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Photomultiplier Handbook

Contents

1. lntroduction............................................................... 3
Early development, photoemitter and secondary-emitter development, applications development,
photomultiplier and solid-state detectors compared

2. Photomultiplier Design . . . . . . . . . . . , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
Photoemission, practical photocathode materials, opaque and semitransparent photocathodes, glass
transmission and spectral response, thermionic emission, secondary emission, time tag in photoemission and
secondary emission

3. Electron Optics of Photomultipliers , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26


Electron-optical design considerations, design methods for photomultiplier electron optics, specific
photomultiplier electron-optical configurations, anode configurations

4. Photomultiplier Characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . , . . 36
Photocathode-related characteristics, gain-related characteristics, dark current and noise, time effects, pulse
counting, scintillation counting, liquid scintillation counting, environmental effects

5. Photomultiplier Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80
Summary of selection criteria, applied voltage considerations, mechanical considerations, optical considera-
tions, specific photomultiplier applications

Appendix A. Typical Photomultiplier Applications and Selection Guide . . . . . . . . . . . 119

Appendix B. Glossary of Terms Related to Photomultiplier lubes and Their Applica- I


.......................................................... 125

Appendix C. Spectral Response Designation Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132


Appendix D. Photometric Units and Photometric-to-Radiant Conversion. . . . . . . . . . . . . I 37

Appendix E. Spectral Response and Source-Detector Matching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I 43


Appendix F. Radiant Energy and Sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 148

Appendix G. Statistical Theory of Noise in Photomultiplier Tubes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I 60

Index........................................................................ 1 7 7

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TP-136

2
1. Introduction

The photomultiplier is a very versatile and without need for additional signal amplifica-
sensitive detector of radiant energy in the tion. Extremely fast time response with rise
ultraviolet, visible, and near infrared regions times as short as a fraction of a nanosecond
of the electromagnetic spectrum. A schemat- provides a measurement capability in special
ic diagram of a typical photomultiplier tube applications that is unmatched by other
is given in Fig. 1. The basic radiation sensor radiation detectors.
is the photocathode which is located inside a
vacuum envelope. Photoelectrons are emit-
ted and directed by an appropriate electric EARLY DEVELOPMENT
field to an electrode or dynode within the The development (history) of the photo-
envelope. A number of secondary electrons multiplier is rooted in early studies of secon-1
are emitted at this dynode for each imping- dary emission. In 1902, Austin and Starke
ing primary photoelectron. These secondary reported that the metal surfaces impacted by
electrons in turn are directed to a second cathode rays emitted a larger number of elec-
dynode and so on until a final gain of trons than were incident. The use of secon-
perhaps 106 is achieved. The electrons from dary emission as a means for signal
the last dynode are collected by an anode amplification was proposed as early as
which provides the signal current that is read 1919.2 In 1935, Iams and Salzberg 3 of RCA
out. reported on a single-stage photomultiplier.
The device consisted of a semicylindrical
photocathode, a secondary emitter mounted
on the axis, and a collector grid surrounding
the secondary emitter. The tube had a gain
of about eight. Because of its better frequen-
cy response the single-stage photomultiplier
was intended for replacement of the gas-
filled phototube as a sound pickup for
movies. But despite its advantages, it saw
only a brief developmental sales activity
PHOTOELECTRONS before it became obsolete.
92cs-32288
Multistage Devices
Fig. 1 - Schematic representation of a photo-
multiplier tube and its operation In 1936, Zworykin, Morton, and Malter,
all of RCA4 reported on a multistage
photomultiplier. Again, the principal con-
For a large number of applications, the templated application was sound-on-film
photomultiplier is the most practical or sen- pickup. Their tube used a combination of
sitive detector available. The basic reason electrostatic and magnetic fields to direct
for the superiority of the photomultiplier is electrons from stage to stage. A photograph
the secondary-emission amplification that of a developmental sample is given in Fig. 2.
makes it possible for the tube to approach Although the magnetic-type photomultiplier
“ideal” device performance limited only by provided high gain, it had several dif-
the statistics of photoemission. Amplifica- ficulties. The adjustment of the magnetic
tions ranging from 103 to as much as 108 field was very critical, and to change the gain
provide output signal levels that are com- by reducing the applied voltage, the
patible with auxiliary electronic equipment magnetic field also had to be adjusted.

3
Photomultiplier Handbook

Another problem was that its rather wide Snyder 8 and by Janes and Gloverg, all of
open structure resulted in high dark current RCA. The basic electron-optics of the cir-
because of feedback from ions and light cular cage was thus well determined by 1941
developed near the output end of the device. and has not changed to the present time
For these reasons, and because of the although improvements have been made in
development of electrostatically focused processing, construction, and performance
photomultipliers, commercialization did not of the 931A product.
follow. The success of the 931 type also resulted
from the development of a much improved
photocathode, Cs3Sb, reported by Gorlich 10
in 1936. The first experimental photo-
multipliers had used a Ag-O-Cs photocath-
ode having a typical peak quantum efficien-
cy of 0.4% at 800 nm. (The Ag-O-Cs layer
Fig. 2 - Magnetic-type multistage photomul-
was also used for the dynodes.) The new
tiplier reported by Zworykin, Morton, and Cs3Sb photocathode had a quantum effi-
Malter in 1936. ciency of 12% (higher today) at 400 nm. It
was used in the first 931’s, both as a
photocathode and as a secondary-emitting
material for the dynodes.
The design of multistage electrostatically
focused photomultipliers required an
analysis of the equipotential surfaces be-
tween electrodes and of the electron trajec- PHOTOEMITTER AND SECONDARY-
tories. Before the days of high-speed com- EMITTER DEVELOPMENT
puters, this problem was solved by a Photocathode Materials
mechanical analogue: a stretched rubber
membrane. By placing mechanical models of Much of the development work on
the electrodes under the membrane, the photomultiplier tubes has been concerned
height of the membrane was controlled and with their physical configuration and the
corresponded to the electrical potential of related electron optics. But a very important
the electrode. Small balls were then allowed part of the development of photomultiplier
to roll from one electrode to the next. The tubes was related to the photocathode and
trajectories of the balls were shown to cor- secondary-emission surfaces and their pro-
respond to those of the electrons in the cor- cessing. RCA was very fortunate during the
responding electrostatic fields. Working 1950’s and 60’s in having on its staff, prob-
with the rubber-dam analogue, both J.R. ably the world’s foremost photocathode ex-
Pierce5 of Bell Laboratories and J.A. pert, Dr. A.H. Sommer. His treatise on
Rajchman6 of RCA devices linear arrays of Photoemissive Materials1 1 continues to pro-
electrodes that provided good focusing prop- vide a wealth of information to all
erties. Although commerical designs did not photocathode process engineers.
result immediately from the linear dynode Sommer explored the properties of
array, The Rajchmann design with some numerous photocathode materials-par-
modifications eventually was, and still is, ticularly alkali-antimonides. Perhaps his
used in photomultipliers-particularly for most noteworthy contribution was the
high-gain wide-bandwidth requirements. multialkali photocathode (S-20 spectral
response). This photocathode, Na2KSb:Cs,
First Commercial Devices is important because of its high sensitivity in
The first commercially successful the red and near infrared; the earlier Cs3Sb
photomultiplier was the type 931. This tube photocathode spectral response barely ex-
had a compact circular array of nine tends through the visible, although it is very
dynodes using electrostatic focusing. The sensitive in the blue where most scintillators
first such arrangement was described by emit.
Zworykin and Rajchman.7 Modifications Bialkali photocathodes were also de-
were later reported by Rajchmann and veloped by Sommer and have proven to be

4
Introduction

better in some applications than the Cs3Sb APPLICATIONS DEVELOPMENT


photocathode. Thus, the Na2KSb photo- Astronomy and Spectroscopy
cathode has been found to be stable at higher
temperatures than Cs3Sb and, in addition, Early applications of the photomultiplier
has a very low dark (thermal) emission. It were in astronomy and spectroscopy.
has been particularly useful in oil-well- Because the effective quantum efficiency of
logging applications. Another bialkali pho- the photomultiplier was at least ten times
tocathode, K2CsSb, is more sensitive than that of photographic film, astronomers were
Cs3Sb in the blue and is, therefore, used by quick to realize the photomultiplier tube’s
RCA to provide a better match to the advantage. Furthermore, because the output
NaI:Tl crystals used in scintillation count- current of the photomultiplier is linear with
ing. incident radiation power, the tube could be
used directly in photometric and spec-
trophotometric astronomy. The type 1P28, a
Dynode Materials tube similar to the 931 but having an
The first secondary-emission material ultraviolet-transmitting envelope was par-
used practically by RCA was the Ag-O-Cs ticularly useful in spectroscopy. The size and
surface. But with the development of the shape of the photocathode were suitable for
Cs3Sb material for photocathodes, it was the detection and measurement of line spec-
found that this material was also an excellent tra and the very wide14 range of available gain
secondary emitter. Other practical secondary proved very useful.
emitters developed during the early years of
photomultiplier development were MgO:Cs Radar Jammer
(often referred to as “silver-magnesium”) A totally unexpected application for the
and BeO:Cs (“copper-beryllium”). new photomultiplier tube occurred during
In the early 1960’s, R.E. Simon12 while World War II. The development of radar for
working at the RCA Laboratories developed detecting and tracking aircraft led to the
his revolutionary concept of Negative Elec- simultaneous need for wideband electronic-
tron Affinity (NEA). Electron affinity is the noise sources as radar jammers. Although
energy required for an electron at the
other sources of noise were tried, the
conduction-band level to escape to the
photomultiplier proved to be most suc-
vacuum level. By suitably treating the sur- cessful. The advantage of the tube was its
face of a p-type semiconductor material, the high gain (107) and wide band width (several
band levels at the surface can be bent hundred MHz). As a noise source the tube
downward so that the effective electron af-
was operated with a non-modulated input
finity is actually negative. Thermalized elec- light source and with high gain. The output
trons in the conduction band are normally amplifier photoelectric shot noise was
repelled by the electron-affinity barrier; the “white” and thus indistinguishable from
advantage of the NEA materials is that these natural noise sources. This application of
electrons can now escape into the vacuum as photomultiplier tubes resulted in production
they approach the surface. In the case of of thousands per month compared with
secondary emission, secondary electrons can previous production measured in only hun-
be created at greater depths in the material dreds per year.
and still escape, thus providing a much
greater secondary-emission yield. In the case Scintillation Counting
of photoemission, it has been possible to A proliferation of photomultiplier designs
achieve extended-red and infrared sen- followed the invention of the scintillation
sitivities greater than those obtainable with counter shortly after World War II.15,16 The
any other known materials. The first prac- photomultiplier tubes were designed with
tical application of the NEA concept was to semitransparent photocathodes deposited on
secondary emission. An early paper by an end window which could be coupled
Simon and Williams l3 described the theory directly to the scintillator. The principal
and early experimental results of secondary- scintillator used, NaI doped with thallium,
emission yields as high as 130 at 2.5 kV for was discovered by Hofstadter17. Much of
GaP:Cs. the development work on photomultiplier

5
Photomultiplier Handbook

tubes during this period was reported by depending upon the individual signals from
RCA and its competitors in the biannual each of the photomultipliers. Counting is
meetings of the Scintillation Counter Sym- continued until several hundred thousand
posium. These symposia were reported fully counts are obtained and the organ in ques-
in the IRE (and later the IEEE) Transactions tion is satisfactorily delineated. The location
on Nuclear Science beginning with the of each scintillation is represented by a point
meeting in Washington, January 1948. The on a cathode-ray-tube presentation.
scintillation counter became the most impor- The Computerized Axial Tomographic
tant measurement instrument in nuclear (CAT) scanner was introduced to this coun-
physics, nuclear medicine, and radioactive try in 1973. The device uses a pencil or fan-
tracer applications of a wide variety. beam of X-rays which rotates around the pa-
Headlight Dimmer tient providing X-ray transmission data
During the 1950’s, RCA collaborated with from many directions. A scintillator coupled
the General Motors Company (Guide-Lamp to a photomultiplier detects the transmitted
Division) on a successful headlight dimmer. beam-as an average photomultiplier cur-
The photoelectric headlight dimmer-first rent-and a computer stores and computes
made available only on Cadillacs and the cross-section density variation of the pa-
Oldsmobiles-basically used a tube similar tient’s torso or skull. The photomultipliers
to the 931A, but redesigned and tested to the are1/ or 3/4-inch end-on tubes which
auto manufacturer’s particular require- couple to the scintillator, commonly BGO
ments. The optical engineering problem was (bismuth germanate). Each unit is equipped
to sense the oncoming headlights or tail- with as many as 600 photomultipliers.
lights being followed without responding to PHOTOMULTIPLIERS AND SOLID-
street and house lights. Vertical and horizon- STATE DETECTORS COMPARED
tal angular sensitivity was designed to match
the spread of the high beams of the automo- In some applications either a photomulti-
bile. A red filter was installed in the optical plier or solid-state detector could be used.
path to provide a better balance between sen- The user may make his choice on the basis of
sitivity to oncoming headlights and to tail- factors such as cost, size, or previous ex-
lamps being followed. The device achieved a perience. In other applications, the choice
remarkable success, probably because of the may be dictated by fundamental properties
novelty, and thousands of photomultiplier of the photomultiplier or the solid-state
tubes were used. But today, one rarely sees a detector. A discussion follows of some of the
headlight dimmer. common applications favoring one or the
other detector with reasons for the choice. A
Medical Diagnostic Equipment summary presents the principal considera-
tions the user must apply in making a choice
In recent years two medical applications in an application for which he requires a
have used large numbers of photomultiplier photodetector. This information should be
tubes and have spurred further develop-
ments and improvements. The gamma cam- particularly useful to the designer who is not
era18 is a sophisticated version of the scin- well acquainted in this field.
tillation counter used medically for locating Photomultiplier Features
tumors or other biological abnormalities. A The photomultiplier is unique in its ability
radioactive isotope combined in a suitable to interface with a scintillation crystal and
compound is injected into the blood stream not only count the scintillations but measure
or ingested orally by the patient. The their magnitude and time their arrival. Most
radioactive material disintegrates and gam- scintillators emit in the blue and near ultra-
ma rays are ejected from preferential loca- violet. This spectral output obviously favors
tions such as tumors or specific organs. A the photomultiplier having a photocathode
large crystal intercepts the gamma rays and with high quantum efficiency in the short
scintillates. Behind the crystal are photo- wavelength range. On the other hand a sili-
multiplier tubes, perhaps 19, in hexagonal con p-i-n diode is relatively poor in this part
array. The location of the point of scintilla- of the spectrum but does best in the red and
tion origin is obtained by an algorithm near infrared. The most important factor,

6
Introduction

probably, is the gain of the photomultiplier As a result of increasing concern about en-
which permits the measurement of the very vironment, pollution monitoring is becom-
small signals from individual scintillations ing another important application for photo-
with a good signal-to-noise ratio, limited multiplier tubes. For example, in the moni-
primarily by the statistics of the number of toring of NOx the gas sample is mixed with
photoelectrons per pulse. Finally, the short O 3 in a reaction chamber. A chemilum-
rise time of the photomultiplier using fast inescence results which is measured using a
scintillators permits time-of-flight measure- near-infrared-pass filter and a photomulti-
ments to be made in nuclear physics. plier having an S-20 spectral response. Al-
though the radiation level is very low, NO
Although the CAT scanner equipment can be detected down to a level of 0.1 ppm.
also uses photomultipier tubes to detect the The advantage of the photomultiplier in this
scintillations in bismuth germanate (BGO) application is again the high gain and good
crystals, the situation is somewhat different signal-to-noise ratio (the photomultiplier is
from the scintillation counting applications cooled to 0°C to reduce dark-current noise)
discussed above. In the CAT scanner the even though the radiation spectrum is ob-
X-rays produce a broad band of pulse served near the threshold of the S-20 spectral
heights and no attempt is made to single out range.
and detect single scintillation events. The In another pollution-monitoring applica-
photomultiplier is used in an analog mode to tion, SO2 is detected down to a level of 0.002
detect the level of radiation incident on the ppm. Here, the sample containing SO2 is ir-
crystal. In the CAT scan operation the radiated with ultraviolet and the excited SO2
typical machine scans the patient in a few molecules fluoresce with blue radiation that
seconds and the level of irradiance from the is detected with a combination of a narrow-
crystal onto the photomultiplier is relatively band filter and photomultiplier. Very weak
high so that only a relatively low gain photo- signals are detected and again it is the high
multiplier is required. Furthermore, the gain, good signal-to-noise ratio and, in addi-
speed of response requirement for the tion, good blue sensitivity which makes the
photomultiplier is relatively modest-per- detection and measurement of small contam-
haps a few hundred microseconds. Still, the inations of SO2 possible.
principal advantage of using a photomulti- Spectroscopy is one of the very early ap-
plier in this application for the detection of plications for photomultipliers. The wide
the radiant signal is its good signal-to-noise range of radiation levels encountered is
ratio. This ratio is very important to the pa- readily handled by the approximately loga-
tient because a reduction in its signal-to- rithmic gain variation of the photomultiplier
noise ratio would have to be made up for with voltage. At very low signal levels, the
with an increased X-ray dose. Nevertheless, signal-to-noise capability of the photomulti-
there is interest and development activity plier is essential. Because photomultiplier
aimed at replacing the photomultiplier with spectral response (with quartz or ultraviolet-
silicon p-i-n detectors. Two factors could transmitting-glass windows) covers the range
favor the alternate use of a silicon cell: (1) a from ultraviolet to near infrared, the
better scintillator (BGO is almost an order of photomultiplier is the logical choice for spec-
magnitude less sensitive than NaI:Tl; (2) a troscopic applications, except in the infrared
faster scanning machine (a very desirable region of the spectrum.
technological advance because is would
minimize effects of body motions). Both of Photocell* Features
these factors would result in a larger Because of their small size and low cost,
photocurrent and could bring the signal level CdSe and CdS type photocells are the logical
for the silicon detector to the point where the selection for applications such as automatic
fundamental signal-to-noise ratio from the exposure control in photographic cameras or
X-ray source would not be degraded. Such various inspection and counting require-
developments may be anticipated because ments.
*“Photocell” is used here to indicate a photosensitive
the silicon detector would also have the ad- device in which the charge transport takes place through
vantage of smaller size and perhaps lower a solid as compared with “phototube” in which the
cost. charge transport is through a vacuum.

7
Photomultiplier Handbook

Many p-i-n silicon cells are used in com- diode can be of the order of 100, but the sen-
bination with lasers or LED’s (light emitting sitive area is small-about 0.5 square
diodes). Here, one of the principal advantages millimeter.
of the silicon cell is its good response in the Sensitive Area. Photomultiplier tubes are
near infrared out to 1100 nm. In combina- made in a variety of sizes so that many dif-
tion with the Nd:YAG laser emitting at 1060 ferent optical configurations can be accom-
nm, the silicon cell is used widely in laser modated. The largest photocathode area
ranging and laser tracking. A similar ap- available in commercial RCA photomulti-
plication utilizes an LED emitting near 900 plier tubes has a nominal diameter of 5 in-
nm with a silicon cell for automatic ranging ches and a minimum useful area of 97 square
for special camera equipment. Size and in- centimeters. By way of contrast, the 1/2-inch
frared sensitivity are again the important side-on photomultiplier has a projected pho-
qualifications. tocathode area of 0.14 square centimeter.
A rapidly growing application for photo- Silicon p-i-n diodes are available with sen-
cells is for fiber-optic communication sitive areas generally not larger than 1 square
systems. LED’s are coupled to the fibers and centimeter; and avalanche silicon cells, 0.005
the detector may be a p-i-n diode or, for a square centimeter. In many applications, a
better signal-to-noise ratio, a silicon ava- fairly large area is required, e.g., coupling to
lanche diode. The qualifying attributes for a cathode-ray tube or a large scintillator.
the choice of detector are size, near infrared This requirement generally indicates the use
sensitivity, adequate speed of response, and of a photomultiplier tube. Silicon cells are at
good signal-to-noise ratio. an advantage when the source is small for
Smoke detectors now use large numbers of direct coupling or for lens imaging.
LED’s and p-i-n silicon cells. Again size, Temperature. Photomultipliers are gener-
cost, and infrared sensitivity are the impor- ally not rated for operation at temperatures
tant qualifications. higher than 75° C. Exceptions are photomul-
Characteristics Comparison Summary tipliers having a Na2KSb photocathode. This
Spectral Response. Photomultipliers can bi-alkali photocathode can tolerate temper-
be obtained with good spectral sensitivity in atures up to 150° C or even higher for short
the range 200 to 900 nm. Silicon cells have cycles. In oil-well logging measurements this
rather poor blue sensitivity, but are excellent consideration is important. Photocathode
out to 1100 nm. In general, then, the photo- sensitivities and gain change very little with
multiplier is to be preferred for applications temperature, but dark current does increase
involving the shorter wavelengths, although rapidly. Dark currents at room temperature
other factors may override this considera- are of the order of 10 - l5 ampere at the pho-
tion. tocathode and double about every 10° C.
Speed of Response. If very fast response is Silicon cells are rated from - 50 to 80° C.
required, the photomultiplier is usually the Sensitivities are also relatively independent
best choice of a detector. Photomultipliers of temperature. But dark current which may
are available with rise times (10 to 90%) of 1 be 10- 7 ampere at room temperature, also
or 2 nanoseconds using a 50-ohm load. The tends to double about every 10° C.
inherent rise time of silicon cells may be in Signal-to-Noise Ratio. At very low light
the range 10 to 20 nanoseconds, depending levels, the limitation to detection and
upon the area of the cell. However, because measurement is generally the signal-to-noise
of the cell’s capacitance, the effective rise ratio. One way of describing the limit to
time is much longer depending upon the detection is to state the Equivalent Noise In-
choice of load resistance. For example, with put (ENI) or the Noise Equivalent Power
a 1-megohm load resistance, the rise time (NEP). The NEP is the power level into the
may be of the order of 20 microseconds. A device which provides a signal just equal to
fairly large load resistance must be chosen to the noise. Most often the bandwidth is
maintain good signal-to-noise characteristics specified as 1 hertz and the wavelength of the
for the silicon cell. Silicon avalanche photo- measurement is at the peak of the spectral
diodes can have rise times as short as 2 responsivity. ENI is the same type of specifi-
nanoseconds. Gain for an avalanche photo- cation except the unit instead of power may

8
Introduction

be luminous flux. 2. J. Slepian, U.S. Patent 1, 450, 265,


For a photomultiplier such as one used for April 3, 1923 (Filed 1919).
spectroscopy, the NEP at room temperature 3. H. E. Iams and B. Salzberg, “The
at 400 nm is about 7 x 10-16 watts, or the secondary emission phototube,” Proc. IRE,
EN1 is about 7 x 10 - l3 lumens. Both Vol. 23, pp. 55-64 (1935).
specifications are for a l-hertz ban 4. V.K. Zworykin, G.A. Morton, and L.

dwidth.
For a p-i-n silicon photocell, the NEP at 900 Malter, "The secondary-emission multipli -
nanometers may be of the order of 2 x er-a new electronic device,” Proc. IRE,
10- watts, or the EN1 of 1.5 x 10- l1 Vol. 24, pp. 351-375 (1936).
lumens. Both values are for a l-hertz band- 5 . J . R . P i e r c e , “Electron-multiplier
width. Thus, the photomultiplier is clearly design,” Bell Lab. Record, Vol. 16, pp.
superior in this category. Also it should be 305-309 (1938).
pointed out that the silicon diode must be 6. J.A. Rajchman, “Le courant residue1
coupled into a load resistance of about 5 dans les multiplicateurs d’electrons elec-
megohms in order to avoid noise domination trostatiques,” These L’Ecole Polytechnique
from the coupling resistor. Unfortunately, Federale (Zurich, 1938).
this large resistance then increases the effec- 7. V.K. Zworykin and J.A. Rajchman,
tive rise time of the silicon device to about “The electrostatic electron multiplier, Proc.
100 microseconds. The NEP of a silicon ava- IRE, Vol. 27, pp. 558-566 (1939).
lanche photodiode is about 10-14 watt at 8. J.A. Rajchman and R.L. Snyder, “An
900 nanometers or the ENI is 8 x 10 - l3 electrostatically focused multiplier
lumens, both for a l-Hz bandwidth. The phototube,” Electronics, Vol. 13, p. 20
lumen in these descriptions is that from a (1940).
tungsten source operating at 2856 K color 9. R.B. Janes, and A.M. Glover, “Recent
temperature. Peak emission for such a developments in phototubes,” RCA Review,
source is near 1000 nm and thus closely Vol. 6, pp. 43-54 (1941). Also, A.M. Glover,
matches the spectral peak of the silicon “A review of the development of sensitive
devices. phototubes,” Proc. IRE, Vol. 29, pp.
Gain. A photomultiplier can have a gain 413-423 (1941).
factor, by which the fundamental photo- 10. P. Gorlich, “Uber zusammengesetzte,
cathode signal is multiplied, of from 103 to durchsichtige Photokathoden,” 2. Physik,
10 8. Silicon avalanche photodiodes have a Vol. 101, p. 335 (1936).
gain of about 100. Silicon p-i-n diodes have 11. A.H. Sommer, P h o t o e m i s s i v e
no gain. The high gain of the photomulti- materials, John Wiley and Sons; 1968.
plier frequently eliminates the need of 12. R.E. Simon, Research in electron
special amplifiers, and its range of gain con- emission from semiconductors, Quarterly
trolled by the applied voltage provides flex- Report, Contract DA 36-039-AMC-02221
ibility in operation. (E) (1963).
Stability. Photomultiplier tubes are not 13. R.E. Simon and B.F. Williams,
noted for great stability although for low “Secondary-electron emission,” I E E E
anode currents and careful operation they Trans. Nucl. Sci., Vol. NS-15, pp. 166-170
are satisfactory. When the light level is (1968).
reasonably high, however, the very good 14. M.H. Sweet, “Logarithmic photomul-
stability of the silicon p-i-n cell is a con- tiplier tube photometer,” JOSA, Vol. 37, p.
siderable advantage. The silicon cell makes a 432 (1947).
particularly good reference device for this 15. H. Kallmann, Natur u Technik (July
reason. In fact, the National Bureau of Stan- 1947).
dards has been conducting special calibra- 16. J.W. Coltman and F.H. Marshall, “A
tion transfer studies using p-i-n silicon photomultiplier radiation detector,” Phys.
diodes. Rev., Vol. 72, p. 582 (1947).
17. R. Hofstadter, “Alkali halide scintilla-
REFERENCES tion counters,” Phys. Rev., Vol. 74, p. 100
1. H. Bruining, Physics and applications (1948).
of secondary electron emission, (McGraw- 18. H.O. Anger, “Scintillation camera”,
Hill Book Co., Inc.; 1954). Rev. Sci. Instr., Vol. 29, pp. 27-33 (1958).

