 907 1000 2791 961 50
04.01 - 10.00 106 39 854 894 1000 1653 303 15
10.01 & above - - 1000 1000 1000 289 24 1
all 91 218 691 909 1000 11489 10540 574

Villages without government canal

nil(< 0.01 ) 244 254 503 756 1000 221 557 32


00.01 - 00.20 315 235 450 685 1000 418 2416 149
00.21 - 00.50 239 228 532 761 1000 2991 7146 420
00.51 - 01.00 208 186 606 792 1000 5469 6486 355
01.01 - 02.00 166 172 662 834 1000 6434 4283 234
02.01 - 04.00 115 138 747 885 1000 4217 1723 86
04.01 - 10.00 170 93 737 830 1000 3064 642 26
10.01 & above - 90 910 1000 1000 313 25 2
all 214 197 589 786 1000 23128 23278 1304

All villages

nil(< 0.01 ) 211 289 499 789 1000 299 707 41


00.01 - 00.20 257 219 524 743 1000 690 4184 247
00.21 - 00.50 175 241 584 825 1000 4450 10470 610
00.51 - 01.00 176 203 620 824 1000 7714 8949 487
01.01 - 02.00 153 164 683 847 1000 9283 5976 321
02.01 - 04.00 107 138 756 893 1000 7008 2684 136
*Note
1. Paddy: kharif and paddy: rabi, for example, are treated as different “crops” for this purpose.
2. The set of 5 major crops is not a fixed set but varies from household to household; for any particular household it is
understood as the 5 most important field crops cultivated, in terms of value of production, by the household in 1997-
98, from among a list of crop-season combinations involving 12 crops and crop-groups spanning the entire range of
crops cultivated in the country.

A-58
Report no. 451
Appendix I
Cultivation Practices in India

04.01 - 10.00 147 74 779 853 1000 4817 966 42


10.01 & above - 46 954 1000 1000 603 49 3
all 176 203 622 824 1000 34863 33985 1887

*Note
1. Paddy: kharif and paddy: rabi, for example, are treated as different “crops” for this purpose.
2. The set of 5 major crops is not a fixed set but varies from household to household; for any particular household it is
understood as the 5 most important field crops cultivated, in terms of value of production, by the household in 1997-
98, from among a list of crop-season combinations involving 12 crops and crop-groups spanning the entire range of
crops cultivated in the country.

A-59
Report no. 451
Appendix I
Cultivation Practices in India

Table (4): Per 1000 distribution of field-crop cultivator households by status of irrigation of area under five
major crops, separately for different size-classes of household ownership holding, in villages with
government canals and other villages

State: Tripura
estd. no. of FCC
size-class of irrigated area households
ownership unirri- with irrigation all under 5
holding (ha) gated services hired others all major estd. (00) sample
crops*
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9)

Villages with government canal

nil(< 0.01 ) - - - - - - - -
00.01 - 00.20 226 177 597 774 1000 14 75 15
00.21 - 00.50 82 155 763 918 1000 38 97 23
00.51 - 01.00 - 309 691 1000 1000 85 107 22
01.01 - 02.00 178 166 655 822 1000 40 28 6
02.01 - 04.00 - - 1000 1000 1000 46 15 3
04.01 - 10.00 - - - - - - - -
10.01 & above - - - - - - - -
all 93 205 702 907 1000 221 322 69

Villages without government canal

nil(< 0.01 ) 1000 - - - 1000 4 12 2


00.01 - 00.20 588 151 261 412 1000 50 402 90
00.21 - 00.50 444 165 392 556 1000 277 797 160
00.51 - 01.00 378 221 401 622 1000 380 499 101
01.01 - 02.00 479 207 315 521 1000 225 159 28
02.01 - 04.00 313 251 436 687 1000 70 44 10
04.01 - 10.00 415 - 585 585 1000 32 8 2
10.01 & above - - - - - - - -
all 460 180 360 540 1000 1037 1922 393

All villages

nil(< 0.01 ) 412 353 235 588 1000 15 43 8


00.01 - 00.20 543 151 306 457 1000 66 490 110
00.21 - 00.50 410 161 429 590 1000 323 910 187
00.51 - 01.00 327 245 427 673 1000 515 652 134
01.01 - 02.00 488 194 318 512 1000 318 215 40

*Note
1. Paddy: kharif and paddy: rabi, for example, are treated as different “crops” for this purpose.
2. The set of 5 major crops is not a fixed set but varies from household to household; for any particular household it is
understood as the 5 most important field crops cultivated, in terms of value of production, by the household in 1997-
98, from among a list of crop-season combinations involving 12 crops and crop-groups spanning the entire range of
crops cultivated in the country.

A-60
Report no. 451
Appendix I
Cultivation Practices in India

02.01 - 04.00 249 266 485 751 1000 147 71 16


04.01 - 10.00 415 - 585 585 1000 32 8 2
10.01 & above - - - - - - - -
all 417 191 392 583 1000 1415 2389 497

*Note
1. Paddy: kharif and paddy: rabi, for example, are treated as different “crops” for this purpose.
2. The set of 5 major crops is not a fixed set but varies from household to household; for any particular household it is
understood as the 5 most important field crops cultivated, in terms of value of production, by the household in 1997-
98, from among a list of crop-season combinations involving 12 crops and crop-groups spanning the entire range of
crops cultivated in the country.

A-61
Report no. 451
Appendix I
Cultivation Practices in India

Table (4): Per 1000 distribution of field-crop cultivator households by status of irrigation of area under five
major crops, separately for different size-classes of household ownership holding, in villages with
government canals and other villages

State: Uttar Pradesh


estd. no. of FCC
size-class of irrigated area households
ownership unirri- with irrigation all under 5
holding (ha) gated services hired others all major estd. (00) sample
crops*
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9)

Villages with government canal

nil(< 0.01 ) - 832 168 1000 1000 107 88 5


00.01 - 00.20 70 668 262 930 1000 2485 9437 462
00.21 - 00.50 36 702 262 964 1000 7776 12355 583
00.51 - 01.00 30 620 350 970 1000 14666 11509 495
01.01 - 02.00 7 480 513 993 1000 17581 8086 344
02.01 - 04.00 20 394 586 980 1000 17370 4475 184
04.01 - 10.00 33 223 744 967 1000 12765 1569 64
10.01 & above - 413 587 1000 1000 1636 115 5
all 35 592 373 965 1000 74384 47634 2142

Villages without government canal

nil(< 0.01 ) 6 877 117 994 1000 835 510 24


00.01 - 00.20 157 726 117 843 1000 5725 20944 961
00.21 - 00.50 236 625 139 764 1000 21794 37889 1479
00.51 - 01.00 127 617 256 873 1000 33870 28452 1154
01.01 - 02.00 121 462 416 879 1000 44191 21094 843
02.01 - 04.00 23 381 595 977 1000 37094 9353 411
04.01 - 10.00 6 230 764 994 1000 25521 3464 161
10.01 & above - 294 706 1000 1000 3951 281 14
all 153 583 264 847 1000 172981 121987 5047

All villages

nil(< 0.01 ) 5 871 124 995 1000 942 599 29


00.01 - 00.20 130 707 163 870 1000 8230 30448 1426
00.21 - 00.50 185 645 170 815 1000 29992 50848 2087
00.51 - 01.00 98 619 283 902 1000 49080 40361 1665

*Note
1. Paddy: kharif and paddy: rabi, for example, are treated as different “crops” for this purpose.
2. The set of 5 major crops is not a fixed set but varies from household to household; for any particular household it is
understood as the 5 most important field crops cultivated, in terms of value of production, by the household in 1997-
98, from among a list of crop-season combinations involving 12 crops and crop-groups spanning the entire range of
crops cultivated in the country.

A-62
Report no. 451
Appendix I
Cultivation Practices in India

01.01 - 02.00 89 469 443 911 1000 62695 29586 1205


02.01 - 04.00 22 384 594 978 1000 55575 14076 606
04.01 - 10.00 14 227 758 986 1000 38392 5049 226
10.01 & above - 329 671 1000 1000 5587 396 19
all 119 586 295 881 1000 250492 171362 7263

*Note
1. Paddy: kharif and paddy: rabi, for example, are treated as different “crops” for this purpose.
2. The set of 5 major crops is not a fixed set but varies from household to household; for any particular household it is
understood as the 5 most important field crops cultivated, in terms of value of production, by the household in 1997-
98, from among a list of crop-season combinations involving 12 crops and crop-groups spanning the entire range of
crops cultivated in the country.

A-63
Report no. 451
Appendix I
Cultivation Practices in India

Table (4): Per 1000 distribution of field-crop cultivator households by status of irrigation of area under five
major crops, separately for different size-classes of household ownership holding, in villages with
government canals and other villages

State: West Bengal


estd. no. of FCC
size-class of irrigated area households
ownership unirri- with irrigation all under 5
holding (ha) gated services hired others all major estd. (00) sample
crops*
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9)

Villages with government canal

nil(< 0.01 ) 359 382 259 641 1000 98 270 13


00.01 - 00.20 167 484 349 833 1000 1025 4588 227
00.21 - 00.50 199 430 371 801 1000 2798 5696 270
00.51 - 01.00 136 538 326 864 1000 3987 3662 156
01.01 - 02.00 105 509 385 895 1000 3467 1830 81
02.01 - 04.00 58 496 446 942 1000 1947 551 26
04.01 - 10.00 - 468 532 1000 1000 232 54 3
10.01 & above - - - - - - - -
all 163 479 358 837 1000 13554 16651 776

Villages without government canal

nil(< 0.01 ) 232 605 163 768 1000 1696 1693 73


00.01 - 00.20 374 463 163 626 1000 1821 10315 515
00.21 - 00.50 281 586 133 719 1000 6121 13080 666
00.51 - 01.00 261 512 227 739 1000 10984 10598 476
01.01 - 02.00 184 488 328 816 1000 8783 4753 215
02.01 - 04.00 219 326 455 781 1000 5256 1561 69
04.01 - 10.00 176 695 130 824 1000 1061 137 6
10.01 & above - 1000 - 1000 1000 83 24 1
all 283 518 199 717 1000 35804 42161 2021

All villages

nil(< 0.01 ) 254 571 175 746 1000 1795 1976 87


00.01 - 00.20 312 466 221 688 1000 2917 15261 758
00.21 - 00.50 255 534 210 745 1000 9347 19727 972
00.51 - 01.00 230 518 252 770 1000 15448 14715 650
01.01 - 02.00 162 487 352 838 1000 12485 6730 302

*Note
1. Paddy: kharif and paddy: rabi, for example, are treated as different “crops” for this purpose.
2. The set of 5 major crops is not a fixed set but varies from household to household; for any particular household it is
understood as the 5 most important field crops cultivated, in terms of value of production, by the household in 1997-
98, from among a list of crop-season combinations involving 12 crops and crop-groups spanning the entire range of
crops cultivated in the country.

A-64
Report no. 451
Appendix I
Cultivation Practices in India

02.01 - 04.00 172 362 466 828 1000 7423 2164 97


04.01 - 10.00 126 631 243 874 1000 1293 191 9
10.01 & above - 1000 - 1000 1000 83 24 1
all 250 504 247 750 1000 50792 60788 2876

*Note
1. Paddy: kharif and paddy: rabi, for example, are treated as different “crops” for this purpose.
2. The set of 5 major crops is not a fixed set but varies from household to household; for any particular household it is
understood as the 5 most important field crops cultivated, in terms of value of production, by the household in 1997-
98, from among a list of crop-season combinations involving 12 crops and crop-groups spanning the entire range of
crops cultivated in the country.

A-65
Report no. 451
Appendix I
Cultivation Practices in India

Table (4): Per 1000 distribution of field-crop cultivator households by status of irrigation of area under five
major crops, separately for different size-classes of household ownership holding, in villages with
government canals and other villages

State: A. & N. Islands


estd. no. of FCC
size-class of irrigated area households
ownership unirri- with irrigation all under 5
holding (ha) gated services hired others all major estd. (00) sample
crops*
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9)

Villages with government canal

nil(< 0.01 ) - - - - - - - -
00.01 - 00.20 1000 - - - 1000 0 2 2
00.21 - 00.50 - - 1000 1000 1000 1 3 2
00.51 - 01.00 48 271 682 952 1000 6 9 8
01.01 - 02.00 605 - 395 395 1000 10 6 5
02.01 - 04.00 179 - 821 821 1000 18 6 5
04.01 - 10.00 - - 1000 1000 1000 5 1 1
10.01 & above - - - - - - - -
all 271 91 638 729 1000 40 28 23

Villages without government canal

nil(< 0.01 ) 399 - 601 601 1000 25 21 20


00.01 - 00.20 849 - 151 151 1000 0 7 6
00.21 - 00.50 1000 - - - 1000 0 3 5
00.51 - 01.00 684 - 316 316 1000 3 7 8
01.01 - 02.00 901 - 99 99 1000 10 10 14
02.01 - 04.00 855 73 73 145 1000 30 14 15
04.01 - 10.00 792 - 208 208 1000 12 4 4
10.01 & above - - - - - - - -
all 701 15 283 299 1000 81 68 72

All villages

nil(< 0.01 ) 615 - 385 385 1000 39 33 25


00.01 - 00.20 884 - 116 116 1000 0 9 8
00.21 - 00.50 532 - 468 468 1000 2 5 7
00.51 - 01.00 321 154 525 679 1000 9 17 16

*Note
1. Paddy: kharif and paddy: rabi, for example, are treated as different “crops” for this purpose.
2. The set of 5 major crops is not a fixed set but varies from household to household; for any particular household it is
understood as the 5 most important field crops cultivated, in terms of value of production, by the household in 1997-
98, from among a list of crop-season combinations involving 12 crops and crop-groups spanning the entire range of
crops cultivated in the country.

A-66
Report no. 451
Appendix I
Cultivation Practices in India

01.01 - 02.00 834 - 166 166 1000 22 22 21


02.01 - 04.00 654 51 295 346 1000 48 20 20
04.01 - 10.00 590 - 410 410 1000 17 6 5
10.01 & above - - - - - - - -
all 638 32 330 362 1000 138 113 102

*Note
1. Paddy: kharif and paddy: rabi, for example, are treated as different “crops” for this purpose.
2. The set of 5 major crops is not a fixed set but varies from household to household; for any particular household it is
understood as the 5 most important field crops cultivated, in terms of value of production, by the household in 1997-
98, from among a list of crop-season combinations involving 12 crops and crop-groups spanning the entire range of
crops cultivated in the country.

A-67
Report no. 451
Appendix I
Cultivation Practices in India

Table (4): Per 1000 distribution of field-crop cultivator households by status of irrigation of area under five
major crops, separately for different size-classes of household ownership holding, in villages with
government canals and other villages

State: India
estd. no. of FCC
size-class of irrigated area households
ownership unirri- with irrigation all under 5
holding (ha) gated services hired others all major estd. (00) sample
crops*
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9)

Villages with government canal

nil(< 0.01 ) 278 374 347 722 1000 1744 2132 117
00.01 - 00.20 268 381 351 732 1000 9307 35384 1981
00.21 - 00.50 202 399 399 798 1000 28978 50633 2859
00.51 - 01.00 168 366 465 832 1000 49787 43894 2242
01.01 - 02.00 149 270 581 851 1000 76531 37755 1927
02.01 - 04.00 122 196 682 878 1000 81964 21856 1141
04.01 - 10.00 95 127 777 905 1000 87310 11434 614
10.01 & above 29 54 917 971 1000 33140 1797 105
all 181 325 494 819 1000 368760 204886 10986

Villages without government canal

nil(< 0.01 ) 463 332 204 537 1000 9339 8495 773
00.01 - 00.20 429 370 200 571 1000 17086 86999 5670
00.21 - 00.50 409 379 211 591 1000 70458 138500 8446
00.51 - 01.00 404 319 277 596 1000 136668 134644 7917
01.01 - 02.00 401 249 351 599 1000 225302 123538 7201
02.01 - 04.00 378 180 442 622 1000 250683 74996 4513
04.01 - 10.00 341 128 531 659 1000 234176 35692 2084
10.01 & above 339 86 575 661 1000 83521 5288 312
all 401 296 303 599 1000 1027232 608152 36916

All villages

nil(< 0.01 ) 427 337 236 573 1000 11503 10806 914
00.01 - 00.20 384 373 243 616 1000 26575 123414 7726
00.21 - 00.50 354 386 261 646 1000 100803 191767 11440
00.51 - 01.00 346 332 323 654 1000 188584 180495 10274

*Note
1. Paddy: kharif and paddy: rabi, for example, are treated as different “crops” for this purpose.
2. The set of 5 major crops is not a fixed set but varies from household to household; for any particular household it is
understood as the 5 most important field crops cultivated, in terms of value of production, by the household in 1997-
98, from among a list of crop-season combinations involving 12 crops and crop-groups spanning the entire range of
crops cultivated in the country.

A-68
Report no. 451
Appendix I
Cultivation Practices in India

01.01 - 02.00 342 254 404 658 1000 304245 162612 9215
02.01 - 04.00 320 183 497 680 1000 336368 97772 5712
04.01 - 10.00 282 127 590 718 1000 323143 47354 2716
10.01 & above 261 77 662 739 1000 117611 7168 422
all 346 303 350 654 1000 1408832 821388 48419

*Note
1. Paddy: kharif and paddy: rabi, for example, are treated as different “crops” for this purpose.
2. The set of 5 major crops is not a fixed set but varies from household to household; for any particular household it is
understood as the 5 most important field crops cultivated, in terms of value of production, by the household in 1997-
98, from among a list of crop-season combinations involving 12 crops and crop-groups spanning the entire range of
crops cultivated in the country.

A-69
Report no. 451
Appendix I
Cultivation Practices in India

Table (5): Per 1000 distribution of area under five major crops* by use of tractor and size-class of household
ownership holding

use of tractor for tilling estd. area no. of hhs. reporting


size-class of by hired tractor by other tractor under 5 use of tractor/ power
ownership not all major crops tiller
holding (ha) entirely partly entirely partly used (00ha) estd.(00) sample
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (10)

Andhra Pradesh

nil (< 0.01) 435 - 20 - 545 1000 1109 424 19


00.01 - 00.20 413 127 28 - 431 1000 1077 2028 85
00.21 - 00.50 267 75 84 12 561 1000 6374 4288 197
00.51 - 01.00 290 100 30 19 561 1000 11125 5303 213
01.01 - 02.00 310 112 40 24 514 1000 17640 5155 213
02.01 - 04.00 298 144 53 18 487 1000 19148 3414 152
04.01 - 10.00 242 99 196 33 431 1000 19089 2096 88
10.01 & above 119 76 240 96 469 1000 6700 237 15
all 273 108 97 28 494 1000 82260 22945 982

Arunachal Pradesh

nil (< 0.01) - - - - 1000 1000 142 - -


00.01 - 00.20 - 13 - - 987 1000 10 1 1
00.21 - 00.50 - 6 16 - 978 1000 61 3 2
00.51 - 01.00 5 43 - 14 938 1000 117 10 7
01.01 - 02.00 22 17 72 5 883 1000 287 22 12
02.01 - 04.00 - 42 106 - 851 1000 307 16 11
04.01 - 10.00 - 14 - - 986 1000 281 1 1
10.01 & above - 320 - 43 637 1000 62 4 3
all 5 37 43 5 910 1000 1266 58 37

Assam

nil (< 0.01) - - - 82 918 1000 204 14 1


00.01 - 00.20 4 - 2 - 994 1000 394 27 4
00.21 - 00.50 15 24 - 2 959 1000 1640 126 16
00.51 - 01.00 22 12 - 3 963 1000 6278 252 23
01.01 - 02.00 10 26 8 15 941 1000 11087 456 40
02.01 - 04.00 48 68 45 12 828 1000 7850 404 35
04.01 - 10.00 84 112 99 37 669 1000 3164 194 15
10.01 & above - - - - - - - - -
*Note
1. Paddy: kharif and paddy: rabi, for example, are treated as different “crops” for this purpose.
2. The set of 5 major crops is not a fixed set but varies from household to household; for any particular household it is
understood as the 5 most important field crops cultivated, in terms of value of production, by the household in 1997-
98, from among a list of crop-season combinations involving 12 crops and crop-groups spanning the entire range of
crops cultivated in the country.

A-45
Report no. 451
Appendix I
Cultivation Practices in India

all 30 42 25 14 890 1000 30618 1474 134

*Note
1. Paddy: kharif and paddy: rabi, for example, are treated as different “crops” for this purpose.
2. The set of 5 major crops is not a fixed set but varies from household to household; for any particular household it is
understood as the 5 most important field crops cultivated, in terms of value of production, by the household in 1997-
98, from among a list of crop-season combinations involving 12 crops and crop-groups spanning the entire range of
crops cultivated in the country.

A-46
Report no. 451
Appendix I
Cultivation Practices in India

Table (5): Per 1000 distribution of area under five major crops* by use of tractor and size-class of household
ownership holding

use of tractor for tilling estd. area no. of hhs. reporting


size-class of by hired tractor by other tractor under 5 use of tractor/ power
ownership not all major crops tiller
holding (ha) entirely partly entirely partly used (00ha) estd.(00) sample
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (10)

Bihar

nil (< 0.01) 145 84 23 - 747 1000 3740 552 33


00.01 - 00.20 151 169 35 5 639 1000 4376 5711 312
00.21 - 00.50 194 162 21 3 619 1000 14383 8368 452
00.51 - 01.00 184 162 26 14 614 1000 24522 7206 352
01.01 - 02.00 185 178 49 14 574 1000 33955 6213 312
02.01 - 04.00 214 208 89 36 453 1000 28125 3500 172
04.01 - 10.00 211 211 207 29 343 1000 17326 1383 69
10.01 & above 78 - 647 70 204 1000 8158 165 9
all 186 170 105 22 516 1000 134585 33098 1711

Gujarat

nil (< 0.01) 165 222 91 - 522 1000 113 75 3


00.01 - 00.20 647 73 19 - 261 1000 467 626 27
00.21 - 00.50 351 232 9 9 399 1000 4301 3912 196
00.51 - 01.00 306 233 31 23 408 1000 6386 3242 150
01.01 - 02.00 389 178 45 13 375 1000 12302 4138 205
02.01 - 04.00 325 161 125 14 375 1000 19218 3557 176
04.01 - 10.00 328 116 232 3 321 1000 23963 2537 130
10.01 & above 233 59 605 - 103 1000 7030 446 25
all 330 149 177 9 335 1000 73780 18534 912

Haryana

nil (< 0.01) 331 405 264 - - 1000 266 109 5


00.01 - 00.20 707 155 - 96 43 1000 1365 502 23
00.21 - 00.50 628 30 193 50 100 1000 1940 1669 82
00.51 - 01.00 843 94 3 - 60 1000 2907 1756 81
01.01 - 02.00 711 101 107 - 81 1000 7757 2776 128
02.01 - 04.00 456 155 324 10 55 1000 10536 2238 111
04.01 - 10.00 243 56 611 24 65 1000 12695 1550 74
10.01 & above 163 - 837 - - 1000 4622 229 13
all 448 90 388 15 58 1000 42089 10828 517
*Note
1. Paddy: kharif and paddy: rabi, for example, are treated as different “crops” for this purpose.
2. The set of 5 major crops is not a fixed set but varies from household to household; for any particular household it is
understood as the 5 most important field crops cultivated, in terms of value of production, by the household in 1997-
98, from among a list of crop-season combinations involving 12 crops and crop-groups spanning the entire range of
crops cultivated in the country.

A-47
Report no. 451
Appendix I
Cultivation Practices in India

*Note
1. Paddy: kharif and paddy: rabi, for example, are treated as different “crops” for this purpose.
2. The set of 5 major crops is not a fixed set but varies from household to household; for any particular household it is
understood as the 5 most important field crops cultivated, in terms of value of production, by the household in 1997-
98, from among a list of crop-season combinations involving 12 crops and crop-groups spanning the entire range of
crops cultivated in the country.

A-48
Report no. 451
Appendix I
Cultivation Practices in India

Table (5): Per 1000 distribution of area under five major crops* by use of tractor and size-class of household
ownership holding

use of tractor for tilling estd. area no. of hhs. reporting


size-class of by hired tractor by other tractor under 5 use of tractor/ power
ownership not all major crops tiller
holding (ha) entirely partly entirely partly used (00ha) estd.(00) sample
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (10)

Himachal Pradesh

nil (< 0.01) 218 303 - - 479 1000 34 21 3


00.01 - 00.20 140 21 - 2 836 1000 351 232 46
00.21 - 00.50 82 29 8 - 881 1000 1606 353 67
00.51 - 01.00 106 27 7 4 855 1000 2228 330 58
01.01 - 02.00 72 57 15 2 853 1000 2245 173 30
02.01 - 04.00 37 114 - 11 838 1000 1474 78 13
04.01 - 10.00 - 200 62 34 704 1000 538 22 4
10.01 & above 61 - - - 939 1000 111 6 1
all 76 62 11 6 846 1000 8587 1214 222

Jammu & Kashmir

nil (< 0.01) - - - - 1000 1000 5 - -


00.01 - 00.20 135 75 - 5 785 1000 225 212 48
00.21 - 00.50 175 114 1 4 707 1000 1464 936 166
00.51 - 01.00 227 111 - 5 657 1000 2149 887 141
01.01 - 02.00 214 119 14 15 638 1000 2018 380 89
02.01 - 04.00 234 146 52 - 568 1000 1335 145 34
04.01 - 10.00 - 175 431 - 393 1000 351 21 8
10.01 & above - - - - - - - - -
all 201 122 33 6 638 1000 7547 2580 486

Karnataka

nil (< 0.01) - - - - 1000 1000 99 - -


00.01 - 00.20 10 - - - 990 1000 464 24 1
00.21 - 00.50 26 27 - - 948 1000 2910 343 14
00.51 - 01.00 70 40 7 1 883 1000 9132 967 42
01.01 - 02.00 72 50 12 2 863 1000 20571 1911 80
02.01 - 04.00 92 95 51 7 755 1000 22063 1905 77
04.01 - 10.00 126 126 39 31 677 1000 24961 1442 64
10.01 & above 111 312 255 - 321 1000 10397 520 22
all 94 110 56 11 729 1000 90596 7112 300
*Note
1. Paddy: kharif and paddy: rabi, for example, are treated as different “crops” for this purpose.
2. The set of 5 major crops is not a fixed set but varies from household to household; for any particular household it is
understood as the 5 most important field crops cultivated, in terms of value of production, by the household in 1997-
98, from among a list of crop-season combinations involving 12 crops and crop-groups spanning the entire range of
crops cultivated in the country.

A-49
Report no. 451
Appendix I
Cultivation Practices in India

Table (5): Per 1000 distribution of area under five major crops* by use of tractor and size-class of household
ownership holding

use of tractor for tilling estd. area no. of hhs. reporting


size-class of by hired tractor by other tractor under 5 use of tractor/ power
ownership not all major crops tiller
holding (ha) entirely partly entirely partly used (00ha) estd.(00) sample
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (10)

Kerala

nil (< 0.01) - - - - 1000 1000 1 - -


00.01 - 00.20 31 10 11 4 944 1000 1332 519 34
00.21 - 00.50 135 12 25 2 825 1000 1935 1011 67
00.51 - 01.00 130 10 29 2 829 1000 2091 912 58
01.01 - 02.00 77 18 13 17 875 1000 2082 464 28
02.01 - 04.00 212 - 20 8 760 1000 1011 194 12
04.01 - 10.00 27 - 18 108 847 1000 787 49 3
10.01 & above - - - - 1000 1000 360 - -
all 101 10 19 15 855 1000 9599 3149 202

Madhya Pradesh

nil (< 0.01) 20 7 374 - 599 1000 765 66 3


00.01 - 00.20 205 38 8 - 749 1000 528 437 24
00.21 - 00.50 210 24 2 2 763 1000 4893 1964 104
00.51 - 01.00 179 53 11 0 757 1000 15992 3032 158
01.01 - 02.00 171 57 11 2 759 1000 42582 4547 242
02.01 - 04.00 130 67 58 5 739 1000 66204 4210 229
04.01 - 10.00 174 105 128 21 572 1000 63206 3116 172
10.01 & above 101 39 691 57 111 1000 19829 833 51
all 154 71 124 14 637 1000 213999 18206 983

Maharashtra

nil (< 0.01) - - - - 1000 1000 174 - -


00.01 - 00.20 80 1 - - 919 1000 827 334 17
00.21 - 00.50 97 14 - 1 888 1000 3301 919 45
00.51 - 01.00 76 15 3 2 904 1000 10062 1321 63
01.01 - 02.00 114 16 14 3 853 1000 24077 2532 118
02.01 - 04.00 78 12 28 4 878 1000 30564 1508 71
04.01 - 10.00 106 45 32 - 817 1000 33809 1204 54
10.01 & above 107 8 138 45 701 1000 11154 254 12

*Note
1. Paddy: kharif and paddy: rabi, for example, are treated as different “crops” for this purpose.
2. The set of 5 major crops is not a fixed set but varies from household to household; for any particular household it is
understood as the 5 most important field crops cultivated, in terms of value of production, by the household in 1997-
98, from among a list of crop-season combinations involving 12 crops and crop-groups spanning the entire range of
crops cultivated in the country.

A-50
Report no. 451
Appendix I
Cultivation Practices in India

all 97 23 34 6 840 1000 113969 8072 380

*Note
1. Paddy: kharif and paddy: rabi, for example, are treated as different “crops” for this purpose.
2. The set of 5 major crops is not a fixed set but varies from household to household; for any particular household it is
understood as the 5 most important field crops cultivated, in terms of value of production, by the household in 1997-
98, from among a list of crop-season combinations involving 12 crops and crop-groups spanning the entire range of
crops cultivated in the country.

A-51
Report no. 451
Appendix I
Cultivation Practices in India

Table (5): Per 1000 distribution of area under five major crops* by use of tractor and size-class of household
ownership holding

use of tractor for tilling estd. area no. of hhs. reporting


size-class of by hired tractor by other tractor under 5 use of tractor/ power
ownership not all major crops tiller
holding (ha) entirely partly entirely partly used (00ha) estd.(00) sample
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (10)

Manipur

nil (< 0.01) 306 59 - - 636 1000 224 35 9


00.01 - 00.20 83 45 4 - 868 1000 15 22 7
00.21 - 00.50 234 232 44 7 483 1000 159 268 81
00.51 - 01.00 174 169 5 13 640 1000 564 303 104
01.01 - 02.00 349 183 15 5 427 1000 414 189 66
02.01 - 04.00 562 173 - 14 251 1000 164 58 21
04.01 - 10.00 560 - - - 440 1000 28 4 2
10.01 & above - - - - - - - - -
all 292 160 10 8 525 1000 1566 879 290

Meghalaya

nil (< 0.01) - - - - 1000 1000 2 - -


00.01 - 00.20 - - - - 1000 1000 102 - -
00.21 - 00.50 - - - - 1000 1000 302 - -
00.51 - 01.00 - - - - 1000 1000 658 - -
01.01 - 02.00 - 5 - - 995 1000 777 3 1
02.01 - 04.00 7 9 4 2 978 1000 938 13 4
04.01 - 10.00 - 48 - - 952 1000 391 8 3
10.01 & above - - - - - - - - -
all 2 10 1 1 986 1000 3171 24 8

Mizoram

nil (< 0.01) - - - 1 999 1000 74 0 1


00.01 - 00.20 - - - - 1000 1000 251 - -
00.21 - 00.50 - - - 2 998 1000 31 0 1
00.51 - 01.00 - - - 25 975 1000 48 1 2
01.01 - 02.00 - - - - 1000 1000 72 - -
02.01 - 04.00 - - - - 1000 1000 25 - -
04.01 - 10.00 - - - - 1000 1000 7 - -
10.01 & above - - - - - - - - -

*Note
1. Paddy: kharif and paddy: rabi, for example, are treated as different “crops” for this purpose.
2. The set of 5 major crops is not a fixed set but varies from household to household; for any particular household it is
understood as the 5 most important field crops cultivated, in terms of value of production, by the household in 1997-
98, from among a list of crop-season combinations involving 12 crops and crop-groups spanning the entire range of
crops cultivated in the country.

A-52
Report no. 451
Appendix I
Cultivation Practices in India

all - - - 3 997 1000 508 1 4

*Note
1. Paddy: kharif and paddy: rabi, for example, are treated as different “crops” for this purpose.
2. The set of 5 major crops is not a fixed set but varies from household to household; for any particular household it is
understood as the 5 most important field crops cultivated, in terms of value of production, by the household in 1997-
98, from among a list of crop-season combinations involving 12 crops and crop-groups spanning the entire range of
crops cultivated in the country.

A-53
Report no. 451
Appendix I
Cultivation Practices in India

Table (5): Per 1000 distribution of area under five major crops* by use of tractor and size-class of household
ownership holding

use of tractor for tilling estd. area no. of hhs. reporting


size-class of by hired tractor by other tractor under 5 use of tractor/ power
ownership not all major crops tiller
holding (ha) entirely partly entirely partly used (00ha) estd.(00) sample
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (10)

Nagaland

nil (< 0.01) - - - - 1000 1000 26 - -


00.01 - 00.20 - - - - 1000 1000 3 - -
00.21 - 00.50 - - - - 1000 1000 10 - -
00.51 - 01.00 - - - - 1000 1000 62 - -
01.01 - 02.00 4 - - - 996 1000 302 1 1
02.01 - 04.00 - 3 - - 997 1000 813 1 1
04.01 - 10.00 - - 5 - 995 1000 891 2 2
10.01 & above - - - - 1000 1000 84 - -
all 1 1 2 - 996 1000 2190 5 4

Orissa

nil (< 0.01) 14 36 - - 950 1000 64 18 1


00.01 - 00.20 27 73 - 2 897 1000 1130 492 32
00.21 - 00.50 17 50 3 7 923 1000 4953 756 46
00.51 - 01.00 15 56 6 7 915 1000 8882 983 51
01.01 - 02.00 33 72 8 14 874 1000 10467 951 53
02.01 - 04.00 25 76 - 54 845 1000 7779 374 20
04.01 - 10.00 43 107 - 101 749 1000 3596 105 5
10.01 & above - - - - 1000 1000 1406 - -
all 25 67 4 27 878 1000 38276 3679 208

Punjab

nil (< 0.01) 458 - 542 - - 1000 257 50 5


00.01 - 00.20 519 263 8 - 210 1000 234 372 34
00.21 - 00.50 753 79 49 - 119 1000 781 961 83
00.51 - 01.00 555 152 225 18 50 1000 2881 1352 112
01.01 - 02.00 563 71 306 1 60 1000 8373 2667 232
02.01 - 04.00 311 69 556 29 35 1000 11713 2115 183
04.01 - 10.00 184 12 773 3 29 1000 16504 1517 128
10.01 & above 32 - 968 - - 1000 9200 377 33

*Note
1. Paddy: kharif and paddy: rabi, for example, are treated as different “crops” for this purpose.
2. The set of 5 major crops is not a fixed set but varies from household to household; for any particular household it is
understood as the 5 most important field crops cultivated, in terms of value of production, by the household in 1997-
98, from among a list of crop-season combinations involving 12 crops and crop-groups spanning the entire range of
crops cultivated in the country.

A-54
Report no. 451
Appendix I
Cultivation Practices in India

all 282 43 632 9 34 1000 49942 9412 810

*Note
1. Paddy: kharif and paddy: rabi, for example, are treated as different “crops” for this purpose.
2. The set of 5 major crops is not a fixed set but varies from household to household; for any particular household it is
understood as the 5 most important field crops cultivated, in terms of value of production, by the household in 1997-
98, from among a list of crop-season combinations involving 12 crops and crop-groups spanning the entire range of
crops cultivated in the country.

A-55
Report no. 451
Appendix I
Cultivation Practices in India

Table (5): Per 1000 distribution of area under five major crops* by use of tractor and size-class of household
ownership holding

use of tractor for tilling estd. area no. of hhs. reporting


size-class of by hired tractor by other tractor under 5 use of tractor/ power
ownership not all major crops tiller
holding (ha) entirely partly entirely partly used (00ha) estd.(00) sample
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (10)

Rajasthan

nil (< 0.01) 864 124 - - 12 1000 985 306 19


00.01 - 00.20 546 194 96 - 164 1000 1461 878 49
00.21 - 00.50 594 46 22 4 334 1000 5472 4270 239
00.51 - 01.00 545 67 35 4 349 1000 9512 5125 276
01.01 - 02.00 665 73 63 8 191 1000 22182 8301 446
02.01 - 04.00 729 73 91 5 102 1000 36728 8523 479
04.01 - 10.00 634 72 209 30 55 1000 56934 7440 424
10.01 & above 524 49 375 22 31 1000 32144 1973 122
all 632 68 177 17 106 1000 165418 36816 2054

Sikkim

nil (< 0.01) - - - - 1000 1000 32 - -


00.01 - 00.20 - - - - 1000 1000 22 - -
00.21 - 00.50 - 14 - - 986 1000 72 1 1
00.51 - 01.00 - - - - 1000 1000 92 - -
01.01 - 02.00 - - - - 1000 1000 114 - -
02.01 - 04.00 - - - - 1000 1000 89 - -
04.01 - 10.00 - - - - 1000 1000 13 - -
10.01 & above - - - - 1000 1000 4 - -
all - 2 - - 998 1000 438 1 1

Tamil Nadu

nil (< 0.01) 259 150 140 - 452 1000 299 265 15
00.01 - 00.20 319 35 34 7 605 1000 690 1090 59
00.21 - 00.50 321 74 35 7 563 1000 4450 4567 257
00.51 - 01.00 351 91 27 6 525 1000 7714 4232 226
01.01 - 02.00 395 113 56 19 417 1000 9283 3655 198
02.01 - 04.00 474 29 114 15 368 1000 7008 1870 93
04.01 - 10.00 398 59 357 19 167 1000 4817 840 36
10.01 & above 480 - 366 124 30 1000 603 49 3

*Note
1. Paddy: kharif and paddy: rabi, for example, are treated as different “crops” for this purpose.
2. The set of 5 major crops is not a fixed set but varies from household to household; for any particular household it is
understood as the 5 most important field crops cultivated, in terms of value of production, by the household in 1997-
98, from among a list of crop-season combinations involving 12 crops and crop-groups spanning the entire range of
crops cultivated in the country.

A-56
Report no. 451
Appendix I
Cultivation Practices in India

all 391 76 106 15 413 1000 34863 16568 887

*Note
1. Paddy: kharif and paddy: rabi, for example, are treated as different “crops” for this purpose.
2. The set of 5 major crops is not a fixed set but varies from household to household; for any particular household it is
understood as the 5 most important field crops cultivated, in terms of value of production, by the household in 1997-
98, from among a list of crop-season combinations involving 12 crops and crop-groups spanning the entire range of
crops cultivated in the country.

A-57
Report no. 451
Appendix I
Cultivation Practices in India

Table (5): Per 1000 distribution of area under five major crops* by use of tractor and size-class of household
ownership holding

use of tractor for tilling estd. area no. of hhs. reporting


size-class of by hired tractor by other tractor under 5 use of tractor/ power
ownership not all major crops tiller
holding (ha) entirely partly entirely partly used (00ha) estd.(00) sample
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (10)

Tripura

nil (< 0.01) - - - 322 678 1000 15 5 1


00.01 - 00.20 190 11 13 12 775 1000 66 104 18
00.21 - 00.50 265 50 23 23 638 1000 323 356 63
00.51 - 01.00 240 36 74 22 627 1000 515 275 49
01.01 - 02.00 251 102 - 3 644 1000 318 94 17
02.01 - 04.00 136 11 444 - 409 1000 147 41 8
04.01 - 10.00 - - - - 1000 1000 32 - -
10.01 & above - - - - - - - - -
all 227 49 79 18 627 1000 1415 874 156

Uttar Pradesh

nil (< 0.01) 745 37 - 5 213 1000 942 442 22


00.01 - 00.20 523 75 17 1 385 1000 8230 18372 871
00.21 - 00.50 582 73 13 2 330 1000 29992 32507 1503
00.51 - 01.00 554 104 34 3 306 1000 49080 27664 1179
01.01 - 02.00 549 103 66 4 279 1000 62695 20789 894
02.01 - 04.00 506 116 187 5 186 1000 55575 11335 484
04.01 - 10.00 270 97 480 25 128 1000 38392 4315 191
10.01 & above 345 - 646 - 10 1000 5587 396 19
all 497 98 155 7 244 1000 250492 115819 5163

West Bengal

nil (< 0.01) 543 69 109 - 278 1000 1795 1199 45


00.01 - 00.20 388 63 5 3 542 1000 2917 5807 291
00.21 - 00.50 320 109 1 6 565 1000 9347 8255 398
00.51 - 01.00 258 121 11 14 596 1000 15448 5944 255
01.01 - 02.00 194 206 21 18 560 1000 12485 2999 131
02.01 - 04.00 270 218 44 35 432 1000 7423 1228 52
04.01 - 10.00 102 535 48 19 296 1000 1293 140 6
10.01 & above - 1000 - - - 1000 83 24 1

*Note
1. Paddy: kharif and paddy: rabi, for example, are treated as different “crops” for this purpose.
2. The set of 5 major crops is not a fixed set but varies from household to household; for any particular household it is
understood as the 5 most important field crops cultivated, in terms of value of production, by the household in 1997-
98, from among a list of crop-season combinations involving 12 crops and crop-groups spanning the entire range of
crops cultivated in the country.

A-58
Report no. 451
Appendix I
Cultivation Practices in India

all 269 161 21 16 534 1000 50792 25596 1179

*Note
1. Paddy: kharif and paddy: rabi, for example, are treated as different “crops” for this purpose.
2. The set of 5 major crops is not a fixed set but varies from household to household; for any particular household it is
understood as the 5 most important field crops cultivated, in terms of value of production, by the household in 1997-
98, from among a list of crop-season combinations involving 12 crops and crop-groups spanning the entire range of
crops cultivated in the country.

A-59
Report no. 451
Appendix I
Cultivation Practices in India

Table (5): Per 1000 distribution of area under five major crops* by use of tractor and size-class of household
ownership holding

use of tractor for tilling estd. area no. of hhs. reporting


size-class of by hired tractor by other tractor under 5 use of tractor/ power
ownership not all major crops tiller
holding (ha) entirely partly entirely partly used (00ha) estd.(00) sample
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (10)

A. & N. Islands

nil (< 0.01) - - - - 1000 1000 39 - -


00.01 - 00.20 - - - - 1000 1000 0 - -
00.21 - 00.50 - - - - 1000 1000 2 - -
00.51 - 01.00 116 38 - - 845 1000 9 2 2
01.01 - 02.00 177 98 - - 725 1000 22 4 4
02.01 - 04.00 104 227 - 31 639 1000 48 7 6
04.01 - 10.00 253 - - - 747 1000 17 1 1
10.01 & above - - - - - - - - -
all 105 98 - 11 787 1000 138 14 13

India

nil (< 0.01) 351 70 74 2 503 1000 11503 3605 186


00.01 - 00.20 350 92 20 7 531 1000 26575 37873 2003
00.21 - 00.50 350 85 20 5 540 1000 100803 75916 4097
00.51 - 01.00 311 95 25 7 562 1000 188584 71152 3615
01.01 - 02.00 312 94 46 8 539 1000 304245 68448 3550
02.01 - 04.00 300 100 110 12 478 1000 336368 46740 2447
04.01 - 10.00 275 94 236 22 374 1000 323143 27998 1482
10.01 & above 234 57 491 31 187 1000 117611 5514 329
all 298 92 137 14 460 1000 1408832 337247 17709

*Note
1. Paddy: kharif and paddy: rabi, for example, are treated as different “crops” for this purpose.
2. The set of 5 major crops is not a fixed set but varies from household to household; for any particular household it is
understood as the 5 most important field crops cultivated, in terms of value of production, by the household in 1997-
98, from among a list of crop-season combinations involving 12 crops and crop-groups spanning the entire range of
crops cultivated in the country.

A-60
Report no. 451
Appendix I
Cultivation Practices in India

Table (5.1): Cropwise per 1000 distribution of area under five major crops* by mode of use of tractor, separately for
different size-classes of household ownership holding

Andhra Pradesh
no. of hhs. reporting
size-class of mode of use of tractor for tilling estd. cultivation of a crop
ownership by hired tractor by other tractor not all area in the crop-group
holding (ha) entirely partly entirely partly used (00 ha) estd.(00) sample
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (10)

Paddy(kharif)

nil (< 0.01) 690 - 31 - 279 1000 363 453 19


00.01 - 00.20 473 89 26 - 412 1000 510 2850 130
00.21 - 00.50 273 107 103 12 506 1000 2789 7666 373
00.51 - 01.00 292 138 31 23 517 1000 4368 7288 342
01.01 - 02.00 362 141 33 40 424 1000 6052 6104 266
02.01 - 04.00 349 208 70 24 349 1000 5333 3545 168
04.01 - 10.00 218 147 354 36 245 1000 4498 1878 89
10.01 & above 138 211 474 52 125 1000 1301 305 18
all 307 152 128 29 384 1000 25215 30089 1405

Paddy(rabi)

nil (< 0.01) 927 - 68 - 5 1000 164 201 9


00.01 - 00.20 687 70 53 - 190 1000 200 1189 47
00.21 - 00.50 620 106 20 8 246 1000 660 1647 72
00.51 - 01.00 529 159 23 24 265 1000 1315 2002 79
01.01 - 02.00 634 126 48 24 168 1000 1962 1790 68
02.01 - 04.00 435 263 44 48 210 1000 1881 1066 50
04.01 - 10.00 190 224 385 47 153 1000 1862 827 36
10.01 & above 186 - 647 - 168 1000 101 71 4
all 470 178 126 32 193 1000 8145 8793 365

other cereals

nil (< 0.01) - - - - 1000 1000 245 87 5


00.01 - 00.20 82 583 - - 335 1000 115 324 17
00.21 - 00.50 80 48 49 - 824 1000 517 1790 91
00.51 - 01.00 144 38 19 10 789 1000 1212 2605 129
01.01 - 02.00 156 75 25 10 734 1000 2030 2835 141
02.01 - 04.00 202 68 47 26 657 1000 2056 2013 110
04.01 - 10.00 131 68 48 - 753 1000 1945 994 53

*Note
1. Paddy: kharif and paddy: rabi, for example, are treated as different “crops” for this purpose.
2. The set of 5 major crops is not a fixed set but varies from household to household; for any particular household it is
understood as the 5 most important field crops cultivated, in terms of value of production, by the household in 1997-
98, from among a list of crop-season combinations involving 12 crops and crop-groups spanning the entire range of
crops cultivated in the country.

A-54
Report no. 451
Appendix I
Cultivation Practices in India
10.01 & above - - 55 - 945 1000 583 190 7
all 139 65 37 10 750 1000 8705 10838 553

*Note
1. Paddy: kharif and paddy: rabi, for example, are treated as different “crops” for this purpose.
2. The set of 5 major crops is not a fixed set but varies from household to household; for any particular household it is
understood as the 5 most important field crops cultivated, in terms of value of production, by the household in 1997-
98, from among a list of crop-season combinations involving 12 crops and crop-groups spanning the entire range of
crops cultivated in the country.

A-55
Report no. 451
Appendix I
Cultivation Practices in India

Table (5.1): Cropwise per 1000 distribution of area under five major crops* by mode of use of tractor, separately for
different size-classes of household ownership holding

Andhra Pradesh
no. of hhs. reporting
size-class of mode of use of tractor for tilling estd. cultivation of a crop
ownership by hired tractor by other tractor not all area in the crop-group
holding (ha) entirely partly entirely partly used (00 ha) Estd.(00) sample
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (10)

Pulses

nil (< 0.01) - - - - 1000 1000 85 48 2


00.01 - 00.20 159 36 55 - 750 1000 64 296 15
00.21 - 00.50 111 38 286 15 551 1000 637 1600 75
00.51 - 01.00 297 33 58 25 587 1000 941 1876 80
01.01 - 02.00 278 45 39 - 638 1000 1527 1885 88
02.01 - 04.00 223 49 47 1 680 1000 1536 1293 62
04.01 - 10.00 210 38 193 43 516 1000 1915 908 39
10.01 & above 290 - 218 - 491 1000 347 165 5
all 231 39 116 17 597 1000 7051 8069 366

oil seeds

nil (< 0.01) 150 - - - 850 1000 132 82 6


00.01 - 00.20 259 26 - - 715 1000 69 455 25
00.21 - 00.50 132 - 9 1 859 1000 621 1730 81
00.51 - 01.00 351 29 - - 620 1000 1176 2051 97
01.01 - 02.00 223 75 25 - 677 1000 2317 2621 127
02.01 - 04.00 322 58 3 1 616 1000 2875 1742 82
04.01 - 10.00 327 42 35 - 596 1000 3159 1165 52
10.01 & above 140 - 123 214 523 1000 2687 302 15
all 259 39 40 44 618 1000 13035 10148 485

mixed crop

nil (< 0.01) - - - - - - - - -


00.01 - 00.20 - - - - 1000 1000 18 102 4
00.21 - 00.50 - 102 - 115 783 1000 186 511 23
00.51 - 01.00 140 22 - 55 783 1000 367 537 25
01.01 - 02.00 117 140 - 79 664 1000 795 740 34
02.01 - 04.00 52 126 86 9 727 1000 1116 593 29
04.01 - 10.00 222 5 220 - 553 1000 1435 437 20

*Note
1. Paddy: kharif and paddy: rabi, for example, are treated as different “crops” for this purpose.
2. The set of 5 major crops is not a fixed set but varies from household to household; for any particular household it is
understood as the 5 most important field crops cultivated, in terms of value of production, by the household in 1997-
98, from among a list of crop-season combinations involving 12 crops and crop-groups spanning the entire range of
crops cultivated in the country.

A-56
Report no. 451
Appendix I
Cultivation Practices in India
10.01 & above - 398 177 - 426 1000 491 55 3
all 118 109 113 26 633 1000 4407 2976 138

*Note
1. Paddy: kharif and paddy: rabi, for example, are treated as different “crops” for this purpose.
2. The set of 5 major crops is not a fixed set but varies from household to household; for any particular household it is
understood as the 5 most important field crops cultivated, in terms of value of production, by the household in 1997-
98, from among a list of crop-season combinations involving 12 crops and crop-groups spanning the entire range of
crops cultivated in the country.

A-57
Report no. 451
Appendix I
Cultivation Practices in India

Table (5.1): Cropwise per 1000 distribution of area under five major crops* by mode of use of tractor, separately for
different size-classes of household ownership holding

Andhra Pradesh
no. of hhs. reporting
size-class of mode of use of tractor for tilling estd. cultivation of a crop
ownership by hired tractor by other tractor not all area in the crop-group
holding (ha) entirely partly entirely partly used (00 ha) estd.(00) sample
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (10)

sugar cane

nil (< 0.01) 1000 - - - - 1000 21 52 2


00.01 - 00.20 639 150 - - 211 1000 25 213 9
00.21 - 00.50 325 51 - 8 617 1000 137 518 24
00.51 - 01.00 294 265 81 - 361 1000 242 475 21
01.01 - 02.00 348 89 158 - 405 1000 335 500 22
02.01 - 04.00 494 88 181 82 155 1000 452 446 21
04.01 - 10.00 441 - 364 - 194 1000 474 291 13
10.01 & above - - - - - - - - -
all 416 86 194 23 282 1000 1686 2496 112

vegetables

nil (< 0.01) - - - - 1000 1000 0 31 1


00.01 - 00.20 92 - - - 908 1000 10 63 4
00.21 - 00.50 671 139 - - 190 1000 81 209 12
00.51 - 01.00 46 - 107 - 847 1000 200 484 24
01.01 - 02.00 267 209 196 - 328 1000 190 400 20
02.01 - 04.00 312 18 44 57 569 1000 220 593 31
04.01 - 10.00 153 12 230 - 605 1000 158 315 16
10.01 & above - - 553 - 447 1000 249 57 4
all 188 51 219 11 531 1000 1109 2152 112

fodder

nil (< 0.01) - - - - 1000 1000 8 19 1


00.01 - 00.20 - - - - - - - - -
00.21 - 00.50 145 81 222 - 553 1000 54 275 15
00.51 - 01.00 49 - - - 951 1000 19 140 8
01.01 - 02.00 - - - - 1000 1000 203 352 12
02.01 - 04.00 414 185 37 - 364 1000 236 206 13
04.01 - 10.00 580 - - - 420 1000 200 146 7
10.01 & above - - - - - - - - -
*Note
1. Paddy: kharif and paddy: rabi, for example, are treated as different “crops” for this purpose.
2. The set of 5 major crops is not a fixed set but varies from household to household; for any particular household it is
understood as the 5 most important field crops cultivated, in terms of value of production, by the household in 1997-
98, from among a list of crop-season combinations involving 12 crops and crop-groups spanning the entire range of
crops cultivated in the country.

A-58
Report no. 451
Appendix I
Cultivation Practices in India

all 309 67 29 - 595 1000 720 1137 56

*Note
1. Paddy: kharif and paddy: rabi, for example, are treated as different “crops” for this purpose.
2. The set of 5 major crops is not a fixed set but varies from household to household; for any particular household it is
understood as the 5 most important field crops cultivated, in terms of value of production, by the household in 1997-
98, from among a list of crop-season combinations involving 12 crops and crop-groups spanning the entire range of
crops cultivated in the country.

A-59
Report no. 451
Appendix I
Cultivation Practices in India

Table (5.1): Cropwise per 1000 distribution of area under five major crops* by mode of use of tractor, separately for
different size-classes of household ownership holding
Andhra Pradesh
no. of hhs. reporting
size-class of mode of use of tractor for tilling estd. cultivation of a crop
ownership by hired tractor by other tractor not all area in the crop-group
holding (ha) entirely partly entirely partly used (00 ha) estd.(00) sample
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (10)

fruits & nuts

nil (< 0.01) - - - - 1000 1000 7 19 1


00.01 - 00.20 183 - - - 817 1000 24 151 9
00.21 - 00.50 34 - 88 - 877 1000 128 413 19
00.51 - 01.00 - 50 - - 950 1000 167 243 12
01.01 - 02.00 155 140 159 - 547 1000 267 270 13
02.01 - 04.00 174 201 - - 626 1000 383 198 8
04.01 - 10.00 65 - 66 414 455 1000 514 224 8
10.01 & above - - 573 - 427 1000 238 34 2
all 87 71 130 123 590 1000 1728 1551 72

other cash crops

nil (< 0.01) 1000 - - - - 1000 39 35 3


00.01 - 00.20 287 80 - - 634 1000 28 165 8
00.21 - 00.50 404 37 - 15 544 1000 546 1327 65
00.51 - 01.00 234 118 47 23 578 1000 967 2104 101
01.01 - 02.00 228 162 55 22 533 1000 1643 2148 99
02.01 - 04.00 293 175 58 2 472 1000 2568 1840 93
04.01 - 10.00 370 209 100 - 321 1000 2078 1001 48
10.01 & above 241 80 241 - 438 1000 514 160 9
all 300 158 74 8 460 1000 8384 8779 426

others

nil (< 0.01) - - - - 1000 1000 44 107 2


00.01 - 00.20 - - 283 - 717 1000 11 88 4
00.21 - 00.50 438 - - - 562 1000 17 119 7
00.51 - 01.00 - - - - 1000 1000 97 189 9
01.01 - 02.00 206 - 85 77 633 1000 232 347 17
02.01 - 04.00 200 39 21 12 727 1000 397 405 23
04.01 - 10.00 148 39 132 - 682 1000 641 349 15
10.01 & above - - - - 1000 1000 190 95 1

*Note
1. Paddy: kharif and paddy: rabi, for example, are treated as different “crops” for this purpose.
2. The set of 5 major crops is not a fixed set but varies from household to household; for any particular household it is
understood as the 5 most important field crops cultivated, in terms of value of production, by the household in 1997-
98, from among a list of crop-season combinations involving 12 crops and crop-groups spanning the entire range of
crops cultivated in the country.

A-60
Report no. 451
Appendix I
Cultivation Practices in India

all 141 25 71 14 750 1000 1629 1699 78

*Note
1. Paddy: kharif and paddy: rabi, for example, are treated as different “crops” for this purpose.
2. The set of 5 major crops is not a fixed set but varies from household to household; for any particular household it is
understood as the 5 most important field crops cultivated, in terms of value of production, by the household in 1997-
98, from among a list of crop-season combinations involving 12 crops and crop-groups spanning the entire range of
crops cultivated in the country.