9
2. Photomultiplier Design

PHOTOEMISSION In the energy diagram for a metal shown


The earliest observation of a photoelectric in Fig. 3, the work function represents the
effect was made by Becquerel in 1839. He energy which must be given to an electron at
found that when one of a pair of electrodes the top of the energy distribution to raise it
in an electrolyte was illuminated, a voltage to the level of the potential barrier at the
or current resulted. During the latter part of metal-vacuum interface.
the 19th century, the observation of a
photovoltaic effect in selenium led to the METAL
development of selenium and cuprous oxide
photovoltaic cells.
The emission of electrons resulting from
the action of light on a photoemissive sur-
face was a later development. Hertz dis-
covered the photoemission phenomenon in
1887, and in 1888 Hallwachs measured the
photocurrent from a zinc plate subjected to
FERMI
ultraviolet radiation. In 1890, Elster and ENERGY
Geitel produced a forerunner of the vacuum
phototube which consisted of an evacuated
glass bulb containing an alkali metal and an
auxiliary electrode used to collect the 92CS - 32289
negative electrical carriers (photoelectrons)
emitted by the action of light on the alkali Fig. 3 - Energy mode/ for a metal showing
metal. the relationship of the work function and the
Fermi level.
Basic Photoelectric Theory
The modern concept of photoelectricity
stems from Einstein’s pioneer work for According to the quantum theory, only
which he received the Nobel Prize. The one electron can occupy a particular quan-
essence of Einstein’s work is the following tum state of an atom. In a single atom, these
equation for determining the maximum states are separated in distinct “shells”; nor-
kinetic energy E of an emitted photoelec- mally only the lower energy states are filled.
tron: In an agglomeration of atoms, these states
are modified by interaction with neighboring
(1) atoms, particularly for the outermost elec-
Eq. (1) shows that the maximum energy of trons of the atom. As a result, the outer
the emitted photoelectron mv2/2 is propor- energy levels tend to overlap and produce a
tional to the energy of the light quanta hv continuous band of possible energy levels, as
shown in Fig. 3.
must be given to an electron to allow it to The diagram shown in Fig. 3 is for a
escape the surface of a metal. For each temperature of absolute zero; all lower
metal, the photoelectric effect is character- energy levels are filled. As the temperature is
increased, some of the electrons absorb ther-
ed in electron-volts. mal energy which permits them to occupy

10
Photomultiplier Design

scattered states above the maximum level for


absolute zero. The energy distribution of
electrons in a particular metal is shown in
Fig. 4 for several different temperatures. At
absolute zero, all the lower states are oc-
cupied up to the Fermi level. At higher
temperatures, there is some excitation to up-
per levels. The electron density at a par-
ticular temperature is described by the
Fermi-Dirac energy-distribution function,
which indicates the probability of occupa-
tion f for a quantum state having energy E:

f = 1
(2)
fig. 4 - Energy distribution of conduction
electrons in potassium at temperatures of 0,
When E is equal to Ef, the value of f is 1/2. 200, and 1033 degrees Kelvin based on
It is customary to refer to the energy of level elementary Sommerfeld theory. (ref. 19)
Ef, for which there is a 50-per-cent prob-
ability of occupancy, as the Fermi level. At Work Function and Spectral Response
absolute zero, the Fermi level corresponds to
the top of the filled energy distribution. Measurement of the work function and
If the energy derived from the radiant spectral response for clean metal surfaces
energy is just sufficient to eject an electron at has been of considerable importance in the
the Fermi level, the following relation exists: development of photoelectric theory.
Work functions for pure metals are in the
(3) range 2 to 5 electron-volts. (See A.H. Som-
mer, Ref. 11, Table 3.)
Fig. 5 shows spectral-response curves for
radiation, is related to the long-wavelength the alkali metals. The curves indicate a
regular progression of the wavelength for
maximum response with atomic number.
The most red-sensitive of these metals is
(4) cesium, which is widely used in the activa-
The relationship may be rewritten to relate tion of most commercial phototubes.
the long-wavelength limit to the work func- The energy distribution of emitted photo-
electrons has been measured for a number of
tion, as follows: metals and photosurfaces. Typical results
are shown in Fig. 6 for a potassium film of
(5) 20 molecular layers on a base of silver.20 The
maximum emission energy corresponds to
Because some of the electrons occupy that predicted by the Einstein photoelectric
states slightly higher than the Fermi level, as equation.
shown in Fig. 4, excitation of these electrons
produces an extended response at the red Quantum Efficiency
threshold of the spectral-response character- Because a quantum of radiation is neces-
istic. As a result, there is no abrupt red sary to release an electron, the photoelectric
threshold at normal temperatures, and the current is proportional to the intensity of the
true work function cannot be obtained in a radiation. This first law of photoelectricity
simple manner from the spectral-response has been verified experimentally over a wide
measurement. However, a universal func- range of light intensities. For most materials,
tion devised by Fowler can be used to predict the quantum efficiency is very low; on the
the shape of the spectral-response curve near best sensitized commercial photosurfaces,
the threshold; the work function can then be the maximum yield reported is as high as one
calculated from these data. electron for three light quanta.

11
Photomultiplier Handbook

WAVELENGTH-NANOMETERS
92CS-32291

Fig. 5 - Spectral-response characteristics for the alkali metals showing regular pro-
gression in the order of the periodic table. (ref. 19)

An ideal photocathode has a quantum ef- from photon to electron, (2) motion of the
ficiency of 100 per cent; i.e., every incident electron toward the material-vacuum inter-
photon releases one photoelectron from the face, and (3) escape of the electron over the
material into the vacuum. All practical potential barrier at the surface into the
photoemitters have quantum efficiencies vacuum.
below 100 per cent. To obtain a qualitative Energy losses occur in each of these steps.
understanding of the variations in quantum In the first step, only the absorbed portion
efficiency for different materials and for dif- of the incident light is effective and thus
ferent wavelengths or photon energies, it is losses by transmission and reflection reduce
useful to consider photoemission as a pro- the quantum efficiency. In the second step,
cess involving three steps: (1) absorption of a the photoelectrons may lose energy by col-
photon resulting in the transfer of energy lision with other electrons (electron scat-
tering) or with the lattice (phonon
scattering). Finally, the potential barrier at
the surface prevents the escape of some elec-
trons.
Metallic and Semiconductor Materials
The energy losses described vary from
material to material, but a major difference
between metallic and semiconducting
materials makes separate consideration of
each of these two groups useful. In metals, a
large fraction of the incident visible light is
reflected and thus lost to the photoemission
process. Further losses occur as the photo-
electrons rapidly lose energy in collisions with
the large number of free electrons in the
metal through electron-electron scattering.
As a result, the escape depth, the distance
from the surface from which electrons can
reach the surface with sufficient energy to
Fig. 6 - Energy distribution of photoelec- overcome the surface barrier, is small, and is
trons from a potassium film. (ref. 20) typically a few nanometers. Finally, the

12
Photomultiplier Design

work function of most metals is greater than ty. At temperatures higher than 0 K, some
three electron-volts, so that visible photons electrons in the valence band have sufficient
which have energies less than three electron- energy to be raised to the conduction band,
volts are prevented from producing electron and these electrons, as well as the holes in the
emission. Only a few metals, particularly the valence band created by the loss of electrons,
alkali ones, have work-function values low produce electrical conductivity. Because the
enough to make them sensitive to visible number of electrons raised to the conduction
light. Because of the large energy losses in band increases with temperature, the con-
absorption of the photon and in the motion ductivity of semiconductors also increases
of the photoelectron toward the vacuum (the with temperature. Light can be absorbed by
first and second steps described above), even valence-band electrons only if the energy of
the alkali metals exhibit very low quantum the photon is at least equal to the band-gap
efficiency in the visible region, usually below energy EG. If, as a result of light absorption,
0.1 per cent (one electron per 1000 incident electrons are raised from the valence band
photons)l As expected, higher quantum effi- into the conduction band, photoconductivity
ciencies are obtained with higher photon is achieved. For photoemission, an electron
energies. For 12-electron-volt photons, in the conduction band must have energy
quantum yields as high as 10 per cent have greater than the electron affinity EA. The
been reported. additional energy EA is needed to overcome
the forces that bind the electron to the solid,
or, in other words, to convert a “free” elec-
tron within the material into a free electron
in the vacuum. Thus, in terms of the model
of Fig. 7, radiant energy can convert an elec-
tron into an internal photoelectron (photo-
conductivity) if the photon energy exceeds
EG and into an external photoelectron
(photoemission) if the photon energy ex-
ceeds (EG + EA). As a result, photons with
total energies Epless than (EG + EA) cannot
produce photoemission.
The following statements can therefore be
made concerning photoemission in semicon-
Fig. 7 - Simplified semiconductor energy ductors. First, light absorption is efficient if
band model.
the photon energy exceeds EG. Second,
energy loss by electron-electron scattering is
The concept of the energy-band models low because very few free electrons are pres-
that describe semiconductor photoemitters is ent; thus, energy loss by phonon scattering is
illustrated in its simplest form in Fig. 7. Elec- the predominant loss mechanism. The
trons can have energy values only within well escape depth in semiconductors is therefore
defined energy bands which are separated by much greater than in metals, typically of the
forbidden-band gaps. At 0 K, the electrons order of tens of nanometers. Third, the
of highest energy are in the so-called valence threshold wavelength, which is determined
band and are separated from the empty con- by the work function in metals, is given by
duction band by the bandgap energy EG. the value of (EG + EA) in semiconductors.
The probability that a given energy level may Synthesis of materials with values of
be occupied by an electron is described by EG + EA) below 2 electron-volts has
Fermi-Dirac statistics and depends primarily demonstrated that threshold wavelengths
on the difference in energy between the level longer than those of any metal can be ob-
under consideration and Fermi level. As a tained in a semiconductor. Semiconductors,
first approximation, it may be said that any therefore, are superior to metals in all three
energy levels which are below the Fermi level steps of the photoemissive process: they ab-
will be filled with electrons, and any levels sorb a much higher fraction of the incident
which are above the Fermi level will be emp- light, photoelectrons can escape from a

13
Photomultiplier Handbook

greater distance from the vacuum interface, the conditions of Fig. 8 has greatly increased
and the threshold wavelengths can be made escape depth. Under such circumstances, the
longer than those of a metal. Thus, it is not photosensitivity is significantly enhanced.
surprising that all photoemitters of practical Substantial response is observed even for
importance are semiconducting materials. photons with energies close to that of the
Negative-Electron-Affinity Materials 20a band gap where the absorption is weak. Effi-
In recent years, remarkable improvements cient photoemission in this case results only
in the photoemission from semiconductors because of the greater escape depth.
have been obtained through deliberate The reduction of the electron affinity is
modification of the energy-band structure. accomplished through two steps. First, the
The approach has been to reduce the elec- semiconductor is made strongly p-type by
tron affinity, EA, and thus to permit the the addition of the proper “doping” agent.
escape of electrons which have been excited For example, if gallium arsenide is the host
into the conduction band at greater depths material, zinc may be incorporated into the
within the material. Indeed, if the electron crystal lattice to a concentration of perhaps
affinity is made less than zero (the vacuum 1,000 parts per million. The zinc produces
level lower than the bottom of the conduc- isolated energy states within the forbidden
tion band, a condition described as gap, near the top of the valence band, which
“negative electron affinity” and illustrated are normally empty, but which will accept
in Fig. 8), the escape depth may be as much electrons under the proper circumstances.
The p-doped material has its Fermi level just
above the top of the valence band. The se-
cond step is to apply to a semiconductor a
surface film of an electropositive material
such as cesium. Each cesium atom becomes
ionized through loss of an electron to a
p-type energy level near the surface of the
semiconductor, and is held to the surface by
electrostatic attraction.
92CS-32294 The changes which result in the energy-
Fig. 8 - Semiconductor energy-band model band structure are two-fold. In the first
showing negative electron affinity. place, the acceptance of electrons by the
p-type impurity levels is accompanied by a
as 100 times greater than for the normal downward bending of the energy bands.
material. The escape depth of a photoelec- This bending can be understood by observ-
tron is limited by the energy loss suffered in ing that a filled state must be, in general,
phonon scattering. Within a certain period below the Fermi level; the whole structure
of time, of the order of 10-12 second, the near the surface is bent downward to ac-
electron energy drops from a level above the complish this result. In the second place, the
vacuum level to the bottom of the conduc- potential difference between the charged
tion band from which it is not able to escape electropositive layer (cesium) and the body
into the vacuum. On the other hand, the charge (filled zinc levels) results in a further
electron can stay in the conduction band in depression of the vacuum level as a result of
the order of 10-10 second without further a dipole moment right at the surface.
loss of energy, i.e., without dropping into Another way to describe the reduction of
the valence band. If the vacuum level is the electron affinity is to consider the surface
below the bottom of the conduction band, of the semiconductor as a capacitor. The
the electron will be in an energy state from charge on one side of the capacitor is
which it can escape into the vacuum for a represented by the surface layer of cesium
period of time that is approximately 100 ions; the other charge is represented by the
times longer than if an energy above the bot- region of filled acceptor levels. The reduc-
tom of the conduction band is required for tion in the electron affinity is exactly equal
escape, as in the materials represented by to the potential difference developed across
Fig. 7. Therefore, a material conforming to the capacitor.

14
Photomultiplier Design

In a more rigorous analysis, the amount The photocathodes most commonly used
by which the energy bands are bent is found in photomultipliers are cesium-antimony
to be approximately equal to the band-gap, (Cs3Sb), multialkali or trialkali (Na2KSb:
and the vacuum level is lowered until the ab- Cs),* and bialkali (K 2CsSb). Another
sorption level of the electropositive material bialkali photocathode (Na2KSb) is par-
is essentially at the top of the valence band. ticularly useful at higher operating tempera-
tures because of its stability. Recently, the
PRACTICAL PHOTOCATHODE rubidium-cesium-antimony (probably Rb2
MATERIALS Cs Sb) photocathode has been introduced
Research on commercially useful photo- because of its favorable blue sensitivity.
emitters has been directed primarily toward Typical spectral response curves for these
developing devices sensitive to visible radia- materials are shown in Figs. 9 and 10. Addi-
tion. The first important commercial photo- tional information about these and other
surface was silver-oxygen-cesium. This sur- photocathodes of practical importance is
face, which provides a spectral response shown in Table I.
designated S-l, is sensitive throughout the
entire visible spectrum and into the infrared.
Although it has rather low sensitivity and
high dark emission, the good response in the
red and near-infrared still recommends its
use in special applications although other
photocathodes are more generally used in
photomultipliers today.

300 400 500 600 700


WAVELENGTH -NANOMETERS
92CM-32296

Fig. 10 - Typical spectral-response curves


for various photocathodes useful in scintilla-
tion counting applications. The variation in
the cutoff at the low end is due to the use of
different envelope materials.

The long-wavelength response of the mul-


200 400 600 800 1000
WAVELENGTH - NANOMETERS
tialkali photocathode has been extended by
92CM-32295 processing changes including the use of an
Fig. 9 - Typical spectra/-response curves, increased photocathode-film thickness at the
with 0080 lime-glass window for (a) silver- expense of the short-wavelength response.
oxygen-cesium (Ag-O-Cs), (b) cesium- Fig. 11 shows two typical spectral-response
antimony (Cs3Sb), (c) multialkali or trialkali curves of the ERMA types (Extended Red
(Na2KSb:Cs Multi-Alkali) II and III compared with the
*The terminology “:Cs” indicates trace quantities of S-20 response of the conventionally pro-
the element. cessed multialkali photocathode.

15
Photomultiplier Handbook

Table I
Nominal Composition and Characteristics of
Various Photocathodes

Conversion Luminous Wave- Dark


JEDEC Factorb Respon- length of Respon- Quantum Emission
Nominal Photo- Envelopea Response (lumen/ sivitv Maximum sivitv Efficiency at 25° C
Composition cathode Material Designation watt) (uA/lumen) Response (mA/watt) (percent) (fA/cm2)

Cs3Sb 0 0080 S-4 950 40 380 38 12 0.2


Cs3Sb 0 9741 S-5 1244 40 340 50 18 0.3
Cs3Sb S 0080 S-11 857 70 400 60 19 3
Na2KSb S 7056 S-24 1250 40 380 50 16 .0003
Na2KSb S Sapphire 1400 43 380 60 19 .0003
K2CsSb 0 0080 938 60 380 56 18
K2CsSb 0 7740 1083 60 400 65 20 .02
K2CsSb S B270 1111 90 380 100 33 .02
K2CsSb S 0080 1120 80 380 90 29 .02
K2CsSb S 7740 1140 71 420 82 24
K2CsSb S 9741 1240 56 380 70 23 .02
Rb2CsSb S 0080 948 100 420 95 28 .08
Na2KSb:Cs 0 9741 510 75 380 38 12
Na2KSb:Cs S 7740 ERMA IIIc 160 180 575 29 6 .3
Na2KSb:Cs S 0080 ERMA IIc 250 200 550 50 11
Na2KSb:Cs S 0080 S-20 480 135 390 65 21 0.4
Na2KSb:Cs Sd 0080 230 300 530 70 16 1.2
Na2KSb:Cs S 7056 432 117 420 51 15
GaAs: Cs-0 O e 9741 115 720 800 80 12 92.

a Numbers refer to the following glasses: c A BURLE designation for “Extended-Red Multial-
0080 - Corning Lime Glass kali.”
9741 - Corning Ultraviolet Transmitting Glass
d Reflecting substrate.
7056 - Coming Borosilicate Glass
7740 - Corning Pyrex Glass e Single crystal.
B270 - Schott BK270
0 = Opaque
b These conversion factors are the ratio of the radiant
responsivity at the peak of the spectral response char- S = Semitransparent
acteristic in amperes per watt to the luminous respon-
sivity in amperes per lumen for a tungsten lamp oper-
ated at a color temperature of 2856 K.

16
Photomultiplier Design

The negative-electron-affinity materials for 1060 nm, the wavelength of the Nd:YAG
described earlier are used in both opaque laser. For comparison of sensitivities at this
and semitransparent photocathodes. Spec- wavelength, the spectral response of the Ag-
tral response curves for GaAs:Cs-O and 0-Cs photocathode is also shown. The
InGaAs:Cs-O are shown in Fig. 12. There InGaAs:Cs-O photocathode has the higher
has been considerable interest in detectors responsivity at 1060 nm. The NEA photo-
cathodes are generally fairly small compared
with the large semitransparent photocath-
odes used for scintillation counting. Stabili-
ty, especially for the longer-wave-length
NEA photocathodes, is a problem unless the
photomultiplier output current are kept low.

OPAQUE AND SEMITRANSPARENT


PHOTOCATHODES
Photocathodes may be classified as
opaque or semitransparent. In the opaque
photocathode, the light is incident on a thick
photoemissive material and the electrons are
emitted from the same side as that struck by
the radiant energy. In the second type, the
semitransparent photocathode, the photo-
emissive material is deposited on a
transparent medium so that the electrons are
emitted from the side of the photocathode
opposite the incident radiation.
Because of the limited escape depth of
photoelectrons, the thickness of the
semitransparent photocathode film is

80

0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200


WAVELENGTH -NANOMETERS
92CS-32298 92cs -32299

Fig. 12 - Spectra/ response characteristics Fig. 13 - Spectral absorptance of the Ag-O-


Cs and the K2CsSb semitransparent photo-
pared with the S-1 characteristic (Ag-O-Cs). cathodes.

17
Photomultiplier Handbook

critical. If the film is too thick, much of the The radiant spectral flux absorption of a
incident radiant energy is absorbed at a semitransparent photocathode varies with
distance from the vacuum interface greater wavelength as illustrated in Figs. 13 and 14.
than the escape depth; if the film is too thin, The ordinate in Fig. 13 is absorptance which
much of the incident radiant energy is lost by is defined as the ratio of the radiant flux ab-
transmission. sorbed by the layer to that incident upon it.
(Absorptance plus reflectance plus transmit-
tance add to unity.) The data shown in Fig.
14 are spectral absorption coefficients. The

of the photocathode layer is given by

(6)

that the data in Fig. 14 are given in units of


micrometers - l so that in Eq. 6, d must be
given in micrometers. Typical thickness of a
Na2KSb:Cs photocathode is about 0.030
Thus, at 400 nm the photocathode ab-
0
sorbs 87% of the flux which is not reflected.
200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 The spectral response of semitransparent
WAVELENGTH- NANOMETERS photocathodes can be controlled to some ex-
92CS-32300 tent by thickness variation. With increasing
Fig. 14 - Spectral absorption coefficient data thickness in the case of alkali antimonides,
blue response decreases and red response in-
tocathodes. creases.

WAVELENGTH - N A N O M E T E R S
92CS-32301

Fig. 15 - Ultraviolet transmittance cut off of various glasses and crystals used in
photomultiplier photocathode windows. Data are all for 1 mm thickness.

18
Photomultiplier Design

GLASS TRANSMISSION AND tion. Photomultiplier tubes made with fused


SPECTRAL RESPONSE quartz windows are useful in Cerenkov
Although photocathode spectral response counting applications where the spectral
is determined primarily by the nature of the energy distribution increases with decreasing
photocathode surface, especially in the visi-
ble and long wavelength cut-off regions, the terval. Fused quartz is also a useful material
short-wave length cut-off characteristic of in liquid scintillation counting because of its
all photocathodes is determined by the minimum contamination with 40K which can
transmission of the window to the photo- cause unwanted background counts.
cathode. Utraviolet cut-off characteristics Less expensive than synthetic fused quartz
of a number of glasses or crystals which have is Corning 9741 glass, which is frequently
been used in photomultiplier fabrication are used in photomultipliers designed for the
shown in Fig. 15. near ultraviolet. It is a Kovar-sealing glass
The data presented in this figure are all for but has the disadvantage of possible
1 mm thickness. The data also include losses weathering over long periods of exposure to
from reflection. For most glasses with an in- the atmosphere.
dex of refraction of about 1.5, the reflection Another glass for the near ultraviolet is
loss is about 4% at each surface. The loss is Corning 9823, which seals to 0120 lead glass
higher in high index-of-refraction material and which can be used with Dumet metal
such as sapphire. Although some photo- leads. This glass is somewhat inferior to 9741
multipliers, especially those of small size at the shortest wavelengths, but is better for
may have window thickness of 1 mm or less, wavelengths longer than 240 nm.
larger face plates are generally thicker in Glass type 7056 is selected for its good op-
order to provide adequate strength. The tical quality. It is a hard glass which seals to
transmittance varies with thickness accord- 7052 and Kovar. Pyrex type 7740 is selected
ing to the following relationship primarily for its low content of 40K and is
used in liquid scintillation-counting applica-
(7) tions. Lime glass is the least expensive; it is a
soft glass which seals to lead glass, type
0120.
where k is a factor (approximately 0.92 for Corning 9025 is a special non-browning
most glasses) dependent upon the surface glass. It is doped with cerium and resists
darkening from exposure to ionizing radia-
tion, and t is the thickness. tion. One application is in satellites which
The window extending the furthest into must pass through space regions of high-
the ultraviolet is LiF. A few tubes are made intensity ionizing radiation.
with this material but, because its fabrica-
tion is difficult, LiF face plates are only used
for special applications of spectroscopy. THERMIONIC EMISSION
Transmission extends to wavelengths shorter Current flows in the anode circuit of a
than the Lyman-alpha limit of 121.5 nm. photomultiplier tube even when it is
Sapphire windows (ultraviolet grade) are operated in complete darkness. The dc com-
good down to about 150 nm and are easier to ponent of this current is called the anode
use than LiF. Sapphire can be sealed to dark current, or simply the dark current.
Kovar by a metalizing and brazing tech- This current and its resulting noise compo-
nique. Special photomultiplier tubes having nent usually limit the lower level of
sapphire windows were used in the HEAO photomultiplier light detection. As a result,
program (High Energy Astronomical Obser- the anode dark-current value is nearly
vatory). always given as part of the data for any tube.
Except for the extended short wavelength There are several sources of dark current
cutoff of sapphire, Suprasil, an ultraviolet in a photomultiplier tube: ohmic leakage,
grade of synthetic fused quartz, has a better thermionic emission, and regenerative ef-
transmission characteristic. Sapphire suffers fects. Ohmic leakage may result from con-
some loss in transmission by reflection taminations on the insulators within the
because of its relatively high index of refrac- tube, on the outside of the tube envelope, or

19
Photomultiplier Handbook

on the base. Thermionic emission generally separation of valence and conduction


originates from the photocathode itself and bands). For an intrinsic semiconductor, ther-
is amplified by the gain of the multiplier sec- mionic emission originates from the valence
tion. Some emission may also come from the band, as does photoemission, but the “work
secondary-emission dynode surfaces. Regen- function” is not the same as for photoemis-
erative effects can occur in the tube par- sion. In the case of an intrinsic semiconduc-
ticularly if it is operated with high voltage tor, thermionic-emission density can be ex-
and high gain. (Regenerative effects are dis- pressed as
cussed in more detail in a later section on
Dark Current and Noise.) The following dis-
cussion relates to the origin of thermionic
emission current and gives practical values
for this current in photomultiplier photo-
cathodes.
In a metal, the electrons which escape as
thermionic emission are generally from the For an impurity semiconductor where
top of the conduction band (see Fig. 3). thermionic emission originates from the im-
Thus, the work functions for photoemission
and for thermionic emission are the same.
Thermionic emission as a function of work

ture T in degrees Kelvin is given by the


familiar Richardson equation:

where j is the thermionic current density; e,


the electron charge; m, the electron mass; k,
Boltzman’s constant; and h, Planck’s con-
stant. If the constants before the exponential
expression are given in mks units, the equa-
tion (8) expressed in amperes per meter2
becomes

For semiconductor photocathodes, the


work functions of photoemission and ther-
mionic emission may be quite different. The IO
work function for photoemission (see Fig. 7) I
is the electron energy corresponding to the
height from the top of the valence band to
the vacuum level, or EA (the electron affini-
ty) plus EG (the forbidden gap, i.e., the

*An electron volt is the energy acquired by an electron


in being accelerated through a drop in potential of one
volt. In equations such as (8), the value of kT in the ex-
ponent must also be expressed in electron volts. It is the Fig. 16 - Variation of thermionic-emission
current density from various photocathodes
in volts must be multiplied by the electron charge, e, in used in photomultiplier tubes as a function of
coulombs (1.6 x 10 - 19) to obtain the work function in reciprocal temperature. Thermionic emission
joules. The value of kT may then also be expressed in multiplied by the gain of the photomultiplier
joules. is a principal source of anode dark current.