A-61
Report no. 451
Appendix I
Cultivation Practices in India

Table (5.1): Cropwise per 1000 distribution of area under five major crops* by mode of use of tractor, separately for
different size-classes of household ownership holding
Arunachal Pradesh
no. of hhs. reporting
size-class of mode of use of tractor for tilling estd. cultivation of a crop
ownership by hired tractor by other tractor not all area in the crop-group
holding (ha) entirely partly entirely partly used (00 ha) estd.(00) sample
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (10)

Paddy(kharif)

nil (< 0.01) - - - - 1000 1000 27 53 26


00.01 - 00.20 - 41 - - 959 1000 2 30 12
00.21 - 00.50 - 12 15 - 973 1000 29 157 66
00.51 - 01.00 10 55 - 22 912 1000 53 134 63
01.01 - 02.00 19 15 64 6 896 1000 166 227 90
02.01 - 04.00 - 81 122 - 796 1000 157 132 73
04.01 - 10.00 - 26 - - 974 1000 148 125 69
10.01 & above - 226 - 38 735 1000 44 11 8
all 6 52 48 6 888 1000 626 870 407

Paddy(rabi)

nil (< 0.01) - - - - 1000 1000 80 96 20


00.01 - 00.20 - - - - 1000 1000 2 9 3
00.21 - 00.50 - - - - 1000 1000 0 5 2
00.51 - 01.00 - - - - 1000 1000 1 9 3
01.01 - 02.00 - - - - 1000 1000 16 16 7
02.01 - 04.00 - - - - 1000 1000 26 16 7
04.01 - 10.00 - - - - - - - - -
10.01 & above - - - - - - - - -
all - - - - 1000 1000 126 149 42

Wheat

nil (< 0.01) - - - - - - - - -


00.01 - 00.20 - - - - - - - - -
00.21 - 00.50 - - - - 1000 1000 1 8 5
00.51 - 01.00 - - - - 1000 1000 7 26 14
01.01 - 02.00 - - - - 1000 1000 6 14 7
02.01 - 04.00 - - - - 1000 1000 21 43 20
04.01 - 10.00 - - - - 1000 1000 3 7 4
10.01 & above - - - - - - - - -
all - - - - 1000 1000 38 98 50

*Note
1. Paddy: kharif and paddy: rabi, for example, are treated as different “crops” for this purpose.
2. The set of 5 major crops is not a fixed set but varies from household to household; for any particular household it is
understood as the 5 most important field crops cultivated, in terms of value of production, by the household in 1997-
98, from among a list of crop-season combinations involving 12 crops and crop-groups spanning the entire range of
crops cultivated in the country.

A-62
Report no. 451
Appendix I
Cultivation Practices in India

Table (5.1): Cropwise per 1000 distribution of area under five major crops* by mode of use of tractor, separately for
different size-classes of household ownership holding
Arunachal Pradesh
no. of hhs. reporting
size-class of mode of use of tractor for tilling estd. cultivation of a crop
ownership by hired tractor by other tractor not all area in the crop-group
holding (ha) entirely partly entirely partly used (00 ha) estd.(00) sample
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (10)

other cereals

nil (< 0.01) - - - - 1000 1000 1 3 2


00.01 - 00.20 - 134 - - 866 1000 0 9 7
00.21 - 00.50 - - - - 1000 1000 4 63 31
00.51 - 01.00 - 53 - 22 925 1000 18 79 43
01.01 - 02.00 142 112 143 21 582 1000 22 81 45
02.01 - 04.00 - - 138 - 862 1000 28 99 57
04.01 - 10.00 - - - - 1000 1000 40 83 46
10.01 & above - 427 - 44 529 1000 7 7 4
all 27 53 59 10 852 1000 119 424 235

Pulses

nil (< 0.01) - - - - 1000 1000 2 2 2


00.01 - 00.20 - - - - 1000 1000 0 2 1
00.21 - 00.50 - - - - 1000 1000 0 13 6
00.51 - 01.00 - - - - 1000 1000 2 18 10
01.01 - 02.00 - - - - 1000 1000 2 21 15
02.01 - 04.00 - - - - 1000 1000 10 65 40
04.01 - 10.00 - - - - 1000 1000 8 45 29
10.01 & above - 854 - 146 - 1000 2 3 2
all - 52 - 9 939 1000 27 169 105

oil seeds

nil (< 0.01) - - - - 1000 1000 0 2 1


00.01 - 00.20 - - - - - - - - -
00.21 - 00.50 - - - - 1000 1000 0 13 6
00.51 - 01.00 - - - - 1000 1000 1 10 6
01.01 - 02.00 - - - - 1000 1000 2 17 12
02.01 - 04.00 - - - - 1000 1000 3 26 16
04.01 - 10.00 - - - - 1000 1000 2 7 4
10.01 & above - - - 1000 - 1000 0 0 1
all - - - 28 972 1000 9 76 46

*Note
1. Paddy: kharif and paddy: rabi, for example, are treated as different “crops” for this purpose.
2. The set of 5 major crops is not a fixed set but varies from household to household; for any particular household it is
understood as the 5 most important field crops cultivated, in terms of value of production, by the household in 1997-
98, from among a list of crop-season combinations involving 12 crops and crop-groups spanning the entire range of
crops cultivated in the country.

A-63
Report no. 451
Appendix I
Cultivation Practices in India

Table (5.1): Cropwise per 1000 distribution of area under five major crops* by mode of use of tractor, separately for
different size-classes of household ownership holding
Arunachal Pradesh
no. of hhs. reporting
size-class of mode of use of tractor for tilling estd. cultivation of a crop
ownership by hired tractor by other tractor not all area in the crop-group
holding (ha) entirely partly entirely partly used (00 ha) estd.(00) sample
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (10)

mixed crop

nil (< 0.01) - - - - 1000 1000 0 5 2


00.01 - 00.20 - - - - 1000 1000 4 28 14
00.21 - 00.50 - - - - 1000 1000 6 58 21
00.51 - 01.00 - - - - 1000 1000 13 53 28
01.01 - 02.00 - - 78 - 922 1000 28 106 50
02.01 - 04.00 - - 228 - 772 1000 16 73 40
04.01 - 10.00 - - - - 1000 1000 71 133 70
10.01 & above - - - - - - - - -
all - - 42 - 958 1000 137 456 225

Vegetables

nil (< 0.01) - - - - 1000 1000 22 168 58


00.01 - 00.20 - - - - 1000 1000 1 26 12
00.21 - 00.50 - - 90 - 910 1000 6 98 45
00.51 - 01.00 - 30 - - 970 1000 13 101 58
01.01 - 02.00 - - 122 - 878 1000 21 127 66
02.01 - 04.00 - - 169 - 831 1000 17 114 64
04.01 - 10.00 - - - - 1000 1000 8 47 30
10.01 & above - - - - 1000 1000 4 7 4
all - 4 65 - 930 1000 93 689 337

fruits & nuts

nil (< 0.01) - - - - 1000 1000 0 8 5


00.01 - 00.20 - - - - - - - - -
00.21 - 00.50 - - - - 1000 1000 1 29 12
00.51 - 01.00 - - - - 1000 1000 1 14 7
01.01 - 02.00 - - - - 1000 1000 6 28 17
02.01 - 04.00 - - - - 1000 1000 3 22 13
04.01 - 10.00 - - - - - - - - -
10.01 & above - - - 1000 - 1000 0 0 1

*Note
1. Paddy: kharif and paddy: rabi, for example, are treated as different “crops” for this purpose.
2. The set of 5 major crops is not a fixed set but varies from household to household; for any particular household it is
understood as the 5 most important field crops cultivated, in terms of value of production, by the household in 1997-
98, from among a list of crop-season combinations involving 12 crops and crop-groups spanning the entire range of
crops cultivated in the country.

A-64
Report no. 451
Appendix I
Cultivation Practices in India

all - - - 21 979 1000 11 101 55

*Note
1. Paddy: kharif and paddy: rabi, for example, are treated as different “crops” for this purpose.
2. The set of 5 major crops is not a fixed set but varies from household to household; for any particular household it is
understood as the 5 most important field crops cultivated, in terms of value of production, by the household in 1997-
98, from among a list of crop-season combinations involving 12 crops and crop-groups spanning the entire range of
crops cultivated in the country.

A-65
Report no. 451
Appendix I
Cultivation Practices in India

Table (5.1): Cropwise per 1000 distribution of area under five major crops* by mode of use of tractor, separately for
different size-classes of household ownership holding
Arunachal Pradesh
no. of hhs. reporting
size-class of mode of use of tractor for tilling estd. cultivation of a crop
ownership by hired tractor by other tractor not all area in the crop-group
holding (ha) entirely p artly entirely partly used (00 ha) estd.(00) sample
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (10)

other cash crops

nil (< 0.01) - - - - 1000 1000 5 22 6


00.01 - 00.20 - - - - 1000 1000 0 9 2
00.21 - 00.50 - - - - 1000 1000 1 10 7
00.51 - 01.00 - - - - 1000 1000 5 55 23
01.01 - 02.00 - - - - 1000 1000 9 35 13
02.01 - 04.00 - - - - 1000 1000 12 10 6
04.01 - 10.00 - - - - - - - - -
10.01 & above - - - - - - - - -
all - - - - 1000 1000 33 140 57

Others

nil (< 0.01) - - - - 1000 1000 3 29 11

00.01 - 00.20 - - - - 1000 1000 0 15 4


00.21 - 00.50 - - - - 1000 1000 4 27 12
00.51 - 01.00 - 496 - - 504 1000 2 44 20
01.01 - 02.00 - - 243 - 757 1000 8 63 30
02.01 - 04.00 - 2 254 - 744 1000 12 31 17
04.01 - 10.00 - - - - 1000 1000 1 3 1
10.01 & above - 1000 - - - 1000 6 3 1
all - 179 141 - 680 1000 36 212 96

*Note
1. Paddy: kharif and paddy: rabi, for example, are treated as different “crops” for this purpose.
2. The set of 5 major crops is not a fixed set but varies from household to household; for any particular household it is
understood as the 5 most important field crops cultivated, in terms of value of production, by the household in 1997-
98, from among a list of crop-season combinations involving 12 crops and crop-groups spanning the entire range of
crops cultivated in the country.

A-66
Report no. 451
Appendix I
Cultivation Practices in India

Table (5.1): Cropwise per 1000 distribution of area under five major crops* by mode of use of tractor, separately for
different size-classes of household ownership holding
Assam
no. of hhs. reporting
size-class of mode of use of tractor for tilling estd. cultivation of a crop
ownership by hired tractor by other tractor not all area in the crop-group
holding (ha) entirely partly entirely partly used (00 ha) estd.(00) sample
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (10)

Paddy(kharif)

Nil (< 0.01 ha) - - - 176 824 1000 87 179 25


00.01 - 00.20 11 - - - 989 1000 131 755 69
00.21 - 00.50 20 49 - - 932 1000 809 2769 279
00.51 - 01.00 33 9 - 4 954 1000 3555 6240 527
01.01 - 02.00 12 32 9 16 931 1000 7214 6641 547
02.01 - 04.00 53 74 43 8 822 1000 4707 2418 194
04.01 - 10.00 123 134 91 30 622 1000 1921 509 41
10.01 & above - - - - - - - - -
all 39 49 24 13 875 1000 18424 19511 1682

Paddy(rabi)

nil (< 0.01) - - - - 1000 1000 39 100 10


00.01 - 00.20 - - - - 1000 1000 19 118 11
00.21 - 00.50 21 - - - 979 1000 210 581 59
00.51 - 01.00 22 - - - 978 1000 895 1481 130
01.01 - 02.00 1 - - - 999 1000 1370 1221 116
02.01 - 04.00 58 37 87 25 792 1000 1174 614 52
04.01 - 10.00 127 - 589 - 284 1000 224 75 6
10.01 & above - - - - - - - - -
all 31 11 60 8 891 1000 3931 4190 384

wheat

nil (< 0.01) - - - - 1000 1000 4 11 1


00.01 - 00.20 - - - - 1000 1000 21 296 28
00.21 - 00.50 - - - - 1000 1000 65 325 30
00.51 - 01.00 - - - - 1000 1000 223 877 75
01.01 - 02.00 1 10 59 - 930 1000 183 584 54
02.01 - 04.00 27 130 - 9 834 1000 270 398 42
04.01 - 10.00 - 142 - 214 644 1000 273 199 17
10.01 & above - - - - - - - - -

*Note
1. Paddy: kharif and paddy: rabi, for example, are treated as different “crops” for this purpose.
2. The set of 5 major crops is not a fixed set but varies from household to household; for any particular household it is
understood as the 5 most important field crops cultivated, in terms of value of production, by the household in 1997-
98, from among a list of crop-season combinations involving 12 crops and crop-groups spanning the entire range of
crops cultivated in the country.

A-67
Report no. 451
Appendix I
Cultivation Practices in India

all 7 73 10 58 851 1000 1039 2690 247

*Note
1. Paddy: kharif and paddy: rabi, for example, are treated as different “crops” for this purpose.
2. The set of 5 major crops is not a fixed set but varies from household to household; for any particular household it is
understood as the 5 most important field crops cultivated, in terms of value of production, by the household in 1997-
98, from among a list of crop-season combinations involving 12 crops and crop-groups spanning the entire range of
crops cultivated in the country.

A-68
Report no. 451
Appendix I
Cultivation Practices in India

Table (5.1): Cropwise per 1000 distribution of area under five major crops* by mode of use of tractor, separately for
different size-classes of household ownership holding
Assam
no. of hhs. reporting
size-class of mode of use of tractor for tilling estd. cultivation of a crop
ownership by hired tractor by other tractor not all area in the crop-group
holding (ha) entirely partly entirely partly used (00 ha) estd.(00) sample
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (10)

other cereals

nil (< 0.01) - - - - 1000 1000 2 11 1


00.01 - 00.20 - - - - 1000 1000 4 25 3
00.21 - 00.50 - - - - 1000 1000 15 86 11
00.51 - 01.00 - - - - 1000 1000 54 232 20
01.01 - 02.00 - - - 81 919 1000 113 319 29
02.01 - 04.00 - 226 93 - 681 1000 98 213 19
04.01 - 10.00 - 286 - - 714 1000 43 92 8
10.01 & above - - - - - - - - -
all - 105 28 28 840 1000 329 978 91

pulses

nil (< 0.01) - - - - - - - - -


00.01 - 00.20 - - - - 1000 1000 11 245 18
00.21 - 00.50 - - - - 1000 1000 60 606 54
00.51 - 01.00 - - - - 1000 1000 232 900 78
01.01 - 02.00 - 17 - 24 959 1000 336 999 86
02.01 - 04.00 47 37 - 30 886 1000 380 728 58
04.01 - 10.00 - 16 - - 984 1000 172 183 15
10.01 & above - - - - - - - - -
all 15 19 - 16 950 1000 1190 3662 309

oil seeds

nil (< 0.01) - - - - 1000 1000 1 2 1


00.01 - 00.20 - - - - 1000 1000 4 27 3
00.21 - 00.50 - - - - 1000 1000 38 244 21
00.51 - 01.00 - - - - 1000 1000 182 770 60
01.01 - 02.00 - - 29 - 971 1000 196 618 49
02.01 - 04.00 169 - 71 - 760 1000 115 224 21
04.01 - 10.00 - - - - 1000 1000 36 27 2
10.01 & above - - - - - - - - -

*Note
1. Paddy: kharif and paddy: rabi, for example, are treated as different “crops” for this purpose.
2. The set of 5 major crops is not a fixed set but varies from household to household; for any particular household it is
understood as the 5 most important field crops cultivated, in terms of value of production, by the household in 1997-
98, from among a list of crop-season combinations involving 12 crops and crop-groups spanning the entire range of
crops cultivated in the country.

A-69
Report no. 451
Appendix I
Cultivation Practices in India

all 34 - 24 - 942 1000 571 1911 157

*Note
1. Paddy: kharif and paddy: rabi, for example, are treated as different “crops” for this purpose.
2. The set of 5 major crops is not a fixed set but varies from household to household; for any particular household it is
understood as the 5 most important field crops cultivated, in terms of value of production, by the household in 1997-
98, from among a list of crop-season combinations involving 12 crops and crop-groups spanning the entire range of
crops cultivated in the country.

A-70
Report no. 451
Appendix I
Cultivation Practices in India

Table (5.1): Cropwise per 1000 distribution of area under five major crops* by mode of use of tractor, separately for
different size-classes of household ownership holding
Assam
no. of hhs. reporting
size-class of mode of use of tractor for tilling estd. cultivation of a crop
ownership by hired tractor by other tractor not all area in the crop-group
holding (ha) entirely partly entirely partly used (00 ha) estd.(00) sample
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (10)

sugar cane

nil (< 0.01) - - - - 1000 1000 2 7 4


00.01 - 00.20 - - - - 1000 1000 2 18 3
00.21 - 00.50 - - - - 1000 1000 3 16 3
00.51 - 01.00 - - - - 1000 1000 88 231 17
01.01 - 02.00 - 85 - 5 910 1000 154 228 18
02.01 - 04.00 209 - - - 791 1000 79 147 14
04.01 - 10.00 - - - - 1000 1000 30 43 4
10.01 & above - - - - - - - - -
all 47 36 - 2 915 1000 357 692 63

vegetables

nil (< 0.01) - - - 21 979 1000 67 471 50


00.01 - 00.20 - - 4 - 996 1000 184 2722 264
00.21 - 00.50 11 - - 10 979 1000 377 2528 286
00.51 - 01.00 2 57 - 3 938 1000 791 4346 395
01.01 - 02.00 14 26 11 12 938 1000 1209 4689 413
02.01 - 04.00 - 35 27 7 930 1000 671 1879 156
04.01 - 10.00 - 63 21 - 916 1000 313 418 33
10.01 & above - - - - - - - - -
all 6 33 11 7 943 1000 3612 17054 1597

fruits & nuts

nil (< 0.01) - - - - 1000 1000 0 13 1


00.01 - 00.20 - - - - 1000 1000 4 78 9
00.21 - 00.50 - - - - 1000 1000 7 66 9
00.51 - 01.00 - - - - 1000 1000 34 253 22
01.01 - 02.00 - - - 22 978 1000 33 178 18
02.01 - 04.00 - - - - 1000 1000 17 59 7
04.01 - 10.00 - - - - - - - - -
10.01 & above - - - - - - - - -

*Note
1. Paddy: kharif and paddy: rabi, for example, are treated as different “crops” for this purpose.
2. The set of 5 major crops is not a fixed set but varies from household to household; for any particular household it is
understood as the 5 most important field crops cultivated, in terms of value of production, by the household in 1997-
98, from among a list of crop-season combinations involving 12 crops and crop-groups spanning the entire range of
crops cultivated in the country.

A-71
Report no. 451
Appendix I
Cultivation Practices in India

all - - - 8 992 1000 96 647 66

*Note
1. Paddy: kharif and paddy: rabi, for example, are treated as different “crops” for this purpose.
2. The set of 5 major crops is not a fixed set but varies from household to household; for any particular household it is
understood as the 5 most important field crops cultivated, in terms of value of production, by the household in 1997-
98, from among a list of crop-season combinations involving 12 crops and crop-groups spanning the entire range of
crops cultivated in the country.

A-72
Report no. 451
Appendix I
Cultivation Practices in India

Table (5.1): Cropwise per 1000 distribution of area under five major crops* by mode of use of tractor, separately for
different size-classes of household ownership holding
Assam
no. of hhs. reporting
size-class of mode of use of tractor for tilling estd. cultivation of a crop
ownership by hired tractor by other tractor not all area in the crop-group
holding (ha) entirely partly entirely partly used (00 ha) estd.(00) sample
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (10)

other cash crops

nil (< 0.01) - - - - - - - - -


00.01 - 00.20 - - - - 1000 1000 2 46 4
00.21 - 00.50 - - - - 1000 1000 2 19 2
00.51 - 01.00 - - - 45 955 1000 31 147 12
01.01 - 02.00 - - - 363 637 1000 53 154 17
02.01 - 04.00 - - 404 - 596 1000 25 25 3
04.01 - 10.00 - - - - 1000 1000 22 17 2
10.01 & above - - - - - - - - -
all - - 76 152 773 1000 135 408 40

others

nil (< 0.01) - - - - 1000 1000 2 57 6


00.01 - 00.20 - - - - 1000 1000 11 160 13
00.21 - 00.50 - - - - 1000 1000 47 295 27
00.51 - 01.00 - - - - 1000 1000 182 954 80
01.01 - 02.00 - 17 - - 983 1000 221 712 62
02.01 - 04.00 - 157 - 14 829 1000 284 427 43
04.01 - 10.00 - 212 - - 788 1000 107 105 10
10.01 & above - - - - - - - - -
all - 83 - 5 912 1000 854 2710 241

*Note
1. Paddy: kharif and paddy: rabi, for example, are treated as different “crops” for this purpose.
2. The set of 5 major crops is not a fixed set but varies from household to household; for any particular household it is
understood as the 5 most important field crops cultivated, in terms of value of production, by the household in 1997-
98, from among a list of crop-season combinations involving 12 crops and crop-groups spanning the entire range of
crops cultivated in the country.

A-73
Report no. 451
Appendix I
Cultivation Practices in India

Table (5.1): Cropwise per 1000 distribution of area under five major crops* by mode of use of tractor, separately for
different size-classes of household ownership holding
Bihar
no. of hhs. reporting
size-class of mode of use of tractor for tilling estd. cultivation of a crop
ownership by hired tractor by other tractor not all area in the crop-group
holding (ha) entirely partly entirely partly used (00 ha) estd.(00) sample
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (10)

Paddy(kharif)

nil (< 0.01) 138 68 24 - 770 1000 2098 3572 189


00.01 - 00.20 121 174 35 5 661 1000 1997 15331 783
00.21 - 00.50 179 150 23 3 645 1000 7050 20988 1095
00.51 - 01.00 157 153 22 15 654 1000 12135 18658 906
01.01 - 02.00 160 159 45 13 622 1000 16619 14869 727
02.01 - 04.00 188 196 85 38 493 1000 13720 6491 313
04.01 - 10.00 217 183 187 23 390 1000 8110 2071 103
10.01 & above 87 - 644 61 209 1000 3529 257 13
all 169 157 96 21 558 1000 65258 82238 4129

Paddy(rabi)

nil (< 0.01) - - - - - - - - -


00.01 - 00.20 340 505 9 - 146 1000 50 328 21
00.21 - 00.50 30 396 - - 574 1000 163 801 26
00.51 - 01.00 62 242 62 59 575 1000 366 756 24
01.01 - 02.00 146 121 69 55 609 1000 317 514 14
02.01 - 04.00 194 193 - 80 533 1000 350 394 13
04.01 - 10.00 - 1000 - - - 1000 136 58 2
10.01 & above - - - - - - - - -
all 115 304 32 49 500 1000 1383 2853 100

wheat

nil (< 0.01) 135 145 - - 720 1000 524 1503 84


00.01 - 00.20 204 174 39 5 577 1000 1442 12434 646
00.21 - 00.50 259 190 25 3 523 1000 4584 16178 850
00.51 - 01.00 263 183 44 16 495 1000 7114 13815 656
01.01 - 02.00 262 246 67 17 408 1000 9716 11132 539
02.01 - 04.00 258 231 116 42 353 1000 8294 5445 262
04.01 - 10.00 264 229 243 26 238 1000 5172 2048 98
10.01 & above 107 - 700 39 153 1000 2711 220 12

*Note
1. Paddy: kharif and paddy: rabi, for example, are treated as different “crops” for this purpose.
2. The set of 5 major crops is not a fixed set but varies from household to household; for any particular household it is
understood as the 5 most important field crops cultivated, in terms of value of production, by the household in 1997-
98, from among a list of crop-season combinations involving 12 crops and crop-groups spanning the entire range of
crops cultivated in the country.

A-74
Report no. 451
Appendix I
Cultivation Practices in India

all 247 202 133 22 396 1000 39556 62775 3147

*Note
1. Paddy: kharif and paddy: rabi, for example, are treated as different “crops” for this purpose.
2. The set of 5 major crops is not a fixed set but varies from household to household; for any particular household it is
understood as the 5 most important field crops cultivated, in terms of value of production, by the household in 1997-
98, from among a list of crop-season combinations involving 12 crops and crop-groups spanning the entire range of
crops cultivated in the country.

A-75
Report no. 451
Appendix I
Cultivation Practices in India

Table (5.1): Cropwise per 1000 distribution of area under five major crops* by mode of use of tractor, separately for
different size-classes of household ownership holding
Bihar
no. of hhs. reporting
size-class of mode of use of tractor for tilling estd. cultivation of a crop
ownership by hired tractor by other tractor not all area in the crop-group
holding (ha) entirely partly entirely partly used (00 ha) estd.(00) sample
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (10)

other cereals

nil (< 0.01) 228 125 46 - 601 1000 628 1633 85


00.01 - 00.20 172 228 26 5 570 1000 356 4176 222
00.21 - 00.50 136 214 8 1 641 1000 885 6088 294
00.51 - 01.00 174 196 5 3 621 1000 1547 6510 317
01.01 - 02.00 102 160 20 20 697 1000 2297 6172 286
02.01 - 04.00 249 198 45 42 467 1000 1639 2943 132
04.01 - 10.00 166 131 205 3 495 1000 863 1000 48
10.01 & above 21 - 317 216 446 1000 371 208 10
all 162 170 54 24 590 1000 8585 28731 1394

pulses

nil (< 0.01) 105 - - - 895 1000 111 686 37


00.01 - 00.20 140 21 44 - 795 1000 215 2355 121
00.21 - 00.50 176 62 5 - 758 1000 647 5644 290
00.51 - 01.00 117 104 7 4 769 1000 1522 8221 380
01.01 - 02.00 128 118 17 13 725 1000 2635 8251 393
02.01 - 04.00 228 262 45 13 452 1000 1969 3816 182
04.01 - 10.00 169 313 157 44 318 1000 1413 1463 68
10.01 & above 18 - 592 185 205 1000 888 232 11
all 146 156 96 31 570 1000 9398 30667 1482

oil seeds

nil (< 0.01) - - - - 1000 1000 4 34 2


00.01 - 00.20 19 55 - - 926 1000 32 414 24
00.21 - 00.50 72 104 21 - 802 1000 126 1168 61
00.51 - 01.00 174 188 5 - 633 1000 288 2105 110
01.01 - 02.00 59 149 23 4 764 1000 472 2585 129
02.01 - 04.00 172 224 36 - 568 1000 554 1513 77
04.01 - 10.00 169 165 138 23 505 1000 513 826 37
10.01 & above - - 722 10 268 1000 372 154 7

*Note
1. Paddy: kharif and paddy: rabi, for example, are treated as different “crops” for this purpose.
2. The set of 5 major crops is not a fixed set but varies from household to household; for any particular household it is
understood as the 5 most important field crops cultivated, in terms of value of production, by the household in 1997-
98, from among a list of crop-season combinations involving 12 crops and crop-groups spanning the entire range of
crops cultivated in the country.

A-76
Report no. 451
Appendix I
Cultivation Practices in India

all 114 148 159 7 572 1000 2360 8798 447

*Note
1. Paddy: kharif and paddy: rabi, for example, are treated as different “crops” for this purpose.
2. The set of 5 major crops is not a fixed set but varies from household to household; for any particular household it is
understood as the 5 most important field crops cultivated, in terms of value of production, by the household in 1997-
98, from among a list of crop-season combinations involving 12 crops and crop-groups spanning the entire range of
crops cultivated in the country.

A-77
Report no. 451
Appendix I
Cultivation Practices in India

Table (5.1): Cropwise per 1000 distribution of area under five major crops* by mode of use of tractor, separately for
different size-classes of household ownership holding
Bihar
no. of hhs. reporting
size-class of mode of use of tractor for tilling estd. cultivation of a crop
ownership by hired tractor by other tractor not all area in the crop-group
holding (ha) entirely partly entirely partly used (00 ha) estd.(00) sample
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (10)

mixed crop

nil (< 0.01) - - - - 1000 1000 89 391 18


00.01 - 00.20 140 239 - 62 560 1000 27 393 21
00.21 - 00.50 61 82 - - 857 1000 92 620 40
00.51 - 01.00 192 8 5 3 792 1000 281 1239 70
01.01 - 02.00 140 13 16 - 831 1000 401 1158 63
02.01 - 04.00 40 - 36 - 924 1000 264 482 28
04.01 - 10.00 - 106 206 - 688 1000 294 341 20
10.01 & above 387 - 387 - 226 1000 41 51 3
all 98 35 63 2 802 1000 1488 4673 263

sugar cane

nil (< 0.01) - - - - - - - - -


00.01 - 00.20 - 1000 - - - 1000 3 35 2
00.21 - 00.50 39 814 18 - 129 1000 66 457 27
00.51 - 01.00 211 541 61 - 187 1000 151 482 25
01.01 - 02.00 167 486 232 18 97 1000 233 444 25
02.01 - 04.00 247 205 453 - 95 1000 295 298 16
04.01 - 10.00 6 75 713 101 105 1000 264 123 8
10.01 & above - - - - - - - - -
all 146 328 382 31 114 1000 1011 1838 103

vegetables

nil (< 0.01) 100 59 26 - 816 1000 287 1192 64


00.01 - 00.20 31 67 2 5 895 1000 177 3793 191
00.21 - 00.50 92 36 9 19 844 1000 494 4051 216
00.51 - 01.00 77 99 8 28 788 1000 635 4221 212
01.01 - 02.00 102 89 66 4 739 1000 673 3612 174
02.01 - 04.00 265 67 79 9 581 1000 513 1816 91
04.01 - 10.00 184 24 172 262 358 1000 273 456 21
10.01 & above - - 807 - 193 1000 229 114 5

*Note
1. Paddy: kharif and paddy: rabi, for example, are treated as different “crops” for this purpose.
2. The set of 5 major crops is not a fixed set but varies from household to household; for any particular household it is
understood as the 5 most important field crops cultivated, in terms of value of production, by the household in 1997-
98, from among a list of crop-season combinations involving 12 crops and crop-groups spanning the entire range of
crops cultivated in the country.

A-78
Report no. 451
Appendix I
Cultivation Practices in India

all 117 64 102 32 685 1000 3282 19257 974

*Note
1. Paddy: kharif and paddy: rabi, for example, are treated as different “crops” for this purpose.
2. The set of 5 major crops is not a fixed set but varies from household to household; for any particular household it is
understood as the 5 most important field crops cultivated, in terms of value of production, by the household in 1997-
98, from among a list of crop-season combinations involving 12 crops and crop-groups spanning the entire range of
crops cultivated in the country.

A-79
Report no. 451
Appendix I
Cultivation Practices in India

Table (5.1): Cropwise per 1000 distribution of area under five major crops* by mode of use of tractor, separately for
different size-classes of household ownership holding
Bihar
no. of hhs. reporting
size-class of mode of use of tractor for tilling estd. cultivation of a crop
ownership by hired tractor by other tractor not all area in the crop-group
holding (ha) entirely partly entirely partly used (00 ha) estd.(00) sample
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (10)

fodder

nil (< 0.01) - - - - - - - 13 1


00.01 - 00.20 - - - - 1000 1000 4 125 7
00.21 - 00.50 245 53 - - 701 1000 23 458 27
00.51 - 01.00 240 62 - - 698 1000 36 495 27
01.01 - 02.00 49 42 26 - 883 1000 63 516 29
02.01 - 04.00 31 76 96 - 797 1000 51 269 16
04.01 - 10.00 53 - 15 - 932 1000 48 168 11
10.01 & above - - 47 - 953 1000 17 32 2
all 89 41 33 - 837 1000 242 2077 120

fruits & nuts

nil (< 0.01) - - - - - - - - -


00.01 - 00.20 - - - - - - - - -
00.21 - 00.50 112 - - - 888 1000 18 84 4
00.51 - 01.00 - 290 - - 710 1000 47 201 10
01.01 - 02.00 - 154 - - 846 1000 28 131 7
02.01 - 04.00 83 666 - - 251 1000 76 118 6
04.01 - 10.00 - - - - 1000 1000 9 37 2
10.01 & above - - - - - - - - -
all 47 385 - - 568 1000 177 571 29

other cash crops

nil (< 0.01) - - - - - - - - -


00.01 - 00.20 105 102 - - 792 1000 53 405 22
00.21 - 00.50 209 96 - - 694 1000 191 871 39
00.51 - 01.00 263 155 - 41 542 1000 260 781 32
01.01 - 02.00 220 156 60 - 564 1000 232 592 27
02.01 - 04.00 190 231 17 65 497 1000 285 388 18
04.01 - 10.00 - 642 181 - 177 1000 229 190 9
10.01 & above - - - - - - - - -
*Note
1. Paddy: kharif and paddy: rabi, for example, are treated as different “crops” for this purpose.
2. The set of 5 major crops is not a fixed set but varies from household to household; for any particular household it is
understood as the 5 most important field crops cultivated, in terms of value of production, by the household in 1997-
98, from among a list of crop-season combinations involving 12 crops and crop-groups spanning the entire range of
crops cultivated in the country.

A-80
Report no. 451
Appendix I
Cultivation Practices in India

all 175 250 48 23 503 1000 1250 3226 147

Table (5.1): Cropwise per 1000 distribution of area under five major crops* by mode of use of tractor, separately for
different size-classes of household ownership holding
Bihar
no. of hhs. reporting
size-class of mode of use of tractor for tilling estd. cultivation of a crop
ownership by hired tractor by other tractor not all area in the crop-group
holding (ha) entirely partly entirely partly used (00 ha) estd.(00) sample
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (10)

Others

nil (< 0.01) - - - - - - - - -


00.01 - 00.20 - - 310 - 690 1000 18 257 8
00.21 - 00.50 - - - - 1000 1000 27 229 9
00.51 - 01.00 - - - - 1000 1000 126 287 15
01.01 - 02.00 - - 46 - 954 1000 57 182 10
02.01 - 04.00 - - - - 1000 1000 109 106 2
04.01 - 10.00 - - 1000 - - 1000 3 16 1
10.01 & above - - - - - - - - -
all - - 33 - 967 1000 340 1077 45

*Note
1. Paddy: kharif and paddy: rabi, for example, are treated as different “crops” for this purpose.
2. The set of 5 major crops is not a fixed set but varies from household to household; for any particular household it is
understood as the 5 most important field crops cultivated, in terms of value of production, by the household in 1997-
98, from among a list of crop-season combinations involving 12 crops and crop-groups spanning the entire range of
crops cultivated in the country.

A-81
Report no. 451
Appendix I
Cultivation Practices in India

Table (5.1): Cropwise per 1000 distribution of area under five major crops* by mode of use of tractor, separately for
different size-classes of household ownership holding
Gujarat
no. of hhs. reporting
size-class of mode of use of tractor for tilling estd. cultivation of a crop
ownership by hired tractor by other tractor not all area in the crop-group
holding (ha) entirely partly entirely partly used (00 ha) estd.(00) sample
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (10)

Paddy(kharif)

nil (< 0.01) - - - - 1000 1000 31 76 2


00.01 - 00.20 188 142 45 - 624 1000 61 522 27
00.21 - 00.50 316 132 18 6 528 1000 654 2348 112
00.51 - 01.00 315 197 73 56 359 1000 1050 2139 95
01.01 - 02.00 376 147 87 26 365 1000 1047 1326 64
02.01 - 04.00 316 197 181 - 306 1000 1480 1049 55
04.01 - 10.00 375 139 423 16 47 1000 1320 508 24
10.01 & above - - - - - - - - -
all 338 165 179 20 299 1000 5643 7968 379

Paddy(rabi)

nil (< 0.01) - - - - - - - - -


00.01 - 00.20 - 1000 - - - 1000 5 23 1
00.21 - 00.50 886 - - - 114 1000 64 189 7
00.51 - 01.00 482 - 186 107 225 1000 134 231 10
01.01 - 02.00 169 - - - 831 1000 131 255 12
02.01 - 04.00 252 - 499 - 249 1000 208 152 7
04.01 - 10.00 - - - - - - - - -
10.01 & above - - - - - - - - -
All 362 9 237 26 366 1000 541 849 37

wheat

nil (< 0.01) - - - - - - - - -


00.01 - 00.20 135 177 - - 688 1000 37 224 14
00.21 - 00.50 314 319 4 23 340 1000 822 2568 138
00.51 - 01.00 260 388 1 12 339 1000 1112 2173 107
01.01 - 02.00 435 273 9 7 275 1000 2111 2818 141
02.01 - 04.00 387 298 94 28 192 1000 2416 1890 94
04.01 - 10.00 255 173 235 - 337 1000 2336 1232 67
10.01 & above 16 128 856 - - 1000 313 104 7

*Note
1. Paddy: kharif and paddy: rabi, for example, are treated as different “crops” for this purpose.
2. The set of 5 major crops is not a fixed set but varies from household to household; for any particular household it is
understood as the 5 most important field crops cultivated, in terms of value of production, by the household in 1997-
98, from among a list of crop-season combinations involving 12 crops and crop-groups spanning the entire range of
crops cultivated in the country.

A-82
Report no. 451
Appendix I
Cultivation Practices in India

All 329 267 117 13 275 1000 9146 11009 568

*Note
1. Paddy: kharif and paddy: rabi, for example, are treated as different “crops” for this purpose.
2. The set of 5 major crops is not a fixed set but varies from household to household; for any particular household it is
understood as the 5 most important field crops cultivated, in terms of value of production, by the household in 1997-
98, from among a list of crop-season combinations involving 12 crops and crop-groups spanning the entire range of
crops cultivated in the country.

A-83
Report no. 451
Appendix I
Cultivation Practices in India

Table (5.1): Cropwise per 1000 distribution of area under five major crops* by mode of use of tractor, separately for
different size-classes of household ownership holding
Gujarat
no. of hhs. reporting
size-class of mode of use of tractor for tilling estd. cultivation of a crop
ownership by hired tractor by other tractor not all area in the crop-group
holding (ha) entirely partly entirely partly used (00 ha) estd.(00) sample
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (10)

other cereals

nil (< 0.01) - - - - 1000 1000 10 25 1


00.01 - 00.20 446 143 - - 411 1000 99 499 32
00.21 - 00.50 370 202 9 12 407 1000 1364 4279 234
00.51 - 01.00 254 206 - 16 523 1000 1972 3746 191
01.01 - 02.00 370 194 56 11 368 1000 3497 4364 223
02.01 - 04.00 345 173 158 14 310 1000 4234 3547 174
04.01 - 10.00 392 166 180 17 245 1000 3398 2350 118
10.01 & above 244 - 698 - 58 1000 1353 426 22
all 343 168 153 13 323 1000 15927 19237 995

pulses

nil (< 0.01) - - - - - - - - -


00.01 - 00.20 - - - - 1000 1000 4 31 3
00.21 - 00.50 341 74 - 4 581 1000 252 1107 64
00.51 - 01.00 234 137 34 31 565 1000 429 1409 73
01.01 - 02.00 183 210 20 18 569 1000 816 1619 89
02.01 - 04.00 265 118 53 - 564 1000 1480 1414 70
04.01 - 10.00 325 96 215 - 365 1000 798 593 29
10.01 & above 486 - - - 514 1000 85 50 4
all 266 129 73 8 524 1000 3863 6224 332

oil seeds

nil (< 0.01) - - - - - - - - -


00.01 - 00.20 813 - - - 187 1000 4 33 2
00.21 - 00.50 286 269 23 - 422 1000 306 972 46
00.51 - 01.00 331 402 - 18 249 1000 493 965 51
01.01 - 02.00 452 150 14 16 368 1000 1686 2176 115
02.01 - 04.00 247 174 67 30 482 1000 3420 2438 122
04.01 - 10.00 300 124 78 - 498 1000 5927 2130 116
10.01 & above 201 28 623 - 147 1000 1593 367 20

*Note
1. Paddy: kharif and paddy: rabi, for example, are treated as different “crops” for this purpose.
2. The set of 5 major crops is not a fixed set but varies from household to household; for any particular household it is
understood as the 5 most important field crops cultivated, in terms of value of production, by the household in 1997-
98, from among a list of crop-season combinations involving 12 crops and crop-groups spanning the entire range of
crops cultivated in the country.

A-84
Report no. 451
Appendix I
Cultivation Practices in India

all 295 142 128 10 425 1000 13428 9082 472

*Note
1. Paddy: kharif and paddy: rabi, for example, are treated as different “crops” for this purpose.
2. The set of 5 major crops is not a fixed set but varies from household to household; for any particular household it is
understood as the 5 most important field crops cultivated, in terms of value of production, by the household in 1997-
98, from among a list of crop-season combinations involving 12 crops and crop-groups spanning the entire range of
crops cultivated in the country.

A-85
Report no. 451
Appendix I
Cultivation Practices in India

Table (5.1): Cropwise per 1000 distribution of area under five major crops* by mode of use of tractor, separately for
different size-classes of household ownership holding
Gujarat
no. of hhs. reporting
size-class of mode of use of tractor for tilling estd. cultivation of a crop
ownership by hired tractor by other tractor not all area in the crop-group
holding (ha) entirely partly entirely partly used (00 ha) estd.(00) sample
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (10)

mixed c rop

nil (< 0.01) - - - - - - - - -


00.01 - 00.20 - - - - - - - - -
00.21 - 00.50 188 428 - - 384 1000 233 672 34
00.51 - 01.00 340 242 - - 418 1000 264 440 21
01.01 - 02.00 172 130 154 28 516 1000 533 584 28
02.01 - 04.00 231 120 196 - 453 1000 972 458 24
04.01 - 10.00 179 122 590 - 109 1000 1416 542 28
10.01 & above 310 - 690 - - 1000 606 135 5
all 221 130 379 4 266 1000 4023 2831 140

sugar cane

nil (< 0.01) - - - - - - - - -


00.01 - 00.20 - - - - - - - - -
00.21 - 00.50 952 - 48 - - 1000 106 180 10
00.51 - 01.00 761 - 89 24 126 1000 106 299 15
01.01 - 02.00 466 149 57 33 295 1000 172 228 12
02.01 - 04.00 392 21 347 - 240 1000 506 268 14
04.01 - 10.00 28 - 749 - 223 1000 697 198 11
10.01 & above - - 1000 - - 1000 261 42 2
all 260 20 532 4 184 1000 1848 1214 64

vegetables

nil (< 0.01) - - - - - - - - -


00.01 - 00.20 339 - 236 - 424 1000 15 85 4
00.21 - 00.50 311 449 - 14 226 1000 72 229 13
00.51 - 01.00 436 58 331 - 175 1000 204 435 17
01.01 - 02.00 280 169 133 34 385 1000 282 633 30
02.01 - 04.00 340 17 - 74 570 1000 254 314 15
04.01 - 10.00 315 - 571 - 114 1000 218 198 9
10.01 & above 407 - 593 - - 1000 195 97 4

*Note
1. Paddy: kharif and paddy: rabi, for example, are treated as different “crops” for this purpose.
2. The set of 5 major crops is not a fixed set but varies from household to household; for any particular household it is
understood as the 5 most important field crops cultivated, in terms of value of production, by the household in 1997-
98, from among a list of crop-season combinations involving 12 crops and crop-groups spanning the entire range of
crops cultivated in the country.

A-86
Report no. 451
Appendix I
Cultivation Practices in India

all 346 78 281 24 271 1000 1239 1991 92

*Note
1. Paddy: kharif and paddy: rabi, for example, are treated as different “crops” for this purpose.
2. The set of 5 major crops is not a fixed set but varies from household to household; for any particular household it is
understood as the 5 most important field crops cultivated, in terms of value of production, by the household in 1997-
98, from among a list of crop-season combinations involving 12 crops and crop-groups spanning the entire range of
crops cultivated in the country.

A-87
Report no. 451
Appendix I
Cultivation Practices in India

Table (5.1): Cropwise per 1000 distribution of area under five major crops* by mode of use of tractor, separately for
different size-classes of household ownership holding
Gujarat
no. of hhs. reporting
size-class of mode of use of tractor for tilling estd. cultivation of a crop
ownership by hired tractor by other tractor not all area in the crop-group
holding (ha) entirely partly entirely partly used (00 ha) estd.(00) sample
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (10)

fodder

nil (< 0.01) - - - - 1000 1000 17 74 2


00.01 - 00.20 - - - - 1000 1000 4 22 1
00.21 - 00.50 329 57 - - 614 1000 115 732 37
00.51 - 01.00 372 52 - - 576 1000 240 1017 45
01.01 - 02.00 405 29 19 - 546 1000 400 1366 68
02.01 - 04.00 424 31 98 - 448 1000 804 1876 95
04.01 - 10.00 383 76 185 - 356 1000 1096 1592 86
10.01 & above 366 30 503 - 102 1000 488 309 19
all 388 48 169 - 394 1000 3163 6989 353

fruits & nuts

nil (< 0.01) - - - - - - - - -


00.01 - 00.20 - - - - - - - - -
00.21 - 00.50 - - - - 1000 1000 2 23 1
00.51 - 01.00 - 362 - - 638 1000 44 69 3
01.01 - 02.00 454 - 306 - 239 1000 104 153 6
02.01 - 04.00 145 162 454 75 165 1000 179 141 6
04.01 - 10.00 - - 982 - 18 1000 133 48 2
10.01 & above - - - - - - - - -
all 159 97 527 29 188 1000 462 434 18

other cash crops

nil (< 0.01) - 709 291 - - 1000 35 46 2


00.01 - 00.20 975 - 11 - 14 1000 239 88 4
00.21 - 00.50 389 325 - - 285 1000 221 663 31
00.51 - 01.00 472 209 - 13 306 1000 326 687 37
01.01 - 02.00 549 72 28 7 343 1000 1420 1679 82
02.01 - 04.00 382 119 95 - 403 1000 3194 2262 115
04.01 - 10.00 396 84 209 - 311 1000 6595 2273 124
10.01 & above 234 147 468 - 151 1000 2121 408 23

*Note
1. Paddy: kharif and paddy: rabi, for example, are treated as different “crops” for this purpose.
2. The set of 5 major crops is not a fixed set but varies from household to household; for any particular household it is
understood as the 5 most important field crops cultivated, in terms of value of production, by the household in 1997-
98, from among a list of crop-season combinations involving 12 crops and crop-groups spanning the entire range of
crops cultivated in the country.

A-88
Report no. 451
Appendix I
Cultivation Practices in India

all 395 107 193 1 305 1000 14152 8106 418

Table (5.1): Cropwise per 1000 distribution of area under five major crops* by mode of use of tractor, separately for
different size-classes of household ownership holding
Gujarat
no. of hhs. reporting
size-class of mode of use of tractor for tilling estd. cultivation of a crop
ownership by hired tractor by other tractor not all area in the crop-group
holding (ha) entirely partly entirely partly used (00 ha) estd.(00) sample
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (10)

others

nil (< 0.01) 1000 - - - - 1000 19 28 1


00.01 - 00.20 - - - - - - - - -
00.21 - 00.50 141 733 - - 126 1000 83 178 8
00.51 - 01.00 - 1000 - - - 1000 13 28 1
01.01 - 02.00 - 1000 - - - 1000 102 81 3
02.01 - 04.00 45 67 75 - 813 1000 74 152 7
04.01 - 10.00 678 - 322 - - 1000 30 69 4
10.01 & above - - 1000 - - 1000 18 21 1
all 159 535 97 - 209 1000 338 556 25

*Note
1. Paddy: kharif and paddy: rabi, for example, are treated as different “crops” for this purpose.
2. The set of 5 major crops is not a fixed set but varies from household to household; for any particular household it is
understood as the 5 most important field crops cultivated, in terms of value of production, by the household in 1997-
98, from among a list of crop-season combinations involving 12 crops and crop-groups spanning the entire range of
crops cultivated in the country.

A-89
Report no. 451
Appendix I
Cultivation Practices in India

Table (5.1): Cropwise per 1000 distribution of area under five major crops* by mode of use of tractor, separately for
different size-classes of household ownership holding
Haryana
no. of hhs. reporting
size-class of mode of use of tractor for tilling estd. cultivation of a crop
ownership by hired tractor by other tractor not all area in the crop-group
holding (ha) entirely p artly entirely partly used (00 ha) estd.(00) sample
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (10)

Paddy(kharif)

nil (< 0.01) 171 829 - - - 1000 80 61 3


00.01 - 00.20 548 167 - 285 - 1000 228 182 9
00.21 - 00.50 682 89 193 - 36 1000 318 555 26
00.51 - 01.00 1000 - - - - 1000 418 679 29
01.01 - 02.00 738 104 101 - 57 1000 1290 1191 50
02.01 - 04.00 408 134 458 - - 1000 1906 955 45
04.01 - 10.00 144 26 768 - 62 1000 2489 862 39
10.01 & above 209 - 791 - - 1000 1347 149 8
all 389 73 500 8 30 1000 8077 4634 209

wheat

nil (< 0.01) 419 201 379 - - 1000 144 109 5


00.01 - 00.20 721 143 - 109 27 1000 578 479 22
00.21 - 00.50 639 30 186 31 114 1000 738 1500 73
00.51 - 01.00 849 94 4 - 53 1000 1113 1595 74
01.01 - 02.00 739 100 125 - 35 1000 2840 2575 120
02.01 - 04.00 451 126 378 - 46 1000 4113 2149 106
04.01 - 10.00 288 25 640 21 26 1000 4703 1480 71
10.01 & above 179 - 821 - - 1000 1862 212 12
all 468 72 413 11 35 1000 16092 10099 483

other cereals

nil (< 0.01) - - - - - - - - -


00.01 - 00.20 709 291 - - - 1000 68 130 6
00.21 - 00.50 662 - 165 99 74 1000 230 485 23
00.51 - 01.00 710 114 - - 176 1000 352 558 26
01.01 - 02.00 637 78 125 - 160 1000 801 956 48
02.01 - 04.00 477 276 145 - 102 1000 986 779 40
04.01 - 10.00 313 192 387 - 108 1000 990 541 25
10.01 & above 385 - 615 - - 1000 289 63 3

*Note
1. Paddy: kharif and paddy: rabi, for example, are treated as different “crops” for this purpose.
2. The set of 5 major crops is not a fixed set but varies from household to household; for any particular household it is
understood as the 5 most important field crops cultivated, in terms of value of production, by the household in 1997-
98, from among a list of crop-season combinations involving 12 crops and crop-groups spanning the entire range of
crops cultivated in the country.

A-90
Report no. 451
Appendix I
Cultivation Practices in India

all 498 157 227 6 111 1000 3717 3512 171

*Note
1. Paddy: kharif and paddy: rabi, for example, are treated as different “crops” for this purpose.
2. The set of 5 major crops is not a fixed set but varies from household to household; for any particular household it is
understood as the 5 most important field crops cultivated, in terms of value of production, by the household in 1997-
98, from among a list of crop-season combinations involving 12 crops and crop-groups spanning the entire range of
crops cultivated in the country.

A-91
Report no. 451
Appendix I
Cultivation Practices in India

Table (5.1): Cropwise per 1000 distribution of area under five major crops* by mode of use of tractor, separately for
different size-classes of household ownership holding
Haryana
no. of hhs. reporting
size-class of mode of use of tractor for tilling estd. cultivation of a crop
ownership by hired tractor by other tractor not all area in the crop-group
holding (ha) entirely partly entirely partly used (00 ha) estd.(00) sample
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (10)

pulses

nil (< 0.01) - - - - - - - - -


00.01 - 00.20 1000 - - - - 1000 15 25 1
00.21 - 00.50 860 - - - 140 1000 55 175 9
00.51 - 01.00 1000 - - - - 1000 92 192 9
01.01 - 02.00 656 62 54 - 228 1000 439 648 31
02.01 - 04.00 658 44 184 - 114 1000 648 545 27
04.01 - 10.00 311 92 396 - 201 1000 657 396 19
10.01 & above - - 1000 - - 1000 94 41 2
all 536 58 249 - 157 1000 2000 2022 98

oil seeds

nil (< 0.01) - - - - - - - - -


00.01 - 00.20 1000 - - - - 1000 50 73 4
00.21 - 00.50 627 17 262 - 93 1000 108 242 11
00.51 - 01.00 982 - 18 - - 1000 159 351 17
01.01 - 02.00 737 61 90 - 112 1000 632 796 42
02.01 - 04.00 599 215 154 - 32 1000 638 628 34
04.01 - 10.00 252 14 552 55 127 1000 1128 467 25
10.01 & above - - 1000 - - 1000 154 37 2
all 490 67 336 21 85 1000 2868 2594 135

sugar cane

nil (< 0.01) - - - - - - - - -


00.01 - 00.20 - - - - - - - - -
00.21 - 00.50 1000 - - - - 1000 15 25 1
00.51 - 01.00 991 - - - 9 1000 15 131 7
01.01 - 02.00 510 257 167 - 65 1000 47 138 8
02.01 - 04.00 174 81 745 - - 1000 195 331 20
04.01 - 10.00 2 - 997 - 1 1000 317 286 16
10.01 & above - - 1000 - - 1000 3 1 3

*Note
1. Paddy: kharif and paddy: rabi, for example, are treated as different “crops” for this purpose.
2. The set of 5 major crops is not a fixed set but varies from household to household; for any particular household it is
understood as the 5 most important field crops cultivated, in terms of value of production, by the household in 1997-
98, from among a list of crop-season combinations involving 12 crops and crop-groups spanning the entire range of
crops cultivated in the country.

A-92
Report no. 451
Appendix I
Cultivation Practices in India

all 150 47 797 - 6 1000 592 912 55

*Note
1. Paddy: kharif and paddy: rabi, for example, are treated as different “crops” for this purpose.
2. The set of 5 major crops is not a fixed set but varies from household to household; for any particular household it is
understood as the 5 most important field crops cultivated, in terms of value of production, by the household in 1997-
98, from among a list of crop-season combinations involving 12 crops and crop-groups spanning the entire range of
crops cultivated in the country.

A-93
Report no. 451
Appendix I
Cultivation Practices in India

Table (5.1): Cropwise per 1000 distribution of area under five major crops* by mode of use of tractor, separately for
different size-classes of household ownership holding
Haryana
no. of hhs. reporting
size-class of mode of use of tractor for tilling estd. cultivation of a crop
ownership by hired tractor by other tractor not all area in the crop-group
holding (ha) entirely partly entirely partly used (00 ha) estd.(00) sample
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (10)

vegetables

nil (< 0.01) - - - - - - - - -


00.01 - 00.20 578 - - 422 - 1000 8 40 2
00.21 - 00.50 392 - 261 136 211 1000 42 172 8
00.51 - 01.00 1000 - - - - 1000 36 79 4
01.01 - 02.00 341 - 231 - 428 1000 53 133 7
02.01 - 04.00 510 48 418 - 24 1000 71 230 12
04.01 - 10.00 27 - 726 - 247 1000 119 113 5
10.01 & above - - 1000 - - 1000 12 24 1
all 337 10 443 27 183 1000 341 791 39

fodder

nil (< 0.01) 316 684 - - - 1000 18 89 4


00.01 - 00.20 680 86 - - 234 1000 131 447 21
00.21 - 00.50 682 7 124 23 164 1000 244 957 45
00.51 - 01.00 835 22 4 - 139 1000 386 1061 50
01.01 - 02.00 694 98 83 - 125 1000 816 1962 90
02.01 - 04.00 440 153 240 99 68 1000 972 1626 76
04.01 - 10.00 240 29 571 69 90 1000 1102 1241 59
10.01 & above 122 - 878 - - 1000 229 190 11
all 480 76 298 46 100 1000 3898 7573 356

other cash crops

nil (< 0.01) 351 - 649 - - 1000 24 48 2


00.01 - 00.20 737 219 - - 44 1000 271 181 8
00.21 - 00.50 273 - 405 239 84 1000 167 178 7
00.51 - 01.00 211 789 - - - 1000 152 120 6
01.01 - 02.00 653 151 147 - 49 1000 535 553 24
02.01 - 04.00 393 259 277 - 70 1000 475 372 17
04.01 - 10.00 264 134 548 - 54 1000 616 398 17
10.01 & above - - 1000 - - 1000 266 65 3
*Note
1. Paddy: kharif and paddy: rabi, for example, are treated as different “crops” for this purpose.
2. The set of 5 major crops is not a fixed set but varies from household to household; for any particular household it is
understood as the 5 most important field crops cultivated, in terms of value of production, by the household in 1997-
98, from among a list of crop-season combinations involving 12 crops and crop-groups spanning the entire range of
crops cultivated in the country.

A-94
Report no. 451
Appendix I
Cultivation Practices in India

all 393 186 358 16 47 1000 2506 1914 84

Table (5.1): Cropwise per 1000 distribution of area under five major crops* by mode of use of tractor, separately for
different size-classes of household ownership holding
Haryana
no. of hhs. reporting
size-class of mode of use of tractor for tilling estd. cultivation of a crop
ownership by hired tractor by other tractor not all area in the crop-group
holding (ha) entirely partly entirely partly used (00 ha) estd.(00) sample
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (10)
others

nil (< 0.01) - - - - - - - - -


00.01 - 00.20 1000 - - - - 1000 16 26 1
00.21 - 00.50 826 174 - - - 1000 24 112 5
00.51 - 01.00 1000 - - - - 1000 183 21 1
01.01 - 02.00 721 279 - - - 1000 234 210 9
02.01 - 04.00 258 321 180 20 222 1000 421 302 13
04.01 - 10.00 284 309 390 - 17 1000 486 218 9
10.01 & above - - 1000 - - 1000 365 69 3
all 367 205 365 5 59 1000 1729 958 41

*Note
1. Paddy: kharif and paddy: rabi, for example, are treated as different “crops” for this purpose.
2. The set of 5 major crops is not a fixed set but varies from household to household; for any particular household it is
understood as the 5 most important field crops cultivated, in terms of value of production, by the household in 1997-
98, from among a list of crop-season combinations involving 12 crops and crop-groups spanning the entire range of
crops cultivated in the country.