20
Photomultiplier Design

purity centers, the equation for thermionic Fundamentals of Secondary Emission


emission may be written as follows21: The physical processes involved in secon-
dary emission are in many respects similar to
those already described under Photoemis-
sion. The main difference is that the impact
of primary electrons rather than incident
photons causes the emission of electrons.
The steps involved in secondary emission can
be stated briefly as follows:
where EF is the Fermi level energy referenced
from the top of the valence band, and no is 1. The incident electrons interact with
the impurity concentration. electrons in the material and excite them to
Typical dark-emission current-density higher energy states.
characteristics for various photocathodes are 2. Some of these excited electrons move
shown in Fig. 16 as a function of reciprocal toward the vacuum-solid interface,
temperature. The current density is plotted
on a logarithmic scale to show the 3. Those electrons which arrive at the sur-
exponential-like character of the emission. face with energy greater than that repre-
Anode dark current of the photomultiplier sented by the surface barrier are emitted into
results from the cathode emission multiplied the vacuum.
by the gain of the tube. Thermionic dark When a primary beam of electrons im-
emission varies from tube to tube of the pacts a secondary-emitting material, the
same type, probably because of the variation primary-beam energy is dissipated within the
in no. Note that some of the curves show material and a number of excited electrons
substantial curvature at the low temperature are produced within the material. The
end. Some of this curvature is explained by numbers of excited electrons produced are
the variation of T in the T 2/ T3/4 = T 5 / 4 indicated in Fig. 17 for primary energies
term. But an explanation for the greater part varying from 400 to 2200 electron-volts. The
of the curvature may be the presence of total number of excited electrons produced
patches of different impurity level or con- by a primary is indicated by the area of the
centration, or it may be that the impurity individual rectangles in the figure. These ap-
concentration itself is a function of tempera- proximate data are based on experimental
ture. Exposure to temperatures above the data assuming that the range of primary
normal operating range sometimes results in electrons varies as the 1.35 power of the
permanent reduction in dark current. Most primary energy and that the number of elec-
photocathodes are p-type semiconductors trons excited is uniform throughout the
one result of which is a lower dark emission primary range.
than for n-type semiconductors because of
the reduced Fermi-level energy. 0.5

SECONDARY EMISSION
When electrons having sufficient kinetic
energy strike the surface of a material,
secondary electrons are emitted. The

fined as follows:

(12)
-NANOMETERS
92cs-32303
where NS is the average number of secondary
electrons emitted for Ne primary electrons Fig. 17 - The processes of secondary emis-
incident upon the surface. sion. See text for explanation.

21
Photomultiplier Handbook

As an excited electron in the bulk of the creases with voltage to much higher values.
material moves toward the vacuum-solid in- Even though electrons are excited rather
terface, it loses energy as a result of colli- deep in the negative-electron-affinity
sions with other electrons and optical material and lose most of their excess energy
phonons. The energy of the electron is very as a result of collisions, many still escape in-
rapidly dissipated as a result of these col- to the vacuum because of the nature of the
lisons, and it is estimated that the energy of surface barrier.
such an electron will decay to within a few
times the mean thermal energy above the
bottom of the conduction band within
10-12 second. If the electron arrives at the
vacuum-solid interface with energy below
that required to traverse the potential bar-
rier, it cannot escape as a secondary elec-
tron. Therefore, only those electrons excited
near the surface of the material are likely to
escape as secondary electrons. The probabil-
ity of escape for an excited electron is as-
sumed to vary exponentially with the excita-
tion depth, as indicated in Fig. 17. If the pro-
duct of the escape function and the number PRIMARY ENERGY - keV
92cs -32304
of excited electrons (which is a function of
primary energy and depth) is integrated, a Fig. 18 - Typical experimental curve of sec-
ondary-emission yield as a function of .
primary-electron energy in GaP:Cs and MgO.
obtained, as indicated in the insert at the top Also shown in calculated curve for GaP:Cs
of Fig. 17. The model which has been as- from Simon and Williams.13
sumed thus explains the general
characteristics of secondary emission as a
function of primary energy. Secondary- Because the GaP:Cs material is more dif-
emission yield increases with primary ficult to handle than more conventional
energy, provided the excited electrons are secondary emitters, and, therefore, results in
produced near the surface where the escape higher cost, its use as a dynode has been
probability is high. As the primary-electron restricted to applications where the very high
energy increases, the number of excited elec- secondary emission is particularly advan-
trons also increases, but the excitation oc- tageous. It is used as, for example, in
curs at greater depths in the material where photomultiplier applications benefitting by
escape is much less probable. Consequently, the reduction in statistical noise, or in the
the secondary-emission yield eventually design of photomultipliers having fewer
reaches a maximum and then decreases with stages for a given amplification. The use of
primary energy. fewer stages also reduces the variation of
gain with voltage changes.
Secondary Emitter Materials In the development of photomultiplier
Experimental secondary-emission-yield tubes it has been found that the photocath-
values are shown as a function of primary- ode material may also be useful as a secon-
electron energy in Fig. 18 for MgO, a tradi- dary emitter22. Such was the case in some of
tional secondary-emission material, and for the first photomultipliers developed which
GaP:Cs, a recently developed negative- used a Ag-O-Cs photocathode and Ag-O-Cs
electron-affinity material. Also shown is a dynodes. Because of its high dark-emission
calculated curve from Simon and Williams13 current and its instability, especially at
based on their model of the GaP:Cs emitter. moderate current-density levels, this
Although both MgO and GaP:Cs display the material is no longer used.
general characteristics of secondary emission Other photocathode materials which also
as a function of primary energy, as expected serve as secondary emitters are Cs3Sb, Rb-
from the model illustrated in Fig. 17, the Cs-Sb, K2CsSb, and Na2KSb:Cs. Because
secondary-emission yield for GaP:Cs in- the processing of these secondary emitters is

22
Photomultiplier Design

not identical in most cases to that of the cor- A very practical secondary emitter can be
responding photocathode, the particular made from an oxidized silver-magnesium
chemical formulations specified here may alloy 25,26 containing approximately 2 per
not be accurate. Secondary emission ratios cent of magnesium. Although silver-
for these and other materials are shown in magnesium dynodes do not have as high a
Fig. 19. secondary-emission ratio as some of the
materials mentioned above (see Fig. 18), the
material is easily processed and is more
stable at relatively high currents. In addi-
tion, it can tolerate higher temperatures.
This surface has a low thermionic
background emission which is important in
applications requiring detection of low-level
light. When it is activated with cesium, gain
is somewhat higher. Without the cesium ac-
tivation, the oxygen-activated silver-
magnesium layer has been used effectively in
demountable systems for detecting ions and
other particles.
A material having characteristics very
similar to those of silver-magnesium is an
oxidized layer of copper-beryllium
alloy 27,28,29in which the beryllium compo-
Fig. 19 - Secondary emission ratios for a nent is about 2 per cent of the alloy. Secon-
number of materials which have been used as dary emission is usually enhanced by the
dynodes in photomultipliers as a function of bake-out in cesium vapor. A secondary-
accelerating voltage of the primary electrons. emission characteristic of the cesium-
activated copper-beryllium material is shown
in Fig, 19. Because of the advantages in
Very high secondary-emission
23, 24
yields have handling and the manufacturing cost, the
been reported f o r N a 2K S b : C s , t h e copper-beryllium is largely taking the place
multi-alkali photocathode (S-20 response). of silver-magnesium in applications requir-
Some photomultiplier with this ing low dark emission and stability at
material as the secondary emitter although relatively high current densities. The lower
its processing is complex. The very high secondary-emission yield is usually compen-
yields, particularly at high primary energies, sated for in photomultiplier design by ap-
would suggest that the material has an effec- plication of higher voltage or by an increase
tive negative electron affinity similar to that in the number of dynode stages.
of GaP:Cs. This explanation may also hold
true for K-Cs-Sb, which is used is some tubes
having this type of photocathode. A material
that has been very commonly used is Cs3Sb
corresponding to the photocathodes with S-4
or S-l1 spectral responses. It has good
secondary emission in the practical working
range near 100 volts. Rb-Cs-Sb is a rather
new material which is just coming into use
because the corresponding photocathode has
good properties. All of the alkali an-
timonides mentioned here have limitations.
They cannot tolerate exposure to air and
92CS - 32306
they are damaged by temperatures in excess
of 75 degrees C. In addition, stability suffers Fig. 20 - Typical secondary-electron energy
distribution; peak at right is caused by re-
c m -2. flected primary electrons.

23
Photomultiplier Handbook

When secondary electrons are emitted into second for an MgO layer34 formed on the
the vacuum, the spread of emission energies surface of an AgMg alloy.
may be quite large, as illustrated in the curve The upper limit for the time lag in photo-
of Fig. 20 for a positive-electron-affinity emission, however, is not well established.
emitter. The peak at the right of the curve From careful measurements of the time per-
does not represent a true secondary, but formance of fast photomultipliers it can be
rather a reflected primary. Data are not inferred that the limit must be less than
available for the emission energies from a 10 - 10 seconds.
negative-electron-affinity material, but they While these limits are a useful guide to the
are expected to be considerably less than for type of time performance to be expected in
positive-affinity materials. present photomultipliers, they will probably
have less significance as photomultipliers us-
TIME LAG IN PHOTOEMISSION AND ing new semiconducting photoemitters and
SECONDARY EMISSION secondary emitters are developed. Semicon-
ductors having minority-carrier lifetimes of
Because both photoemission and secon- the order of microseconds are now available.
dary emission can be described in terms of Probably, by combination of this character-
the excitation of electrons within the volume istic with negative electron affinity, higher
of the solid and the subsequent diffusion of gains and quantum efficiencies can be
these electrons to the surface, a finite time achieved, but at a sacrifice of time response
interval occurs between the instant that a or band width. However, the first generation
primary (photon or electron) strikes a sur- of negative-electron-affinity emitters (e.g.,
face and the emergence of electrons from the Gap) has actually resulted in photomulti-
surface. Furthermore, in the case of secon- pliers having better time performance
dary emission, the secondaries can be ex- because a smaller number of stages
pected to reach the surface over a period of operating at higher voltage can be used. At
time. Within the limitations of a mechanistic this time it can only be concluded that in the
approach to a quantum phenomenon, time future photomultipliers will probably be
intervals for metals or insulators of the order designed to match in more detail the re-
of 10-13 to 10-14 second may be estimated quirements of a particular use.
from the known energy of the primaries,
their approximately known range, and the
approximately known diffusion velocities of
the internal electrons. In negative-electron- REFERENCES
affinity semiconductors, it is known that the 19. V.K. Zworykin, and E.G. Ramberg,
lifetime of internal “free” electrons having Photoelectricity and its Application, John
quasi-thermal energies (i.e., electrons near Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, (1949).
the bottom of the conduction band) can be 20a. H. Rougeot and C. Baud, “Negative
of the order of 10-10 second. Electron Affinity Photoemitters,” Advances
Thus far, experiments have provided only in Electronics and Electron Physics, Vol. 48,
upper limits for the time lag of emission. In Edited by L. Marton, Academic Press, 1979.
the case of secondary emission, a variety of 20. J.J. Brady, “Energy Distribution of
experiments have established limits. Several Photoelectrons as a Function of the
investigators30,31,32 have deduced limits Thickness of a Potassium Film,” Phys.
from the measured performance of electron Rev., Vol. 46, (1934).
tubes using secondary emitters. Others, 21. D.A. Wright, Semi-conductors,
making direct measurements of these limits, Methuen and Co., New York (1955).
have determined the time dispersion of 22. A.H. Sommer, “Relationship between
secondary emission by letting short electron photoelectric and secondary electron emis-
bunches strike a target and comparing the sion, with special reference to the Ag-O-Cs
duration of the resulting secondary bunches (S-l) photocathode,” J. Appl. Phys., Vol.
with the measured duration of the primary 42, pp. 567-569, (1971).
bunch. Bythis means an upper limit of 23. A.A. Mostovskii, G.B. Vorobeva, and
6x10-l 2 second was determined for G.B. Struchinskii, Soviet Physics-Solid
platinum33 and an upper limit of 7 x 10-11 1 State, Vol. 5, p. 2436, (1964).

24
Photomultiplier Design

24. C. Ghosh and B.P. Varma, “Secon- 29. A.H. Sommer, “Activation of silver-
dary emission from multialkali photo- magnesium and copper-beryllium dynodes,”
cathodes,” J. Appl. Phys., Vol. 49, pp. J. Appl. Phys., Vol. 29, pp. 598-599, (1958).
4554-4555, (1978). 30. G. Diemer and J.L.H. Jonker, “On
25. V.K. Zworykin, J.E. Ruedy, and E.W. the time delay of secondary emission,”
Pike, “Silver-magnesium alloy as a secon- Philips Research Repts., Vol. 5, p. 161
dary emitting material,” J. Appl. Phys.; (1950).
Vol. 12, (1941). 3 1. M.H. Greenblatt and P.A. Miller, Jr.,
26. P. Rappaport, “Methods of processing “A microwave secondary-electron multi-
silver-magnesium secondary emitters for plier,” Phys. Rev., Vol. 72, p. 160 (1947).
electron tubes,” J. Appl. Phys., Vol. 25, pp 32. C.G. Wang, "Reflex Oscillators using.
288-292, (1954). secondary-emission current,” Phys. Rev.,
27. J.S. Allen, “An improved electron Vol. 68, p. 284 (1945).
multiplier particle counter,” Rev. Sci. Instr., 33. I.A.D. Lewis and F.H. Wells, Milli-
Vol. 18, (1947). Microsecond Pulse Techniques, Pergamon
28. A.M. Tyutikov, “Structure and secon- Press (1959).
dary emission of emitters of activated 3 4 . K . C . S c h m i d t a n d C . F . Hendee,
beryllium bronze, " Radio Engineering and “Continuous-channel electron multiplier
Electronic Physics, (Translated from the operated in the pulse saturated mode,”
Russian and published by the IEEE), Vol. 8 IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci., Vol. NS-13, No. 3,
No. 4, pp. 725-734, (1963). p. loo (1966).

25
Photomultiplier Handbook

3. Electron Optics of Photomultipliers

ELECTRON-OPTICAL DESIGN dynode electron optics. If all of the emitted


CONSIDERATIONS photoelectrons are not guided properly to
the first dynode, the signal-to-noise ratio of
One of the primary design considerations the photomultiplier is degraded and poorer
in a photomultiplier tube is the shaping and pulse-height-resolution characteristics result.
positioning of the dynodes (usually in a re- The region between the last dynode and
current geometrical pattern) so that all the the anode is also of special electron-optical
stages are properly utilized and no electrons concern. The withdrawal field at the last
are lost to support structures in the tube or dynode should be large to minimize space
deflected in other ways. Although it is not charge effects which limit the linearity and
necessary that the electrons come to a sharp magnitude of output current pulses. Another
focus on each succeeding stage, the shape of consideration in high-speed photomultipliers
the fields should be such that electrons tend is to provide a structure which is matched to
to return to a center location on the next appropriate transmission lines.
dynode, even though the emission point is The complete electron-optical configura-
not at the optimum location of the preceding tion of the photomultiplier must also be such
dynode. If this requirement is not met, the as to avoid regenerative effects. For exam-
electrons increasingly diverge from the ple, there should not be an open path in the
center of the dynode in each successive tube through which occasional ions or light
dynode stage. This effect in turn can lead to could feed back from the output end to the
the skipping of stages and loss of gain. photocathode.
Magnetic fields may be combined with elec-
trostatic fields to provide the required elec-
tron optics, although today most photomul-
tipliers are electrostatically focused. In DESIGN METHODS FOR PHOTO-
addition to providing good collection of MULTIPLIER ELECTRON OPTICS
secondary electrons from stage-to-stage, it is
important for some applications to minimize Before the days of high-speed computers,
the time spread of electron trajectories. For photomultiplier electron-optical problems
this purpose is is useful to provide strong were often solved by means of mechanical
electric fields at the surfaces of the dynodes analogues such as a stretched rubber mem-
to assure high initial acceleration of the elec- brane. When mechanical models of the elec-
trons. Also important may be the design of trodes were placed under such a membrane
configurations which provide nearly equal and their height adjusted to correspond to
transit times between dynodes regardless of the desired electrical potential, the height of
the point of emission on the dynode. the membrane in the spaces between the elec-
In scintillation counting applications, fair- trodes corresponded to the equivalent elec-
ly large photocathode areas are required for trical potential. Small balls were then al-
efficient scintillator coupling. Ideally, the lowed to roll from one electrode to the next.
photocathode should be semitransparent The trajectories of the balls corresponded to
and located on the flat window of the tube. those of the electrons in the photomultiplier
This requirement poses a special problem in structure. With appropriate model design,
design of efficient photocathode-to-first- friction and depression of the membrane by

26
Electron Optics of Photomultipliers

the ball were made negligible. This model, electrode configurations. Collection efficien-
however, was only valid for geometries in cy and time response may be predicted from
which the electrodes could be assumed to be an analysis of the electron trajectories. Col-
cylindrical surfaces (generated by a line lection efficiency at the first dynode is de-
parallel to a fixed direction and moving fined as the ratio of the number of photo-
along a fixed curve) sufficiently long to be electrons which land upon a useful area of
considered infinite in extent. Application the dynode to the number of emitted photo-
was made to numerous dynode configura- electrons. If all the photoelectrons begin
tions. their trajectories at the surface of the photo-
Another useful analogue was the resis- cathode with zero velocity, 100% collection
tance network such as a two-dimensional would be possible. Because of the finite in-
array of connectors having equal spacing itial velocities, however, some electrons
vertically and horizontally. This array repre- begin their trajectories with unfavorable
sented a cross-section plane through cylin- angles of launch and are not collected on a
drical surfaces again assumed to be infinite useful area.
in length. Resistors of equal value were con- In modern photomultiplier structures,
nected between adjacent connectors both first-dynode collection efficiencies range
vertically and horizontally. Points in the ar- from 85 to 98 per cent. Ideally, the emitted
ray corresponding to an electrode were all photoelectrons should converge to a very
connected to the same potential. Equipoten- small area on the first dynode. In practice,
tial lines between electrodes could then be this electron-spot diameter is usually less
determined by observing the potential values than 1/4 of the cathode diameter, depending
on the connectors between the electrodes. upon the tube type and focusing structure.
When the equipotential lines had been deter-
mined, electron trajectories could be readily
calculated between closely spaced equipoten-
tial surfaces.
In another variation of the resistance net- SPECIFIC PHOTOMULTIPLIER
work, the vertical distribution of resistance ELECTRON-OPTICAL
values was made logarithmic instead of uni- CONFIGURATIONS
form. This array then corresponded to an Circular-Cage Structure with
axially symmetrical system with the axis ap- Side-On Photocathode
proximated across the top of the board. An The first commercially successful photo-
example of a relevant problem is the region multiplier design was based on a circular ar-
between the photocathode and first dynode ray of photocathode and dynodes-as in the
for end-on-type photomultipliers where the 931A. This design is depicted schematically
axis passes through the center of the photo- in Fig. 21. The photocathode is of the
cathode. “opaque” type; i.e., electrons are emitted
Only very simple electron-optical systems from the same side as the photocathode is il-
can be solved in closed form, which requires luminated. This particular type of tube is
relatively inexpensive and is useful for ap-
However, by using relaxation techniques plications such as spectroscopy where high
with a computer, the potential distribution sensitivity is required but the photocathode
on a set of points confined within defined area need not be large. In this case the best
boundary conditions can be determined. collection is from the side of the photocath-
Secondly, using the force equations, electron ode near the first dynode. In the part of the
paths can be traced. Computer programs ex- photocathode near the apex formed by the
ist for solving various cases with or without grill and the photocathode, the electrostatic
symmetry and with irregular potential boun- fields are small and collection efficiency is
daries. poor. The time of response of the tube is
An electron-optical design for a photo- short because of its small size and high inter-
multiplier may be arrived at from computer- dynode field strengths, and there is relatively
developed equipotential lines and electron small feedback from the anode end of the
trajectories plotted on a plan showing the tube back to the photocathode.

27
Photomultiplier Handbook

Circular-Cage Structure with useful first-dynode area in the end-on con-


End-On Photocathode struction. In addition, a skewed field is pro-
Fig. 22 illustrates the use of a circular cage vided by the focusing electrode which results
coupled to a flat semi-transparent photo- in a more favorable pattern of impacting
cathode. Such a configuration is useful in photoelectrons on the first dynode. This
scintillation counting where the flat photo- end-on construction still has a relatively
cathode is coupled to the scintillating crystal. short time response because of the focused
In order to improve the collection efficiency dynode arrangement, although the transit-
of photoelectrons by the first dynode, the time spread of electrons traversing the
electrode which was the photocathode in photocathode-to-first-dynode space in-
Fig. 21 has been modified to provide a larger creases the time of response as compared
with that of the simple circular side-on struc-
ture of Fig. 21.
Box-and-Grid Structure with
End-On Photocathode
The box and grid dynode structure shown
in Fig. 23 is also useful in scintillation count-
ing because of the relatively large flat semi-
transparent photocathode. This configura-
tion has the advantage of providing a rather
large entrance area to collect photoelectrons
so that collection efficiency is very nearly
100%. This feature is important in providing
good pulse-height resolution in scintillation
counting. The individual dynode boxes are
open at the exit end and have a grid at the en-
trance. The grid provides an electric field
l-10: DYNODES
92CS-32308
which penetrates the preceding dynode re-
I I : ANODE
gion and aids in the withdrawal of secondary
fig. 22 - An end-on photomultiplier structure electrons. The grid also eliminates a retard-
utilizing a circular dynode arrangement. This ing field that would be caused by the poten-
type of tube would be useful as a detector for tial of the preceding dynode. Because the
scintillation counting. field penetration is rather weak, the electron

28
Electron Optics of Photomultipliers

INCIDENT
‘RADIATION

INCIDENT
RADIATION

Fig. 23 - The box-and-grid multiplier structure.

FACEPLATE

INCIDENT
RADIATION

Fig. 24 - The Venetian-blind multiplier structure.

transit time between dynodes is relatively electrons are lost because of the interposition
slow and has a rather large time spread. of the grids between stages, as with the box-
and-grid construction.
Venetian-Blind Structure
Another structure which provides good Tea-Cup Structure
collection of photoelectrons, but again is A recent innovation in front-end design is
rather slow in response time, is the venetian- the so-called “tea-cup” photomultiplier,
blind photomultiplier shown in Fig. 24. named after its large first dynode. Secondary
Good collection of photoelectrons is aided electrons from the first dynode are directed
by the size of the photoelectron collecting to an opening in the side of the tea-cup and
area which can be even larger than that of thence to the second dynode. Fields between
the box-and-grid construction. The relatively the photocathode region and the first
slow time response is the result of the weak dynode region are separated by a very fine
electric field at the surfaces of the dynode grid structure. The particular advantage of
vanes. The structure is very flexible as to the this design is that the collection efficiency of
number of stages. Some of the secondary the large first dynode is good not only for

29
Photomultiplier Handbook

92CM-32311

Fig. 25 - Tea-cup photomultiplier showing photoelectron paths directly from the


photocathode and those initiated by light transmitted through the photocathode
and striking the side wall which also has an active photoemissive layer. Also in-
dicated are equipotential lines in the region between photocathode and first
dynode.

photoelectrons emitted from the photocath- In-Line Dynode Structure with


ode but for photoelectrons emitted from the Curved Photocathode
activated side walls between the first dynode The planar-photocathode design, such as
and the photocathode as shown in Fig. 25. that shown in Figs. 22-25, provides excellent
The side-wall photoemission results from coupling to a scintillation crystal, but its
light which passes through the front semi- time response is not as good as that of a
transparent photocathode. The increased spherical-section-photocathode design. The
photoemission and collection efficiency im- spherical-section photocathode shown in
proves the pulse-height resolution in scin- Fig. 26 when coupled to a high-speed elec-
tillation counting applications. Indicated on tron multiplier provides a photomultiplier
the diagram are equipotential lines and pho- having a very fast time response. Some tube
toelectron paths showing the collection of types utilize a spherical-section photocath-
electrons from the front surface and from ode on a plano-concave faceplate to facili-
the side walls. tate scintillator coupling. This design is
Electron Optics of Photomultipliers

FRONT- END REGION

92CM-32312

Fig. 26 - Photomultiplier design with curved faceplate and in-line dynode structure to
provide a minimum transit time and transit-time spread.