A-95
Report no. 451
Appendix I
Cultivation Practices in India

Table (5.1): Cropwise per 1000 distribution of area under five major crops* by mode of use of tractor, separately for
different size-classes of household ownership holding
Himachal Pradesh
no. of hhs. reporting
size-class of mode of use of tractor for tilling estd. cultivation of a crop
ownership by hired tractor by other tractor not all area in the crop-group
holding (ha) entirely partly entirely partly used (00 ha) estd.(00) sample
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (10)

Paddy(kharif)

nil (< 0.01) - - - - 1000 1000 0 5 1


00.01 - 00.20 104 19 - 13 864 1000 44 507 92
00.21 - 00.50 65 22 - - 913 1000 174 885 163
00.51 - 01.00 84 21 19 - 875 1000 162 683 127
01.01 - 02.00 59 41 21 - 880 1000 174 470 93
02.01 - 04.00 14 135 - - 851 1000 76 153 31
04.01 - 10.00 - 216 - - 784 1000 18 66 14
10.01 & above 59 - - - 941 1000 8 14 3
all 63 45 10 1 881 1000 655 2783 524

wheat

nil (< 0.01) 226 338 - - 436 1000 15 38 7


00.01 - 00.20 156 21 - - 822 1000 158 1551 292
00.21 - 00.50 86 33 8 - 873 1000 685 2771 521
00.51 - 01.00 114 28 8 4 845 1000 969 2135 392
01.01 - 02.00 82 69 15 2 831 1000 921 1195 228
02.01 - 04.00 39 136 - 11 814 1000 634 504 96
04.01 - 10.00 - 234 79 42 645 1000 211 108 22
10.01 & above 67 - - - 933 1000 41 30 6
all 83 71 12 6 828 1000 3634 8331 1564

other cereals

nil (< 0.01) 242 336 - - 422 1000 15 38 7


00.01 - 00.20 137 22 - 1 840 1000 128 1341 255
00.21 - 00.50 90 34 11 - 865 1000 554 2514 477
00.51 - 01.00 117 33 7 6 837 1000 752 1936 357
01.01 - 02.00 89 78 19 3 812 1000 697 1081 206
02.01 - 04.00 41 125 - 15 819 1000 491 467 89
04.01 - 10.00 - 242 55 40 663 1000 201 92 19
10.01 & above 67 - - - 933 1000 43 30 6

*Note
1. Paddy: kharif and paddy: rabi, for example, are treated as different “crops” for this purpose.
2. The set of 5 major crops is not a fixed set but varies from household to household; for any particular household it is
understood as the 5 most important field crops cultivated, in terms of value of production, by the household in 1997-
98, from among a list of crop-season combinations involving 12 crops and crop-groups spanning the entire range of
crops cultivated in the country.

A-96
Report no. 451
Appendix I
Cultivation Practices in India

all 85 75 12 8 820 1000 2881 7500 1416

*Note
1. Paddy: kharif and paddy: rabi, for example, are treated as different “crops” for this purpose.
2. The set of 5 major crops is not a fixed set but varies from household to household; for any particular household it is
understood as the 5 most important field crops cultivated, in terms of value of production, by the household in 1997-
98, from among a list of crop-season combinations involving 12 crops and crop-groups spanning the entire range of
crops cultivated in the country.

A-97
Report no. 451
Appendix I
Cultivation Practices in India

Table (5.1): Cropwise per 1000 distribution of area under five major crops* by mode of use of tractor, separately for
different size-classes of household ownership holding
Himachal Pradesh
no. of hhs. reporting
size-class of mode of use of tractor for tilling estd. cultivation of a crop
ownership by hired tractor by other tractor not all area in the crop-group
holding (ha) entirely partly entirely partly used (00 ha) estd.(00) sample
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (10)

pulses

nil (< 0.01) - - - - - - - - -


00.01 - 00.20 - - - - 1000 1000 3 72 13
00.21 - 00.50 5 - - - 995 1000 20 268 52
00.51 - 01.00 32 - - - 968 1000 34 272 50
01.01 - 02.00 50 7 - - 943 1000 47 216 43
02.01 - 04.00 - - - - 1000 1000 17 54 11
04.01 - 10.00 - - - 40 960 1000 18 25 5
10.01 & above - - - - 1000 1000 0 5 1
all 25 2 - 5 967 1000 139 912 175

oil seeds

nil (< 0.01) 1000 - - - - 1000 0 6 1


00.01 - 00.20 19 73 - - 908 1000 3 52 10
00.21 - 00.50 81 24 14 - 881 1000 18 338 64
00.51 - 01.00 369 38 - - 593 1000 24 279 49
01.01 - 02.00 236 48 100 18 599 1000 27 206 38
02.01 - 04.00 121 290 - 30 558 1000 10 67 12
04.01 - 10.00 - 485 260 85 170 1000 9 34 6
10.01 & above - - - - 1000 1000 7 15 3
all 186 103 53 16 643 1000 98 997 183

mixed crop

nil (< 0.01) - - - - - - - - -


00.01 - 00.20 - - - - - - - - -
00.21 - 00.50 - - - - 1000 1000 8 29 5
00.51 - 01.00 - - - - 1000 1000 3 29 6
01.01 - 02.00 41 - - - 959 1000 5 20 4
02.01 - 04.00 - - - - 1000 1000 8 14 3
04.01 - 10.00 - - - - 1000 1000 3 9 2
10.01 & above - - - - - - - - -

*Note
1. Paddy: kharif and paddy: rabi, for example, are treated as different “crops” for this purpose.
2. The set of 5 major crops is not a fixed set but varies from household to household; for any particular household it is
understood as the 5 most important field crops cultivated, in terms of value of production, by the household in 1997-
98, from among a list of crop-season combinations involving 12 crops and crop-groups spanning the entire range of
crops cultivated in the country.

A-98
Report no. 451
Appendix I
Cultivation Practices in India

all 8 - - - 992 1000 27 101 20

*Note
1. Paddy: kharif and paddy: rabi, for example, are treated as different “crops” for this purpose.
2. The set of 5 major crops is not a fixed set but varies from household to household; for any particular household it is
understood as the 5 most important field crops cultivated, in terms of value of production, by the household in 1997-
98, from among a list of crop-season combinations involving 12 crops and crop-groups spanning the entire range of
crops cultivated in the country.

A-99
Report no. 451
Appendix I
Cultivation Practices in India

Table (5.1): Cropwise per 1000 distribution of area under five major crops* by mode of use of tractor, separately for
different size-classes of household ownership holding
Himachal Pradesh
no. of hhs. reporting
size-class of mode of use of tractor for tilling estd. cultivation of a crop
ownership by hired tractor by other tractor not all area in the crop-group
holding (ha) entirely partly entirely partly used (00 ha) estd.(00) sample
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (10)

sugar cane

nil (< 0.01) - - - - 1000 1000 0 5 1


00.01 - 00.20 1000 - - - - 1000 0 8 1
00.21 - 00.50 - 53 - - 947 1000 3 43 8
00.51 - 01.00 131 40 - - 829 1000 3 43 9
01.01 - 02.00 12 95 - - 893 1000 8 38 8
02.01 - 04.00 829 - - 103 68 1000 5 13 3
04.01 - 10.00 - - 1000 - - 1000 2 6 1
10.01 & above - - - - 1000 1000 0 5 1
all 206 48 100 22 625 1000 22 161 32

vegetables

nil (< 0.01) - - - - - - - - -


00.01 - 00.20 61 - - - 939 1000 5 239 44
00.21 - 00.50 98 - - - 902 1000 31 570 106
00.51 - 01.00 55 - - - 945 1000 51 444 85
01.01 - 02.00 6 - - - 994 1000 53 310 63
02.01 - 04.00 - - - - 1000 1000 16 136 27
04.01 - 10.00 - - - - 1000 1000 5 16 4
10.01 & above - - - - - - - - -
all 40 - - - 960 1000 162 1717 329

fodder

nil (< 0.01) - - - - - - - - -


00.01 - 00.20 514 85 - - 400 1000 3 99 19
00.21 - 00.50 299 25 30 - 646 1000 17 262 48
00.51 - 01.00 326 159 - - 515 1000 22 267 49
01.01 - 02.00 104 47 35 14 799 1000 34 175 33
02.01 - 04.00 82 439 - 10 469 1000 16 78 15
04.01 - 10.00 - 121 88 - 791 1000 13 21 4
10.01 & above - - - - - - - - -

*Note
1. Paddy: kharif and paddy: rabi, for example, are treated as different “crops” for this purpose.
2. The set of 5 major crops is not a fixed set but varies from household to household; for any particular household it is
understood as the 5 most important field crops cultivated, in terms of value of production, by the household in 1997-
98, from among a list of crop-season combinations involving 12 crops and crop-groups spanning the entire range of
crops cultivated in the country.

A-100
Report no. 451
Appendix I
Cultivation Practices in India

all 179 139 27 6 650 1000 105 903 168

*Note
1. Paddy: kharif and paddy: rabi, for example, are treated as different “crops” for this purpose.
2. The set of 5 major crops is not a fixed set but varies from household to household; for any particular household it is
understood as the 5 most important field crops cultivated, in terms of value of production, by the household in 1997-
98, from among a list of crop-season combinations involving 12 crops and crop-groups spanning the entire range of
crops cultivated in the country.

A-101
Report no. 451
Appendix I
Cultivation Practices in India

Table (5.1): Cropwise per 1000 distribution of area under five major crops* by mode of use of tractor, separately for
different size-classes of household ownership holding
Himachal Pradesh
no. of hhs. reporting
size-class of mode of use of tractor for tilling estd. cultivation of a crop
ownership by hired tractor by other tractor not all area in the crop-group
holding (ha) entirely partly entirely partly used (00 ha) estd.(00) sample
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (10)

fruits & nuts

nil (< 0.01) - - - - 1000 1000 3 6 1


00.01 - 00.20 - - - - 1000 1000 3 25 6
00.21 - 00.50 - - - - 1000 1000 25 125 20
00.51 - 01.00 3 - - - 997 1000 85 238 40
01.01 - 02.00 - - - - 1000 1000 155 181 32
02.01 - 04.00 - - - - 1000 1000 111 61 12
04.01 - 10.00 - - - - 1000 1000 33 5 1
10.01 & above - - - - - - - - -
all 1 - - - 999 1000 413 641 112

other cash crops

nil (< 0.01) - - - - - - - - -


00.01 - 00.20 157 - - - 843 1000 3 37 8
00.21 - 00.50 37 - - - 963 1000 47 280 45
00.51 - 01.00 8 - - - 992 1000 79 234 42
01.01 - 02.00 - - - - 1000 1000 85 174 32
02.01 - 04.00 32 - - - 968 1000 85 111 21
04.01 - 10.00 - - - - 1000 1000 9 21 5
10.01 & above - - - - 1000 1000 10 14 3
all 17 - - - 983 1000 317 872 156

others

nil (< 0.01) - - - - - - - - -


00.01 - 00.20 - - - - 1000 1000 2 33 6
00.21 - 00.50 12 - - - 988 1000 19 122 21
00.51 - 01.00 84 - - - 916 1000 43 148 27
01.01 - 02.00 41 - - - 959 1000 35 146 29
02.01 - 04.00 - - - - 1000 1000 4 30 6
04.01 - 10.00 - - - - 1000 1000 17 37 8
10.01 & above 353 - - - 647 1000 2 10 2

*Note
1. Paddy: kharif and paddy: rabi, for example, are treated as different “crops” for this purpose.
2. The set of 5 major crops is not a fixed set but varies from household to household; for any particular household it is
understood as the 5 most important field crops cultivated, in terms of value of production, by the household in 1997-
98, from among a list of crop-season combinations involving 12 crops and crop-groups spanning the entire range of
crops cultivated in the country.

A-102
Report no. 451
Appendix I
Cultivation Practices in India

all 48 - - - 952 1000 122 525 99

*Note
1. Paddy: kharif and paddy: rabi, for example, are treated as different “crops” for this purpose.
2. The set of 5 major crops is not a fixed set but varies from household to household; for any particular household it is
understood as the 5 most important field crops cultivated, in terms of value of production, by the household in 1997-
98, from among a list of crop-season combinations involving 12 crops and crop-groups spanning the entire range of
crops cultivated in the country.

A-103
Report no. 451
Appendix I
Cultivation Practices in India

Table (5.1): Cropwise per 1000 distribution of area under five major crops* by mode of use of tractor, separately for
different size-classes of household ownership holding
Jammu & Kashmir
no. of hhs. reporting
size-class of mode of use of tractor for tilling estd. cultivation of a crop
ownership by hired tractor by other tractor not all area in the crop-group
holding (ha) entirely partly entirely partly used (00 ha) estd.(00) sample
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (10)

Paddy(kharif)

nil (< 0.01) - - - - 1000 1000 1 6 1


00.01 - 00.20 98 134 - - 768 1000 78 529 110
00.21 - 00.50 206 163 1 - 631 1000 557 2123 418
00.51 - 01.00 294 195 - 7 504 1000 564 1293 265
01.01 - 02.00 293 150 29 7 520 1000 535 711 185
02.01 - 04.00 278 204 98 - 419 1000 339 283 71
04.01 - 10.00 - 212 447 - 341 1000 117 49 16
10.01 & above - - - - - - - - -
all 246 176 46 4 528 1000 2191 4994 1066

Paddy(rabi)

nil (< 0.01) - - - - - - - - -


00.01 - 00.20 - - - - 1000 1000 0 4 1
00.21 - 00.50 150 230 - - 620 1000 9 59 10
00.51 - 01.00 487 211 - - 301 1000 20 82 12
01.01 - 02.00 82 - - - 918 1000 18 35 7
02.01 - 04.00 37 - - - 963 1000 8 11 3
04.01 - 10.00 - - - - - - - - -
10.01 & above - - - - - - - - -
all 231 113 - - 655 1000 56 191 33

wheat

nil (< 0.01) - - - - 1000 1000 1 2 2


00.01 - 00.20 379 33 - - 588 1000 23 192 54
00.21 - 00.50 233 36 3 6 723 1000 184 646 197
00.51 - 01.00 275 49 - - 675 1000 491 849 206
01.01 - 02.00 251 123 12 7 607 1000 663 659 170
02.01 - 04.00 277 147 56 - 519 1000 521 287 69
04.01 - 10.00 - 230 536 - 234 1000 127 35 13
10.01 & above - - - - - - - - -

*Note
1. Paddy: kharif and paddy: rabi, for example, are treated as different “crops” for this purpose.
2. The set of 5 major crops is not a fixed set but varies from household to household; for any particular household it is
understood as the 5 most important field crops cultivated, in terms of value of production, by the household in 1997-
98, from among a list of crop-season combinations involving 12 crops and crop-groups spanning the entire range of
crops cultivated in the country.

A-104
Report no. 451
Appendix I
Cultivation Practices in India

all 248 109 53 3 588 1000 2010 2670 711

*Note
1. Paddy: kharif and paddy: rabi, for example, are treated as different “crops” for this purpose.
2. The set of 5 major crops is not a fixed set but varies from household to household; for any particular household it is
understood as the 5 most important field crops cultivated, in terms of value of production, by the household in 1997-
98, from among a list of crop-season combinations involving 12 crops and crop-groups spanning the entire range of
crops cultivated in the country.

A-105
Report no. 451
Appendix I
Cultivation Practices in India

Table (5.1): Cropwise per 1000 distribution of area under five major crops* by mode of use of tractor, separately for
different size-classes of household ownership holding
Jammu & Kashmir
no. of hhs. reporting
size-class of mode of use of tractor for tilling estd. cultivation of a crop
ownership by hired tractor by other tractor not all area in the crop-group
holding (ha) entirely partly entirely partly used (00 ha) estd.(00) sample
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (10)

other cereals

nil (< 0.01) - - - - 1000 1000 1 2 2


00.01 - 00.20 194 - - - 806 1000 16 143 37
00.21 - 00.50 8 14 - 2 977 1000 139 611 162
00.51 - 01.00 125 21 - - 855 1000 296 707 155
01.01 - 02.00 76 62 - 38 824 1000 301 494 112
02.01 - 04.00 144 78 - - 779 1000 194 189 37
04.01 - 10.00 - - 369 - 631 1000 38 21 6
10.01 & above - - - - - - - - -
all 93 42 14 12 838 1000 985 2167 511

pulses

nil (< 0.01) - - - - 1000 1000 0 2 2


00.01 - 00.20 636 - - - 364 1000 1 44 9
00.21 - 00.50 86 13 - 177 724 1000 12 266 52
00.51 - 01.00 198 70 - 83 650 1000 45 458 85
01.01 - 02.00 169 141 7 44 639 1000 68 352 74
02.01 - 04.00 189 136 - - 675 1000 57 174 33
04.01 - 10.00 - 277 720 - 4 1000 9 13 5
10.01 & above - - - - - - - - -
all 171 120 37 46 626 1000 193 1309 260

oil seeds

nil (< 0.01) - - - - 1000 1000 0 2 1


00.01 - 00.20 118 124 - 27 732 1000 26 223 45
00.21 - 00.50 166 158 - - 676 1000 290 887 157
00.51 - 01.00 404 304 - 16 276 1000 171 764 131
01.01 - 02.00 303 228 - 9 460 1000 83 294 62
02.01 - 04.00 265 170 - - 565 1000 62 144 26
04.01 - 10.00 - 141 436 - 424 1000 9 20 6
10.01 & above - - - - - - - - -

*Note
1. Paddy: kharif and paddy: rabi, for example, are treated as different “crops” for this purpose.
2. The set of 5 major crops is not a fixed set but varies from household to household; for any particular household it is
understood as the 5 most important field crops cultivated, in terms of value of production, by the household in 1997-
98, from among a list of crop-season combinations involving 12 crops and crop-groups spanning the entire range of
crops cultivated in the country.

A-106
Report no. 451
Appendix I
Cultivation Practices in India

all 253 206 6 7 529 1000 642 2333 428

*Note
1. Paddy: kharif and paddy: rabi, for example, are treated as different “crops” for this purpose.
2. The set of 5 major crops is not a fixed set but varies from household to household; for any particular household it is
understood as the 5 most important field crops cultivated, in terms of value of production, by the household in 1997-
98, from among a list of crop-season combinations involving 12 crops and crop-groups spanning the entire range of
crops cultivated in the country.

A-107
Report no. 451
Appendix I
Cultivation Practices in India

Table (5.1): Cropwise per 1000 distribution of area under five major crops* by mode of use of tractor, separately for
different size-classes of household ownership holding
Jammu & Kashmir
no. of hhs. reporting
size-class of mode of use of tractor for tilling estd. cultivation of a crop
ownership by hired tractor by other tract or not all area in the crop-group
holding (ha) entirely partly entirely partly used (00 ha) estd.(00) sample
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (10)

mixed crop

nil (< 0.01) - - - - - - - - -


00.01 - 00.20 90 - - - 910 1000 1 23 4
00.21 - 00.50 - - - - 1000 1000 4 39 9
00.51 - 01.00 - - - - 1000 1000 4 35 7
01.01 - 02.00 756 137 - - 106 1000 12 22 6
02.01 - 04.00 - 1000 - - - 1000 3 7 3
04.01 - 10.00 - - 1000 - - 1000 0 2 1
10.01 & above - - - - - - - - -
all 378 183 10 - 429 1000 23 127 30

vegetables

nil (< 0.01) - - - - 1000 1000 1 11 3


00.01 - 00.20 7 33 - 9 952 1000 39 721 145
00.21 - 00.50 140 101 - 2 756 1000 91 1396 249
00.51 - 01.00 60 79 - - 861 1000 224 1094 182
01.01 - 02.00 68 157 18 26 731 1000 43 399 86
02.01 - 04.00 - 223 101 - 676 1000 17 102 22
04.01 - 10.00 - - 208 - 792 1000 9 24 7
10.01 & above - - - - - - - - -
all 69 92 11 4 825 1000 424 3748 694

fodder

nil (< 0.01) - - - - - - - - -


00.01 - 00.20 330 60 - - 609 1000 12 151 35
00.21 - 00.50 296 98 - 11 594 1000 64 730 171
00.51 - 01.00 391 155 - 10 443 1000 104 700 140
01.01 - 02.00 251 157 25 59 508 1000 87 451 117
02.01 - 04.00 327 156 103 - 414 1000 54 157 47
04.01 - 10.00 - 177 201 - 622 1000 20 34 12
10.01 & above - - - - - - - - -

*Note
1. Paddy: kharif and paddy: rabi, for example, are treated as different “crops” for this purpose.
2. The set of 5 major crops is not a fixed set but varies from household to household; for any particular household it is
understood as the 5 most important field crops cultivated, in terms of value of production, by the household in 1997-
98, from among a list of crop-season combinations involving 12 crops and crop-groups spanning the entire range of
crops cultivated in the country.

A-108
Report no. 451
Appendix I
Cultivation Practices in India

all 302 143 35 20 500 1000 342 2223 522

*Note
1. Paddy: kharif and paddy: rabi, for example, are treated as different “crops” for this purpose.
2. The set of 5 major crops is not a fixed set but varies from household to household; for any particular household it is
understood as the 5 most important field crops cultivated, in terms of value of production, by the household in 1997-
98, from among a list of crop-season combinations involving 12 crops and crop-groups spanning the entire range of
crops cultivated in the country.

A-109
Report no. 451
Appendix I
Cultivation Practices in India

Table (5.1): Cropwise per 1000 distribution of area under five major crops* by mode of use of tractor, separately for
different size-classes of household ownership holding
Jammu & Kashmir
no. of hhs. reporting
size-class of mode of use of tractor for tilling estd. cultivation of a crop
ownership by hired tractor by other tractor not all area in the crop-group
holding (ha) entirely partly entirely partly used (00 ha) estd.(00) sample
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (10)

fruits & nuts

nil (< 0.01) - - - - - - - - -


00.01 - 00.20 - - - - 1000 1000 12 84 20
00.21 - 00.50 21 2 - 11 966 1000 82 551 96
00.51 - 01.00 - - - - 1000 1000 181 535 90
01.01 - 02.00 - - - 4 996 1000 150 234 50
02.01 - 04.00 - - - - 1000 1000 55 45 10
04.01 - 10.00 - - - - 1000 1000 20 16 4
10.01 & above - - - - - - - - -
all 3 0 - 3 993 1000 500 1464 270

others

nil (< 0.01) - - - - - - - - -


00.01 - 00.20 450 61 - - 489 1000 6 51 14
00.21 - 00.50 476 119 - 8 396 1000 28 204 49
00.51 - 01.00 225 95 - - 680 1000 39 130 30
01.01 - 02.00 257 157 7 - 579 1000 43 85 24
02.01 - 04.00 - 14 - - 986 1000 18 20 6
04.01 - 10.00 - - - - - - - - -
10.01 & above - - - - - - - - -
all 266 108 2 2 622 1000 135 491 123

*Note
1. Paddy: kharif and paddy: rabi, for example, are treated as different “crops” for this purpose.
2. The set of 5 major crops is not a fixed set but varies from household to household; for any particular household it is
understood as the 5 most important field crops cultivated, in terms of value of production, by the household in 1997-
98, from among a list of crop-season combinations involving 12 crops and crop-groups spanning the entire range of
crops cultivated in the country.

A-110
Report no. 451
Appendix I
Cultivation Practices in India

Table (5.1): Cropwise per 1000 distribution of area under five major crops* by mode of use of tractor, separately for
different size-classes of household ownership holding
Karnataka
no. of hhs. reporting
size-class of mode of use of tractor for tilling estd. cultivation of a crop
ownership by hired tractor by other tractor not all area in the crop-group
holding (ha) entirely partly entirely partly used (00 ha) estd.(00) sample
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (10)

Paddy(kharif)

nil (< 0.01) - - - - 1000 1000 1 31 1


00.01 - 00.20 - - - - 1000 1000 86 613 34
00.21 - 00.50 58 50 - - 892 1000 431 1344 67
00.51 - 01.00 28 11 - - 962 1000 1457 2666 110
01.01 - 02.00 62 57 25 5 852 1000 3039 3534 148
02.01 - 04.00 137 41 49 27 747 1000 2313 1756 79
04.01 - 10.00 209 64 32 49 646 1000 1403 684 34
10.01 & above - 159 716 - 125 1000 550 116 6
all 93 52 68 16 772 1000 9279 10743 479

Paddy(rabi)

nil (< 0.01) - - - - - - - - -


00.01 - 00.20 - - - - 1000 1000 17 136 5
00.21 - 00.50 - - - - 1000 1000 70 261 10
00.51 - 01.00 56 47 - - 897 1000 185 378 17
01.01 - 02.00 158 245 - - 597 1000 416 623 27
02.01 - 04.00 161 102 48 - 688 1000 470 352 18
04.01 - 10.00 229 267 71 - 432 1000 548 299 13
10.01 & above - - - - - - - - -
all 163 179 36 - 622 1000 1707 2049 90

wheat

nil (< 0.01) - - - - - - - - -


00.01 - 00.20 - - - - 1000 1000 2 21 1
00.21 - 00.50 177 - - - 823 1000 52 151 7
00.51 - 01.00 396 - - - 604 1000 76 198 8
01.01 - 02.00 269 - - - 731 1000 217 326 14
02.01 - 04.00 206 64 151 79 501 1000 339 408 17
04.01 - 10.00 189 197 10 - 604 1000 433 446 19
10.01 & above - 46 360 - 594 1000 254 160 6

*Note
1. Paddy: kharif and paddy: rabi, for example, are treated as different “crops” for this purpose.
2. The set of 5 major crops is not a fixed set but varies from household to household; for any particular household it is
understood as the 5 most important field crops cultivated, in terms of value of production, by the household in 1997-
98, from among a list of crop-season combinations involving 12 crops and crop-groups spanning the entire range of
crops cultivated in the country.

A-111
Report no. 451
Appendix I
Cultivation Practices in India

all 182 86 107 19 606 1000 1374 1711 72

*Note
1. Paddy: kharif and paddy: rabi, for example, are treated as different “crops” for this purpose.
2. The set of 5 major crops is not a fixed set but varies from household to household; for any particular household it is
understood as the 5 most important field crops cultivated, in terms of value of production, by the household in 1997-
98, from among a list of crop-season combinations involving 12 crops and crop-groups spanning the entire range of
crops cultivated in the country.

A-112
Report no. 451
Appendix I
Cultivation Practices in India

Table (5.1): Cropwise per 1000 distribution of area under five major crops* by mode of use of tractor, separately for
different size-classes of household ownership holding
Karnataka
no. of hhs. reporting
size-class of mode of use of tractor for tilling estd. cultivation of a crop
ownership by hired tractor by other tractor not all area in the crop-group
holding (ha) entirely partly entirely partly used (00 ha) estd.(00) sample
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (10)

other cereals

nil (< 0.01) - - - - 1000 1000 40 28 3


00.01 - 00.20 - - - - 1000 1000 162 1013 53
00.21 - 00.50 18 34 - - 948 1000 1214 3784 183
00.51 - 01.00 91 64 6 1 838 1000 3261 5450 240
01.01 - 02.00 65 37 7 - 891 1000 6779 7340 315
02.01 - 04.00 51 130 52 1 766 1000 8531 5300 221
04.01 - 10.00 69 167 41 32 691 1000 9997 3343 143
10.01 & above 72 425 177 - 326 1000 4067 546 23
all 64 147 48 10 731 1000 34052 26804 1181

pulses

nil (< 0.01) - - - - - - - - -


00.01 - 00.20 - - - - 1000 1000 35 164 10
00.21 - 00.50 4 - - - 996 1000 384 1286 62
00.51 - 01.00 4 4 3 1 989 1000 1090 2200 99
01.01 - 02.00 57 17 - - 927 1000 2490 2863 123
02.01 - 04.00 29 12 15 6 939 1000 2670 2172 94
04.01 - 10.00 14 56 24 28 878 1000 3105 1237 57
10.01 & above 43 386 236 - 335 1000 1407 304 13
all 29 71 40 9 850 1000 11180 10226 458

oil seeds

nil (< 0.01) - - - - 1000 1000 39 24 1


00.01 - 00.20 - - - - 1000 1000 37 242 11
00.21 - 00.50 - 6 - - 994 1000 200 625 30
00.51 - 01.00 156 61 - - 782 1000 865 1421 61
01.01 - 02.00 30 99 - - 871 1000 2795 2526 103
02.01 - 04.00 110 220 16 - 654 1000 3009 2115 89
04.01 - 10.00 137 147 31 25 661 1000 4350 1948 81
10.01 & above 225 363 284 - 128 1000 2295 403 16

*Note
1. Paddy: kharif and paddy: rabi, for example, are treated as different “crops” for this purpose.
2. The set of 5 major crops is not a fixed set but varies from household to household; for any particular household it is
understood as the 5 most important field crops cultivated, in terms of value of production, by the household in 1997-
98, from among a list of crop-season combinations involving 12 crops and crop-groups spanning the entire range of
crops cultivated in the country.

A-113
Report no. 451
Appendix I
Cultivation Practices in India

all 122 181 61 8 627 1000 13590 9305 392

*Note
1. Paddy: kharif and paddy: rabi, for example, are treated as different “crops” for this purpose.
2. The set of 5 major crops is not a fixed set but varies from household to household; for any particular household it is
understood as the 5 most important field crops cultivated, in terms of value of production, by the household in 1997-
98, from among a list of crop-season combinations involving 12 crops and crop-groups spanning the entire range of
crops cultivated in the country.