PHOTOCATHODE

TYPICAL
ELECTRON
TRAJECTORIES

TYPICAL
EQUIPOTENTIAL
LINES

DYNODE NO. I

92CM-32313

Fig. 27 - Cross section of a photomultiplier showing equipotential lines and electron


trajectories that were plotted by computer.

31
Photomultiplier Handbook

usually limited to faceplate diameters of two shorter electron paths and stronger fields
inches or less because of the excessive thick- from dynode to dynode to produce nearly
ness of the glass at the edge. The plano- equal total transit time.
concave faceplate may also contribute to Certain materials have advantages over
some loss in uniformity of sensitivity be- other materials in providing good multiplier
cause of internal reflection effects near the time performance. For example, a standard
thick edge of the photocathode. dynode material, copper beryllium, has a
The performance of the front-end struc- maximum gain per stage of 8 at a 600-volt in-
ture shown in Fig. 26 has been determined by terstage potential difference. In contrast,
the use of a computer to trace equipotential gallium phosphide exhibits a gain of 60 or
lines and electron trajectories which have more at a 1200-volt interstage potential dif-
then been superimposed on a schematic dia- ference. The advantage in time performance
gram of the tube structure as shown in Fig. of the GaP dynode over one of the CuBe
27. type is that the number of stages, and thus
A time parameter of interest is the photo- the total transit time may be reduced, and
cathode transit-time difference, the time dif- that the energy spread of the secondary elec-
ference between the peak current outputs for trons is less.
simultaneous small-spot illumination of dif-
ferent parts of the photocathode. In a
planarcathode design, the transit time is
longer for edge illumination than for center
illumination because of the longer edge tra-
jectories and the weaker electric field near
the edge of the photocathode. The center-to-
edge transit-time difference may be as much
as 10 nanoseconds. The spherical-section
photocathode affords more uniform time re-
sponse than the planar photocathode be-
cause all the electron paths are nearly equal
in length; however, the transit time is slightly
longer for edge trajectories than for axial
trajectories because of the weaker electric
field at the edge.
The photocathode transit-time difference
is ultimately limited by the initial-velocity
distribution of the photoelectrons; this
distribution causes time-broadening of the
electron packet during its flight from the
photocathode to the first dynode. The
broadening effect can be minimized by in- 92cs-32314
creasing the strength of the electric field at
the surface of the photocathode. Fig. 28 - A compensated-design multiplier.
Because the energy spread of secondary
electrons is even larger than that of photo- Continuous-Channel Multiplier Structure
electrons, initial-velocity effects are the ma- The continuous-channel multiplier struc-
jor limitation on the time response of the ture35 shown in Fig. 29 is very compact and
electron multiplier. Multiplier time response utilizes a resistive emitter on the inside sur-
is usually improved by the use of high face of a cylinder rather than a discrete
electric-field strengths at the dynode surfaces number of dynodes. The lack of discrete
and compensated design geometries. In a dynodes causes the electron-multiplication
compensated design, such as that shown in statistics to be poor because of the variable
Fig. 28 and as used in the type of photomul- path lengths and the variable associated
tiplier shown in Fig. 26, longer electron voltages. The gain of a continuous-channel
paths and weaker fields alternate with multiplier is determined by the ratio of the

32
Electron Optics of Photomultipliers

channel length to inside diameter; a typical photoelectrons measured at full width at half
value of this ratio is 50 but it may range from maximum (FWHM) is less than 300 pico-
30 to 100. seconds.37 Because of the construction and
high electric fields employed, the sensitivity
to external magnetic fields is much reduced,
a fact which is important in some nuclear
physics experimentation.
Crossed-Field Multiplier Structure
As mentioned earlier, a crossed-field
92cs-32315 photomultiplier was first reported in earl
Fig. 29 - The continuous-channel multiplier
1936 by Zworykin, Morton and Malter. 3g
structure. Their tube, shown schematically in Fig. 31,
used a combination of electrostatic and mag-
netic fields to direct electrons to repeated
Very high gain can be achieved with such a stages of secondary emission. Above each
single-channel multiplier, provided the chan- emitter was a field plate whose potential was
nel is curved or bent to avoid line-of-sight set to be equal to that of the next emitter
feed-back paths. Numerous special purpose down the line. As a result of this configura-
photomultiplier tubes have been built using tion, electrons emitted from the photocath-
this concept. ode or from one of the secondary emitters,
Recently,36 very-high-speed photomulti- were caused to follow approximately cy-
plier tubes have been designed utilizing cloidal paths to the next electrode. This early
microchannel plates in proximity with the development was not carried into large-scale
photocathode and anode. Such a device is il- manufacture because of the critical
lustrated in Fig. 30. A microchannel plate is magnetic-field adjustments needed to change
an array of parallel channels, each perhaps the gain. Also, the rather wide open struc-
ture resulted in high dark current because of
ray is mounted close to the photocathode feedback from ions and light developed near
with the plane of the channel plate parallel to the output end of the device.
the photocathode. A high voltage, 1 kilo- Recently, however, similar, but improved
volt, may be applied between photocathode crossed-field photomultipliers39 have been
and microchannel plate, and similar voltages designed to provide perhaps the fastest rise
applied across the microchannel sandwich time of any photomultiplier. The electron
and between the plate and the anode. These trajectories are essentially isochronous in the
voltages assure short transit times. Time crossed magnetic and electric fields so that a
resolution for pulses initiated by single very short rise time, 250 picoseconds40, is

MICROCHANNEL PHOTOCATHODE
PLATE
\
/ /FACEPLATE

I 1

ANODE

92cs-32316

Fig. 30 - Microchannel-plate photomultiplier.

33
Photomultiplier Handbook

achieved. Unfortunately, the photocathode


is rather small and inaccessible by the nature
of the design. A schematic drawing of the re-
cent crossed-field photomultiplier is shown
in Fig. 32. Note the single field electrode in
contrast to the multiple field the plates of the
Zworykin tube. The stepped arrangement is
required in order to provide uniform electric
field. A 50-ohm coaxial output connector
provides coupling to the high-speed photo-
multiplier.
POTENTIAL BETWEEN LAST DYNODE AND ANODE-VOLTS
92cs -32319

A
FIELD PLATES
Fig. 33 - Constant-current characteristics of
a photomultiplier anode.

CATHODE COLLECTOR
92CS - 32317 GRID-LIKE

Fig. 31 - Schematic of the Zworykin crossed- TRAJECTORY

field photomultiplier reported in 1936. A mag-


netic field, perpendicular to the plane of the
drawing, and an electrostatic field, produced
by the upper fieldplates, combine to bend the
electron paths in the cycloidal trajectories il-
Iustrated.

Fig. 34 - The simplest anode structure, a


grid-like collector.

In applications where large output pulse


currents are required it is important to pro-
vide a design having reasonably high with-
drawal fields to avoid space-charge develop-
ment which could limit the output current.
FIRST
DYNODE
Space charge may actually limit the output at
the next to the last dynode, which is the case
92CS-32318
in the circular-cage structure, Fig. 21,
Fig. 32 - Schematic arrangement of a because the withdrawal field at the last
modern static crossed-field photomultiplier. dynode is significantly higher than at the
eighth dynode. In special applications a
tapered divider network may be used to pro-
ANODE CONFIGURATIONS vide higher inter-stage voltages in the last
The primary function of the anode is to several stages of the tube (see Chapter
collect secondary electrons from the last 5-Photomultiplier Applications).
dynode. The anode should exhibit a Where fast time response is important, the
constant-current characteristic of the type type of design shown in Fig. 34 may be at a
shown in Fig. 33. The simplest anode struc- disadvantage because electrons from the last
ture, shown in Fig. 34, is a grid-like collector dynode are not necessarily collected on the
used in some Venetian-blind structures. The first pass through the anode grid structure. It
secondary electrons from the next-to-last is also important for fast time response that
dynode pass through the grid to the last the anodes be designed with matched-
dynode. Secondary electrons leaving the last impedance transmission lines or with short
dynode are then collected on the grid-like connecting support leads. Most high-speed
anode. circuits are designed to utilize a 50-ohm im-

34
Electron Optics of Photomultipliers

pedance, which requires a suitable connector 36. Ph. Chevalier, J.P. Boutot and G.
or lead geometry outside the tube to permit Pietri, “PM of new design for high speed
proper impedance matching. physics,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci., Vol.
Anode configurations and internal trans- NS-17, No. 3, pp. 75-78 (June, 1970); G.
mission lines may be analyzed by use of the Pietri , “Contribution of the channel elec-
standard methods of cavity and transmis- tron multiplier to the race of vacuum tubes
sion-line analysis. These methods yield ap- towards picosecond resolution time,” IEEE
proximate design parameters41, which are Trans. Nucl. Sci. , Vol. NS-24, No. 1, pp.
optimized experimentally by means of time- 228-232, (Feb. , 1977).
domain reflectometry, TDR42’43. TDR pro- 37. C.C. Lo, P. Lecomte and B. Leskovar,
vides information about the discontinuities “Performance studies of prototype micro-
in the characteristic impedance of a system channel plate photomultipliers," I E E E
as a function of electrical length and is an ex- Trans. Nucl. Sci., Vol. NS-24, No. 1 , pp.
tremely useful approach in the design of 302-311 , (Feb. , 1977).
voltage-divider circuits and mating sockets 38. V.K. Zworykin, G.A. Morton, and L.
which do not readily lend themselves to Malter , “The secondary emission multi-
mathematical analysis. plier-a new electronic device”’ Proc.
Certain anode structures in fast-rise-time I.R.E. Vol. 24 p. 351-375 (1936).
photomultipliers exhibit a small-amplitude 39. R.S. Enck and W.G. Abraham,
pulse (prepulse) that can be observed a “Review of high speed communications
nanosecond or two before the true signal photomultiplier detectors," Proc. Soc.
pulse. In grod-like anode structures this Photo Optical Instrumentation Engineers,
prepulse is induced when electrons from the Vol. 150; Laser and Fiber Optics Communi-
next-to-last dynode pass through the anode cations’ San Diego CA; 28-29 Aug. , 1978
grid. In more sophisticated photomultiplier (Bellingham , WA; Soc. Photo-Optical In-
designs this phenomenon may be suppressed strumentation Engineers , 1978) , p 3 l-8.
by auxiliary grids that shield the anode from 40. B. Leskovar and C.C. Lo, “Time Res-
the effects of the impinging electron cloud. olution Performance Studies of Contempo-
rary High Speed Photomultipliers,” IEEE
Trans. Nucl. Sci., Vol. NS-25, No. 1, pp.
582-590, (Feb. 1978).
REFERENCES 41. I.A.D. Lewis and F.H. Wells, Milli-
Microsecond Pulse Techniques, Pergamon
35. K.C. Schmidt and C.F. Hendee, Press (1959).
“Continuous-Channel Electron Multiplier 42. “Time-Domain Reflectometry,”
Operated in the Pulse-Saturated Mode,” Hewlett Packard Application Note 62.
IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci., Vol. NS-13, No. 3, 43. “Time-Domain Reflectometry,”
p. 100 (1966). Tektronix Publication 062-0703-00.

35
Photomultiplier Handbook

4. Photomultiplier Characteristics

PHOTOCATHODE-RELATED
CHARACTERISTICS
Current-Voltage Characteristics
Photomultiplier tubes may be operated as
photodiodes by utilizing the first dynode and
focusing electrode (if present) tied together
as an anode. In this mode of operation the
photocurrent is linear with light flux except
that, for semitransparent photocathodes, the
resistivity of the thin photocathode layer
limits the current which can be drawn. In the VOLTAGE-VOLTS
case of a resistive photocathode, when the 92CM-32321

light is directed to the center of the sensitive


area, there is a drop in potential between the Fig. 35 - Current-voltage characteristics for
75-mm diameter photomultiplier tubes oper-
outer conductive ring and the illuminated ated as photodiodes. The poor collection effi-
area. Because the illuminated area becomes ciency shown for the tube with the resistive
positively charged with respect to the photo- photocathode is caused by the voltage drop
cathode contact, only the more energetic from the edge of the photocathode to the cen-
photoelectrons emitted will overcome the ter illuminated spot and the resulting electro-
slightly repelling electric field near the static field distortion between the photocath-
photocathode surface. ode and the first dynode and focus electrode
Fig. 35 shows a pair of current-voltage used together as an anode.
characteristics for 75-mm-diameter photo-
multipliers operated as photodiodes. In both
cases the illuminated area is approximately 5
mm in diameter and located at the center of ode current to avoid non-linear operation.
the photocathode. The multialkali photo- Resistivity characteristics of several types of
cathode (S-20 response) layer is fairly con- photocathode are shown in Fig. 36. Here,
ductive so that even for a photocurrent of the resistance per square is shown as a func-
over 200 nanoamperes, good collection effi- tion of temperature. The increase in resistivi-
ciency is achieved for a collection voltage as ty with decreasing temperature is expected
low as 50 volts. On the other hand, the because of the semiconductor nature of
bialkali photocathode , K2CsSb , is very photocathode materials. Resistance per
resistive causing poor collection efficiency square is the resistance of a surface layer be-
over a wide range of voltage even for photo- tween conductors at opposite sides of a
emission currents as low as 10 nanoamperes. square of the layer. Note that, if the resistivi-
For resistive photocathodes it is thus
necessary to limit the maximum photocath- square of side dimension d, and thickness t,

36
Photomultiplier Characteristics

the resistance R is given by Photocathode resistive effects can be


avoided at manufacture by the use of nearly
transparent conductive undercoatings.
Opaque types of photocathode, such as
Cs3Sb on a solid substrate of nickel, do not
where d l t is the cross-section area. Thus, have a resistivity problem. Table II provides
the resistance per square is independent of guidance as to the maximum dc current that
the side dimension. On photocathode types can be utilized with various semitransparent
that are very resistive , it is advisable to main- photocathodes at room temperature. It
tain operating temperatures above -100° C should be realized that these data are only
depending upon photocathode diameter , the typical; individual photocathodes may vary
light-spot diameter, and the photocathode considerably from the guideline provided in
current. The larger the photocathode diam- their capability of delivering current without
eter and the smaller the light-spot diameter, resistive blocking.
the more severe the effect.
Table II - Maximum Recommended Pboto-
cathode DC Currents for Various Semitrans-
parent Photocathode Types as Determined
by Surface Resistivity.

Photocathode Maximum Recommended


Current for T = 22°C

In the case of pulsed photocathode cur-


rents, the peak current values may be higher
than those shown in Table II. Average cur-
rents, however, are still limited, as shown,
by the resistance of the photocathode layer.
For a current pulse, the local surface poten-
tial of the cathode is sustained for a time by
the electrical charge associated with the pho-
tocathode capacitance. Thus, a square cen-
timeter of photocathode may have a capaci-
tance of about 0.5 picofarad. A 5-volt
change in potential is about the maximum
that could occur without blocking of the
photoemission current. The equivalent
charge is therefore 2.5 picocoulombs. For a
pulse duration of t seconds, a pulse current
of 2.5/t picoamperes could be maintained.
For t = 1 microsecond, the current maximum
Fig. 36 - Resistance per square as a function
of temperature for various semitransparent could be 2.5 microamperes, as determined
photocathodes. These data were ob- by stored charge alone.
tained with special tubes having connections Pulse current maximum can be increased
to parallel conducting lines or between con- by the capacitance of the photocathode
centric conducting circular rings on the Sur- layer. For example, if a ground plane is pro-
face of the photocathode. vided in contact with the outside of the

37
Photomultiplier Handbook

photocathode faceplate, the capacitance of a temperature is illustrated in Fig. 38, also for
square centimeter of photocathode may be Cs3Sb. According to Spicer and Wooten47,
increased to about 2 picofarads (assuming a the increase in response in the blue at low
dielectric constant 6.75 and a glass thickness temperatures is the result of a decrease in
of 3 mm). The ground plane must, of course, energy loss from lattice scattering; the de-
be reasonably transparent to the light signal. crease in the red at low temperatures results
A conducting mesh is a suitable solution. from a decrease in occupied defect levels in
The ground plane should also be set at or the forbidden energy band because of an in-
near photocathode potential, or noisy opera- crease in band gap and possibly because of
tion and deterioration of the photocathode an unfavorable change in band bending. It
may result. See the section below under may also be the case that, in photocathodes
“Dark Current and Noise.” having significant impurity levels, the ex-
tended red sensitivity at higher temperatures
Variations in Spectral Response with is partly the result of thermally assisted
Temperature. photoemission. The change of slope at the
Minor variations in the spectral response elevated temperature in Fig. 38 is suggestive
characteristics of photocathodes occur with of this mechanism.
changes in temperature. Data are presented
here on the typical variations which can be
expected. Deviations from these data may be
expected on individual photocathodes be-
cause of variations in thickness and process-
ing.
When the temperature is decreased, the
response of photocathodes usually improves
in the shorter-wavelength region and
worsens in the longer-wavelength region
near the threshold. An illustration of this
trend is provided in Fig. 37 in which the

0.1 1 I I I 1
400 500 600
WAVELENGTH - NANOMETERS
92cs-32324

Fig. 38 - Dependence of responsivity of a


Cs3Sb photocathode on temperature; taken
from Spicer and Wooten.

Fig. 37 - Temperature coefficient of cesium- The data shown in Fig. 39 is of the same
antimony cathodes as a function of wave- type as that in Fig. 38, but for a GaAs:Cs
length at 20 “C. Note the large positive effect photocathode. Note, again, the increase in
near the threshold. sensitivity with decrease in temperature ex-
cept for the shift in the long wavelength
temperature coefficient of responsivity of a threshold. In GaAs:Cs the photoexcitation is
cesium-antimony photocathode is plotted as from the valence band; there is essentially no
a function of wavelength.46 The difference excitation from the forbidden energy band.
in spectral response from room to liquid-air Note the sharp long-wavelength cutoff.

38
Photomultiplier Characteristics

cidence. This conclusion is at odds with


some reported measurements. Experimental
measurements for a semitransparent Cs3Sb

Fig. 39 - Relative spectral responsivity shift


92CM-32326
with temperature for a GaAs:Cs photocath-
ode.48 Fig. 40 - Theoretical photoexcitation deter-
mined by optical factors for different polariza-
Variation of Photocathode Response with tion orientation as a function of angle of
Angle of Incidence and Angle of Polariza- incidence. Radiation is incident on a semi-
tion. transparent photocathode such as Cs3Sb
In a theoretical paper 49 Ramberg has through a glass substrate of index of refrac-
tion 1.5. Data are taken from Ramberg.
evaluated the optical factors which deter-
mine the variation of photoresponse as a
function of polarization angle and angle of
incidence. One interesting conclusion of
Ramberg’s work is that for normal incidence
and for a certain regime of cathode thickness
and escape depth, the photoemission “may
be expected to be about 1.4 times as great for
illumination from the glass side as for il-
lumination from the vacuum side.” Photo-
0
multiplier tubes with semitransparent
photocathodes such as are used in typical
scintillation counting applications are all
designed for radiation incident on the glass
2.0
substrate which supports the photocathode.
The two curves of Fig. 40 are calculated
from Ramberg’s formulae for incidence
through the glass faceplate, and for polariza-
tion perpendicular and parallel to the plane
of incidence. (i.e. “parallel” implies that the
electric vector lies in the plane defined by the
incident ray and the normal to the glass sur-
face.) These curves assume an index of
refraction for the glass of 1.5, for the photo- (b) 92cs-32327

sensitive layer of 3.25, and the absorption in-


dex for the photosensitive layer, K, of 3.25. Fig. 41 - (a) Photoresponse for a semitrans-
parent Cs3Sb photocathode as a function of
The photocathode layer is assumed to be
thin with respect to the wavelength of light- (0°) and perpendicular (90°) to the plane of in-
taken as 550 nanometers for Fig. 40. cidence. (b) Photoresponse ratio for polariza-
Note that Ramberg’s prediction is that
response should be greater for perpendicular sured at an angle of incidence of 70°(from
polarization, especially at large angles of in- Hoenig and Cutler50).

39
Photomultiplier Handbook

photocathode on Corning 9741 glass are


reported by Hoenig and Cutler50. Their
data, are shown in Fig. 41 a and b. Their
curve, a, shows the variation of photosen-

for two different angles of polarization. The

parallel to the plane of incidence. The curve,


b, shows the ratio of the photoresponse for
polarization angle 0° to the photoresponse

both measured at 70° angle of incidence.


92CS-32328
Note that the response is greater for
polarization parallel to the plane of in- Fig. 42 - A glass quadrant in optical contact
cidence . with the photocathode window, permitting in-
Measurements at RCA support the general coming radiation to approach the glass-
conclusion that the response is higher for photocathode interface at any angle of in-
parallel polarization for Cs3Sb, K2CsSb and critical angle for the glass-air interface (about
Na2KSb:Cs semitransparent photocathodes 42°) all of the radiation is reflected, permit-
at large angles of incidence. On the other ting multiple excitations of the photosen-
hand, Hora 51 finds the response for a sitive surface.
“trialkali antimonide” to be higher for
perpendicular polarization. D.P. Jones56 on the behavior of a semitrans-
It is likely that the discrepancies noted parent Na2KSb:Cs photocathode with angle
above are related to the differences in of incidence, wavelength, and polarization
photocathode substrates (between the glass angle. The optical arrangement is similar to
and the photocathode), photocathode thick- that shown in Fig. 42 except that a full 180°
ness, and photocathode processing which cylindrical lens is cemented to the faceplate
may result in non-isotropic and structured and half of the surface is coated with
layers, in contrast, for example, to the aluminum to reflect the rays back to the
assumption by Ramberg of a very thin and photocathode. His data and theory favor
isotropic photocathode layer. perpendicular polarization, particularly at
Optical Devices to Enhance Photoresponse longer wavelengths.
Numerous optical devices have been de- Photocathode Uniformity
vised to enhance photoresponse by utilizing The uniformity of photocathode response
multiple paths in the faceplate and photo- over its area may be of importance in some
cathode. Experimental data and theoretical applications. For example, in scintillation
analyses have been reported by a number of counting, light pulses which excite different
different authors.52-56 Fig. 42 shows a areas of a non-uniform photocathode would
typical arrangement permitting the light then result in variations in measured pulse
beam to enter the glass substrate so that height. Such an effect would be more ap-
reflected rays approach the glass-air inter- parent in the case where the scintillating
face at an angle greater than the critical crystal is thin. In flying-spot scanners, non-
angle and thus do not permit a refracted ray uniform photocathode sensitivity would
to escape the glass. In this manner multiple result in picture shading unless precaution is
excitations of the photosensitive layer are taken to avoid even approximate imaging on
possible. Enhancement of the quantum effi- the photocathode surface.
ciency for an alkali-antimonide photocath- Photocathode non-uniformity may result
ode may be something less than 2:1 in the from a variety of causes. Fig. 43 shows some
blue where the absorption of the photocath- tests of photocathode uniformity. These
ode layer is high, but may be as high as 4: 1 in curves represent photoresponse for a small
the red where the absorption is low. focused (l/16-inch) spot as it is scanned
An interesting series of measurements and across the diameter of a semitransparent
theoretical predictions have been reported by photocathode. Curve (a) represents the

40
Photomultiplier Characteristics

uniformity ( ± 3%) typical of a well-pro- creased emission, or there may actually be


cessed photocathode in a 2-inch photomulti- some photosensitivity on the shoulder
plier designed for scintillation counting. In because of the presence of processing
curve (b), the variation (1) across the photo- materials.
cathode is the result of a non-uniform Anomalies in the photocathode uniformi-
evaporation of antimony during the process- ty such as shown in Fig. 43(c) can be largely
ing of the photocathode. Curve (c) shows eliminated by a fabrication technique57
some peculiar non-uniformities in a 3-inch creating a diffusing layer on the photocath-
photocathode. The peaks (2) are the result of ode substrate. The fabrication of a diffusing
light entering the rounded corner of the tube layer can be easily accomplished by sand-
envelope and increasing emission by reflec- blasting the inside surface of the photomulti-
tions in the glass faceplate. The peaks (3) plier faceplate. The effect of the diffusing
result when light, which is transmited layer is to scatter the incoming light so that
through the photocathode, strikes the re- light transmitted through the photocathode
entry shoulder of the glass envelope. The in- is spread out in many directions, thus
side shoulder of the envelope is aluminized avoiding direct correlation between the posi-
as part of the photocathode contact. Some tion of the incoming light spot and any inter-
light striking the shoulder may be reflected nal reflections. The diffusing layer also has a
back to the photocathode and cause in- desirable effect of enhancing the photocath-
ode sensitivity.
Uniformity of photocathode response,
however, is not sufficient to assure a
uniform output response from the photo-
multiplier. All of the emitted photoelectrons
may not be properly directed to the first
dynode by the electron optics. In the case of
a Venetian-blind dynode structure, some of
the photoelectrons may strike parts of the
dynode which do not provide good collec-
tion fields to the second dynode. Fig. 44 is a