A-114
Report no. 451
Appendix I
Cultivation Practices in India

Table (5.1): Cropwise per 1000 distribution of area under five major crops* by mode of use of tractor, separately for
different size-classes of household ownership holding
Karnataka
no. of hhs. reporting
size-class of mode of use of tractor for tilling estd. cultivation of a crop
ownership by hired tractor by other tractor not all area in the crop-group
holding (ha) entirely partly entirely partly used (00 ha) estd.(00) sample
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (10)

mixed crop

nil (< 0.01) - - - - - - - - -


00.01 - 00.20 170 - - - 830 1000 29 189 9
00.21 - 00.50 39 - - - 961 1000 189 582 26
00.51 - 01.00 50 28 51 - 870 1000 709 1193 54
01.01 - 02.00 121 21 10 19 830 1000 1390 1365 56
02.01 - 04.00 287 34 23 - 656 1000 864 590 28
04.01 - 10.00 264 51 - 44 641 1000 1832 602 24
10.01 & above 365 45 - - 590 1000 362 111 5
all 201 35 13 20 731 1000 5374 4633 202

sugar cane

nil (< 0.01) - - - - - - - - -


00.01 - 00.20 - - - - 1000 1000 11 72 3
00.21 - 00.50 - - - - 1000 1000 41 162 7
00.51 - 01.00 137 - 18 - 846 1000 157 448 20
01.01 - 02.00 164 - 47 - 789 1000 738 1078 45
02.01 - 04.00 158 - 111 - 730 1000 700 536 24
04.01 - 10.00 11 - 312 - 678 1000 338 301 14
10.01 & above 169 168 663 - - 1000 138 74 3
all 132 11 147 - 710 1000 2123 2670 116

vegetables

nil (< 0.01) - - - - - - - 39 1


00.01 - 00.20 - - - - 1000 1000 17 168 7
00.21 - 00.50 - 195 - - 805 1000 67 350 17
00.51 - 01.00 83 146 - - 771 1000 360 727 31
01.01 - 02.00 234 161 34 - 571 1000 542 886 38
02.01 - 04.00 24 - 135 - 841 1000 384 437 20
04.01 - 10.00 325 161 - 232 281 1000 231 248 12
10.01 & above - 65 - - 935 1000 65 48 3

*Note
1. Paddy: kharif and paddy: rabi, for example, are treated as different “crops” for this purpose.
2. The set of 5 major crops is not a fixed set but varies from household to household; for any particular household it is
understood as the 5 most important field crops cultivated, in terms of value of production, by the household in 1997-
98, from among a list of crop-season combinations involving 12 crops and crop-groups spanning the entire range of
crops cultivated in the country.

A-115
Report no. 451
Appendix I
Cultivation Practices in India

all 145 117 42 32 664 1000 1666 2904 129

*Note
1. Paddy: kharif and paddy: rabi, for example, are treated as different “crops” for this purpose.
2. The set of 5 major crops is not a fixed set but varies from household to household; for any particular household it is
understood as the 5 most important field crops cultivated, in terms of value of production, by the household in 1997-
98, from among a list of crop-season combinations involving 12 crops and crop-groups spanning the entire range of
crops cultivated in the country.

A-116
Report no. 451
Appendix I
Cultivation Practices in India

Table (5.1): Cropwise per 1000 distribution of area under five major crops* by mode of use of tractor, separately for
different size-classes of household ownership holding
Karnataka
no. of hhs. reporting
size-class of mode of use of tractor for tilling estd. cultivation of a crop
ownership by hired tractor by other tractor not all area in the crop-group
holding (ha) entirely partly entirely partly used (00 ha) estd.(00) sample
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (10)

fodder

nil (< 0.01) - - - - - - - - -


00.01 - 00.20 - - - - - - - - -
00.21 - 00.50 - - - - 1000 1000 5 53 2
00.51 - 01.00 - - - - 1000 1000 42 93 4
01.01 - 02.00 - 163 139 - 698 1000 163 305 12
02.01 - 04.00 - - - - 1000 1000 77 241 9
04.01 - 10.00 502 - - - 498 1000 191 168 7
10.01 & above - - - - 1000 1000 94 23 1
all 167 47 40 - 746 1000 572 884 35

fruits & nuts

nil (< 0.01) - - - - - - - 24 1


00.01 - 00.20 - - - - 1000 1000 36 751 32
00.21 - 00.50 - - - - 1000 1000 61 527 30
00.51 - 01.00 - - - 5 995 1000 322 1002 46
01.01 - 02.00 15 - 13 - 972 1000 370 863 38
02.01 - 04.00 20 93 69 - 819 1000 514 499 21
04.01 - 10.00 131 - 203 - 667 1000 253 154 8
10.01 & above - - - - 1000 1000 52 36 2
all 30 30 57 1 882 1000 1608 3856 178

other cash crops

nil (< 0.01) - - - - 1000 1000 19 24 1


00.01 - 00.20 - - - - 1000 1000 16 121 5
00.21 - 00.50 54 - - - 946 1000 184 450 20
00.51 - 01.00 61 - - - 939 1000 518 1255 56
01.01 - 02.00 67 39 20 3 871 1000 1347 2025 88
02.01 - 04.00 164 30 86 19 701 1000 1866 1520 69
04.01 - 10.00 277 107 50 30 536 1000 2102 1028 45
10.01 & above 99 - 360 - 541 1000 1046 228 10

*Note
1. Paddy: kharif and paddy: rabi, for example, are treated as different “crops” for this purpose.
2. The set of 5 major crops is not a fixed set but varies from household to household; for any particular household it is
understood as the 5 most important field crops cultivated, in terms of value of production, by the household in 1997-
98, from among a list of crop-season combinations involving 12 crops and crop-groups spanning the entire range of
crops cultivated in the country.

A-117
Report no. 451
Appendix I
Cultivation Practices in India

all 158 47 94 14 686 1000 7099 6652 294

Table (5.1): Cropwise per 1000 distribution of area under five major crops* by mode of use of tractor, separately for
different size-classes of household ownership holding
Karnataka
no. of hhs. reporting
size-class of mode of use of tractor for tilling estd. cultivation of a crop
ownership by hired tractor by other tractor not all area in the crop-group
holding (ha) entirely partly entirely partly used (00 ha) estd.(00) sample
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (10)

others

nil (< 0.01) - - - - - - - - -


00.01 - 00.20 - - - - 1000 1000 16 142 6
00.21 - 00.50 - - - - 1000 1000 10 71 5
00.51 - 01.00 - - - - 1000 1000 91 377 17
01.01 - 02.00 - - - - 1000 1000 283 661 24
02.01 - 04.00 134 - 44 - 822 1000 274 404 16
04.01 - 10.00 257 - - - 743 1000 178 163 6
10.01 & above 408 - - - 592 1000 67 50 2
all 120 - 13 - 867 1000 919 1869 76

*Note
1. Paddy: kharif and paddy: rabi, for example, are treated as different “crops” for this purpose.
2. The set of 5 major crops is not a fixed set but varies from household to household; for any particular household it is
understood as the 5 most important field crops cultivated, in terms of value of production, by the household in 1997-
98, from among a list of crop-season combinations involving 12 crops and crop-groups spanning the entire range of
crops cultivated in the country.

A-118
Report no. 451
Appendix I
Cultivation Practices in India

Table (5.1): Cropwise per 1000 distribution of area under five major crops* by mode of use of tractor, separately for
different size-classes of household ownership holding
Kerala
no. of hhs. reporting
size-class of mode of use of tractor for tilling estd. cultivation of a crop
ownership by hired tractor by other tractor not all area in the crop-group
holding (ha) entirely partly entirely partly used (00 ha) estd.(00) sample
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (10)

Paddy(kharif)

nil (< 0.01) - - - - - - - - -


00.01 - 00.20 264 136 171 49 380 1000 68 655 41
00.21 - 00.50 338 94 136 - 432 1000 238 1132 75
00.51 - 01.00 518 56 154 - 273 1000 368 1014 62
01.01 - 02.00 558 123 62 - 257 1000 202 491 31
02.01 - 04.00 659 - - - 341 1000 192 187 11
04.01 - 10.00 91 - - - 909 1000 129 86 5
10.01 & above - - - - 1000 1000 170 17 1
all 395 56 83 2 464 1000 1367 3582 226

Paddy(rabi)

nil (< 0.01) - - - - - - - - -


00.01 - 00.20 611 - 38 41 310 1000 23 249 16
00.21 - 00.50 549 - 54 7 389 1000 122 650 44
00.51 - 01.00 416 - - - 584 1000 159 499 30
01.01 - 02.00 309 85 97 - 509 1000 102 327 20
02.01 - 04.00 768 - 232 - - 1000 87 103 6
04.01 - 10.00 398 - 602 - - 1000 24 32 2
10.01 & above - - - - - - - - -
all 493 17 100 4 386 1000 517 1860 118

other cereals

nil (< 0.01) - - - - - - - - -


00.01 - 00.20 279 - - - 721 1000 33 583 33
00.21 - 00.50 770 - - - 230 1000 115 306 21
00.51 - 01.00 - - 141 60 799 1000 36 240 13
01.01 - 02.00 - - - - 1000 1000 9 78 4
02.01 - 04.00 - - - - 1000 1000 23 17 1
04.01 - 10.00 - - - - - - - - -
10.01 & above - - - - - - - - -

*Note
1. Paddy: kharif and paddy: rabi, for example, are treated as different “crops” for this purpose.
2. The set of 5 major crops is not a fixed set but varies from household to household; for any particular household it is
understood as the 5 most important field crops cultivated, in terms of value of production, by the household in 1997-
98, from among a list of crop-season combinations involving 12 crops and crop-groups spanning the entire range of
crops cultivated in the country.

A-119
Report no. 451
Appendix I
Cultivation Practices in India

all 454 - 23 10 513 1000 216 1224 72

*Note
1. Paddy: kharif and paddy: rabi, for example, are treated as different “crops” for this purpose.
2. The set of 5 major crops is not a fixed set but varies from household to household; for any particular household it is
understood as the 5 most important field crops cultivated, in terms of value of production, by the household in 1997-
98, from among a list of crop-season combinations involving 12 crops and crop-groups spanning the entire range of
crops cultivated in the country.

A-120
Report no. 451
Appendix I
Cultivation Practices in India

Table (5.1): Cropwise per 1000 distribution of area under five major crops* by mode of use of tractor, separately for
different size-classes of household ownership holding
Kerala
no. of hhs. reporting
size-class of mode of use of tractor for tilling estd. cultivation of a crop
ownership by hired tractor by other tractor not all area in the crop-group
holding (ha) entirely partly entirely partly used (00 ha) estd.(00) sample
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (10)

oil seeds

nil (< 0.01) - - - - - - - - -


00.01 - 00.20 - 9 - - 991 1000 72 2040 124
00.21 - 00.50 76 - - - 924 1000 105 839 53
00.51 - 01.00 103 - - - 897 1000 86 368 25
01.01 - 02.00 - - - - 1000 1000 75 177 12
02.01 - 04.00 - - - - 1000 1000 51 52 3
04.01 - 10.00 - - - - 1000 1000 96 69 4
10.01 & above - - - - 1000 1000 3 17 1
all 35 1 - - 964 1000 488 3562 222

mixed crop

nil (< 0.01) - - - - - - - - -


00.01 - 00.20 - - - - 1000 1000 82 1256 87
00.21 - 00.50 - - - 28 972 1000 100 481 31
00.51 - 01.00 - - - - 1000 1000 74 307 19
01.01 - 02.00 - - - - 1000 1000 170 261 15
02.01 - 04.00 136 - - - 864 1000 53 89 5
04.01 - 10.00 - - - - 1000 1000 1 19 1
10.01 & above - - - - - - - - -
all 15 - - 6 979 1000 480 2414 158

vegetables

nil (< 0.01) - - - - - - - - -


00.01 - 00.20 - - - - 1000 1000 81 3852 236
00.21 - 00.50 - 28 - - 972 1000 57 1322 88
00.51 - 01.00 - 13 - - 987 1000 59 809 48
01.01 - 02.00 - 95 - - 905 1000 33 330 19
02.01 - 04.00 - - - - 1000 1000 9 81 5
04.01 - 10.00 - - - - 1000 1000 20 69 4
10.01 & above - - - - 1000 1000 3 17 1

*Note
1. Paddy: kharif and paddy: rabi, for example, are treated as different “crops” for this purpose.
2. The set of 5 major crops is not a fixed set but varies from household to household; for any particular household it is
understood as the 5 most important field crops cultivated, in terms of value of production, by the household in 1997-
98, from among a list of crop-season combinations involving 12 crops and crop-groups spanning the entire range of
crops cultivated in the country.

A-121
Report no. 451
Appendix I
Cultivation Practices in India

all - 21 - - 979 1000 263 6481 401

*Note
1. Paddy: kharif and paddy: rabi, for example, are treated as different “crops” for this purpose.
2. The set of 5 major crops is not a fixed set but varies from household to household; for any particular household it is
understood as the 5 most important field crops cultivated, in terms of value of production, by the household in 1997-
98, from among a list of crop-season combinations involving 12 crops and crop-groups spanning the entire range of
crops cultivated in the country.

A-122
Report no. 451
Appendix I
Cultivation Practices in India

Table (5.1): Cropwise per 1000 distribution of area under five major crops* by mode of use of tractor, separately for
different size-classes of household ownership holding
Kerala
no. of hhs. reporting
size-class of mode of use of tractor for tilling estd. cultivation of a crop
ownership by hired tractor by other tractor not all area in the crop-group
holding (ha) entirely partly entirely partly used (00 ha) estd.(00) sample
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (10)

fruits & nuts

nil (< 0.01) - - - - - - - 35 2


00.01 - 00.20 - - - - 1000 1000 461 12645 787
00.21 - 00.50 5 1 16 - 979 1000 436 3166 206
00.51 - 01.00 13 - - 5 982 1000 326 1671 98
01.01 - 02.00 - - 17 49 934 1000 274 901 55
02.01 - 04.00 - - - - 1000 1000 67 225 13
04.01 - 10.00 - - - - 1000 1000 18 67 4
10.01 & above - - - - 1000 1000 3 17 1
all 4 0 7 10 979 1000 1585 18728 1166

other cash crops

nil (< 0.01) - - - - 1000 1000 1 40 2


00.01 - 00.20 - 7 2 3 988 1000 440 8282 508
00.21 - 00.50 8 - 4 - 988 1000 669 3233 208
00.51 - 01.00 - - - - 1000 1000 862 1940 111
01.01 - 02.00 13 - - 11 976 1000 1103 1168 67
02.01 - 04.00 14 - - 16 970 1000 486 283 17
04.01 - 10.00 - - - 170 830 1000 501 99 6
10.01 & above - - - - 1000 1000 179 32 2
all 6 1 1 25 967 1000 4241 15077 921

others

nil (< 0.01) - - - - - - - - -


00.01 - 00.20 - - - - 1000 1000 66 3293 192
00.21 - 00.50 - - - - 1000 1000 79 977 61
00.51 - 01.00 11 - - - 989 1000 118 794 45
01.01 - 02.00 - - - 109 891 1000 95 494 28
02.01 - 04.00 - - - - 1000 1000 35 143 8
04.01 - 10.00 - - - - 1000 1000 0 17 1
10.01 & above - - - - - - - - -

*Note
1. Paddy: kharif and paddy: rabi, for example, are treated as different “crops” for this purpose.
2. The set of 5 major crops is not a fixed set but varies from household to household; for any particular household it is
understood as the 5 most important field crops cultivated, in terms of value of production, by the household in 1997-
98, from among a list of crop-season combinations involving 12 crops and crop-groups spanning the entire range of
crops cultivated in the country.

A-123
Report no. 451
Appendix I
Cultivation Practices in India

all 3 - - 26 970 1000 393 5718 335

*Note
1. Paddy: kharif and paddy: rabi, for example, are treated as different “crops” for this purpose.
2. The set of 5 major crops is not a fixed set but varies from household to household; for any particular household it is
understood as the 5 most important field crops cultivated, in terms of value of production, by the household in 1997-
98, from among a list of crop-season combinations involving 12 crops and crop-groups spanning the entire range of
crops cultivated in the country.

A-124
Report no. 451
Appendix I
Cultivation Practices in India

Table (5.1): Cropwise per 1000 distribution of area under five major crops* by mode of use of tractor, separately for
different size-classes of household ownership holding
Madhya Pradesh
no. of hhs. reporting
size-class of mode of use of tractor for tilling estd. cultivation of a crop
ownership by hired tractor by other tractor not all area in the crop-group
holding (ha) entirely partly entirely partly used (00 ha) estd.(00) sample
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (10)

Paddy(kharif)

nil (< 0.01) - 26 352 - 622 1000 217 229 11


00.01 - 00.20 16 44 - - 940 1000 248 1547 88
00.21 - 00.50 96 13 - - 891 1000 2038 5951 330
00.51 - 01.00 47 35 1 - 917 1000 5344 8553 430
01.01 - 02.00 83 34 6 2 875 1000 12419 11748 585
02.01 - 04.00 61 39 12 1 886 1000 16634 9924 486
04.01 - 10.00 68 92 61 14 764 1000 11073 3393 175
10.01 & above - - 621 106 273 1000 2283 323 17
all 65 46 49 9 831 1000 50255 41668 2122

Paddy(rabi)

nil (< 0.01) - - - - - - - - -


00.01 - 00.20 - - - - 1000 1000 8 79 4
00.21 - 00.50 375 80 - - 545 1000 83 297 15
00.51 - 01.00 160 164 - - 676 1000 123 216 11
01.01 - 02.00 214 338 - - 447 1000 310 375 20
02.01 - 04.00 317 218 - - 465 1000 416 235 12
04.01 - 10.00 - - 541 - 459 1000 303 93 4
10.01 & above - - - 1000 - 1000 57 20 1
all 192 171 126 44 468 1000 1299 1315 67

wheat

nil (< 0.01) 65 - 657 - 278 1000 116 63 3


00.01 - 00.20 414 85 21 - 480 1000 98 631 35
00.21 - 00.50 313 33 - - 654 1000 1263 3867 213
00.51 - 01.00 282 54 15 1 648 1000 4134 6639 349
01.01 - 02.00 238 83 18 2 659 1000 11262 11396 602
02.01 - 04.00 180 103 94 8 615 1000 16358 10632 544
04.01 - 10.00 217 104 173 26 480 1000 17223 5630 300
10.01 & above 94 56 771 27 53 1000 5109 824 51

*Note
1. Paddy: kharif and paddy: rabi, for example, are treated as different “crops” for this purpose.
2. The set of 5 major crops is not a fixed set but varies from household to household; for any particular household it is
understood as the 5 most important field crops cultivated, in terms of value of production, by the household in 1997-
98, from among a list of crop-season combinations involving 12 crops and crop-groups spanning the entire range of
crops cultivated in the country.

A-125
Report no. 451
Appendix I
Cultivation Practices in India

all 206 89 158 13 533 1000 55564 39682 2097

*Note
1. Paddy: kharif and paddy: rabi, for example, are treated as different “crops” for this purpose.
2. The set of 5 major crops is not a fixed set but varies from household to household; for any particular household it is
understood as the 5 most important field crops cultivated, in terms of value of production, by the household in 1997-
98, from among a list of crop-season combinations involving 12 crops and crop-groups spanning the entire range of
crops cultivated in the country.

A-126
Report no. 451
Appendix I
Cultivation Practices in India

Table (5.1): Cropwise per 1000 distribution of area under five major crops* by mode of use of tractor, separately for
different size-classes of household ownership holding
Madhya Pradesh
no. of hhs. reporting
size-class of mode of use of tractor for tilling estd. cultivation of a crop
ownership by hired tractor by other tractor not all area in the crop-group
holding (ha) entirely partly entirely partly used (00 ha) estd.(00) sample
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (10)

other cereals

nil (< 0.01) - - - - 1000 1000 63 135 7


00.01 - 00.20 428 - - - 572 1000 22 161 12
00.21 - 00.50 213 58 - 7 722 1000 322 1105 73
00.51 - 01.00 153 53 20 - 774 1000 1227 2676 150
01.01 - 02.00 86 42 3 - 869 1000 3737 5615 302
02.01 - 04.00 77 51 48 8 816 1000 7086 5992 307
04.01 - 10.00 86 103 70 47 694 1000 7133 3275 166
10.01 & above 117 13 580 55 236 1000 2254 492 29
all 92 63 100 24 722 1000 21844 19451 1046

pulses

nil (< 0.01) - - 531 - 469 1000 126 106 6


00.01 - 00.20 337 - - - 663 1000 46 357 22
00.21 - 00.50 150 - 31 - 819 1000 277 1356 87
00.51 - 01.00 119 40 7 2 833 1000 1500 4495 234
01.01 - 02.00 150 78 9 1 762 1000 4213 8914 456
02.01 - 04.00 119 67 55 9 750 1000 6760 9460 470
04.01 - 10.00 174 106 118 20 582 1000 7801 4595 244
10.01 & above 111 80 660 22 127 1000 2310 515 32
all 143 80 128 12 637 1000 23033 29797 1551

oil seeds

nil (< 0.01) 59 - 522 - 418 1000 128 71 4


00.01 - 00.20 584 5 40 - 370 1000 52 339 19
00.21 - 00.50 417 24 - 14 544 1000 583 1912 106
00.51 - 01.00 349 79 23 - 550 1000 2382 4795 233
01.01 - 02.00 273 54 20 - 652 1000 7058 8312 420
02.01 - 04.00 211 76 100 8 605 1000 12088 9398 475
04.01 - 10.00 282 113 190 2 412 1000 12945 4403 238
10.01 & above 114 32 764 73 17 1000 6088 682 41

*Note
1. Paddy: kharif and paddy: rabi, for example, are treated as different “crops” for this purpose.
2. The set of 5 major crops is not a fixed set but varies from household to household; for any particular household it is
understood as the 5 most important field crops cultivated, in terms of value of production, by the household in 1997-
98, from among a list of crop-season combinations involving 12 crops and crop-groups spanning the entire range of
crops cultivated in the country.

A-127
Report no. 451
Appendix I
Cultivation Practices in India

all 241 76 208 14 461 1000 41323 29911 1536

*Note
1. Paddy: kharif and paddy: rabi, for example, are treated as different “crops” for this purpose.
2. The set of 5 major crops is not a fixed set but varies from household to household; for any particular household it is
understood as the 5 most important field crops cultivated, in terms of value of production, by the household in 1997-
98, from among a list of crop-season combinations involving 12 crops and crop-groups spanning the entire range of
crops cultivated in the country.

A-128
Report no. 451
Appendix I
Cultivation Practices in India

Table (5.1): Cropwise per 1000 distribution of area under five major crops* by mode of use of tractor, separately for
different size-classes of household ownership holding
Madhya Pradesh
no. of hhs. reporting
size-class of mode of use of tractor for tilling estd. cultivation of a crop
ownership by hired tractor by other tractor not all area in the crop-group
holding (ha) entirely partly entirely partly used (00 ha) estd.(00) sample
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (10)

mixed crop

nil (< 0.01) - - - - 1000 1000 74 23 1


00.01 - 00.20 133 - - - 867 1000 24 129 8
00.21 - 00.50 223 44 - - 733 1000 109 407 22
00.51 - 01.00 315 84 9 - 592 1000 626 1217 66
01.01 - 02.00 233 37 2 22 707 1000 1448 2203 119
02.01 - 04.00 85 74 25 - 815 1000 2955 2693 137
04.01 - 10.00 124 163 19 10 684 1000 2988 1183 65
10.01 & above 84 - 916 - - 1000 305 66 5
all 142 96 49 7 706 1000 8529 7920 423

sugar cane

nil (< 0.01) - - - - 1000 1000 7 23 1


00.01 - 00.20 - - - - - - - - -
00.21 - 00.50 - - - - 1000 1000 2 7 1
00.51 - 01.00 - 1000 - - - 1000 5 14 1
01.01 - 02.00 159 252 - - 588 1000 72 209 10
02.01 - 04.00 97 88 115 - 699 1000 163 257 13
04.01 - 10.00 64 377 120 - 438 1000 213 253 14
10.01 & above - - 1000 - - 1000 66 33 2
all 78 223 209 - 491 1000 527 797 42

vegetables

nil (< 0.01) - - - - 1000 1000 8 92 5


00.01 - 00.20 - - - - 1000 1000 15 124 7
00.21 - 00.50 - - - - 1000 1000 78 425 33
00.51 - 01.00 38 71 - - 891 1000 118 876 39
01.01 - 02.00 56 - 25 15 904 1000 576 2093 88
02.01 - 04.00 36 - 5 - 958 1000 805 2188 93
04.01 - 10.00 158 - 57 99 686 1000 587 860 41
10.01 & above - - 777 - 223 1000 139 72 4

*Note
1. Paddy: kharif and paddy: rabi, for example, are treated as different “crops” for this purpose.
2. The set of 5 major crops is not a fixed set but varies from household to household; for any particular household it is
understood as the 5 most important field crops cultivated, in terms of value of production, by the household in 1997-
98, from among a list of crop-season combinations involving 12 crops and crop-groups spanning the entire range of
crops cultivated in the country.

A-129
Report no. 451
Appendix I
Cultivation Practices in India

all 68 4 69 29 830 1000 2327 6731 310

*Note
1. Paddy: kharif and paddy: rabi, for example, are treated as different “crops” for this purpose.
2. The set of 5 major crops is not a fixed set but varies from household to household; for any particular household it is
understood as the 5 most important field crops cultivated, in terms of value of production, by the household in 1997-
98, from among a list of crop-season combinations involving 12 crops and crop-groups spanning the entire range of
crops cultivated in the country.

A-130
Report no. 451
Appendix I
Cultivation Practices in India

Table (5.1): Cropwise per 1000 distribution of area under five major crops* by mode of use of tractor, separately for
different size-classes of household ownership holding
Madhya Pradesh
no. of hhs. reporting
size-class of mode of use of tractor for tilling estd. cultivation of a crop
ownership by hired tractor by other tractor not all area in the crop-group
holding (ha) entirely partly entirely partly used (00 ha) estd.(00) sample
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (10)

fodder

nil (< 0.01) - - - - 1000 1000 9 9 1


00.01 - 00.20 - 214 - - 786 1000 3 90 4
00.21 - 00.50 129 - - - 871 1000 14 92 4
00.51 - 01.00 431 85 - - 484 1000 31 147 9
01.01 - 02.00 321 9 20 - 650 1000 125 602 30
02.01 - 04.00 137 10 59 - 793 1000 453 979 49
04.01 - 10.00 105 161 239 - 494 1000 422 576 33
10.01 & above 234 60 625 81 - 1000 190 159 10
all 165 71 200 12 552 1000 1247 2654 140

other cash crops

nil (< 0.01) - - - - - - - - -


00.01 - 00.20 244 - - - 756 1000 8 35 3
00.21 - 00.50 216 36 - - 748 1000 85 348 22
00.51 - 01.00 51 68 31 - 849 1000 263 649 37
01.01 - 02.00 120 20 - - 860 1000 1004 1525 78
02.01 - 04.00 157 39 19 - 786 1000 1564 1563 75
04.01 - 10.00 125 60 76 60 679 1000 2107 974 45
10.01 & above 244 78 307 69 302 1000 964 224 12
all 150 51 83 32 685 1000 5995 5316 272

others

nil (< 0.01) - - - - - - - - -


00.01 - 00.20 1000 - - - - 1000 3 31 1
00.21 - 00.50 302 - - - 698 1000 22 84 4
00.51 - 01.00 28 - - - 972 1000 208 357 17
01.01 - 02.00 195 24 - - 781 1000 319 485 22
02.01 - 04.00 30 10 11 - 949 1000 912 605 30
04.01 - 10.00 327 74 - - 599 1000 312 169 8
10.01 & above - - - - 1000 1000 66 29 2
all 112 22 5 - 860 1000 1842 1760 84

*Note
1. Paddy: kharif and paddy: rabi, for example, are treated as different “crops” for this purpose.
2. The set of 5 major crops is not a fixed set but varies from household to household; for any particular household it is
understood as the 5 most important field crops cultivated, in terms of value of production, by the household in 1997-
98, from among a list of crop-season combinations involving 12 crops and crop-groups spanning the entire range of
crops cultivated in the country.

A-131
Report no. 451
Appendix I
Cultivation Practices in India

Table (5.1): Cropwise per 1000 distribution of area under five major crops* by mode of use of tractor, separately for
different size-classes of household ownership holding
Maharashtra
no. of hhs. reporting
size-class of mode of use of tractor for tilling estd. cultivation of a crop
ownership by hired tractor by other tractor not all area in the crop-group
holding (ha) entirely partly entirely partly used (00 ha) estd.(00) sample
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (10)

Paddy(kharif)

nil (< 0.01) - - - - 1000 1000 30 40 2


00.01 - 00.20 18 - - - 982 1000 274 2327 108
00.21 - 00.50 15 - - - 985 1000 1347 4445 207
00.51 - 01.00 4 4 4 - 988 1000 2142 3939 179
01.01 - 02.00 49 9 15 - 927 1000 3075 3599 165
02.01 - 04.00 21 4 26 - 949 1000 2917 2273 108
04.01 - 10.00 19 60 57 - 864 1000 1867 1157 55
10.01 & above - 144 - - 856 1000 235 212 9
all 24 16 20 - 940 1000 11884 17992 833

Paddy(rabi)

nil (< 0.01) - - - - - - - - -


00.01 - 00.20 - - - - 1000 1000 3 23 1
00.21 - 00.50 - - - - 1000 1000 41 156 12
00.51 - 01.00 - - - - 1000 1000 81 131 5
01.01 - 02.00 - - - - 1000 1000 122 125 5
02.01 - 04.00 - - - - 1000 1000 44 88 3
04.01 - 10.00 - - - - - - - - -
10.01 & above - - - - - - - - -
all - - - - 1000 1000 292 522 26

wheat

nil (< 0.01) - - - - - - - - -


00.01 - 00.20 - - - - 1000 1000 28 80 5
00.21 - 00.50 320 61 - - 619 1000 113 549 30
00.51 - 01.00 104 23 - 18 855 1000 656 1658 80
01.01 - 02.00 194 22 10 3 772 1000 1587 3024 146
02.01 - 04.00 45 19 36 4 896 1000 2197 3064 147
04.01 - 10.00 155 33 33 - 778 1000 2555 2147 101
10.01 & above 312 20 262 - 405 1000 838 426 19
*Note
1. Paddy: kharif and paddy: rabi, for example, are treated as different “crops” for this purpose.
2. The set of 5 major crops is not a fixed set but varies from household to household; for any particular household it is
understood as the 5 most important field crops cultivated, in terms of value of production, by the household in 1997-
98, from among a list of crop-season combinations involving 12 crops and crop-groups spanning the entire range of
crops cultivated in the country.