DISTANCE ACROSS PHOTOCATHODE-INCHES


92cs-32329
92CS-32330

Fig. 43 - Photocathode uniformity patterns Fig. 44 - Relative collection efficiency for


observed by scanning a 1/16-inch spot across photoelectrons in a venetian-blind type photo-
a diameter of a semitransparent photocath- multiplier tube.58
ode in 2-inch and 3-inch photomultiplier tubes
used in scintillation counting. (a), scan on a plot of collection uniformity in a 3-inch
typical well-processed 2-inch tube; (b), scan Venetian-blind photomultiplier tube. The
on a tube with non-uniform antimony evapora- structure in the pattern for the scan perpen-
tion on the faceplate (1); (c), scan on a typical dicular to the length of the dynode is related
3-inch tube showing peaks (2) due to entry of
light on the edge of the faceplate and (3) to the individual slats in the Venetian-blind
peaks due to reflection or photoemission structure. By way of contrast, Fig. 45 shows
from transmitted radiation through the photo- similar collection uniformity plots for a
cathode onto the shoulder of the bulb. 3-inch “teacup” design where the large

41
Photomultiplier Handbook

open structure of the “tea-cup” first dynode If a photomultiplier were to contain any
eliminates the electron-optical effects significant trace of gas, ionization of the gas
observed in the Venetian-blind type tube. could occur , depending upon the applied
voltages and level of photocurrent. Ion bom-
bardment of the photocathode can readily
cause damage and loss of sensitivity in pro-
portion to the ion current. Photomultiplier
tubes, however, are generally so well evacu-
ated that ion damage is essentially only a
theoretical possibility.
Electrolytic effects can bring about serious
fatigue in Cs3Sb photocathodes (Ref. 11, p.
79) and presumably in other alkali-
antimonide photocathodes. An electrolytic
effect is caused when a potential gradient is
DISTANCE ACROSS PHOTOCATHODE- INCHES
maintained across the cathode surface.
92CS-32331
Photocathodes generally only have one
physical contact, but a gradient can be
Fig. 45 - Relative collection efficiency for developed because of the resistive nature of
photoelectrons in a “teacup” type RCA pho- the photocathode layer if a large photocur-
tomultiplier tube.58 rent is drawn, for example, from a center
spot on the cathode. Actual electrolytic
Uniformity of response of a photomulti- decomposition takes place, which can be
plier may also be affected by the voltage at recognized by a color change in the cathode
which the focusing electrode is operated. material.
Many photomultipliers are equipped with a
focusing electrode, between the photocath-
ode and the first dynode to provide optimum
collection of the photoelectrons emitted
from the photocathode. The focusing-
electrode voltage is usually set at the point at
which maximum anode output current is ob-
tained. In some applications, spatial unifor-
mity i.e., the variation of anode current with
position of photocathode illumination, may
be more important than maximizing output
current. In such cases, however, the final ad-
justment of the focusing-electrode potential
should not differ significantly from the ad-
justment that provides optimized collection
efficiency. Fig. 46 shows a typical focusing-
electrode characteristic.
Photocathode Stability
Stability and life of a photocathode is 92CS-32332
usually related approximately inversely to
the current drawn from it. More stable and Fig. 46 - A typical focusing-electrode charac-
reliable performance results if small areas of teristic.
concentrated illumination on the cathode
surface are avoided. In normal operation of It is also possible to damage a photocath-
photomultipliers, of course, the photocath- ode by maintaining a difference in potential
ode current is usually small and damage to through the faceplate supporting the photo-
the tube is more likely to be caused by the cathode, particularly at elevated tempera-
amplified secondary emission currents in the tures. For example, if the photocathode in a
latter dynode stages. photomultiplier is maintained at - 1000

42
Photomultiplier Characteristics

volts and a ground plane at 0 volts is radiation for several photocathode types.
established on the outside surface of the Some of this effect is the result of phosphor-
glass, ionic conduction takes place through escence in the glass faceplate of the photo-
the glass. Photocathode sensitivity will be multiplier, but a larger part of the effect is
gradually deteriorated by the ionic apparently an excitation phenomena in the

Photomultiplier tubes should be stored in


the dark when not in use. Blue and ultra-
violet radiation, especially, can cause photo-
chemical changes in the photocathode which
result in changes in sensitivity. It is especially
important to avoid exposure to intense il-
lumination such as sunlight even when no
voltage is applied to the tube. Permanent
damage may also result if the tube is exposed
to radiation so intense that it causes ex-
cessive heating of the photocathode. Tubes
should not be stored for long periods at
temperatures near the maximum rating of
the tube; high temperatures almost always Fig. 47 - Variation of dark current following
result in loss of sensitivity in the photocath- exposure of photocathode to cool white fluo-
ode. rescent-lamp radiation. The various photo-
A photomultiplier having a multialkali cathodes are identified by their spectral-
photocathode (S-20 spectral response) tends response symbols.
to lose sensitivity especially in the red por-
tion of its spectral response upon extended When semitransparent photocathodes
exposure to high ambient room lighting; the such as Cs3Sb and Ag-Bi-O-Cs (and prob-
change is usually permanent. Contrary to ably others) are kept in the dark for many
this behavior, photocathodes of the ex- hours, they become very resistive59, especial-
tended red multi-alkali (ERMA) type ap- ly at reduced temperatures. The effect may
parently do not exhibit this loss. be so great that the photomultiplier may ap-
The Ag-O-Cs photocathode (S-l) spectral pear to have lost sensitivity. Apparently,
response) also suffers a decrease in sensitivi- passage of current through the photosen-
ty, particularly during operation, when ex- sitive layer as a result of normal operation
posed to high radiant-energy levels normally restores the photocathode conductivity. At
not harmful to other types of photocathode reduced temperatures, the process may re-
materials. The decreased sensitivity occurs quire minutes or hours of operation to re-
primarily in the infrared portion of the spec- turn the photocathode to a reasonable con-
trum. Loss of infrared sensitivity may also ductivity.
occur following long periods of storage. Photomultiplier tubes have been exposed
The GaAs:Cs photocathode is particularly to gamma and X-radiation to an intensity of
sensitive to responsivity loss even for 1010 roentgens per hour by the Naval
Another effect related to the exposure of photocathode damage was noted except that
photocathodes to excessive blue or ultra- faceplate discoloration was observed for ex-
violet radiation, as from fluorescent room posure in excess of 104 roentgens. Glass
lighting, is a temporary increase in photo- fluorescent effects were also noted during
cathode dark emission current. The increase the tests. For applications where excessive
may be as much as three orders of magnitude radiation may be present, it may be noted
even from relatively short exposure. This in- that Corning has developed a non-browning
crease in dark current occurs even though glass, Ce-doped No. 9025, which has been
voltage is not applied to the tube and may used for special photomultipliers.
persist for a period of from 6 to 24 hours As a result of enhanced dark count rates
after such irradiation. Fig. 47 illustrates the observed in photomultiplier tubes used in
recovery after exposure to fluorescent-lamp various earth-orbiting satellites, an in-

43
Photomultiplier Handbook

vestigation was made by Viehmann et al61 In the design or operation of a multiplier


on fluorescent and phosphorescent effects in phototube having a fixed supply voltage, the
windows used in photomultiplier tubes when number of stages can be chosen so that the
bombarded by beta rays. Source of the beta gain of the tube is maximum. For this pur-
rays was an 0.8 millicurie beta emitter, pose, the optimum voltage per stage is that
value at which a line through the origin (uni-
to 2.23 MeV (megaelectron volts). A number ty gain on the log-gain scale) is tangent to the
of special windows were tested. For Coming curve, as shown in Fig. 48. This point is
9741 glass, two decay constants were ob-
served in the phosphorescense: 4.2 and 57
minutes. For an exposure of 9.5 x 1010 elec-
trons per square centimeter in 30 minutes, an

steradian)- 1 was observed in a photomulti-


plier with an S-20 response, closely coupled
to the glass plate.

GAIN-RELATED CHARACTERISTICS
Gain vs. Voltage
When several secondary-emission stages
are coupled together, so that the secondary
electrons from one become the primary elec-

multiplier phototube is given by

92cs-32334

Fig. 48 - Log of gain as a function of volts


In practice, some of the electrons may skip per stage for a tube (1P21) with Cs-Sb
stages, or become lost to the amplification dynodes and for a tube (6342A) with Cu-Be
process by impinging upon nonproductive dynodes.
secondary-emission areas.
It is customary to describe the gain of the
multiplier phototube as a function of the ap- identified on the graph as the point of max-
plied voltage. Fig. 48 shows two such curves imum gain per volt. (Note that this argument
on a semilog scale. These curves illustrate the neglects the voltage used between the last
wide range of amplification in a multiplier dynode and the anode and any discrepancy
phototube. They also indicate the necessity resulting from nonuniform distribution of
of providing a well regulated voltage supply voltage per stage). In most applications of
for the dynode stages. multiplier phototubes, the tubes are
It is possible to operate a four-to-six stage operated above the point of maximum gain
photomultiplier so that each stage is at the per volt. When both the gain and the voltage
voltage required for maximum secondary are presented on a logarithmic scale, the
emission, as shown in Fig. 19. In such cases, resultant curve is then closely approximated
the gain could be made practically indepen- by a straight line. Fig. 49 describes the anode
dent of voltage over a small range. However, sensitivity in amperes per lumen and the
such a condition would require approximate- typical amplification characteristics of a
ly 500 volts per stage; thus the total voltage photomultiplier as a function of the applied
required would be very high for the amount voltage. Curves of minimum and maximum
of gain achieved. sensitivity are also shown.

44
Photomultiplier Characteristics

I-

SUPPLY VOLTS (E) BETWEEN ANODE AND CATHODE D-


92cs-32335

Fig. 49 - Typical anode sensitivity and ampli-


fication characteristics of a photomultiplier
tube as a function of applied voltage. Note
the log-log scaling.

External Magnetic and Electrostatic Fields


All photomultipliers are to some extent
sensitive to the presence of external magnetic
and electrostatic fields. These fields may
deflect electrons from their normal path be-
tween stages and cause a loss of gain. Tubes
designed for scintillation counting are
generally very sensitive to magnetic fields
because of the relatively long path from the
cathode to the first dynode; consequently, 92CS-32336
such tubes ordinarily require electrostatic
and magnetic shielding. Magnetic fields may Fig. 50 - Curves for 3/4-inch diameter type
easily reduce the anode current by a much as 4516 photomultiplier showing the effect on
50 per cent or more of the “no-field” value. anode current of magnetic fields parallel to
the main axis of the tube and perpendicular
The three curves in Fig. 50 show the effect to the main axis in the directions parallel and
on anode current of magnetic fields parallel perpendicular to the dynodes. (Units for mag-
to the main tube axis and perpendicular to netic field intensity are shown in both Sl
the main axis in the directions parallel and units, ampere turns per meter, and conven-
perpendicular to the dynodes. The curves are tional cgs units, oersteds. Note that 1 oersted

45
Photomultiplier Handbook

High-mu material in the form of foils or


plier tubes contain some parts which have preformed shields is available commercially
magnetic properties, but if they are for most photomultipliers. When such a
neglected, the magnetic induction-or mag- shield is used, it must be at cathode poten-
netic flux density B-measured in units of
gauss would be numerically the same as the tial. The use of an external shield may pre-
oersted values. in the case of Sl units for sent a safety hazard because in many ap-
magnetic induction, 1 weber per square meter plications the photomultiplier is operated
= 1 tesla = 104 gausses.) with the anode at ground potential and the
cathode at a high negative potential. Ade-
usually provided for one or more values of quate safeguards are therefore required to
over-all applied voltage and indicate the prevent personnel from coming in contact
relative anode current in per cent as a func- with the high potential of the shield.
tion of magnetic field intensity. Fig. 51 It is possible to modulate the output cur-
shows the variation of output current of rent of a photomultiplier with a magnetic
several photomultiplier tubes as a function field. The application of a magnetic field
of magnetic-field intensity directly parallel generally causes no permanent damage to a
to the major axis of the tube. The magnitude photomultiplier although it may magnetize
of the effect depends to a great extent upon those internal parts of a tube that contain
the structure of the tube, the orientation of ferromagnetic materials (tubes are available
the field, and the operating voltage. In which contain practically no ferromagnetic
general, the higher the operating voltage, the materials). If tube parts do become magne-
less the effect of these fields. tized, the performance of the tube may be

`-2400 -1600 -800 0 800 1600 2400 3200


MAGNETIC FIELD INTENSITY - AMPERE TURNS PER METER
I 1 I I I I I 1
-30 -20 -10 0 IO 20 30 40
OERSTEDS
92CM - 32337

Fig. 51- Variation of output current of several photomultiplier tubes as a function of


magnetic-field intensity directly parallel to the major axis of the tube. Positive
values of magnetic field are in the direction of the tube base. Operating voltages are
indicated. The 931A is a circular-cage, side-on type. The 4902, 8053 and 8575 are
2-inch end-on types: teacup; Venetian-blind dynode; and in-line dynode structure,
respectively.

46
Photomultiplier Characteristics

degraded somewhat; however, the condition Table III provides guidance as to the max-
is easily corrected by degaussing, a process in imum pulse current which can be drawn
which a tube is placed in and then gradually from the anode of various types of photo-
withdrawn from the center of a coil operated multipliers before spacecharge effects limit
at an alternating current of 60 Hz with a linearity. Note that the type 8575, which has
maximum field strength of 8000 ampere a focused dynode structure, provides the
turns per meter (100 oersteds). highest withdrawal fields and highest linear
output current. On the other hand, venetian-
Linearity blind or box-and-slot dynodes have relative-
Because the emission rate of photoelec- ly low withdrawal fields. Higher currents can
trons is proportional to the incident radiant be obtained from all types of photomulti-
flux, and the yield of secondary electrons for pliers by unbalancing the voltage distribu-
a given primary electron energy is propor- tion to provide higher fields at the critical
tional to the number of primary electrons, last stages.
the anode current of a photomultiplier is Some photomultipliers used in applica-
proportional to the magnitude of the inci- tions requiring high output pulse current use
dent radiant flux. A linearity plot over a an accelerating grid between the last dynode
wide range of light level is shown in Fig. 52 and the anode to reduce the effects of space-
charge limiting. The potential of such a grid
is usually between that of the last and the
next-to-last dynode and is adjusted by ob-
serving and maximizing the value of the
anode output current.
Another factor that may limit anode-
output-current linearity is cathode resistivi-
ty; cathode resistivity is a problem only in
tubes with semitransparent photocathodes,
particularly of the Cs-Sb or bialkali type.
Linear behavior is not always obtained
from photomultipliers even at low current
levels. For example, if the test light spot on a
931A is not directed close to the center of the
LIGHT FLUX -LUMENS
active area of the photocathode, disturbing
92CS-32338
effects may arise from the proximity of the
Fig. 52 - Range of anode-current linearity as ceramic end plates. Near the end plates, the
a function of light flux for a 931A photomulti- fields are not uniform and are affected by
plier. charge patterns on the insulator spacers,
which change with the current level. An ex-
for a type 931A. The limit of linearity occurs terior negative shield placed around the bulb
when space charge begins to form. Space- wall may improve tube linearity by elimi-
charge-limiting effects usually occur in the nating bulb charging effects. The passage of
space between the last two dynodes. The excessive current may change the sensitivity
voltage gradient between anode and last of the tube and cause an apparent non-
dynode is usually much higher than between linearity.
dynodes and, therefore, results in a limita- Some photomultipliers exhibit a tem-
tion at the previous stage, even though the porary instability in anode current and
current is less. The maximum output cur- change in anode sensitivity for several
rent, at the onset of space charge, is propor- seconds after voltage and light are applied.
tional to the 3/2 power of the voltage gra- This instability, sometimes called hysteresis
dient in the critical dynode region. By use of because of cyclic behavior, may be caused by
an unbalanced dynode-voltage distribution electrons striking and charging the dynode
increasing the interstage voltages near the support spacers and thus slightly changing
output end of the multiplier, it is possible to the electron optics within the tube. Sensitivi-
increase the linear range of output current. ty may overshoot or undershoot a few per

47
Photomultiplier Handbook

cent before reaching a stable value. The time behavior may be a problem in applications
to reach a stable value is related to the such as photometry where a photomultiplier
resistance of the insulator, its surface is used in a constant-anode-current mode by
capacitance, and the local photomultiplier varying the photomultiplier voltage as the
current. This instability and non-linear light input changes.

Table III
Maximum Anode Currents That Can be Utilized in Various Photomultiplier Types Without
Serious Loss of Linearity from Space-Charge Build-up.

Tube Type Supply Voltage Maximum


Volts Distribution* Output Current (mA)
with Linearity Loss Less
Than 10%
931A 1000 1 1
(side-on, circular
cage)
4524 1500 5
(3-inch, venetian-
blind dynodes)

4900 1200 5
(3 -inch, Tea-cup
type)
8575 1760 30
(2-inch, linear fo-
cused dynode struc-
ture)

8575 2100 120


C-31059 1050 4
(1 1/8-inch, box and
slot dynodes)

C-31059 1150 12

*These number series represent the relative voltage applied between cathode and first dynode,
first dynode and second dynode,. . . . . , last dynode and anode. Note that in the case of the 8575
and the C-31059, a second voltage distribution is given with increased voltage drop in the last
stages providing higher output currents before the onset of space-charge-limiting conditions.

48
Photomultiplier Characteristics

Hysteresis has been eliminated in many with Temperature. The gain data were ob-
tubes by coating the dynode spacers with a tained by measuring both the anode response
conductive material in the manufacturing variation and the photocathode response
process and maintaining the coating at a variation with temperature and dividing out
fixed potential. Tubes treated by this method the latter to obtain only the gain variation. It
assume final sensitivity values almost im- is probable that the increase in gain at low
mediately upon application of light and temperatures is the result of a decrease in
voltage. energy loss from lattice scattering. Although
Peak linear and saturation currents are the variation in over-all gain is fairly large, it
usually measured by pulsed methods. One should be remembered that the variation
common method makes use of a cathode-ray results from a small variation in each stage
tube with a P15 or P16 phosphor. The grid is compounded by the 9 stages. At room tem-
double-pulsed with pulses of unequal ampli- perature, the average gain per stage for the
tudes but fixed amplitude ratio. As the 8571 is 4.5 at 100 V per stage and the percen-
amplitude of the two pulses is increased, a tage change in stage gain with temperature is
point is observed at which the amplitude of approximately -0.06% per °C. Thus the
the larger of the anode pulses does not in- secondary emission temperature coefficient
crease in the same proportion as the smaller is generally less that the photoresponse
pulse. At this point the tube is assumed to temperature coefficient, both for Cs-Sb sur-
become non-linear. The current value at this faces. See Fig. 37.
point is then measured by means of an
oscilloscope and load resistor. The max- LOX
imum saturation current is found when a
further increase in radiation level yields no
further increase in output.
Although very high anode current can be
drawn from photomultiplier tubes, it
should be emphasized that stability cannot
be expected at such levels. These high cur-
rent levels are principally of interest in light-
pulse applications. In this case, the stability
of the tube is approximately that of the tube
operated at the integrated average current
level t
Gain Variation with Temperature
It is often advisable to reduce the ambient
temperature of a photomultiplier in order to
reduce dark emission from the photocathode
and improve the signal-to-noise ratio of the
measurement. Variations of the spectral
characteristics of photocathodes with
temperature have been noted in the previous TEMPERATURE - °C
section on Photocathode Stability. There are 92cs-32341
numerous reports on the over-all variation
of the photomultiplier output current with Fig. 53 - Typical variation of gain with tem-
temperature including the effect of tempera- perature for a 9-stage photomultiplier tube
(type 8571) with Cs-Sb dynodes operating at
ture on photocathode sensitivity62-64. Fig. 100 volts per stage.
53 is a typical characteristic for type 8571
photomultiplier having Cs-Sb dynodes
showing the variation of gain with A few words of caution regarding the am-
temperature. These data do not include the bient temperature of photomultipliers are
variation of photocathode response with pertinent. A maximum ambient tempera-
temperature which has been described in the ture, and in some instances a minimum tem-
section on Variations in Spectral Response perature, i s s p e c i f i e d f o r a l l photo-

49
Photomultiplier Handbook

multipliers. The specification of maximum maximum anode current is restricted to a


ambient temperatures reduces the possibility few milliamperes when the tube is operated
of heat damage to the tube. Cesium, for ex- at 100 to 200 volts between the last dynode
ample, is very volatile and may be and the anode. Many photomultipliers are
redistributed within the tube causing loss of rated for only 0.1 mA or less.
secondary emission gain or loss of cathode Operating a photomultiplier at an ex-
sensitivity. cessively high anode current results in an in-
It is recommended that photomultipliers creased fatigue that occurs as the average
be operated at or below room temperature so anode current increases. The loss in sensitiv-
that the effects of dark current are mini- ity occurs as a result of a reduction in the
mized. The variation of dark current, or secondary emission, particularly in the last
noise, is most important because of its effect stages of the photomultiplier where the cur-
on ultimate low-light-level sensitivity. rents are the highest.
Various cryostats and solid-state thermionic Tube fatigue or loss of anode sensitivity is
coolers have been designed that reduce dark a function of output-current level, dynode
current at low temperatures in low-light-level materials, and previous operating history.
applications. An important consideration in The amount of average current that a given
the use of these devices is to prevent conden- photomultiplier can withstand varies widely,
sation of moisture on the photomultiplier even among tubes of the same type; conse-
window. A controlled low-humidity atmos- quently, only typical patterns of fatigue may
phere or special equipment configuration be cited.
may be necessary to prevent such condensa- The sensitivity changes are thought to be
tion. the result of erosion of the cesium from the
Another reason for avoiding the operation dynode surfaces during periods of heavy
of photomultipliers at extremely low temper- electron bombardment, and the subsequent
atures is the possible phase change that this deposition of the cesium on other areas
type of operation may cause in some of the within the photomultiplier. Sensitivity losses
metal parts. These changes are particularly of this type, illustrated in Fig. 54 for a 1P21
probable when Kovar is used in metal-to-
glass seals. Tubes utilizing Kovar in their
construction should not be operated at tem-
peratures below that of liquid nitrogen
(-196°C).
In some tubes, particularly those with
multialkali photocathodes, it is sometimes
observed that the noise actually increases as
the temperature of the photocathode is re-
duced below about -40°C. The reason for
this noise increase is not understood. How-
ever, most of the dark-current reduction has
already been achieved at temperatures above
-40°C.
In general, it is recommended that all
wires and connections to the tube be encap-
sulated for refrigerated operation. Encap-
sulation minimizes breakdown of insulation, TIME-MINUTES
especially that caused by moisture condensa- 92cs-32339

tion. Fig. 54 - Short-time fatigue and recovery


Stability and Gain characteristics of a typical 1P21 operating at
100 volts per stage and with a light source ad-
All photomultipliers have a maximum justed to give 100 microamperes initial anode
anode current rating. The primary reason current. At the end of 100 minutes the light is
for such a rating is to limit the anode power turned off and the tube allowed to recover
dissipation to approximately one-half watt sensitivity. Tubes recover approximately as
or less. Consequently, the magnitude of the shown, whether the voltage is on or off.

50
Photomultiplier Characteristics

operated at an output current of 100 micro-


amperes, may be reversed during periods of
non-operation when the cesium may again
return to the dynode surfaces. This process
of recovery may be accelerated by heating
the photomultiplier during periods of non-
operation to a temperature within the max-
imum temperature rating of the tube;
heating above the maximum rating may
cause a permanent loss of sensitivity.
Sensitivity losses for a given operating cur-
rent normally occur rather rapidly during in-
itial operation and at a much slower rate
after the tube has been in use for some time.
Fig. 55 shows this type of behavior for a

TIME -HOURS

Fig. 56 - Typical responsivity variation on life


for a photomultiplier having silver-magne-
sium dynodes. Initial anode current was 2 mil-
liamperes and was readjusted to this operat-
ing value at 48, 168, and 360 hours.
2
0 100 200 300 400 5
TIME -HOURS
operation, after which a very gradual de-
92cs-32340 crease takes place, as illustrated in Fig. 56.
Fig. 55 - Typical sensitivity loss for a 1P21 The operating stability of a photomulti-
operating at 100 volts per stage for a period of plier depends on the magnitude of the
500 hours. Initial anode current is 100 micro- average anode current; when stability is of
amperes and is readjusted to this operating prime importance, the use of average anode
value at 48, 168, and 360 hours. currents of 1 microampere or less is recom-
mended.
1P21 having Cs-Sb dynodes, operating at an In addition to the life characteristics,
output current of 100 microamperes. Tubes which are probably the result of changes in
operated at lower current levels, of the order the dynode layer itself, other changes of a
of 10 microamperes or less, experience less temporary nature also occur. Not all these
fatigue than those operated at higher cur- changes are well understood; some are
rents, and, in fact, may actually recover charging of insulators in the tube.
from high-current operation during periods Fig. 57 illustrates one of the peculiar in-
of low-current operation. stabilities which are sometimes observed in
Fatigue rates are also affected by the type photomultiplier tubes. When the light is first
of dynode materials used in a tube. Copper turned on, the current apparently overshoots
beryllium or silver magnesium dynodes are and then decays to a steady value. This par-
generally more stable at high operating cur- ticular phenomenon is probably the result of
rents than the cesium antimony types. The the charging of the supporting insulator for
sensitivity for tubes utilizing these dynodes the dynodes. The effect is observed to occur
very often increases during initial hours of more rapidly at higher currents, presumably

51
Photomultiplier Handbook

b e c a u s e o f t h e g r e a t e r c h a r g i n g c u rIrne notr.d e r t o i n v e s t i g a t e t h e p h e n o m e n a o f
E l e c t r o n s s t r i k i n g t h e i n s u l a t o r p r o pb ua bl sley- h e i g h t v a r i a t i o n w i t h p u l s e c o u n t r a t e ,
result i n s e c o n d a r y e m i s s i o n a n d a r eas upl tuarnpto s e l y e x a g g e r a t e d e x p e r i m e n t w a s
positive charge. The change in potential devised. af- Instead of a scintillating crystal, a
fects the electron optics in the space between pulsed cathode-ray tube was used as a light
d y n o d e s . T h e e f f e c t i s o b s e r v e d a s sa on u ri nc e- . T w o p u l s e r a t e s w e r e s t u d i e d : 1 0 0
c r e a s e i n s o m e t u b e s a n d a s a d e c rand e a s10,000
e i n pulses per second. Pulse duration
others. When the photomultiplier is designed was one microsecond; decay time to 0.1
w i t h m e t a l s h i e l d s o r w i t h c o n d um c tai xviem u m w a s 0 . 1 m i c r o s e c o n d . T h e e x p e r i -
coatings on the critical areas of thm e einnt- w a s d e v i s e d t o s t u d y t h e r a t e a t w h i c h
sulators, this effect is eliminated. the photomultiplier tube output response
changed when the pulse rate was suddenly
switched between the two rates. Tubes such
a s t h e 6342A, a n d e s p e c i a l l y t h e 8 0 5 3 a n d
8054, showed practically no effect (of the
order of one per cent or less). Fig. 59 shows

TIME - SECONDS
92cs-32343

Fig. 57 - Sudden shift in anode current prob-


ably as the result of insulator spacer charg-
ing. Observation was made using an experi-
mental photomultiplier in which the effect
was unusually large. Fig. 59 - Variation of output pulse height as
the rate of pulsing is changed in a poorly
A related phenomenon is the variation ofdesigned experimental tube. Light pulses
p u l s e h e i g h t w i t h p u l s e c o u n t r a t e i nwere provided from a cathode-ray tube. At the
scintillationcounting applications. Thus,left of the graph, which shows the pulse-
when a radio-active source is brought closer amplitude envelope with time for the output
to a scintillating crystal a greater rate of scin- the photomultiplier tube, the pulses are at
of
100 per second. The pulse rate is increased
tillations should be produced, all having thesuddenly to 10,000 per second and again re-
same magnitude. In a particular photomulti-duced as indicated. Changes in amplitude are
plier a few per cent change in amplitude may probably the result of insulator charging.
result and cause problems in measurement.
Fig. 58 shows the typically minor variation
of pulse height with pulse-count rate for thea pulses during the switching procedure for
type 6342A multiplier phototube. an experimental tube. The phenomena were
completely reversible and were observed (to
a lesser extent) on many different tube types.
The time-decay period of several seconds
suggests the charging of an insulator spacer
to a new potential as the result of the in-
creased charge flow and the subsequent
0.4 0.6 0.8
modification of interdynode potential fields.
COUNTING RATE In scintillation counting it is particularly
92cs-32344 important that the photomultiplier have very
Fig. 58 - Typical variation of pulse height good stability. There are two types of gain
with pulsecount rate for a 6342A. (13 3Cs stability tests which have been used to
source with a Nal:Tl source). evaluate photomultipliers for this applica-

52
Photomultiplier Characteristics

tion: (1) a test of long-term drift in pulse- Life Expectancy


height amplitude measured at a constant The life expectancy of a photomultiplier,
counting rate; and (2) a measure of short- although related to fatigue, is very difficult
term pulse-height amplitude shift with to predict. Most photomultipliers will func-
change in counting rate. tion satisfactorily through several thousand
In the time stability test, a pulse-height hours of conservative operation and propor-
analyzer, a 137Cs source, and a NaI(T1) tionally less as the severity of operation in-
crystal are employed to measure the pulse creases. Photomultipliers do not have
height. The 137Cs source is located along the elements which “burn out” as in the case of
major axis of the tube and crystal so that a a filament in a vacuum tube. Furthermore,
count-rate of 1000 counts per second is ob- loss of sensitivity which occurs with opera-
tained. The entire system is allowed to warm tion tends to recover during idle periods or
up under operating conditions for a period during conservative operation.
of one-half to one hour before readings are Factors which are known to affect life
recorded. Following this period of stabiliza- adversely are high-current operation,
tion, the pulse height is recorded at one-hour excessive-voltage operation, high photocath-
intervals for a period of 16 hours. The drift ode illumination, and high temperature.
rate in per cent is then calculated as the mean Operation of photomultipliers in regions
gain deviation (MGD) of the series of pulse- of intense nuclear radiation or X-rays may
height measurements, as follows: result in an increase in noise and dark cur-
rent as a result of fluorescence and scintilla-
tion within the glass portions of the tubes.
Continued exposure may cause darkening of
the glass and a resultant reduction in
transmission capability.
DARK CURRENT AND NOISE
where p is the mean pulse height, pi is the
pulse height at the ith reading, and n is the The lower limit of light detection for a
total number of readings. Typical maximum photomultiplier tube is determined in many
mean-gain-deviation values for photomulti- cases by the electrical noise associated with
pliers with high-stability Cu-Be dynodes are the anode dark current. There are several
usually less than 1 per cent when measured sources of dark current in a photomultiplier.
under the conditions specified above. Gain These sources are described below,
stability becomes particularly important Sources of Dark Current
when photopeaks produced by nuclear Dark current in a photomultiplier tube
disintegrations of nearly equal energy are be- may be categorized by origin into three
ing differentiated. types: ohmic leakage, dark or “thermionic”
In the count-rate stability test, the photo- emission of electrons from the cathode and
multiplier is first operated at 10,000 counts other elements of the tube, and regenerative
per second. The photopeak counting rate is effects .
then decreased to 1000 counts per second by Ohmic leakage, which results from the im-
increasing the source-to-crystal distance. perfect insulating properties of the glass
The photopeak position is measured and stem, the supporting members, or the plastic
compared with the last measurement made base, is always present. This type of leakage
at a counting rate of 10,000 per second. The is usually negligible, but in some tubes it may
count-rate stability is expressed as the become excessive because of the presence of
percentage gain shift for the count-rate residual metals used in the processing of the
change. It should be noted that count-rate photocathode or the dynodes. Condensation
stability is related to the hysteresis effect of water vapor, dirt, or grease on the outside
discussed above. Photomultipliers designed of the tube may increase ohmic leakage
for counting stability may be expected to beyond reasonable limits. Simple precau-
have a value of no greater than 1 per cent tions are usually sufficient to eliminate this
gain shift as measured by this count-rate sort of leakage. In unfavorable environmen-
stability test. tal conditions, however, it may be necessary

53
Photomultiplier Handbook

to coat the base of the tube with moisture- be measured on a dc meter, is usually the
resisting materials, which may also prevent principal dc component of the dark current
external arc-overs resulting from high at normal operating voltages. The limitation
voltage. to the measurement of very low light levels is
Ohmic leakage is the predominant source the variable character of the thermionic
of dark current at low-voltage operating dark-current component. It is not possible to
condition. It can be identified by its propor- balance out this wide-band noise component
tionality with applied voltage. At higher of the photomultiplier tube, as it might be to
voltages, ohmic leakage is obscured by other balance out a steady ohmic-leakage current.
sources of dark current. Nevertheless, it is usually advantageous to
Fig. 60 shows the typical variation of dark operate the photomultiplier tube in the range
where the thermionic component is domi-
nant. In this range, the relationship between
sensitivity and noise is fairly constant as the
voltage is increased because both the photo-
electric emission and the thermionic emis-
sion are amplified by the same amount.
Typical dark emission current densities for
various photocathodes are given in Table I
(page 16). The resulting anode dark current
may be estimated by multiplying the dark
emission per unit area at the photocathode
by the photocathode area and by the gain of
the photomultiplier tube at the desired
operating voltage.
The thermionic component of the dark
current varies in a regular way with
temperature as illustrated in Fig. 16, and
because the thermionic component of the
dark current is a source of electronic noise in
the anode circuit, it is frequently advan-
VOLTS PER STAGE
tageous to cool the photomultiplier and take
92CS-32346
advantage of the reduced dark current and
Fig. 60 - Typical variation of dark current noise. Various cryostats have been de-
with voltage for a multiplier phototube. signed62,66 providing low temperature
operation of photomultipliers. One practical
current of a photomultiplier tube as a func- consideration is the prevention of condensa-
tion of applied voltage. Note that in the mid- tion of moisture on the window. In a Dewar-
range of voltage, the dark current follows type arrangement, condensation may not be
the gain characteristic of the tube. The a problem; in simpler set-ups moisture con-
source of the gain-proportional, dark cur- densation may be prevented by a controlled
rent is the dark or thermionic emission of low-humidity atmosphere at the external
electrons primarily from the photocathode. window. On some types of photocathode,
Because each electron emitted from the too cool a temperature may result in the
photocathode is multiplied by the secondary- photocathode becoming so resistive that the
emission gain of the tube, the result is an photoemission is blocked by a drop in poten-
output pulse having a magnitude equal to the tial across the photocathode surface. See
charge of one electron multiplied by the gain earlier section on Current-Voltage Charac-
of the tube. (There are statistical amplitude teristics. Commercial cryostats or cooled
variations which will be discussed later.) photomultiplier chambers are available
Because the emission of thermionic electrons designed especially for photomultiplier
is random in time, the output dark current operation67.
consists of random unidirectional pulses. At higher dynode voltages, a regenerative
The time average of these pulses, which may type of dark current develops, as shown in

54
Photomultiplier Characteristics

Fig. 60 . The dark current becomes very er- measurement. If the type of modulation and
ratic, and may at times increase to the prac- bandwidth used in the measurement is
tical limitations of the circuit. Continued known, an equivalent noise input, ENI, can
flow of large dark currents may cause be calculated from the signal-to-noise ratio,
damage to the sensitized surfaces. Some Equivalent noise input is defined as the value
possible causes of the regenerative behavior of incident luminous or radiant flux which,
will be discussed in more detail later. All when modulated in a stated manner, pro-
photomultiplier tubes eventually become duces an rms output current equal to the rms
unstable as the gain is increased. noise current within a specified bandwidth,
Dark-Current Specification usually 1 Hz.
Dark-current values are often specified at
a particular value of anode sensitivity rather
than at a fixed operating voltage. Specifica-
tions of dark current in this manner are more
closely related to the actual application of
the photomultiplier.
The best operating range for a given
photomultiplier can usually be predicted
from the quotient of the anode dark current
and the luminous sensitivity at which the
dark current is measured. This quotient is
identified as the Equivalent Anode Dark
Current Input (EADCI) in the Technical
Data for individual photomultiplier tubes;
and is the value of radiant flux incident on
the photocathode required to produce an
anode current equal to the dark current
observed. The units used in specifying EAD-
CI are either lumens or watts at the wave-
length of maximum cathode responsivity or
92c3-32347
watts at a specified wavelength.
The curves in Fig. 61 shows both typical Fig. 61 - Illustrative data showing the varia-
anode dark current and equivalent anode tion of anode dark current and the equivalent
dark current input (EADCI) as functions of anode-dark current input (EADCI) as a func-
luminous sensitivity. The optimum operat- tion of luminous sensitivity for a type 8575.
ing range occurs in the region of the Operation of the tube at voltages higher than
that for the minimum of the EADCI character-
minimum on the EADCI curve, the region in istic does not provide the best signal-to-noise
which the signal-to-noise ratio is also near its ratio.
maximum. The increase in the EADCI curve
at higher values of sensitivity indicates the
onset of a region of unstable and erratic Noise Equivalent Power-Another way to
operation. Many curves of this type also in- categorize the limit of detection of a
clude a scale of anode-to-cathode supply photomultiplier is by noise equivalent power
voltage corresponding to the sensitivity (NEP) which is essentially the same as EN1
scale. except the units are always in watts. NEP is
Equivalent Noise Input-The dark current the radiant flux in watts at a specified wave-
in a photomultiplier is the average current length incident on the detector which gives a
value of the output pulses occurring at ran- signal-to-noise ratio of unity. The frequency
dom intervals plus the dc leakage current. bandwidth (usually 1 Hz) and the frequency
Fluctuations or noise associated with these at which the radiation is chopped must be
pulses limit precision of measurement, specified as well as the spectral content of
rather than the particular dark current value. the radiation (most often, monochromatic
Noise from a photomultiplier may be radiation at the peak of the detector
evaluated in terms of a signal-to-noise-ratio response). It should be noted that NEP is

55
Photomultiplier Handbook

frequently specified in units of watts effect of various voltages applied to an exter-


H Z -1/2. The numerical value of this for- nal shield around the tube envelope of a
mulation of NEP is the same as that given in 1P21 photomultiplier. The graph shows the
units of watts but with a specified bandwidth equivalent noise input decreasing as the
of 1 Hz. shield is made negative toward the-potential
Detectivity-Detectivity (D) is the recipro- of the photocathode. It should be noted also
cal of NEP; it is expressed in W - 1. Detectiv- that an actual contact is not always required
ity is a figure of merit providing the same in- to produce the effects noted in Fig. 62. The
formation as NEP but in the reverse sense so proximity of a positive potential near the
that the lower the radiation level to which glass bulb can cause a noisy operation.
the photodetector responds, the higher the 4
detectivity.
Regenerative Effects
Dynode Glow. Although photomultipliers
are designed to minimize regenerative ef-
fects, at some high voltage and gain almost
all photomultipliers exhibit breakdown
phenomena. One source of regeneration in
photomultipliers is the glowing of the
dynodes under electron bombardment.68
The glow has a blue spectral emission and of
course is most prominent in the latter stages
where the current is highest. The regenera-
tive effect occurs when the light from the
Fig. 62 - Effect of external-shield potential
dynode glow is scattered and reflected back on the noise of a 1P21 photomultiplier. Note
to the photocathode. Dynode cage shields the desirability of maintaining a negative bulb
and opaque support wafers minimize this ef- potential.
fect .
Glass Charging Effects. Regenerative pho- Operation of a photomultiplier tube with
tomultiplier currents may also be triggered an improper external shield may not only
by the electrostatic potential of the bulb cause an increase in noise or lead to an elec-
walls surrounding the dynode or photocath- trical breakdown of the tube, but can result
ode structure. Particularly when the poten- in damage to the photocathode and reduced
tial of the bulb is near anode potential, stray tube life. In order to prevent these effects,
electrons may be attracted to the bulb and the envelope wall should be maintained near
cause the emission of light on impact, de- photocathode potential by wrapping or
pending upon the nature of the glass surface painting it with conductive material and con-
and the presence of contamination. Secon- necting this material to cathode potential.
dary electrons resulting from the impact of The connection is usually made through a
stray electrons on the glass surface are col- high impedance to reduce the shock hazard.
lected by the most positive elements in the If a cathode potential shield is not provided,
tube and help maintain the positive potential the glass surface in the vicinity of the photo-
of the inner surface of the glass. Under these cathode must be insulated from any source
circumstances, it is possible to observe the of potential difference so that leakage cur-
formation of glowing spots on the inside of rents to the bulb are less than 10 -12 ampere.
the glass bulb, provided the eye is dark In photomultiplier tubes in which the pho-
adapted and the applied voltage is sufficient- tocathode is of a transmission type, on the
ly high. Some of this fluorescent light may inside surface of the glass bulb, it is par-
be reflected back to the photocathode and ticularly important to avoid a positive
result in an increase in the photocathode voltage contact on the external surface of the
dark (or light) emission. photocathode window. In this case, ionic
Shielding. The effect just described can be currents can flow through the glass and pro-
minimized by controlling the external poten- duce a fluoresence and an accompanying
tial of the glass envelope. Fig. 62 shows the noisy photocathode current.

56
Photomultiplier Characteristics

It should also be noted that continued ion; this afterpulse occurs approximately 300
operation of a photomultiplier tube with a nanoseconds after the main pulse in a tube
positive voltage contact to the glass in the of type 7850 construction. One source of
photocathode area can cause a permanent hydrogen in the tube is water vapor absorbed
damage to the photocathode. The damage is by the multiplier section before it is sealed to
reported to be the result of ionic conduction the exhaust system. Other gases which may
through the glass and poisoning of the pho- cause afterpulsing may be present as a result
tocathode by sodium ions.69 of outgassing of the photomultiplier parts
Afterpulsing. Afterpulses, which may during processing or operation. Present pho-
be observed when photomultipliers are used tomultiplier processing techniques are
to detect very short light flashes as in scin- designed to eliminate or at least to minimize
tillation counting or in detecting short laser the problem of afterpulsing.
pulses, are identified as minor secondary Helium Penetration71,72Another effect
pulses that follow a main anode-current must be considered in relation to the sources
pulse. There are two general types of after- of dark current-the penetration of helium
pulses; both are characterized by their time through the glass of photomultiplier tubes.
of occurrence in relation to the main pulse. When the photomultiplier is operated or
The first type results from light feedback stored in an environment where helium is
from the area of the anode, or possibly cer- present, helium will gradually permeate
tain dynodes, to the photocathode; the in- through the glass envelope. Because helium
tensity of the light is proportional to the tube is inert, it does not react with the photocath-
currents. When this light feedback reaches ode or dynode surfaces. But tubes subjected
the cathode, the afterpulse is produced. to such an environment will exhibit a noise
Afterpulses of this type, characterized by a increase and an increase in afterpulsing
delay in the order of 40 to 50 nanoseconds, because of the ionization of the helium by
may be a problem in many older photomulti- electron impact. Depending upon the degree
pliers having open dynode structures. The of permeation, a point will be reached at
time delay experienced with this type of which complete ionization and electrical
afterpulse is equal to the total transit time of breakdown occurs making the tube unus-
the signal through the photomultiplier plus able.
the transit time of the light that is fed back. Other Noise Sources
The second type of afterpulse has been Excess noise or dark current can also re-
shown to be the result of ionization of gas in sult from field emission occurring within the
the region between the cathode and first tube and from scintillations in the glass
dynode. The time of occurrence of the after- envelope of the tube caused by radioactive
pulse depends upon the tube dimensions, the elements within glass (most glasses contain
type of residual gas involved and the mass of some radioactive 40K). Fused silica is
the gas ion, but usually ranges from 200 sometimes utilized in photomultiplier face-
nanoseconds to well over 1 microsecond plates to minimize these effects.
after the main pulse. When the ion strikes Noise in photomultiplier tubes can also
the photocathode, several secondary elec- result from the proximity of nuclear sources
trons may be emitted; thus, the resulting or from cosmic rays which result in glass
afterpulse has an amplitude equal to several scintillations. Andrew T. Young73, * has
electron pulse-height equivalents. These identified large pulses which originate from
pulses appear to be identical to the larger Cerenkov light flashes produced by cosmic
dark-current pulses, and it is suspected that rays traversing the window of end-on photo-
many of the dark-current pulses are the re- multipliers. The flashes correspond to
sult of photocathode bombardment by gas
ions. *Andrew T. Young also has written a chapter, “Photo-
Several gases, including N2 + and H2 + , multipliers: Their Cause and Cure,” in Volume 12 of
are known to produce afterpulses. Each gas Methods of Experimental Physics: Astrophysics, L.
Marton, Editor, Academic Press, 1974. As well as being
produces its own characteristic delay follow- a good general reference on photomultipliers, this chap-
ing the main pulse. The most troublesome, ter contains a further discussion of the Cerenkov-light-
perhaps, is the afterpulse caused by the H2 + flash effect.

57
PhotomultIplier Handbook

photoemission pulses of 50 electrons and or near the maximum operating voltage.


larger. The number of pulses is greater when This process, called dark aging, may require
the face of the photomultiplier is upward several hours to several days. After such a
rather than downward because the Cerenkov process of aging, it is recommended that a
radiation is emitted in a conical pattern away photomultiplier be operated for several
from the direction of entry. Young reports minutes at the reduced voltage before mea-
the total number of pulses from this source surements are attempted.
to be about 1.2 min - 1 cm -2. Dark Noise Reduction with Cooling.
Another phenomenon which deserves Because the dark emission is reduced as the
mention in connection with dark current is temperature of the photocathode is reduced,
the effect of previous exposure to light, the dark noise output of the photomultiplier
especially blue or near ultraviolet. Large in- may also be reduced by cooling. Fig. 63
creases in photocathode dark emission may
occur as discussed in section on Photocath-
ode Stability with rather slow recovery, as il-
lustrated in Fig. 47. It is advisable, there-
fore, that photomultipliers be kept in the
dark at all times, or at least for many hours
before they are used for making low-level
measurements.
Noise Output of a Photomultiplier
The output current of a photomultiplier
consists of a train of unidirectional electrical
pulses whether the tube is in the dark or with
illumination on its photocathode. Each pulse
is the result of an electron emitted from the
photocathode and amplified by the secon-
dary emission of the tube. (Some pulses may TUBE

originate also from light striking the first


dynode or from thermionic emission from Fig. 63 - Equivalent noise input in lumens for
a 1P21 photomultiplier as a function of tem-
the first or other dynodes.) In a system hav- perature.
ing a wide bandwith, the individual pulses
may be measured and counted. Their spac- shows the variation of equivalent noise in-
ing in time will have a statistical variation as
puts, ENI, for a 1P21 (opaque Cs3Sb photo-
will their height. There variations constitute
cathode) over a wide range of temperature.
noise and limit the precision of measure- The implication of these data is that by cool-
ments. ing from room temperature to - 150 °C the
If the bandwidth is not sufficient to low light level limit of detection can be
resolve the individual pulses, particularly reduced by two orders of magnitude.
when the light level is relatively high, the
output will exhibit noise or rapid variation in Photomultiplier Noise Characteristics
signal level about an average value. The The following paragraphs describe the
noise level relative to the signal level will noise and signal levels from both a pulse and
decrease with increasing signal level or with a dc point of view. The noise frequency spec-
decreasing bandwidth. The noise may be de- trum is also described and data are presented
scribed by giving the rms value of the current showing the dark noise spectrum.
variation in a specified bandwidth. At very low signal levels, the detection
limit will be shown to be determined by the
Dark-Current and Noise Reduction dark current of the photomultiplier and its
Dark-Current Reduction. If care is taken associated noise. At high levels, the precision
to avoid damage to the photomultiplier by of measurement is limited by the statistical
operation with excessive current, the dark variation in the signal pulses-or the noise
current can often be reduced by a process of which is always present to some degree in the
operating the photomultiplier in the dark at dc signal level. The signal-to-noise ratio can
Photomultiplier Characteristics

be improved by decreasing the bandwidth in distribution of heights even though each


dc measurements or by the equivalent of in- pulse is initiated by a single electron. Fig. 65
creasing the time in pulse-counting applica-
tions.
Noise Spectrum. The width of an output
current pulse initiated by an electron from
the photocathode is determined by the varia-
tions in transit time through the tube. The
noise associated with these pulses of electron
current is flat with frequency out to frequen-
cies corresponding to the width of the in-
dividual pulses. (The frequency spectrum of
a delta function is flat.) A power spectrum
of the noise from type 931 has been calcu-
lated by R. D. Sard74 and is shown in Fig. 64.
Sard’s calculation was done by considering

PULSE HEIGHT- PHOTOELECTRON EQUIVALENTS

92CM-32350
FREQUENCY - MHz
92cs-32349 Fig. 65 - Typical Dark-Pulse Spectrum
Fig. 64 - Spectral energy distribution of the shows a differential dark-noise pulse spec-
noise from type 931A operated at 100 volts per
stage, as calculated by R. D. Sard.74
trum-the number of pulses counted per
unit of time as a function of their height.
A differential dark-noise spectrum is ob-
the anode current from a single electron tained with a multichannel pulse-height
traversing the space between the last two analyzer. The calibration of the single-
dynodes and anode and the distribution photoelectron pulse height is determined by
of electron arrival times due to differences in illuminating the photocathode with a light
transit time between stages; then, the Fourier level so low that there is a very low probabili-
transform of the pulse shape was taken to ty of coincident photoelectron emission. The
obtain the frequency spectrum. dark-pulse distribution is then subtracted
The bandwidth of the noise spectrum dif- from the subsequent combination of dark
fers in different tube designs, depending pulses and single-photoelectron pulses, so
upon transit-time variations. Usually, high- that the remainder represents only that
speed photomultipliers are characterized by distribution resulting from single-photoelec-
rise and fall times of the output pulses rather tron events. By adjusting the gain of the
than by bandwidth. This subject is discussed pulse-height analyzer, the single-electron
in more detail in a later section. photopeak can be placed in the desired chan-
Dark Noise Pulse Spectrum. Because of nel to provide a normalized distribution.
the statistical nature of the secondary emis- The dark-pulse spectrum of Fig. 65 is
sion gain at each stage of the photomulti- characteristic of photomultipliers intended
plier, the output pulses have a fairly wide for use in scintillation counting and other

59
Photomultiplier Handbook

low-light-level pulse applications. The curve where e is the charge on the electron and B is
shown is idealized and represents an average the bandwidth of the observation,
or typical spectrum. An actual spectrum The photocathode dark emission and its
shows statistical variations depending upon associated noise are both amplified by the
the length of the count.
The slope of the curve for the pulse-height for the moment that the amplification pro-
region between 1 and 4 photoelectrons is as cess is noise free, and that all of the current
expected for single-electron emission, when emitted from the photocathode is collected
the statistical nature of secondary-emission by the first dynode, the anode dark current is
multiplication is considered. The number of given by
pulses in this region may be reduced by cool-
ing the photomultiplier. Below a pulse height (17)
of one photoelectron equivalent, the curve is
determined partly by the statistical spread and the anode rms noise current is given by
due to the multiplication process and partly
from emission from some of the dynode
surfaces. (18)
The slope of the curve for the pulse-height Actually, noise is introduced by the secon-
region greater than 4 photoelectrons is dary emission process. (This subject is dis-
presumed to be caused by multiple-electron- cussed at length in Appendix G.) If one as-
emission events. These multiple pulses are sumes Poisson statistics for the secondary
caused by processes such as ionic bombard- emission process, the anode noise current
ment of the photocathode. Other mecha- shown in Eq. 18 should be increased by a
nisms contributing to the noise spectrum in-
clude cosmic rays, field emission, and dary emission ratio per stage, assumed to be
radioactive contaminants that produce scin- the same for all stages. If a typical value of
tillations within the glass envelope. Cooling
has little effect upon reduction of the factor of 1.15. Actual measurements indi-
number of these multiple electron pulses, but cate a somewhat higher figure. On the other
extended operation of the tube may improve hand, higher voltage on the first stage, or the
performance. Operation of the tube may use of a GaP:Cs first dynode having a very
result in erosion of sharp points and reduce high secondary-emission ratio would reduce
the possible contribution of field effects. In this factor. For the purpose of the present
addition, improvement occurs because discussion, this increased noise from secon-
residual gases are absorbed within the tube, dary emission will be neglected and the
ion bombardment of the photocathode is photomultiplier anode noise will be taken as
reduced, and the resulting multiple electron the amplified photocathode shot noise as
emission is lessened. given by Eq. 18.
For many applications it is useful to have A fundamental advantage of a photomul-
a summation of the total number of dark tiplier as compared with a photodiode, is the
pulses. In Fig. 65, for example, the sum of high gain and the fact that the secondary
dark-pulse counts from 1/8th electron emission process contributes very little to the
equivalent height to 16 electron equivalent relative noise output of the tube. The high .
heights is 4 x 104 counts per minute. gain of the photomultiplier permits the use
Analytical Model of Noise and Signal-to- of a relatively small load resistance (R)
Noise Ratio-Consider the lower limit of without deterioration of the photomultiplier
light detection capability of a photomulti- signal-to-noise ratio by the Johnson thermal
plier as determined by the fluctuation in the noise of the load resistance. The small load
thermionic dark emission. If the dark emis- resistance permits an operation of the photo-
sion current from the photocathode is id, the multiplier with the very high bandwidths in-
rms shot noise associated with this current is herent in the photomultiplier design. A large
given by load resistance shunted by the finite tube and
. lead capacitance would otherwise seriously
(16) limit the effective bandwidth of the system.