A-132
Report no. 451
Appendix I
Cultivation Practices in India

all 146 25 50 3 775 1000 7973 10949 528

*Note
1. Paddy: kharif and paddy: rabi, for example, are treated as different “crops” for this purpose.
2. The set of 5 major crops is not a fixed set but varies from household to household; for any particular household it is
understood as the 5 most important field crops cultivated, in terms of value of production, by the household in 1997-
98, from among a list of crop-season combinations involving 12 crops and crop-groups spanning the entire range of
crops cultivated in the country.

A-133
Report no. 451
Appendix I
Cultivation Practices in India

Table (5.1): Cropwise per 1000 distribution of area under five major crops* by mode of use of tractor, separately for
different size-classes of household ownership holding
Maharashtra
no. of hhs. reporting
size-class of mode of use of tractor for tilling estd. cultivation of a crop
ownership by hired tractor by other tractor not all area in the crop-group
holding (ha) entirely partly entirely partly used (00 ha) estd.(00) sample
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (10)

other cereals

nil (< 0.01) - - - - 1000 1000 116 137 5


00.01 - 00.20 179 - - - 821 1000 131 839 43
00.21 - 00.50 125 21 - - 854 1000 1018 3452 162
00.51 - 01.00 50 16 - 0 934 1000 3696 6407 302
01.01 - 02.00 101 9 12 1 876 1000 9374 10299 487
02.01 - 04.00 80 11 25 5 880 1000 12415 8322 388
04.01 - 10.00 110 49 27 - 814 1000 12155 5156 235
10.01 & above 37 11 116 131 705 1000 3861 762 35
all 88 22 28 13 849 1000 42767 35375 1657

pulses

nil (< 0.01) - - - - 1000 1000 9 22 2


00.01 - 00.20 276 - - - 724 1000 17 90 5
00.21 - 00.50 83 - - - 917 1000 157 744 36
00.51 - 01.00 60 - 29 - 911 1000 639 2152 99
01.01 - 02.00 82 12 4 - 901 1000 2152 4794 223
02.01 - 04.00 53 9 26 - 912 1000 3236 4401 206
04.01 - 10.00 55 19 12 - 913 1000 3732 3005 140
10.01 & above 82 - 213 - 705 1000 1061 451 21
all 63 12 35 - 890 1000 11002 15659 732

oil seeds

nil (< 0.01) - - - - - - - - -


00.01 - 00.20 417 - - - 583 1000 20 204 9
00.21 - 00.50 200 - - 22 778 1000 97 414 19
00.51 - 01.00 154 - - 23 824 1000 526 1399 61
01.01 - 02.00 133 4 - 29 834 1000 1271 2101 98
02.01 - 04.00 97 5 3 - 896 1000 1856 2026 92
04.01 - 10.00 157 20 65 - 758 1000 2550 1712 77
10.01 & above 88 - 350 - 561 1000 657 195 9

*Note
1. Paddy: kharif and paddy: rabi, for example, are treated as different “crops” for this purpose.
2. The set of 5 major crops is not a fixed set but varies from household to household; for any particular household it is
understood as the 5 most important field crops cultivated, in terms of value of production, by the household in 1997-
98, from among a list of crop-season combinations involving 12 crops and crop-groups spanning the entire range of
crops cultivated in the country.

A-134
Report no. 451
Appendix I
Cultivation Practices in India

all 131 9 58 7 795 1000 6977 8051 365

*Note
1. Paddy: kharif and paddy: rabi, for example, are treated as different “crops” for this purpose.
2. The set of 5 major crops is not a fixed set but varies from household to household; for any particular household it is
understood as the 5 most important field crops cultivated, in terms of value of production, by the household in 1997-
98, from among a list of crop-season combinations involving 12 crops and crop-groups spanning the entire range of
crops cultivated in the country.

A-135
Report no. 451
Appendix I
Cultivation Practices in India

Table (5.1): Cropwise per 1000 distribution of area under five major crops* by mode of use of tractor, separately for
different size-classes of household ownership holding
Maharashtra
no. of hhs. reporting
size-class of mode of use of tractor for tilling estd. cultivation of a crop
ownership by hired tractor by other tractor not all area in the crop-group
holding (ha) entirely partly entirely partly used (00 ha) estd.(00) sample
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (10)

mixed crop

nil (< 0.01) - - - - - - - - -


00.01 - 00.20 - - - - 1000 1000 1 23 2
00.21 - 00.50 - - - - 1000 1000 57 161 7
00.51 - 01.00 - - - - 1000 1000 332 448 21
01.01 - 02.00 41 - - - 959 1000 696 722 35
02.01 - 04.00 - 38 - - 962 1000 1019 743 38
04.01 - 10.00 68 17 - - 915 1000 2417 723 34
10.01 & above 914 - - - 86 1000 63 16 2
all 55 17 - - 928 1000 4585 2835 139

sugar cane

nil (< 0.01) - - - - - - - - -


00.01 - 00.20 526 9 - - 465 1000 47 425 24
00.21 - 00.50 522 133 - - 346 1000 134 588 25
00.51 - 01.00 474 72 - - 454 1000 321 811 35
01.01 - 02.00 421 177 53 20 329 1000 757 1267 58
02.01 - 04.00 442 - 211 - 347 1000 768 868 42
04.01 - 10.00 294 93 175 - 437 1000 881 507 22
10.01 & above 356 - 291 - 353 1000 466 143 8
all 394 76 146 4 379 1000 3375 4609 214

vegetables

nil (< 0.01) - - - - - - - - -


00.01 - 00.20 - - - - 1000 1000 22 343 14
00.21 - 00.50 481 - - - 519 1000 22 173 9
00.51 - 01.00 251 - - - 749 1000 134 517 26
01.01 - 02.00 283 9 12 - 696 1000 471 1254 65
02.01 - 04.00 269 59 53 30 589 1000 529 1118 54
04.01 - 10.00 19 20 - - 962 1000 432 562 27
10.01 & above - - 151 - 849 1000 302 190 8

*Note
1. Paddy: kharif and paddy: rabi, for example, are treated as different “crops” for this purpose.
2. The set of 5 major crops is not a fixed set but varies from household to household; for any particular household it is
understood as the 5 most important field crops cultivated, in terms of value of production, by the household in 1997-
98, from among a list of crop-season combinations involving 12 crops and crop-groups spanning the entire range of
crops cultivated in the country.

A-136
Report no. 451
Appendix I
Cultivation Practices in India

all 171 23 42 8 756 1000 1911 4156 203

*Note
1. Paddy: kharif and paddy: rabi, for example, are treated as different “crops” for this purpose.
2. The set of 5 major crops is not a fixed set but varies from household to household; for any particular household it is
understood as the 5 most important field crops cultivated, in terms of value of production, by the household in 1997-
98, from among a list of crop-season combinations involving 12 crops and crop-groups spanning the entire range of
crops cultivated in the country.

A-137
Report no. 451
Appendix I
Cultivation Practices in India

Table (5.1): Cropwise per 1000 distribution of area under five major crops* by mode of use of tractor, separately for
different size-classes of household ownership holding
Maharashtra
no. of hhs. reporting
size-class of mode of use of tractor for tilling estd. cultivation of a crop
ownership by hired tractor by other tractor not all area in the crop-group
holding (ha) entirely partly entirely partly used (00 ha) estd.(00) sample
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (10)

fodder

nil (< 0.01) - - - - - - - - -


00.01 - 00.20 - - - - 1000 1000 2 23 1
00.21 - 00.50 23 - - - 977 1000 45 138 6
00.51 - 01.00 12 - - - 988 1000 117 375 18
01.01 - 02.00 216 - - - 784 1000 189 470 22
02.01 - 04.00 3 - 11 - 986 1000 296 597 28
04.01 - 10.00 21 - 5 - 974 1000 126 389 18
10.01 & above 494 - 169 - 337 1000 134 72 3
all 125 - 29 - 846 1000 909 2063 96

fruits & nuts

nil (< 0.01) - - - - - - - - -


00.01 - 00.20 - - - - 1000 1000 24 166 9
00.21 - 00.50 20 - - - 980 1000 97 444 19
00.51 - 01.00 90 - - - 910 1000 131 427 19
01.01 - 02.00 231 - 81 - 688 1000 216 529 23
02.01 - 04.00 158 - 22 - 821 1000 214 410 18
04.01 - 10.00 133 164 278 - 424 1000 496 377 17
10.01 & above 331 - 159 - 510 1000 602 201 8
all 204 46 144 - 607 1000 1781 2555 113

other cash crops

nil (< 0.01) - - - - 1000 1000 19 60 2


00.01 - 00.20 - - - - 1000 1000 254 170 8
00.21 - 00.50 36 - - - 964 1000 153 541 28
00.51 - 01.00 146 32 - 0 822 1000 1206 2253 106
01.01 - 02.00 105 16 22 - 858 1000 4051 4668 217
02.01 - 04.00 75 13 12 8 892 1000 4801 3781 164
04.01 - 10.00 112 64 7 - 817 1000 6394 2699 118
10.01 & above 55 - 32 - 913 1000 2855 437 19

*Note
1. Paddy: kharif and paddy: rabi, for example, are treated as different “crops” for this purpose.
2. The set of 5 major crops is not a fixed set but varies from household to household; for any particular household it is
understood as the 5 most important field crops cultivated, in terms of value of production, by the household in 1997-
98, from among a list of crop-season combinations involving 12 crops and crop-groups spanning the entire range of
crops cultivated in the country.

A-138
Report no. 451
Appendix I
Cultivation Practices in India

all 93 29 14 2 861 1000 19732 14609 662

Table (5.1): Cropwise per 1000 distribution of area under five major crops* by mode of use of tractor, separately for
different size-classes of household ownership holding
Maharashtra
no. of hhs. reporting
size-class of mode of use of tractor for tilling estd. cultivation of a crop
ownership by hired tractor by other tractor not all area in the crop -group
holding (ha) entirely partly entirely partly used (00 ha) estd.(00) sample
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (10)

others

nil (< 0.01) - - - - - - - - -


00.01 - 00.20 - - - - 1000 1000 4 19 1
00.21 - 00.50 533 - - - 467 1000 8 56 3
00.51 - 01.00 281 - - - 719 1000 46 81 3
01.01 - 02.00 - - - - 1000 1000 116 226 9
02.01 - 04.00 31 - 32 - 937 1000 234 336 15
04.01 - 10.00 - - - - 1000 1000 204 151 7
10.01 & above - - 298 - 702 1000 80 52 2
all 35 - 45 - 919 1000 693 921 40

*Note
1. Paddy: kharif and paddy: rabi, for example, are treated as different “crops” for this purpose.
2. The set of 5 major crops is not a fixed set but varies from household to household; for any particular household it is
understood as the 5 most important field crops cultivated, in terms of value of production, by the household in 1997-
98, from among a list of crop-season combinations involving 12 crops and crop-groups spanning the entire range of
crops cultivated in the country.

A-139
Report no. 451
Appendix I
Cultivation Practices in India

Table (5.1): Cropwise per 1000 distribution of area under five major crops* by mode of use of tractor, separately for
different size-classes of household ownership holding
Manipur
no. of hhs. reporting
size-class of mode of use of tractor for tilling estd. cultivation of a crop
ownership by hired tractor by other tractor not all area in the crop-group
holding (ha) entirely partly entirely partly used (00 ha) estd.(00) sample
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (10)

Paddy(kharif)

nil (< 0.01) - 176 - - 824 1000 75 115 46


00.01 - 00.20 211 186 - - 602 1000 4 21 7
00.21 - 00.50 232 368 19 - 382 1000 97 321 116
00.51 - 01.00 210 208 - 7 575 1000 410 683 191
01.01 - 02.00 414 218 20 - 340 1000 304 289 100
02.01 - 04.00 683 230 - - 87 1000 123 61 26
04.01 - 10.00 501 - - - 499 1000 24 10 6
10.01 & above - - - - - - - - -
all 320 221 8 3 446 1000 1035 1500 492

Paddy(rabi)

nil (< 0.01) 754 - - - 246 1000 91 63 20


00.01 - 00.20 - - - - 1000 1000 1 12 4
00.21 - 00.50 308 22 148 - 522 1000 32 112 45
00.51 - 01.00 85 100 33 1 781 1000 80 143 62
01.01 - 02.00 93 124 - - 783 1000 55 53 36
02.01 - 04.00 130 - - - 870 1000 23 15 8
04.01 - 10.00 - - - - - - - - -
10.01 & above - - - - - - - - -
all 330 55 26 0 588 1000 283 398 175

other cereals

nil (< 0.01) - - - - 1000 1000 5 44 17


00.01 - 00.20 875 - - - 125 1000 0 8 2
00.21 - 00.50 769 - - - 231 1000 1 20 6
00.51 - 01.00 891 - - - 109 1000 1 13 6
01.01 - 02.00 122 89 - - 789 1000 6 23 8
02.01 - 04.00 - - - - 1000 1000 0 3 1
04.01 - 10.00 - - - - - - - - -
10.01 & above - - - - - - - - -
all 223 39 - - 738 1000 13 111 40

*Note
1. Paddy: kharif and paddy: rabi, for example, are treated as different “crops” for this purpose.
2. The set of 5 major crops is not a fixed set but varies from household to household; for any particular household it is
understood as the 5 most important field crops cultivated, in terms of value of production, by the household in 1997-
98, from among a list of crop-season combinations involving 12 crops and crop-groups spanning the entire range of
crops cultivated in the country.

A-140
Report no. 451
Appendix I
Cultivation Practices in India

Table (5.1): Cropwise per 1000 distribution of area under five major crops* by mode of use of tractor, separately for
different size-classes of household ownership holding
Manipur
no. of hhs. reporting
size-class of mode of use of tractor for tilling estd. cultivation of a crop
ownership by hired tractor by other tractor not all area in the crop-group
holding (ha) entirely partly entirely partly used (00 ha) estd.(00) sample
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (10)

pulses

nil (< 0.01) - - - - 1000 1000 5 74 28


00.01 - 00.20 490 - - - 510 1000 0 14 4
00.21 - 00.50 - - - - 1000 1000 2 30 9
00.51 - 01.00 - - - - 1000 1000 5 46 18
01.01 - 02.00 - - - - 1000 1000 5 32 20
02.01 - 04.00 - - - - 1000 1000 4 11 4
04.01 - 10.00 - - - - - - - - -
10.01 & above - - - - - - - - -
all 3 - - - 997 1000 21 207 83

oil seeds

nil (< 0.01) - - - - 1000 1000 5 41 16


00.01 - 00.20 - - - - - - - - -
00.21 - 00.50 463 - - - 537 1000 0 8 2
00.51 - 01.00 205 - - - 795 1000 1 5 2
01.01 - 02.00 - - - - - - - - -
02.01 - 04.00 - - - - - - - - -
04.01 - 10.00 - - - - - - - - -
10.01 & above - - - - - - - - -
all 40 - - - 960 1000 6 55 20

mixed crop

nil (< 0.01) - - - - 1000 1000 17 46 25


00.01 - 00.20 35 - - - 965 1000 1 59 17
00.21 - 00.50 418 - 9 126 446 1000 6 65 25
00.51 - 01.00 356 21 - 394 229 1000 9 181 54
01.01 - 02.00 282 44 - 231 444 1000 7 108 40
02.01 - 04.00 916 - - - 84 1000 3 37 16
04.01 - 10.00 967 - - - 33 1000 2 6 4
10.01 & above - - - - - - - - -
all 277 11 1 132 578 1000 45 502 181

*Note
1. Paddy: kharif and paddy: rabi, for example, are treated as different “crops” for this purpose.
2. The set of 5 major crops is not a fixed set but varies from household to household; for any particular household it is
understood as the 5 most important field crops cultivated, in terms of value of production, by the household in 1997-
98, from among a list of crop-season combinations involving 12 crops and crop-groups spanning the entire range of
crops cultivated in the country.

A-141
Report no. 451
Appendix I
Cultivation Practices in India

Table (5.1): Cropwise per 1000 distribution of area under five major crops* by mode of use of tractor, separately for
different size-classes of household ownership holding
Manipur
no. of hhs. reporting
size-class of mode of use of tractor for tilling estd. cultivation of a crop
ownership by hired tractor by other tractor not all area in the crop-group
holding (ha) entirely partly entirely partly used (00 ha) estd.(00) sample
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (10)

vegetables

nil (< 0.01) - - - - 1000 1000 20 147 61


00.01 - 00.20 12 - - - 988 1000 6 153 45
00.21 - 00.50 24 32 20 26 897 1000 15 256 85
00.51 - 01.00 6 45 - 22 926 1000 36 437 129
01.01 - 02.00 445 62 - 20 439 1000 24 197 80
02.01 - 04.00 270 11 - 256 463 1000 9 71 29
04.01 - 10.00 954 - - - 46 1000 2 6 4
10.01 & above - - - - - - - - -
all 139 33 3 35 783 1000 113 1267 433

fruits & nuts

nil (< 0.01) - - - - 1000 1000 1 7 10


00.01 - 00.20 90 - 76 - 834 1000 1 42 14
00.21 - 00.50 - - - - 1000 1000 1 19 8
00.51 - 01.00 - - - - 1000 1000 1 36 16
01.01 - 02.00 - - - - 1000 1000 1 43 17
02.01 - 04.00 - - - - 1000 1000 0 13 8
04.01 - 10.00 - - - - - - - - -
10.01 & above - - - - - - - - -
all 15 - 12 - 973 1000 5 161 73

other cash crops

nil (< 0.01) - - - - 1000 1000 3 9 4


00.01 - 00.20 - - - - - - - - -
00.21 - 00.50 981 - - - 19 1000 1 7 2
00.51 - 01.00 - - - - 1000 1000 1 3 2
01.01 - 02.00 - - - - 1000 1000 0 3 11
02.01 - 04.00 - - - - 1000 1000 0 0 1
04.01 - 10.00 - - - - - - - - -
10.01 & above - - - - - - - - -
*Note
1. Paddy: kharif and paddy: rabi, for example, are treated as different “crops” for this purpose.
2. The set of 5 major crops is not a fixed set but varies from household to household; for any particular household it is
understood as the 5 most important field crops cultivated, in terms of value of production, by the household in 1997-
98, from among a list of crop-season combinations involving 12 crops and crop-groups spanning the entire range of
crops cultivated in the country.

A-142
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Appendix I
Cultivation Practices in India

all 217 - - - 783 1000 5 24 20

*Note
1. Paddy: kharif and paddy: rabi, for example, are treated as different “crops” for this purpose.
2. The set of 5 major crops is not a fixed set but varies from household to household; for any particular household it is
understood as the 5 most important field crops cultivated, in terms of value of production, by the household in 1997-
98, from among a list of crop-season combinations involving 12 crops and crop-groups spanning the entire range of
crops cultivated in the country.

A-143
Report no. 451
Appendix I
Cultivation Practices in India

Table (5.1): Cropwise per 1000 distribution of area under five major crops* by mode of use of tractor, separately for
different size-classes of household ownership holding
Manipur
no. of hhs. reporting
size-class of mode of use of tractor for tilling estd. cultivation of a crop
ownership by hired tractor by other tractor not all area in the crop-group
holding (ha) entirely partly entirely partly used (00 ha) estd.(00) sample
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (10)

others

nil (< 0.01) - - - - 1000 1000 2 18 12


00.01 - 00.20 - - - - 1000 1000 2 49 13
00.21 - 00.50 - - - - 1000 1000 4 59 11
00.51 - 01.00 - - - - 1000 1000 14 153 38
01.01 - 02.00 - - - - 1000 1000 2 30 10
02.01 - 04.00 - - - - 1000 1000 2 7 4
04.01 - 10.00 - - - - 1000 1000 0 2 2
10.01 & above - - - - - - - - -
all - - - - 1000 1000 26 318 90

*Note
1. Paddy: kharif and paddy: rabi, for example, are treated as different “crops” for this purpose.
2. The set of 5 major crops is not a fixed set but varies from household to household; for any particular household it is
understood as the 5 most important field crops cultivated, in terms of value of production, by the household in 1997-
98, from among a list of crop-season combinations involving 12 crops and crop-groups spanning the entire range of
crops cultivated in the country.

A-144
Report no. 451
Appendix I
Cultivation Practices in India

Table (5.1): Cropwise per 1000 distribution of area under five major crops* by mode of use of tractor, separately for
different size-classes of household ownership holding
Meghalaya
no. of hhs. reporting
size-class of mode of use of tractor for tilling estd. cultivation of a crop
ownership by hired tractor by other tractor not all area in the crop-group
holding (ha) entirely partly entirely partly used (00 ha) estd.(00) sample
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (10)

Paddy(kharif)

nil (< 0.01) - - - - 1000 1000 1 9 3


00.01 - 00.20 - - - - 1000 1000 34 132 42
00.21 - 00.50 - - - - 1000 1000 92 431 114
00.51 - 01.00 - - - - 1000 1000 255 536 147
01.01 - 02.00 - 12 - - 988 1000 310 457 145
02.01 - 04.00 5 22 4 - 968 1000 382 312 97
04.01 - 10.00 - 56 - - 944 1000 240 77 24
10.01 & above - - - - - - - - -
all 2 19 1 - 978 1000 1313 1953 572

Paddy(rabi)

nil (< 0.01) - - - - - - - - -


00.01 - 00.20 - - - - - - - - -
00.21 - 00.50 - - - - 1000 1000 11 42 11
00.51 - 01.00 - - - - 1000 1000 50 111 30
01.01 - 02.00 - - - - 1000 1000 14 33 13
02.01 - 04.00 150 - 174 - 676 1000 14 29 9
04.01 - 10.00 - - - - 1000 1000 5 5 2
10.01 & above - - - - - - - - -
all 22 - 25 - 953 1000 94 221 65

other cereals

nil (< 0.01) - - - - - - - - -


00.01 - 00.20 - - - - 1000 1000 6 45 13
00.21 - 00.50 - - - - 1000 1000 20 153 30
00.51 - 01.00 - - - - 1000 1000 26 110 33
01.01 - 02.00 - - - - 1000 1000 48 133 46
02.01 - 04.00 - - - 39 961 1000 51 71 21
04.01 - 10.00 - - - - 1000 1000 18 30 11
10.01 & above - - - - - - - - -
all - - - 12 988 1000 169 542 154
*Note
1. Paddy: kharif and paddy: rabi, for example, are treated as different “crops” for this purpose.
2. The set of 5 major crops is not a fixed set but varies from household to household; for any particular household it is
understood as the 5 most important field crops cultivated, in terms of value of production, by the household in 1997-
98, from among a list of crop-season combinations involving 12 crops and crop-groups spanning the entire range of
crops cultivated in the country.

A-145
Report no. 451
Appendix I
Cultivation Practices in India

*Note
1. Paddy: kharif and paddy: rabi, for example, are treated as different “crops” for this purpose.
2. The set of 5 major crops is not a fixed set but varies from household to household; for any particular household it is
understood as the 5 most important field crops cultivated, in terms of value of production, by the household in 1997-
98, from among a list of crop-season combinations involving 12 crops and crop-groups spanning the entire range of
crops cultivated in the country.

A-146
Report no. 451
Appendix I
Cultivation Practices in India

Table (5.1): Cropwise per 1000 distribution of area under five major crops* by mode of use of tractor, separately for
different size-classes of household ownership holding
Meghalaya
no. of hhs. reporting
size-class of mode of use of tractor for tilling estd. cultivation of a crop
ownership by hired tractor by other tractor not all area in the crop-group
holding (ha) entirely partly entirely partly used (00 ha) estd.(00) sample
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (10)

pulses

nil (< 0.01) - - - - - - - - -


00.01 - 00.20 - - - - 1000 1000 0 6 3
00.21 - 00.50 - - - - 1000 1000 1 22 8
00.51 - 01.00 - - - - 1000 1000 3 29 10
01.01 - 02.00 - - - - 1000 1000 3 21 4
02.01 - 04.00 - - - - - - - - -
04.01 - 10.00 - - - - - - - - -
10.01 & above - - - - - - - - -
all - - - - 1000 1000 6 78 25

mixed crop

nil (< 0.01) - - - - 1000 1000 0 4 1


00.01 - 00.20 - - - - 1000 1000 24 149 35
00.21 - 00.50 - - - - 1000 1000 48 272 36
00.51 - 01.00 - - - - 1000 1000 63 229 50
01.01 - 02.00 - - - - 1000 1000 56 142 48
02.01 - 04.00 - - - - 1000 1000 26 42 14
04.01 - 10.00 - - - - 1000 1000 5 6 2
10.01 & above - - - - - - - - -
all - - - - 1000 1000 222 845 186

vegetables

nil (< 0.01) - - - - 1000 1000 1 6 2


00.01 - 00.20 - - - - 1000 1000 30 245 78
00.21 - 00.50 - - - - 1000 1000 110 573 161
00.51 - 01.00 - - - - 1000 1000 192 613 186
01.01 - 02.00 - - - - 1000 1000 217 476 155
02.01 - 04.00 - - - - 1000 1000 273 360 117
04.01 - 10.00 - 70 - - 930 1000 75 82 26
10.01 & above - - - - - - - - -
*Note
1. Paddy: kharif and paddy: rabi, for example, are treated as different “crops” for this purpose.
2. The set of 5 major crops is not a fixed set but varies from household to household; for any particular household it is
understood as the 5 most important field crops cultivated, in terms of value of production, by the household in 1997-
98, from among a list of crop-season combinations involving 12 crops and crop-groups spanning the entire range of
crops cultivated in the country.

A-147
Report no. 451
Appendix I
Cultivation Practices in India

all - 6 - - 994 1000 898 2355 725

*Note
1. Paddy: kharif and paddy: rabi, for example, are treated as different “crops” for this purpose.
2. The set of 5 major crops is not a fixed set but varies from household to household; for any particular household it is
understood as the 5 most important field crops cultivated, in terms of value of production, by the household in 1997-
98, from among a list of crop-season combinations involving 12 crops and crop-groups spanning the entire range of
crops cultivated in the country.

A-148
Report no. 451
Appendix I
Cultivation Practices in India

Table (5.1): Cropwise per 1000 distribution of area under five major crops* by mode of use of tractor, separately for
different size-classes of household ownership holding
Meghalaya
no. of hhs. reporting
size-class of mode of use of tractor for tilling estd. cultivation of a crop
ownership by hired tractor by other tractor not all area in the crop-group
holding (ha) entirely partly entirely partly used (00 ha) estd.(00) sample
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (10)

fruits & nuts

nil (< 0.01) - - - - - - - - -


00.01 - 00.20 - - - - 1000 1000 5 56 17
00.21 - 00.50 - - - - 1000 1000 5 76 31
00.51 - 01.00 - - - - 1000 1000 25 160 52
01.01 - 02.00 - - - - 1000 1000 65 195 61
02.01 - 04.00 - - - - 1000 1000 107 112 39
04.01 - 10.00 - - - - 1000 1000 28 28 8
10.01 & above - - - - - - - - -
all - - - - 1000 1000 234 626 208

other cash crops

nil (< 0.01) - - - - - - - - -


00.01 - 00.20 - - - - 1000 1000 3 40 11
00.21 - 00.50 - - - - 1000 1000 2 17 4
00.51 - 01.00 - - - - 1000 1000 7 45 9
01.01 - 02.00 - - - - 1000 1000 32 67 20
02.01 - 04.00 - - - - 1000 1000 51 55 15
04.01 - 10.00 - - - - 1000 1000 6 6 2
10.01 & above - - - - - - - - -
all - - - - 1000 1000 102 232 61

others

nil (< 0.01) - - - - - - - - -


00.01 - 00.20 - - - - 1000 1000 1 9 5
00.21 - 00.50 - - - - 1000 1000 12 72 29
00.51 - 01.00 - - - - 1000 1000 34 157 54
01.01 - 02.00 - - - - 1000 1000 29 113 41
02.01 - 04.00 - - - - 1000 1000 32 88 34
04.01 - 10.00 - - - - 1000 1000 14 24 8
10.01 & above - - - - - - - - -
*Note
1. Paddy: kharif and paddy: rabi, for example, are treated as different “crops” for this purpose.
2. The set of 5 major crops is not a fixed set but varies from household to household; for any particular household it is
understood as the 5 most important field crops cultivated, in terms of value of production, by the household in 1997-
98, from among a list of crop-season combinations involving 12 crops and crop-groups spanning the entire range of
crops cultivated in the country.