60
Photomultiplier Characteristics

In order to maintain the fundamental tion and cable used in pulse applica-
signal-to-noise capability of the photomulti- tions-the two noise sources are about
plier, the Johnson noise of the load resis- equal. Therefore, at this point in the exam-
tance must be less than the photomultiplier ple chosen there is some, but not a serious,
output noise. Johnson noise (rms) is given by reduction of signal-to-noise ratio.
Noise in Signal. When the photocathode
current representing the signal is larger than
the photocathode dark emission, the domi-
where k is Boltzmann’s constant and T is the nant noise is the noise in the signal. For a
temperature in Kelvin units. In order to com- photocathode signal current, is, the anode
pare this noise with the photomultiplier out- signal current Is, is given by
put noise we may convert it to an equivalent .
current noise by dividing by the load resis- (21)
tance:
and, paralleling equation 18, the anode rms
I (20) noise current associated with the signal cur-
rent is given by
Fig. 66 illustrates the relative magnitudes
I rms (22)
But, one must consider both the dark emis-
sion noise and the noise in the signal current.
Because there is no correlation between the
two sources, the noises may be added by
summing their squares, or for total rms noise
current:

(23)
An expression for the signal-to-noise ratio
may now be written:*

iS
SNR =
Fig. 66 - Comparison of the magnitudes of
Johnson noise in the load resistance and of
the output photomultiplier dark noise, both in Fig. 67 illustrates the variation of signal-
units of rms amperes per square root hertz. to-noise according to equation 24 as a func-
For the case illustrated, both sources of tion of bandwidth and photocathode signal
noise are equal for a load resistance of 50 current. The cathode dark emission is as-
ohms. sumed to be 10 - 15 ampere. For signal cur-
rents less than the dark emission, the dark
noise is the limit to the signal-to-noise ratio.
In this case, a narrow bandwidth is a require-
ment for detection. When dark noise is the
limit to detection, it is useful to reduce dark
emission by cooling. At wider bandwidths
and higher photocathode signal levels, the
limit to the signal-to-noise ratio is in the
*In this discussion, the signal is treated as though it were
dc. In an actual application, the signal may be
modulated and signal-to-noise figures would involve the
rms value of the modulated signal. Note also that the
noise calculation neglects the factor by which the noise
is increased by the secondary emission statistics.

61
Photomultiplier Handbook

noise of the signal so that cooling would not terms used in these time characterizations
be advantageous. In Fig. 67, it has been as- are defined below. In these definitions it is
sumed that the load resistance is sufficient assumed that the photomultiplier is activated
(greater than 50 ohms) so that Johnson noise with a delta-function light pulse. Fig. 68 il-
is not a factor. lustrates the definitions of some of the more
In applying these signal-to-noise concepts common terms. *
to an actual case, the photocathode dark
current may differ greatly from the 10- 15
ampere figure assumed. (See the data, Fig.
16.) The photocathode signal currents may
be calculated from a knowledge of the pho-
tocathode responsivity as published in a tube
data sheet. For example, a photocathode
may have a responsivity of 160 micro-
amperes per lumen for tungsten irradiation,
or 70 milliamperes per watt at the wave-
length of maximum responsivity (i.e., 420
nanometers). A photocathode current of 1
femtoampere would then correspond to

10-15/70x 10-3= 1.43x 10-14 watt flux


incident on the photocathode. Fig. 68 - The various time relationships in a
photomultiplier output pulse, assuming a
delta excitation function. Illustrated are tran-
sit time, rise time, fall time, and full width at
half maximum (FWHM).

Transit time† “is the mean time difference


between the incidence of the light upon the
photocathode (full illumination) and the oc-
currence of the half-amplitude point on the
output-pulse leading edge.”
Rise time “is the mean time difference be-
tween the 10- and 90-percent amplitude
points on the output waveform for full
cathode illumination and delta-function ex-
citation.”
Fall time “is the mean time difference be-
tween the 90- and 10-percent amplitude
points on the trailing edge of the output-
pulse waveform for full cathode illumination
and delta-function excitation.”
TIME EFFECTS
Terminology †This definition differs from the definition appearing in
Photomultiplier tubes may be character- the IEEE Standard Dictionary of Electrical and Elec-
tronics Terms (ANSI/IEEE Std. 100-1977: “The time
ized for time response in various ways. The
interval between the arrival of a delta-function light
pulse at the entrance window of the tube and the time at
*These definitions follow the standards appearing in which the output pulse at the anode terminal reaches
“IEEE Standard Test Procedures for Photomultipliers peak amplitude.”). This latter definition is closer to the
for Scintillation Counting and Glossary for Scintillation actual transit time which might be defined to the
Counting Field.” ANSI N 42.9 - 1972; IEEE Std 398 average time of arrival of the electrons at the output.
-1972. Published by The Institute of Electrical and Elec- However, the definition given to the half-amplitude
tronics Engineers, Inc., 345 East 47 St., New York, point may be more useful in an application where the
N.Y. 10017. half-amplitude point is used for timing purposes.

62
Photomultiplier Characteristics

Full-width-at-half-maximum (FWHM) is tipliers with large photocathode areas. The


the mean elapsed time between the half- large photocathode necessitates a fairly long
amplitude points on the output waveform path to the first dynode to provide good
for full cathode illumination and delta- photoelectron collection from the entire
function excitation. photocathode.
Delta-function light pulses. In tests related
to time characterization of photomultiplier
tubes it is useful to have light pulse sources
available which approach characterization as
a delta-function pulse. A delta-function
pulse is one whose duration is significantly
shorter than that of the output pulse to be
measured. It approaches the mathematical
concept of a function whose area is finite but
whose width approaches zero.
Various light sources have been used to
generate delta-function pulses for time-
testing of photomultipliers.
A reverse-biased light-emitting diode (Fer-
ranti type XP-23) has been used by
Leskovar75 to obtain light pulse widths of as
short as 200 ps. Mercury-wetted relay spark SUPPLY KILOVOLTS BETWEEN
sources have also been used and have pro- ANODE AND CATHODE
92CS-32406
vided pulses having rise times of 500 ps.
Pulses of radiation having a duration of 50 Fig. 69 - Transit time as a function of the
ps or less can be obtained with a mode- square foot of reciprocal applied voltage for a
locked Nd:YAG laser. The laser wavelength type 8053 photomultiplier tube.

radiation at 532 nm by means of a nonlinear


crystal. Random pulses can be produced
with fast scintillators. A rise time of 400 ps
can be obtained for Naton 136 and a 60 Co
source.81

Transit Time
Transit Time is expected to increase as the
inverse half power of the applied voltage,
provided the effects of initial velocities and
secondary-emission delay are negligible. Fig.
69 shows the transit time measurements for
an 8053 photomultiplier plotted so as to
display the reciprocal square root voltage
relationship. The intercept of the line on the
time axis is probably due to the distortion of
the simple relationship by the magnitude of
the initial secondary emission velocities.
Fig. 70 shows the transit times for a Fig, 70 - Transit time as a function of supply
number of photomultiplier tubes plotted voltage (log scales) for a number of photomul-
over a range of operating voltages. The tiplier tubes.
larger part of the transit time is just the ac-
cumulation of times for electrons to traverse Photo- and secondary-emission times may
from stage to stage. Usually, the time for the be as short as 10 ps, although for negative-
photocathode-to-first-dynode transit is the electron-affinity (NEA) materials, the times
largest component, especially for photomul- may be as long as 100 ps. One reason for the

63
PhotomultiplIer Handbook

high performance of NEA materials is that Pulse Width


long diffusion paths for electrons are ob- The width of the output pulse is deter-
tained. Although this increase in diffusion mined by the variation in transit time
path length also increases the emission time, through the secondary emission chain of the
emission time is not a significant part of the photomultiplier. The variations arise be-
transit time in most commercial photomulti- cause of variations in emission energies and
pliers. In general, the transit time of a photo- directions of the secondary electrons as
multiplier is not as important as its rise time related to the tube structure. The measure-
or as variations in the transit time which ment of pulse width is generally the full
would cause uncertainty in time measure- width at half maximum. The output pulse
ments made with the photomultiplier. A width follows the inverse half power of the
fixed delay time is easily compensated for by applied voltage as does the average transit
circuit design. time. Fig. 72 illustrates the pulse width
Rise Time (FWHM) for an 8053. For timing experi-
ments, it is generally desirable to have a nar-
Fig. 71 shows the rise time-from the 10 row pulse width for good timing precision
capability.

Fig. 71 - Anode-pulse rise times as a func-


tion of anode-to-cathode applied voltage (log
scales) for a number of photomultipliers.

to 90% amplitude points-for a number of KILOVOLTS 92CS-32409


photomultipliers plotted over a range of Fig. 72 - Pulse width (full width at half max-
typical operating voltages. No correction imum) for a type 8053 as a function of the in-
was made for the finite rise time of the light verse half power of the applied voltage.
pulse and measuring equipment, which is
estimated to be of the order of 0.8 ns. In us-
ing photomultipliers for high-resolution- Pulse Jitter (Time Resolution)
time spectroscopy, the ideal point on the Although pulse timing is done on the ris-
output pulse to use as an indicator would be ing characteristic of the output pulse and is
at the half maximum of the rising character- more precise for a fast rise time, the ultimate
istic. The rising characteristic is generally limit to time measurement is the variation in
faster than the fall and thus provides the pulse timing, or pulse jitter. Suppose single
highest precision in timing. However, photoelectrons initiate pulses. Variations in
because output pulse heights vary, a fixed transit time of photoelectrons to the first
discriminator level results in a loss of preci- dynode will occur because of variations in
sion. When a fixed discriminator level is the initial velocity and electric field resulting
used, the highest precision is obtained by use from the electrode geometry. The same con-
of a discriminator level between 10 and 20% siderations apply to the secondary electrons.
of maximum. A superior method is the use If a number of pulses initiated by single elec-
of a constant fraction of the pulse height as a trons are observed, a histogram can be devel-
trigger .76 oped showing the number of pulses having a

64
Photomultiplier Characteristics

given transit-time difference. Such a histo- Data on time resolution for single photo-
gram, measured by Birk, Kerns, and electrons for a variety of photomultipliers
Tusting,77 is shown in Fig. 73. The time of are given in Table IV. Values are given for
each pulse was measured by using the full photocathode illumination as well as for
leading-edge half-height point. The full illumination at the center point. The time
width at half maximum of this distribution is spread for full photocathode illumination is
about 360 ps and is a measure of the time larger than for a single point because it in-
resolution capability of this particular tube. cludes the difference in transit time from the
photocathode to the first dynode for dif-
ferent photocathode locations.

TRANSIT TIME DIFFERENCE - ns


92CS-32410

Fig. 73 - Histogram of transit-time difference


for single-photoelectron pulses from an RCA
developmental type photomultiplier. (From
Birk, Kerns, and Tusting77.) 92CS-32411

Fig. 74 - Time resolution of a microchannel-


If a number, N, of simultaneous photo- plate photomultiplier as a function of the
electrons is emitted, the pulse jitter is re- number of photoelectrons per pulse, mea-
duced by the square root of N, simply by the sured with light pulse width of 2.6 ns, for full
statistical averaging process. This relation- photocathode illumination. Data are from
ship has been demonstrated by Leskovar and Leskovar and LO75 The dashed line showing
Lo75 for a microchannel-plate photomulti- the inverse square root relationship has been
plier as shown in Fig. 74. added.

Table IV - Time Resolution (FWHM)* for Single Photoelectrons for Various Photomultipliers

65
Photomultiplier Handbook

The improvement of the 8852 over the time of flight for the over-all tube is given by
8575 is the result of the use of the high-gain
first dynode. The difference between the (27)
8850 and the 8852 may be due to the larger
photoelectron emission energies of the multi- Eq. 27 refers to the variance of the centroid
alkali photocathode. The poorer time resolu- of the output pulse from a single photoelec-
tion of the 8854 is caused by the very large tron input. If timing is done by a point on
cathode area and the consequent reduced the rising characteristic, an additional time
electric field strengths and increased path variance might be included, that for the
lengths. variation in pulse width. Gatti and Svelto81
A general treatment of single photoelec- have shown that this term would add a
tron detection and timing has been provided negligible amount to the variance as given by
Eq. 27.
tion for a photomultiplier is very similar to
that for noise in a photomultiplier as given in PULSE COUNTING
Appendix G. Variations in transit time in the One effective way to use a photomultiplier
early stages of the photomultiplier are most for measuring very weak signals is to detect
important to the over-all time resolution. and count pulses resulting from single
The large number of electrons in the latter photoelectrons-sometimes referred to as
stages bring about an averaging process “photon counting”. (Actually, the highest
which reduces the time variation. quantum efficiencies for photocathodes are
Summary of Time-Resolution Statistics such that at best one in every three photons
would be detected, assuming a spectral
The summary of time resolution statistics match to the peak quantumefficiency
below follows the work of Gatti and wavelength.) Counting of single electrons
assumes that the rate of arrival of photons is
If the secondary emission of each stage is such that it would be unusual for more than
one photoelectron to be emitted in a time
electron flight times including all of n stages equivalent to the output pulse width for a
is given by single electron input to the multiplier.
Single-electron pulse counting is an impor-
tant technique in applications such as
Raman spectroscopy, astronomical photom-
etry, and bio-luminescent measurements.
counting has an advantage equivalent to a
variance of the flight time from the ith factor of 1.2 in quantum efficiency over
dynode to the (i + 1)th dynode. The last current-measurement techniques.
term represents the variance in flight time
from the last dynode to the anode. This ex- Output Pulse Height Distribution
pression is actually a simplification because An important consideration in photon
of the induction effect of the electrons in counting is the distribution of pulse heights
flight between the last stage and anode. at the output of the photomultiplier. Statis-
tics of the variation in pulse heights for
is negligible. If n is large and the variances of single electron inputs is discussed in Appen-
flight times for each stage are assumed to be dix G. (See Fig. G-6). Pulse height distribu-
tions are obtained with a multichannel pulse-
follows: height analyzer. Fig. 75 shows (1) a differen-
tial pulse-height distribution in which the
(26) number of pulses in a given time interval and
in a given channel (between height, h and h
When variations in secondary emission are
taken into account, assuming all stages have an integral pulse-height distribution in which
the total number of pulses occurring in the
a Poisson distribution, the total variance in given time interval with a height of h or

66
Photomultiplier Characteristics

greater is plotted.83 Also shown on the necessary to measure the count in the dark
graph is a rectangle whose intercept on the and to subtract the rates to obtain that due
abscissa is the equivalent of the output pulse to the light alone. The optimum time which
associated with one photoelectron and an should be spent on each measurement is
average photomultiplier gain of G. The rec- discussed in Appendix G-see for example,
tangle is determined by setting its height Eq. G-103. If the signal count is much less
equal to the intercept of the integral-pulse- than the dark count, however, about equal
height distribution curve on the ordinate times should be spent on both measure-
axis, and by setting the area of the rectangle ments. At higher signal levels, more time
equal to the area under the integral-pulse- should be spent on the signal count.
height curve. This area is equal to the total
charge of all the pulses counted: the total Copper-Beryllium Dynodes
number of pulses multiplied by the average Differential pulse-height distributions are
multiplier gain and the charge of one elec- shown in Fig. 76 on a developmental photo-
tron. This equality may be demonstrated by
integrating the integral-pulse-height curve
along the ordinate axis and comparing the
result with the integral of the product of the
differential pulse-height-distribution or-
dinate (number of pulses) and the abscissa
value (pulse height or charge associated).
The pulse-height resolution for single elec-
trons in this case is FWHM = 1.6 electron
equivalents. Note that the data of Fig. 75
-LIGHT
FOR

PULSE HEIGHT -ARBITRARY UNITS


92cs-32413

Fig. 76 - Differential pulse-height distributions


obtained with type Dev. No. C-70101B. (Simi-
lar to type 8575, but having an S-20 response.
From R. M. Matheson84.)
92CS-32412
multiplier having copper-beryllium dynodes.
Fig. 75 - Single electron (1) differential and (2)
integral pulse-height distribution curves. Type Note that the dark pulse-height distribution
4501, photocathode K2CsSb, counting time 10 does not show a peak representing single
minutes (from G. A. MortonB3). Different scales electrons. The probable explanation is that
for (1) and (2). dark emission originates not only from the
photocathode, but from the dynodes as well.
were taken on a tube, 4501, that has copper- Electrons originating from the first dynode
beryllium dynodes and a modest secondary- would show a distribution similar to that of
emission gain. The pulse-height resolution the photoelectrons, but with a pulse height
for single electrons in the case of gallium- lower by the secondary-emission ratio of the
phosphide dynodes is much better, as will be first dynode. Pulse-height distributions also
discussed below. usually show an extended foot, as in Fig. 76,
When a very low light flux is measured by for heights greater than 7 on the figure’s ar-
the pulse-counting technique, it is also bitrary scale. These counts represent pulses

67
Photomultiplier Handbook

of more than one electron per pulse and are are much improved. Consequently, such
probably caused by secondary mechanisms tubes are particularly advantageous for
such as ion feedback, scintillations in the single-electron pulse counting. The improve-
glass envelope initiated by cosmic rays or by ment in multiplication is demonstrated by
radioactive traces in the glass or in the tube the differential pulse-height distribution for
environment. Note that the numbers of these single electrons shown in Fig. 78. Note the
large pulses are usually several orders of
magnitude less than the numbers in the
single-electron distribution. When a single-
electron integral count is made, the upper
discriminator level could be set to exclude
these larger pulses.
In setting the lower level of the
discriminator, an optimum level is deter-
mined by the different character of the light
shown that the minimum error in deter-
mining the signal pulse count is obtained by
adjusting the lower-level discriminator set-
ting so that for an integral count distribution

(28)

where Ns represents the number of signal


pulses counted and Nd represents the
number of dark pulses counted. In Fig. 77,
the value of the pulse height that satisfies the
relation shown in Eq. 28, is given by hl.

PULSE HEIGHT-PHOTOELECTRON EQUIVALENTS

92CS-32415

Fig. 78 - Resolution of a single electron peak


having a measured FWHM of 63%. The first
dynode is GaP:Cs. (Data from Morton, Smith,

improvement in resolution as compared with


that of Figs. 75 or 76. When the intensity of
the light flashes is increased, a pulse-height
spectrum such as illustrated in Fig. 79
results, again for a GaP:Cs first dynode. In
3 this case the light level has been adjusted so
that the peak counts are nearly equal for
Fig. 77 - Single electron response (I) and dark one, two, and three electron pulses. The
pulse distribution (2) of tube type 4501 for small pulse distribution to the left of the
counting time of 10 minutes; integral distribu- single-electron peak distribution is probably
tion curves. h 1 and h are discriminator set-
2 an artifact caused by equipment noise at the
tings (From G. A. MortonB3). lower channel settings.
Peak-to-Valley Ratio
Gallium-Phosphide Dynodes Another important consideration for a
For tubes having the high-gain GaP:Cs photomultiplier used in pulse counting is the
first dynodes, the statistics of multiplication peak-to-valley ratio. Referring to Fig. 79,

68
Photomultiplier Characteristics

for single electrons, the peak-to-valley ratio


is the value of the peak of the single-electron
distribution divided by the minimum value
of the count distribution between the first
and second peaks-in this case a ratio of
about 2.3.

92CS-32417

taken with a NaI:Tl crystal and a two-inch


“teacup” photomultiplier (type 4902).

Pulse-height resolution is illustrated for full


Fig. 79 - Pulse-height spectrum showing width at half maximum. The peak at the ex-
peaks corresponding to one, two, and up to treme left is the barium K X-ray peak at 32
five electrons. The first dynode is GaP:Cs. keV. The region between the two peaks is the
result of Compton scattering.
From Appendix G, Eq. G-111, the pulse-
SCINTILLATION COUNTING height resolution is given by
Pulse Magnitude
In scintillation counting, the problems are
similar to those of counting single photoelec-
trons but the numbers of equivalent photo-
electrons per pulse can vary from a few to a The following values may be assumed:
fairly large number. For example, in the case
of a soft-beta emitter, using a coincidence
liquid scintillation counter (for an un- mc = number of photons corresponding to
quenched standard, PPO and POPOP in
toluene), the total number of photoelectrons = variance in the number of photons
developed in the pair of photomultipliers per photopeak pulse
imately 2.5 per keV of beta-ray energy. For the case illustrated in Fig. 80, the
Because dark noise from single electrons can FWHM = 7.17%. Substituting the above
be effectively discriminated against by using
coincidence techniques, a relatively efficient 325,000. The FWHM related to the crystal
count of low-energy beta emission can be statistics alone is 6.33%. The FWHM related
made. On the other hand, in the case of a to the photomultiplier alone is 3.37%.
NaI:Tl crystal coupled to a photomultiplier
having a K2CsSb photocathode, the number
of photoelectrons developed is approximate- Fig. 81 shows a pulse-height distribution
ly 8 per keV of gamma-ray energy. Thus, for
the isotope energy of 5.9 keV. Note that for this spec-
energy is 662 keV, the pulse height would be trum, the FWHM is approximately 40%.
the equivalent of 5300 photoelectrons. Following the same type of analysis as used
above to evaluate the relative contributions
Isotope 137Cs Sources
Fig. 80 shows the pulse-height distribution for the photomultiplier alone is 36% and for
the scintillator, 18%.