A-149
Report no. 451
Appendix I
Cultivation Practices in India

all - - - - 1000 1000 123 462 171

*Note
1. Paddy: kharif and paddy: rabi, for example, are treated as different “crops” for this purpose.
2. The set of 5 major crops is not a fixed set but varies from household to household; for any particular household it is
understood as the 5 most important field crops cultivated, in terms of value of production, by the household in 1997-
98, from among a list of crop-season combinations involving 12 crops and crop-groups spanning the entire range of
crops cultivated in the country.

A-150
Report no. 451
Appendix I
Cultivation Practices in India

Table (5.1): Cropwise per 1000 distribution of area under five major crops* by mode of use of tractor, separately for
different size-classes of household ownership holding
Mizoram
no. of hhs. reporting
size-class of mode of use of tractor for tilling estd. cultivation of a crop
ownership by hired tractor by other tractor not all area in the crop-group
holding (ha) entirely partly entirely partly used (00 ha) estd.(00) sample
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (10)

Paddy(kharif)

nil (< 0.01) - - - 4 996 1000 26 64 45


00.01 - 00.20 - - - - 1000 1000 115 196 160
00.21 - 00.50 - - - 3 997 1000 17 28 30
00.51 - 01.00 - - - 41 959 1000 14 34 26
01.01 - 02.00 - - - - 1000 1000 29 40 33
02.01 - 04.00 - - - - 1000 1000 12 12 14
04.01 - 10.00 - - - - 1000 1000 6 3 3
10.01 & above - - - - - - - - -
all - - - 3 997 1000 219 377 311

Paddy(rabi)

nil (< 0.01) - - - - 1000 1000 2 8 5


00.01 - 00.20 - - - - 1000 1000 23 37 26
00.21 - 00.50 - - - - 1000 1000 0 1 3
00.51 - 01.00 - - - - 1000 1000 2 6 11
01.01 - 02.00 - - - - 1000 1000 1 1 3
02.01 - 04.00 - - - - 1000 1000 0 0 1
04.01 - 10.00 - - - - - - - - -
10.01 & above - - - - - - - - -
all - - - - 1000 1000 29 55 49

other cereals

nil (< 0.01) - - - - - - - - -


00.01 - 00.20 - - - - 1000 1000 6 41 34
00.21 - 00.50 - - - - 1000 1000 1 9 11
00.51 - 01.00 - - - 181 819 1000 1 15 20
01.01 - 02.00 - - - - 1000 1000 1 6 7
02.01 - 04.00 - - - - 1000 1000 0 3 2
04.01 - 10.00 - - - - - - - - -
10.01 & above - - - - - - - - -
*Note
1. Paddy: kharif and paddy: rabi, for example, are treated as different “crops” for this purpose.
2. The set of 5 major crops is not a fixed set but varies from household to household; for any particular household it is
understood as the 5 most important field crops cultivated, in terms of value of production, by the household in 1997-
98, from among a list of crop-season combinations involving 12 crops and crop-groups spanning the entire range of
crops cultivated in the country.

A-151
Report no. 451
Appendix I
Cultivation Practices in India

all - - - 19 981 1000 8 74 74

*Note
1. Paddy: kharif and paddy: rabi, for example, are treated as different “crops” for this purpose.
2. The set of 5 major crops is not a fixed set but varies from household to household; for any particular household it is
understood as the 5 most important field crops cultivated, in terms of value of production, by the household in 1997-
98, from among a list of crop-season combinations involving 12 crops and crop-groups spanning the entire range of
crops cultivated in the country.

A-152
Report no. 451
Appendix I
Cultivation Practices in India

Table (5.1): Cropwise per 1000 distribution of area under five major crops* by mode of use of tractor, separately for
different size-classes of household ownership holding
Mizoram
no. of hhs. reporting
size-class of mode of use of tractor for tilling estd. cultivation of a crop
ownership by hired tractor by other tractor not all area in the crop -group
holding (ha) entirely partly entirely partly used (00 ha) estd.(00) sample
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (10)

pulses

nil (< 0.01) - - - - 1000 1000 3 32 23


00.01 - 00.20 - - - - 1000 1000 8 75 58
00.21 - 00.50 - - - - 1000 1000 1 10 9
00.51 - 01.00 - - - - 1000 1000 2 16 18
01.01 - 02.00 - - - - 1000 1000 1 11 9
02.01 - 04.00 - - - - 1000 1000 2 3 2
04.01 - 10.00 - - - - - - - - -
10.01 & above - - - - - - - - -
all - - - - 1000 1000 16 147 119

mixed crop

nil (< 0.01) - - - - 1000 1000 25 70 47


00.01 - 00.20 - - - - 1000 1000 56 138 96
00.21 - 00.50 - - - - 1000 1000 5 18 12
00.51 - 01.00 - - - - 1000 1000 16 35 26
01.01 - 02.00 - - - - 1000 1000 20 31 24
02.01 - 04.00 - - - - 1000 1000 3 5 4
04.01 - 10.00 - - - - - - - - -
10.01 & above - - - - - - - - -
all - - - - 1000 1000 125 296 209

vegetables

nil (< 0.01) - - - - 1000 1000 7 51 35


00.01 - 00.20 - - - - 1000 1000 28 196 144
00.21 - 00.50 - - - - 1000 1000 3 18 21
00.51 - 01.00 - - - 28 972 1000 5 24 26
01.01 - 02.00 - - - - 1000 1000 3 15 13
02.01 - 04.00 - - - - 1000 1000 0 1 1
04.01 - 10.00 - - - - - - - - -
10.01 & above - - - - - - - - -
*Note
1. Paddy: kharif and paddy: rabi, for example, are treated as different “crops” for this purpose.
2. The set of 5 major crops is not a fixed set but varies from household to household; for any particular household it is
understood as the 5 most important field crops cultivated, in terms of value of production, by the household in 1997-
98, from among a list of crop-season combinations involving 12 crops and crop-groups spanning the entire range of
crops cultivated in the country.

A-153
Report no. 451
Appendix I
Cultivation Practices in India

all - - - 3 997 1000 46 305 240

*Note
1. Paddy: kharif and paddy: rabi, for example, are treated as different “crops” for this purpose.
2. The set of 5 major crops is not a fixed set but varies from household to household; for any particular household it is
understood as the 5 most important field crops cultivated, in terms of value of production, by the household in 1997-
98, from among a list of crop-season combinations involving 12 crops and crop-groups spanning the entire range of
crops cultivated in the country.

A-154
Report no. 451
Appendix I
Cultivation Practices in India

Table (5.1): Cropwise per 1000 distribution of area under five major crops* by mode of use of tractor, separately for
different size-classes of household ownership holding
Mizoram
no. of hhs. reporting
size-class of mode of use of tractor for tilling estd. cultivation of a crop
ownership by hired tractor by other tractor not all area in the crop-group
holding (ha) entirely partly entirely partly used (00 ha) estd.(00) sample
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (10)

fruits & nuts

nil (< 0.01) - - - - - - - - -


00.01 - 00.20 - - - - 1000 1000 1 6 5
00.21 - 00.50 - - - - 1000 1000 2 8 11
00.51 - 01.00 - - - 105 895 1000 1 7 9
01.01 - 02.00 - - - - 1000 1000 5 11 9
02.01 - 04.00 - - - - 1000 1000 3 3 3
04.01 - 10.00 - - - - - - - - -
10.01 & above - - - - - - - - -
all - - - 12 988 1000 12 37 37

other cash crops

nil (< 0.01) - - - - 1000 1000 3 16 9


00.01 - 00.20 - - - - 1000 1000 3 15 11
00.21 - 00.50 - - - - 1000 1000 2 16 18
00.51 - 01.00 - - - 34 966 1000 4 20 20
01.01 - 02.00 - - - - 1000 1000 11 31 27
02.01 - 04.00 - - - - 1000 1000 4 9 7
04.01 - 10.00 - - - - 1000 1000 1 3 3
10.01 & above - - - - - - - - -
all - - - 5 995 1000 28 110 95

others

nil (< 0.01) - - - - 1000 1000 7 45 31


00.01 - 00.20 - - - - 1000 1000 9 96 70
00.21 - 00.50 - - - - 1000 1000 0 2 1
00.51 - 01.00 - - - - 1000 1000 2 7 5
01.01 - 02.00 - - - - 1000 1000 0 3 2
02.01 - 04.00 - - - - - - - - -
04.01 - 10.00 - - - - - - - - -
10.01 & above - - - - - - - - -
*Note
1. Paddy: kharif and paddy: rabi, for example, are treated as different “crops” for this purpose.
2. The set of 5 major crops is not a fixed set but varies from household to household; for any particular household it is
understood as the 5 most important field crops cultivated, in terms of value of production, by the household in 1997-
98, from among a list of crop-season combinations involving 12 crops and crop-groups spanning the entire range of
crops cultivated in the country.

A-155
Report no. 451
Appendix I
Cultivation Practices in India

all - - - - 1000 1000 18 153 109

*Note
1. Paddy: kharif and paddy: rabi, for example, are treated as different “crops” for this purpose.
2. The set of 5 major crops is not a fixed set but varies from household to household; for any particular household it is
understood as the 5 most important field crops cultivated, in terms of value of production, by the household in 1997-
98, from among a list of crop-season combinations involving 12 crops and crop-groups spanning the entire range of
crops cultivated in the country.

A-156
Report no. 451
Appendix I
Cultivation Practices in India

Table (5.1): Cropwise per 1000 distribution of area under five major crops* by mode of use of tractor, separately for
different size-classes of household ownership holding
Nagaland
no. of hhs. reporting
size-class of mode of use of tractor for tilling estd. cultivation of a crop
ownership by hired tractor by other tractor not all area in the crop-group
holding (ha) entirely partly entirely partly used (00 ha) estd.(00) sample
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (10)

Paddy(kharif)

nil (< 0.01) - - - - 1000 1000 12 10 9


00.01 - 00.20 - - - - 1000 1000 1 5 5
00.21 - 00.50 - - - - 1000 1000 4 19 22
00.51 - 01.00 - - - - 1000 1000 24 50 50
01.01 - 02.00 - - - - 1000 1000 128 139 142
02.01 - 04.00 - - - - 1000 1000 348 239 272
04.01 - 10.00 - - - - 1000 1000 419 116 129
10.01 & above - - - - 1000 1000 42 7 8
all - - - - 1000 1000 978 585 637

Paddy(rabi)

nil (< 0.01) - - - - 1000 1000 8 6 4


00.01 - 00.20 - - - - 1000 1000 0 2 2
00.21 - 00.50 - - - - 1000 1000 1 6 8
00.51 - 01.00 - - - - 1000 1000 9 27 26
01.01 - 02.00 - - - - 1000 1000 72 104 88
02.01 - 04.00 - - - - 1000 1000 228 203 210
04.01 - 10.00 - - 89 - 911 1000 45 23 26
10.01 & above - - - - - - - - -
all - - 11 - 989 1000 363 371 364

other cereals

nil (< 0.01) - - - - 1000 1000 3 15 12


00.01 - 00.20 - - - - 1000 1000 1 17 11
00.21 - 00.50 - - - - 1000 1000 1 14 16
00.51 - 01.00 - - - - 1000 1000 7 45 41
01.01 - 02.00 - - - - 1000 1000 28 143 132
02.01 - 04.00 - 33 - - 967 1000 82 273 290
04.01 - 10.00 - - - - 1000 1000 33 47 55
10.01 & above - - - - 1000 1000 5 3 3
*Note
1. Paddy: kharif and paddy: rabi, for example, are treated as different “crops” for this purpose.
2. The set of 5 major crops is not a fixed set but varies from household to household; for any particular household it is
understood as the 5 most important field crops cultivated, in terms of value of production, by the household in 1997-
98, from among a list of crop-season combinations involving 12 crops and crop-groups spanning the entire range of
crops cultivated in the country.

A-157
Report no. 451
Appendix I
Cultivation Practices in India

all - 17 - - 983 1000 160 557 560

*Note
1. Paddy: kharif and paddy: rabi, for example, are treated as different “crops” for this purpose.
2. The set of 5 major crops is not a fixed set but varies from household to household; for any particular household it is
understood as the 5 most important field crops cultivated, in terms of value of production, by the household in 1997-
98, from among a list of crop-season combinations involving 12 crops and crop-groups spanning the entire range of
crops cultivated in the country.

A-158
Report no. 451
Appendix I
Cultivation Practices in India

Table (5.1): Cropwise per 1000 distribution of area under five major crops* by mode of use of tractor, separately for
different size-classes of household ownership holding
Nagaland
no. of hhs. reporting
size-class of mode of use of tractor for tilling estd. cultivation of a crop
ownership by hired tractor by other tractor not all area in the crop-group
holding (ha) entirely partly entirely partly used (00 ha) estd.(00) sample
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (10)

pulses

nil (< 0.01) - - - - 1000 1000 0 2 2


00.01 - 00.20 - - - - 1000 1000 0 0 1
00.21 - 00.50 - - - - 1000 1000 0 3 3
00.51 - 01.00 - - - - 1000 1000 1 12 12
01.01 - 02.00 - - - - 1000 1000 4 31 33
02.01 - 04.00 - - - - 1000 1000 11 64 65
04.01 - 10.00 - - - - 1000 1000 28 33 35
10.01 & above - - - - 1000 1000 1 1 1
all - - - - 1000 1000 46 147 152

oil seeds

nil (< 0.01) - - - - 1000 1000 1 7 3


00.01 - 00.20 - - - - 1000 1000 0 3 1
00.21 - 00.50 - - - - 1000 1000 0 3 2
00.51 - 01.00 - - - - 1000 1000 1 8 4
01.01 - 02.00 220 - - - 780 1000 6 13 7
02.01 - 04.00 - - - - 1000 1000 3 10 5
04.01 - 10.00 - - - - - - - - -
10.01 & above - - - - - - - - -
all 113 - - - 887 1000 12 44 22

mixed crop

nil (< 0.01) - - - - 1000 1000 0 2 3


00.01 - 00.20 - - - - - - - - -
00.21 - 00.50 - - - - 1000 1000 0 4 5
00.51 - 01.00 - - - - 1000 1000 2 7 6
01.01 - 02.00 - - - - 1000 1000 11 53 51
02.01 - 04.00 - - - - 1000 1000 25 110 120
04.01 - 10.00 - - - - 1000 1000 94 89 93
10.01 & above - - - - 1000 1000 9 5 6
*Note
1. Paddy: kharif and paddy: rabi, for example, are treated as different “crops” for this purpose.
2. The set of 5 major crops is not a fixed set but varies from household to household; for any particular household it is
understood as the 5 most important field crops cultivated, in terms of value of production, by the household in 1997-
98, from among a list of crop-season combinations involving 12 crops and crop-groups spanning the entire range of
crops cultivated in the country.

A-159
Report no. 451
Appendix I
Cultivation Practices in India

all - - - - 1000 1000 141 272 284

*Note
1. Paddy: kharif and paddy: rabi, for example, are treated as different “crops” for this purpose.
2. The set of 5 major crops is not a fixed set but varies from household to household; for any particular household it is
understood as the 5 most important field crops cultivated, in terms of value of production, by the household in 1997-
98, from among a list of crop-season combinations involving 12 crops and crop-groups spanning the entire range of
crops cultivated in the country.

A-160
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Appendix I
Cultivation Practices in India

Table (5.1): Cropwise per 1000 distribution of area under five major crops* by mode of use of tractor, separately for
different size-classes of household ownership holding
Nagaland
no. of hhs. reporting
size-class of mode of use of tractor for tilling estd. cultivation of a crop
ownership by hired tractor by other tractor not all area in the crop-group
holding (ha) entirely partly entirely partly used (00 ha) estd.(00) sample
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (10)

vegetables

nil (< 0.01) - - - - 1000 1000 1 14 11


00.01 - 00.20 - - - - 1000 1000 1 24 20
00.21 - 00.50 - - - - 1000 1000 3 35 43
00.51 - 01.00 - - - - 1000 1000 12 72 67
01.01 - 02.00 - - - - 1000 1000 38 170 161
02.01 - 04.00 - - - - 1000 1000 87 297 327
04.01 - 10.00 - - - - 1000 1000 101 121 131
10.01 & above - - - - 1000 1000 11 7 8
all - - - - 1000 1000 254 739 768

fodder

nil (< 0.01) - - - - 1000 1000 0 2 2


00.01 - 00.20 - - - - - - - - -
00.21 - 00.50 - - - - 1000 1000 0 0 1
00.51 - 01.00 - - - - 1000 1000 0 2 2
01.01 - 02.00 - - - - 1000 1000 0 6 5
02.01 - 04.00 - - - - 1000 1000 6 32 26
04.01 - 10.00 - - - - 1000 1000 1 9 5
10.01 & above - - - - - - - - -
all - - - - 1000 1000 8 51 41

fruits & nuts

nil (< 0.01) - - - - 1000 1000 0 0 1


00.01 - 00.20 - - - - - - - - -
00.21 - 00.50 - - - - 1000 1000 0 0 1
00.51 - 01.00 - - - - 1000 1000 0 1 2
01.01 - 02.00 - - - - 1000 1000 0 11 11
02.01 - 04.00 - - - - 1000 1000 1 14 22
04.01 - 10.00 - - - - - - - - -
10.01 & above - - - - - - - - -
*Note
1. Paddy: kharif and paddy: rabi, for example, are treated as different “crops” for this purpose.
2. The set of 5 major crops is not a fixed set but varies from household to household; for any particular household it is
understood as the 5 most important field crops cultivated, in terms of value of production, by the household in 1997-
98, from among a list of crop-season combinations involving 12 crops and crop-groups spanning the entire range of
crops cultivated in the country.

A-161
Report no. 451
Appendix I
Cultivation Practices in India

all - - - - 1000 1000 2 27 37

*Note
1. Paddy: kharif and paddy: rabi, for example, are treated as different “crops” for this purpose.
2. The set of 5 major crops is not a fixed set but varies from household to household; for any particular household it is
understood as the 5 most important field crops cultivated, in terms of value of production, by the household in 1997-
98, from among a list of crop-season combinations involving 12 crops and crop-groups spanning the entire range of
crops cultivated in the country.

A-162
Report no. 451
Appendix I
Cultivation Practices in India

Table (5.1): Cropwise per 1000 distribution of area under five major crops* by mode of use of tractor, separately for
different size-classes of household ownership holding
Nagaland
no. of hhs. reporting
size-class of mode of use of tractor for tilling estd. cultivation of a crop
ownership by hired tractor by other tractor not all area in the crop-group
holding (ha) entirely partly entirely partly used (00 ha) estd.(00) sample
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (10)

other cash crops

nil (< 0.01) - - - - 1000 1000 0 1 1


00.01 - 00.20 - - - - - - - - -
00.21 - 00.50 - - - - 1000 1000 0 4 4
00.51 - 01.00 - - - - 1000 1000 1 6 5
01.01 - 02.00 - - - - 1000 1000 4 14 8
02.01 - 04.00 - - - - 1000 1000 7 10 7
04.01 - 10.00 - - - - 1000 1000 83 62 60
10.01 & above - - - - 1000 1000 5 4 5
all - - - - 1000 1000 101 101 90

others

nil (< 0.01) - - - - 1000 1000 0 1 3


00.01 - 00.20 - - - - 1000 1000 0 0 1
00.21 - 00.50 - - - - - - - - -
00.51 - 01.00 - - - - 1000 1000 2 7 9
01.01 - 02.00 - - - - 1000 1000 9 18 22
02.01 - 04.00 - - - - 1000 1000 14 25 34
04.01 - 10.00 - - - - 1000 1000 73 68 69
10.01 & above - - - - 1000 1000 10 6 7
all - - - - 1000 1000 107 125 145

*Note
1. Paddy: kharif and paddy: rabi, for example, are treated as different “crops” for this purpose.
2. The set of 5 major crops is not a fixed set but varies from household to household; for any particular household it is
understood as the 5 most important field crops cultivated, in terms of value of production, by the household in 1997-
98, from among a list of crop-season combinations involving 12 crops and crop-groups spanning the entire range of
crops cultivated in the country.

A-163
Report no. 451
Appendix I
Cultivation Practices in India

Table (5.1): Cropwise per 1000 distribution of area under five major crops* by mode of use of tractor, separately for
different size-classes of household ownership holding
Orissa
no. of hhs. reporting
size-class of mode of use of tractor for tilling estd. cultivation of a crop
ownership by hired tractor by ot her tractor not all area in the crop-group
holding (ha) entirely partly entirely partly used (00 ha) estd.(00) sample
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (10)

Paddy(kharif)

nil (< 0.01) - 48 - - 952 1000 48 160 17


00.01 - 00.20 11 72 - 3 914 1000 932 5300 291
00.21 - 00.50 12 53 3 8 924 1000 4043 11460 620
00.51 - 01.00 14 58 5 7 914 1000 7229 10623 543
01.01 - 02.00 26 83 6 14 871 1000 8254 7170 371
02.01 - 04.00 18 82 - 42 858 1000 6315 2864 143
04.01 - 10.00 32 108 - 56 804 1000 2854 609 32
10.01 & above - - - - 1000 1000 1104 122 3
all 19 72 3 20 885 1000 30778 38308 2020

Paddy(rabi)

nil (< 0.01) 842 - - - 158 1000 1 34 2


00.01 - 00.20 351 170 - - 479 1000 50 316 19
00.21 - 00.50 200 66 19 - 715 1000 187 695 41
00.51 - 01.00 87 132 39 - 743 1000 272 688 38
01.01 - 02.00 265 52 97 - 586 1000 345 620 35
02.01 - 04.00 299 239 - 90 372 1000 272 269 16
04.01 - 10.00 - 461 - 539 - 1000 162 73 3
10.01 & above - - - - - - - - -
all 195 166 37 87 514 1000 1290 2695 154

other cereals

nil (< 0.01) - - - - 1000 1000 3 52 7


00.01 - 00.20 - - - - 1000 1000 36 314 17
00.21 - 00.50 - - - - 1000 1000 151 1045 55
00.51 - 01.00 - - - - 1000 1000 260 1243 67
01.01 - 02.00 - 11 - - 989 1000 460 1301 67
02.01 - 04.00 - - - - 1000 1000 165 357 19
04.01 - 10.00 - - - 565 435 1000 103 81 3
10.01 & above - - - - - - - - -
*Note
1. Paddy: kharif and paddy: rabi, for example, are treated as different “crops” for this purpose.
2. The set of 5 major crops is not a fixed set but varies from household to household; for any particular household it is
understood as the 5 most important field crops cultivated, in terms of value of production, by the household in 1997-
98, from among a list of crop-season combinations involving 12 crops and crop-groups spanning the entire range of
crops cultivated in the country.

A-164
Report no. 451
Appendix I
Cultivation Practices in India

all - 4 - 49 946 1000 1177 4394 235

*Note
1. Paddy: kharif and paddy: rabi, for example, are treated as different “crops” for this purpose.
2. The set of 5 major crops is not a fixed set but varies from household to household; for any particular household it is
understood as the 5 most important field crops cultivated, in terms of value of production, by the household in 1997-
98, from among a list of crop-season combinations involving 12 crops and crop-groups spanning the entire range of
crops cultivated in the country.

A-165
Report no. 451
Appendix I
Cultivation Practices in India

Table (5.1): Cropwise per 1000 distribution of area under five major crops* by mode of use of tractor, separately for
different size-classes of household ownership holding
Orissa
no. of hhs. reporting
size-class of mode of use of tractor for tilling estd. cultivation of a crop
ownership by hired tractor by other tractor not all area in the crop-group
holding (ha) entirely partly entirely partly used (00 ha) estd.(00) sample
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (10)

pulses

nil (< 0.01) - - - - 1000 1000 3 34 6


00.01 - 00.20 76 92 - - 832 1000 31 410 27
00.21 - 00.50 - 64 - - 936 1000 368 1640 85
00.51 - 01.00 11 35 4 9 941 1000 694 2255 118
01.01 - 02.00 38 14 - 34 913 1000 855 2109 114
02.01 - 04.00 - 10 - 99 891 1000 862 922 50
04.01 - 10.00 157 - - 139 704 1000 418 206 10
10.01 & above - - - - 1000 1000 135 43 2
all 32 21 1 53 893 1000 3367 7619 412

oil seeds

nil (< 0.01) - - - - 1000 1000 7 18 1


00.01 - 00.20 - - - - 1000 1000 24 331 21
00.21 - 00.50 - - - - 1000 1000 42 537 29
00.51 - 01.00 - - - - 1000 1000 112 697 35
01.01 - 02.00 - 43 - - 957 1000 183 830 46
02.01 - 04.00 - - - - 1000 1000 33 125 7
04.01 - 10.00 - - - - 1000 1000 38 56 3
10.01 & above - - - - - - - - -
all - 18 - - 982 1000 439 2593 142

vegetables

nil (< 0.01) - - - - 1000 1000 2 102 10


00.01 - 00.20 9 98 - - 893 1000 42 883 49
00.21 - 00.50 - - - - 1000 1000 115 1302 68
00.51 - 01.00 26 64 10 36 864 1000 164 1587 76
01.01 - 02.00 - 97 - 36 867 1000 219 1590 78
02.01 - 04.00 - - - 52 948 1000 79 415 23
04.01 - 10.00 - - - - 1000 1000 8 125 6
10.01 & above - - - - 1000 1000 18 18 1
*Note
1. Paddy: kharif and paddy: rabi, for example, are treated as different “crops” for this purpose.
2. The set of 5 major crops is not a fixed set but varies from household to household; for any particular household it is
understood as the 5 most important field crops cultivated, in terms of value of production, by the household in 1997-
98, from among a list of crop-season combinations involving 12 crops and crop-groups spanning the entire range of
crops cultivated in the country.

A-166
Report no. 451
Appendix I
Cultivation Practices in India

all 7 56 2 28 907 1000 647 6021 311

*Note
1. Paddy: kharif and paddy: rabi, for example, are treated as different “crops” for this purpose.
2. The set of 5 major crops is not a fixed set but varies from household to household; for any particular household it is
understood as the 5 most important field crops cultivated, in terms of value of production, by the household in 1997-
98, from among a list of crop-season combinations involving 12 crops and crop-groups spanning the entire range of
crops cultivated in the country.

A-167
Report no. 451
Appendix I
Cultivation Practices in India

Table (5.1): Cropwise per 1000 distribution of area under five major crops* by mode of use of tractor, separately for
different size-classes of household ownership holding
Orissa
no. of hhs. reporting
size-class of mode of use of tractor for tilling estd. cultivation of a crop
ownership by hired tractor by other tractor not all area in the crop-group
holding (ha) entirely partly entirely partly used (00 ha) estd.(00) sample
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (10)

fruits & nuts

nil (< 0.01) - - - - - - - 18 1


00.01 - 00.20 - - - - 1000 1000 3 153 10
00.21 - 00.50 - - - - 1000 1000 7 62 3
00.51 - 01.00 - - 426 - 574 1000 13 63 3
01.01 - 02.00 - - - - 1000 1000 44 88 7
02.01 - 04.00 - - - - - - - - -
04.01 - 10.00 - - - - - - - - -
10.01 & above - - - - - - - - -
all - - 81 - 919 1000 66 384 24

other cash crops

nil (< 0.01) - - - - - - - - -


00.01 - 00.20 - - - - 1000 1000 5 47 2
00.21 - 00.50 - - - - 1000 1000 4 47 2
00.51 - 01.00 - - - - 1000 1000 74 203 10
01.01 - 02.00 - - - - 1000 1000 58 121 6
02.01 - 04.00 - - - 559 441 1000 27 65 3
04.01 - 10.00 - - - - - - - - -
10.01 & above - - - - 1000 1000 149 25 1
all - - - 47 953 1000 317 509 24

*Note
1. Paddy: kharif and paddy: rabi, for example, are treated as different “crops” for this purpose.
2. The set of 5 major crops is not a fixed set but varies from household to household; for any particular household it is
understood as the 5 most important field crops cultivated, in terms of value of production, by the household in 1997-
98, from among a list of crop-season combinations involving 12 crops and crop-groups spanning the entire range of
crops cultivated in the country.

A-168
Report no. 451
Appendix I
Cultivation Practices in India

Table (5.1): Cropwise per 1000 distribution of area under five major crops* by mode of use of tractor, separately for
different size-classes of household ownership holding
Punjab
no. of hhs. reporting
size-class of mode of use of tractor for tilling estd. cultivation of a crop
ownership by hired tractor by other tractor not all area in the crop-group
holding (ha) entirely partly entirely partly used (00 ha) estd.(00)