69
Photomultiplier Handbook

Narayan and Prescott86 have presented figuration so that all or nearly all of the
data illustrating a trend in which the photo- emitted photoelectrons effectively impact
multiplier statistics dominate the pulse- the first dynode. The statistics of secondary
height resolution at low gamma-ray energies emission, especially in the first stage, also af-
and the scintillator statistics dominate at fect the ultimate resolution. It is desirable,
high gamma-ray energies. This trend is il- therefore, to provide a fairly high secondary-
lustrated in the above analysis of the data in emission yield either by the nature of the
Figs. 80 and 81. dynode surface material or by applying a
rather high voltage between the photocath-
ode and the first dynode. Finally, it is
generally advantageous that the photoemis-
sion be uniform across the photocathode
and that a uniform collection of all the
photoelectrons be provided. This latter
characteristic is particularly important in the
case of thin scintillators where the light from
a scintillation is more localized on the
photocathode than it would be for thicker
scintillators. Light pipes may be used to im-
prove the uniformity of light on the
photocathode and therefore improve the
pulse-height resolution in the case of thin
scintillators. For a crystal whose length is
comparable to its diameter, the output light-
flux distribution is generally uniform so that
photocathode uniformity becomes statisti-
I I I I cally less significant.
Peak-to-Valley Ratio
As in pulse-counting applications, another
Fig. 81 - Pulse-height distribution for 5sFe way of classifying the performance of photo-
taken with type 8850 photomultiplier and multipliers in scintillation counters is by the
Nal:TI crystal. peak-to-valley ratio of the distribution. This
way is illustrated in Fig. 81. The peak will be
As the gamma ray energy is increased, of higher, of course, if the resolution of the
course, the relative pulse-height resolution tube is better. Good resolution also results in
attributable to the photomultiplier decreases a lower valley point before the pulse-height
as the square root of the number of photo- distribution increases on the low energy side
electrons per pulse or as the square root of as a result of photomultiplier dark current.
the gamma ray energy. The relative pulse- The peak-to-valley ratio is a particularly
height resolution attributable to the crystal valuable parameter for measurements with
also decreases with gamma ray energy, but sources characterized by low emission
not as rapidly. The light-pulse statistics of energy.
the crystal also varies from crystal to crystal. Plateau Concept
Key Photomultiplier Characteristics for A plateau curve for a scintillation counter
Good Pulse-Height Resolution is illustrated in Fig. 82. The curve is devel-
Several characteristics of a photomulti- oped by using a source such as 137Cs and
plier tube determine its suitability for obtain- counting all pulses higher than a fixed
ing good pulse-height resolution. Of prime discriminator level. The total counts are then
importance is the quantum efficiency of the plotted as a function of the photomultiplier
photocathode, especially as it matches the voltage. The development of the curve in
generally blue spectrum of scintillators. Fig. 82 may be understood by referring to
Secondly, of course, the photomultiplier the pulse-height distribution curve of Fig.
must have a suitable electron-optical con- 80. At the lowest value of photomultiplier

70
Photomultiplier Characteristics

voltage, the pulse heights are less than the plateau would also be shorter as the number
equivalent of the discriminator setting. As of stages is increased.
the voltage is increased, the discriminator Photomultiplier plateau is of particular in-
setting moves in effect from right to left on terest in the application to oil-well logging.
Fig. 80. The rising portion of Fig. 82 then A rather intense gamma-ray source such as
corresponds to the discriminator moving 137Cs is mounted in the sonde near the
through the photopeak, through the Comp- photomultiplier and crystal assembly, but
ton scattering region of the distribution, and shielded from it. The gamma-rays result in
through the barium X-ray peak. The plateau Compton scattering in the materials near the
corresponds to the dark background87 of the probe. The scattered radiation is detected
photomultiplier which would appear at the and measured with an integral count with the
extreme left of Fig. 80 except for the discriminator set to correspond to a point on
scale-the barium X-ray peak at 32 keV cor- the plateau so that essentially all of the in-
responds to about 250 photoelectrons. The tercepted radiation is counted. As the depth
dark background pulse distribution of a of the measurement in the drill hole in-
photomultiplier is shown in Fig. 76. As the creases, the temperature does also. It is,
voltage on the photomultiplier is increased, therefore, important that the counting char-
the dark current of the tube increases be- acteristic of the scintillation detector be
cause various regenerative effects increase, essentially independent of temperature. But,
and the plateau is terminated at the upper as the temperature increases, both the dark
end of Fig. 82. background count and the instability of the
photomultiplier increases and, as a result,
the length of the plateau decreases. Fig. 83 il-

PHOTOMULTlPLlER VOLTAGE-VOLTS
92CS-32419
92cs-32420
Fig. 82 - Typical plateau is defined as por- Fig. 83 - Plateau characteristics at room
tion of integral-bias characteristic in which temperature and at 150 °C for a photomulti-
change of counting rate per 100-volt interval plier having a Na2KSb photocathode. The
is less than a selected value (Engstrom and photomultiplier’s principal application is in
Weaver87). oil-well-logging.
The concept of utilizing a plateau charac-
teristic probably stemmed from the plateau lustrates plateau characteristics taken at
of Geiger-Muller tubes. In the case of photo- 22°C and 150°C for a photomultiplier
multipliers, the length of the plateau is deter- having a Na2KSb photocathode. The curves
mined by the stability of the tube at high indicate a range of photomultiplier voltage
gain (a minimum of regenerative effects) and that would be satisfactory for this range of
by the characteristic variation of gain with temperature.
voltage. That is, a tube having Cs-Sb In scintillation counting applications
dynodes would generally have a shorter where gamma-ray energy resolution is im-
plateau than one having Cu-Be dynodes portant, the plateau concept is not par-
simply because of the more rapid increase in ticularly applicable. Direct measurement of
gain with voltage for the Cs-Sb dynodes. The pulse-height resolution would be more use-

71
Photomultiplier Handbook

ful. But in special applications such as the A block diagram of a liquid-scintillation


oil-well logging, the plateau characterizes the spectrometer is shown in Fig. 85. If a photo-
useful range of operating voltage. multiplier having a fast time characteristic is
used in the spectrometer, the coincidence
resolving time may be as small as 10 nano-
LIQUID SCINTILLATION COUNTING seconds.
Liquid scintillators are most commonly
used for the evaluation of low-energy beta
emitters because of the generally short range
of beta particles and the need to provide an
intimate contact between the source and the
scintillator .88,89 There are numerous fluors
or solutes which may be used, such as PPO
(2,5 diphenyloxazole). A common solvent is
toluene which must be miscible with the li-
quid radioactive sample. The emission of the
typical liquid scintillator is in the near ultra-
violet and blue spectrum so that a photomul-
tiplier having a “bialkali” photocathode
(K2CsSb) provides a good spectral match.
Counting Techniques
When liquid-scintillation counting was
first introduced, the technique involved the
use of a single photomultiplier to observe the
liquid scintillator . Because of the low
energies involved and the need to measure
samples of relatively low activity, the
background count of the photomultiplier
was a severe limitation. An improved ap-
proach is the use of a pair of photomultiplier Fig. 84 - Pulse-height spectrum representing
tubes facing a common scintillator chamber. the beta energy for tritium (18.6 keV max-
Because of the number of photons involved imum) from a liquid-scintillation counter.
when a scintillation occurs in the sample, it is Maximum and minimum discriminator levels
are indicated (From E.D. Bransome88).
quite likely that both photomultipliers will
sense the flash, thus permitting the use of
coincidence circuitry. Events that initiate
background counts in one photomultiplier
are only infrequently coincident with those
in the second tube and so a high degree of
discrimination against background counts is
possible.
The three most commonly used radioiso-
topes in liquid-scintillation counting are
tritium, 3H; carbon, 14C; and phosphorus,
32P. The beta-ray energies from these radio-
isotopes may vary over a fairly broad range;
for example, 3H emits betas having energies
varying from zero to a maximum of 18.6
keV. Maximum beta-ray energies for 14C
and 32P are 156 keV and 1.71 MeV respec-
tively. Fig. 84 illustrates the distribution of 92cs-32422
pulse heights (which are proportional to
energy) for tritium. (The average energy is Fig. 85 - Block diagram of a liquid-scintilla-
about 6 keV.) tion spectrometer.

72
Photomultiplier Characteristics

Counter Efficiency coincident. The coincident rate may be


A conventional figure of merit for a liquid predicted by the following equation:
scintillation coincidence counter is the ratio,
E2/B, where E is the counting efficiency ex- (29)
pressed in per cent, and B is the number of
background coincident counts per minute.
The efficiency, E, is measured utilizing a where C is the chance coincidence rate per
standard sample whose disintegration rate is minute, N1 is the dark-noise count rate in
known. The recorded count rate is compared counts per minute from tube No. 1, N2 is the
with that of the standard, taking into ac- dark-noise count rate in counts per minute
count the exponential decay in the disinte-
gration rate. The background count value, of the coincidence circuit in seconds. In a
B, is measured by utilizing a blank sample of liquid-scintillation spectrometer employing
the scintillator . two tubes each having dark-noise rates of
Note that E2/B is proportional to the 30,000 counts per minute each and a coin-
square of a signal-to-noise figure for the cidence circuit having a resolving time of 10
system. Thus, the efficiency E is propor- nanoseconds, the number of accidental coin-
tional to the signal; and the square root of B cidences is approximately 0.3 count per
is the expected standard deviation in the minute.
statistical count. Another source of background count is
Efficiencies of the scintillators and the cross talk between the two photomultipliers
photomultipliers in liquid-scintillation- as a result of light flashes in one tube which
counting equipment (using the most efficient are sensed by the other.
liquid scintillator and photocathodes) are Cosmic rays and other natural radiation
such that about 2.5 photoelectrons are emit- can result in flashes in the scintillator or
ted per keV of energy of the beta ray. The possibly in the photomultiplier envelope.
best counting efficiency for a given radioiso- Shielding the equipment with lead can
tope is obtained when a highly efficient scin- reduce the background from these sources.
tillator and a photomultiplier having a high However, the photomultipliers themselves
quantum efficiency in the spectral emissivity also contain radioactive isotopes. A com-
range of the scintillator are used. The optical mon contaminant is 40K, a naturally oc-
system containing the two photomultipliers curring isotope of potassium (0.1 %), that is
and the counting vial is also of major impor- present in many glasses. Photomultipliers
tance. The system should be designed so designed for use in liquid-scintillation
that, as far as possible, the photons pro- counters may utilize quartz face plates or
duced in a scintillation are equally divided thin face plates of a glass having a minimum
between the photomultipliers. This division potassium content and with a low yield of
assures that a coincidence pulse results from scintillations from gamma rays.
as many scintillations as possible. In some When a vial filled only with a scintillator is
cases two or more different isotopes may be placed between the photomultipliers, and the
counted simultaneously. It is desirable, output from the coincidence circuit is ex-
therefore, that the photomultipliers have amined by use of a multichannel analyzer, a
matched gains and good energy (pulse- pulse-height distribution such as that shown
height) resolution capability to provide best in Fig. 86 is obtained. Clearly, not many of
isotope separation. A typical value for E is the background pulses shown are caused by
about 60%. Quantum efficiency of the the accidental coincidences of dark-noise
bialkali photocathode for the scintillation pulses from the photomultipliers, but are
radiation is approximately 25 %. caused by cosmic rays of scintillations in the
material of the vial and photomultiplier
Sources of Background Counts envelope resulting from the presence of
There are various sources of the coin- radioisotopes in the materials of which they
cident background counts. One source is the are constructed.
random dark-noise pulses in each of the two Typical values for B, the number of
photomultipliers which are occasionally background counts, in coincidence liquid-

73
Photomultlpller Handbook

scintillation counters are in the range 15 to ronmental limitations or to means for op-
20 counts per minute, and E2/B values are timizing performance under adverse condi-
typically in the range 150 to 250 for tritium. tions.
Temperature
The maximum temperature to which a
photomultiplier should be exposed during
either operation or storage is determined
primarily by the characteristics of the photo-
cathode. Temperature ratings vary with tube
type depending upon the particular photo-
cathode. For a specific type, its published
data should be consulted. In general, how-
ever, a temperature of 75 °C should not be
exceeded. Excessive exposure to higher
temperatures will alter the delicate balance
of chemicals of the photocathode and result
in a loss of responsivity and/or a shift in
92CS - 32423
spectral response. Another reason for
avoiding operation of photomultipliers at
Fig. 86 - Background distribution obtained elevated temperatures is that it causes an in-
from a liquid scintillator using a coincidence
system. crease in the dark current. (See Fig. 16.)
There are also hazards in cooling photo-
multiplier tubes to reduce the dark emission
Photomultiplier Selection for from the photocathode. Rapid cooling
Liquid Scintillators should be avoided to minimize thermal
The E2/B figure of merit is, however, not shock which could result in cracking of the
necessarily the best way of evaluating all bulb or stem. Temperatures below - 50°C
systems. It is valid at very low counting rates should be avoided because the difference in
where the background count is the dominant expansion between the glass and the base
factor, but is not of great help at high- material could result in cracking of the glass.
counting rates where the background count This hazard is also present for photomulti-
of the system becomes less important than plier tubes having metal envelopes or for
the efficiency in determining the merit of the tubes having stiff lead glass stems when
system. socketed in a material of different expansion
In selecting a photomultiplier tube for a coefficient.
liquid-scintillation application, the following In the cooling of photomultiplier tubes
items are of major importance: high photo- care must also be taken to avoid moisture
cathode quantum efficiency, low dark-noise condensation. One method is to provide a
count rate, minimum internal-light genera- dry atmosphere for the tube and, especially,
tion, low scintillation-efficiency envelope, its base and socket. Another method is to
fast time response, and good energy resolu- cover the critical areas of the tube with a
tion. The 4501V3 photomultiplier has been silicone rubber such as General Electric
specifically designed to meet these require- RTV-11. The tube should first be cleaned
ments. and then primed (4004 primer for RTV-11)
before the silicone rubber coating is applied.
ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS Differential cooling in which only the pho-
Although photomultiplier tubes are not tocathode end of the tube is cooled is not
overly sensitive to their environment and can recommended. This practice may result in
be handled without exercising undue cau- loss of photocathode sensitivity because of
tion, there are various considerations the the vapor transport of alkali metals from the
user should be aware of in order to maximize dynodes to the photocathode.
tube life, avoid permanent damage, and pro-
vide the optimum performance. This section Voltage
provides guidance relating to specific envi- The published data for photomultiplier

74
Photomultlpller Characteristics

tubes contain information on the maximum Light Level


supply voltage as well as information on the It is generally advisable to store photomul-
specific maxima for voltages between adja- tiplier tubes in the dark and to avoid ex-
cent electrodes such as between dynode No. cessive exposure of the tubes to any light rich
1 and the photocathode. Too high a voltage in blue or ultraviolet such as that from fluor-
between closely spaced electrodes can result escent lamps or sunlight. Exposure of the
in electrical breakdown, particularly across photocathode to such radiation will general-
insulator surfaces. The over-all tube voltage ly cause a very substantial increase in the
maximum is determined by considerations of dark current originating from the photocath-
the maximum gain which a tube can tolerate. ode. Complete recovery from this effect may
Depending upon the construction of the take as long as several days. See Fig. 47. Ex-
photomultiplier, at some gain in excess of posure of the photocathode to sunlight even
107 or 10 8, there may be sufficient feed- though no voltage is being applied may also
back-perhaps by light generated in the out- result in photocathode response changes
put section of the tube-to result in a sus- such as loss of infrared response in a tube
tained electrical current. This current having a multialkali photocathode.
breakdown, if sufficiently large, can per- Before a photomultiplier tube is used for
manently damage the tube by causing an in- critical low-light-level measurements, it is
crease in the dark current and a decrease in recommended that it be aged for a period of
responsivity . 24 hours in the dark with voltage applied.
Ground potential and shielding of the This precaution is particularly recommended
photomultiplier can also be a problem. In after a long period of idleness even if the
order to minimize regenerative effects it is tube has not been exposed to ambient
generally recommended that the wall of the lighting.
photomultiplier envelope be maintained at a When the photomultiplier has the ap-
potential at or near cathode potential. This propriate voltage applied, it is of course pru-
recommendation offers no problem in a cir- dent to avoid any excessive light exposure.
cuit in which the cathode is at ground poten- Particularly, if the voltage divider has a
tial. But when the anode is at ground poten- substantial current flow, an excessive current
tial, it may be advisable for safety reasons to may flow in the photomultiplier which could
provide a double shield: the inner shield at result in loss of gain and an increase in dark
cathode potential, surrounded by an in- current. Photomultiplier data sheets gener-
sulator, and an outer shield at ground poten- ally contain ratings of the maximum anode
tial. The inner shield should be maintained current which may be drawn.
at cathode potential through a high resis- Some semitransparent photocathodes are
tance (usually 5 to 10 megohms) to avoid very resistive. See Fig. 36. Even though the
hazard through accidental contact or light flux on the photocathode may be
breakdown of the insulation. relatively small, it is possible that the drop in
It is strongly recommended that no dif- voltage across the photocathode between the
ference of potential be maintained between electrical contact and the light spot may in-
the semitransparent photocathode layer of a hibit the photoelectron current flow and
photomultiplier and its outer glass faceplate. cause a non-linear behavior that could upset
A potential on the outside of the glass that is careful measurements.
positive with respect to that of the photo- When measurements are made at very low
cathode can result in damage to the photo- light levels, it is important that the tube be
cathode by ionic transport through the glass totally shielded from unwanted stray light to
faceplate.69 (See section on “Shielding” avoid an increase in background noise out-
earlier in this Chapter.) put. A person’s photopic vision is not a good
In supplying the tube voltage by means of judge of the presence of light leakage that
a resistive voltage divider, care must be the photomultiplier might sense readily. For
taken to avoid physical contact between any example, light may leak through an open-
of the resistors. Such contact can cause ended coaxial cable connector such as BNC
miniature electrostatic discharges resulting or through certain bases or sockets. It may
in noise spikes in the photomultiplier output. be noted that light-tight caps are generally

75
Photomultlpller Handbook

commercially available to terminate unusual ber as described earlier under “Tempera-


coaxial connectors. ture.”
Again, a word of caution about the prob-
Magnetic Fields lem of helium penetration of glass. Even at
Care should be exercised to keep the room temperature, if there is a significant
magnetic field environment of a photomulti- helium content in the ambient photomulti-
plier to a minimum. The electron optical plier atmosphere, some helium will penetrate
operation of a photomultiplier can be con- the glass envelope. The result is an increase
siderably altered by magnetic fields, as in dark current and after pulsing because of
shown in Fig. 51. It is also possible to induce ionization of the helium gas. Eventually,
a permanent magnetization of some photo- with sufficient helium pressure a complete
multiplier parts such as dynodes or dynode electrical breakdown can occur with voltage
side rods constructed of nickel. If applied to the photomultiplier tube.
magnetization occurs, degaussing may readi- If helium cannot be avoided, it may be
ly be accomplished by placing the tube at the desirable to use a separate enclosure for the
center of a coil operated at an alternating photomultiplier through which a small flow
current of 60 Hz with a maximum field of purging gas such as dry nitrogen is pro-
strength of 8000 ampere turns per meter and vided. It is also reported90 that helium
then gradually withdrawing the tube from penetration can be blocked by a thin layer of
the coil. an epoxy-Epon 828 resin (registered trade-
Magnetic shields are generally available mark of Shell Chemical Company) and
commercially for photomultiplier tubes of Belsamid 125 hardening agent (registered
various constructions. In providing such trademark of General Mills Incorporated).
protection, it may be important to use a Shock and Vibration
shield which extends beyond the semitrans-
parent photocathode a distance of at least Most photomultipliers will survive only a
half the diameter of the photocathode. reasonable amount of shock or vibration
(less than 10-g shock, depending on shock
Atmosphere duration and direction). Although special
In some applications it may be necessary photomultipliers have been designed to sur-
to operate the photomultiplier in other than vive in extreme environments (shock values
normal atmospheric pressure. Most photo- from 30 to 1500 g), the user should make
multipliers will tolerate pressures to three at- every effort to avoid excessive shock or vi-
mospheres. For the larger tubes, however, bration, possibly by the use of special
this pressure may present an implosion vibration-isolation fixtures. The photomulti-
hazard. In these special cases, it would be plier tube should be handled as the delicate
well to check with the tube manufacturer. instrument that it is. Excessive shock or
Pressures less than one atmosphere also pre- vibration can actually cause physical damage
sent a problem in that electrical breakdown to the tube to the point of shorting out some
can more readily occur. In such cases it may of the elements or even resulting in breakage
be necessary to coat all exposed connections of the envelope and loss of vacuum. A lesser
and wiring with an insulator such as silicone degree of shock may cause deformation of
rubber. the tube elements and can result in loss of
Corrosive atmospheres must be avoided, gain or deterioration of other performance
especially on photomultipliers having metal parameters. If measurements are being made
envelopes. Corrosion could destroy the while a tube is vibrated, it is likely that the
glass-to-metal seal and result in loss of output will be modulated by the vibration
vacuum. not only because the light spot may be
High-humidity conditions should be deflected to different positions on the
avoided if possible because condensation on photocathode but also because some of the
the base and socket can result in additional dynodes may actually vibrate and cause
electrical leakage or even breakdown. If the modulation of the secondary-emission gain.
moisture situation is unavoidable, it may Many photomultipliers have been de-
again be advisable to coat exposed connec- signed for use under severe conditions of
tions with an insulator such as silicone rub- shock and vibration and, in many cases, spe-

76
Photomultiplier Characteristics

cifically for use in missile and rocket applica- tubes may be subjected to high levels of
tions. Such tubes, however, find uses in radiation such as occur in the Van Allen
many other applications including oil-well belts. A summary of the effects of radiation
logging or other industrial control applica- on photomultiplier tubes may be found in a
tions where the tube may be subjected to paper by S.M. Johnson, Jr.90a. Temporary
rough usage. These tubes are available with effects of intense radiation are principally an
most of the electrical and spectral character- increase in background current and noise.
istics typical of the more general-purpose Continued exposure, however, will also
types. These types differ primarily in cause permanent damage to the face-plate
mechanical construction in that additional glass, and to a much lesser extent the photo-
supporting members may be employed and cathode, and the dynodes.
an improved cathode connection may be The origin of the increased background
used to assure positive contact when the tube current in photomultipliers exposed to
is subjected to these environments. Rug- nuclear radiation is a fluorescence or scin-
gedization of tubes using the glass envelope tillation in the glass faceplate that causes
has also been accomplished by moving the electron emission from the photocathode.
dynode cage close to the stem (thereby For example, irradiation with 60Co gamma
drastically shortening the lead lengths and rays produces the equivalent of 10-12
raising their mechanical resonant frequen- W/cm2 of 420-nm flux for an input of 10 - 3
cy), by using heavier leads and extra spacers rad/s.
to hold the dynode cage in place, and by a The major damage to a photomultiplier is
special heavy-duty welding process on the the browning of the faceplate glass. Signifi-
metal-to-metal joints. cant changes in transmission are observed
Tubes recommended for use under severe for 9741 and 7056 glass with an exposure of
environmental conditions are usually de- 105 rads of 60Co gamma radiation. Fused
signed to withstand environmental tests silica shows much less change for the same
equivalent to those specified in the ap- irradiation. Lime glass is reported to be very
plicable portions of MIL-E-5272C or MIL- susceptible to browning. Sapphire is the least
STD-810B in which the specified accelera- degraded by gamma radiation of windows
tions are applied directly to the tubes. used in photomultipliers. Of the far-ultra-
Sinusoidal vibration tests are performed on violet windows, LiF is reported to be very
apparatus that applies a variable sinusoidal susceptible to radiation damage. MgF2 is
vibration to the tube. The sinusoidal fre- recommended down to the Lyman-alpha
quency is varied logarithmically with time wavelength level in the presence of high
from a minimum to a maximum to a mini- radiation exposures.
mum value. Each tube is vibrated in each of Although most of the damage to photo-
the three orthogonal axes. multipliers from nuclear radiation is in the
Random vibration tests are performed by faceplate, some change may be expected in
subjecting the tube to a specified spectral the photocathode. The damage is not great
density (g2/Hz) in a specified frequency compared with that to the glass, probably
band. because of the very small absorption of the
Shock tests are performed on an apparat- very thin photocathodes. The same may be
us that applies a half-wave sinusoidal shock said for dynode material where, again, the
pulse to the photomultiplier tube. The tube surface layer is most important.
is subjected to the shock in each of the three
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1358 (1956).
45. R.W. Engstrom, R.G. Stoudenheimer,
Nuclear Radiation H.L. Palmer, and D.A. Bly, “Recent Work
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77
Photomultiplier Handbook

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46. M. Lontie-Bailliez and A. Messen, “Variation of the conductivity of the semi-
“L’influence de la temperature sur les transparent cesium-antimony photo-
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47. W.E. Spicer and F. Wooten, “Photo- ma and X-ray effects in multiplier photo-
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IEEE, Vol. 51, p. 1119-1126, (Aug. 1963). Laboratory, USNRDL-TR-763, (7 July
48. H. Martin, Cooling photomultipliers 1964).
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Systems Design, Vol. 8, No. 11, p. 16-20 Pieper, and J.H. Bredekamp, “Photomulti-
(Nov. 1976). plier window materials under electron ir-
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“Polarization sensitivity of the RCA 6903 “Response of end-window photomultiplier
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photoemission”, Phys. Stat. Sol., Vol. (a) photomultipliers and astronomical photo-
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G.R. Grant, “Enhancement of photomulti- 64. R.E. Rohde, “Gain vs. temperature ef-
plier sensitivity by total internal reflection,” fects in NaI(T1) photomultiplier scintillation
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1965). Intr. and Methods, Vol. 34, p. 109-115
53. J.R. Sizelove and J.A. Love, III, (1965).
“Analysis of a multiple reflective translucent 65. D.F. Cove11 and B.A. Euler, “Gain
photocathode,” Appl. Opt., Vol. 6, No. 3, shift versus counting rate in certain
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54. J.B. Oke and R.E. Schild, “A practical U.S. Naval Radiological Defense
multiple reflection technique for improving Laboratory, San Francisco (1961).
the quantum efficiency of photomultiplier 66. C.S. Wiggins and K. Earley,
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3 242,626, (Mar. 29, 1966). 69. Louis Lavoie, “Photomultiplier cath-
58. R.W. Engstrom, “Improvement in ode poisoning,” Rev. Sci. Instr., Vol. 38,
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78
Photomultlpller Characteristics

pliers,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci., Vol. NS-14, York, (1972).


No. 1, pp 443-448, (1967). 81. E. Gatti and V. Svelto, “Review of
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Sci. Instr., Vol. 45, No. 8, p. 1001-3 (1974). Hiltner, The University of Chicago Press,
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74. D. Sard, “Calculated frequency spec- plier developments at RCA,” IEEE Trans.
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75. B. Leskovar and C.C. Lo, “Transit time Krall, “Pulse-height resolution of high gain
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Precise Electrical Measurements, Brighton, 86. G.H. Narayan and J.R. Prescott,
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“Evaluation of the C-70045A high-speed 88. The Current Status of Liquid-
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79
Photomultiplier Handbook

5. Photomultiplier Applications

SUMMARY OF SELECTION CRITERIA APPLIED VOLTAGE


A comparison of the relative advantages CONSIDERATIONS
of photomultipliers and solid-state detectors Proper operation of a photomultiplier
is given in the introductory chapter of this depends critically upon the applied voltage
manual. The following is a summary of the and the voltage distribution to the dynode
application requirements that indicate when, stages. A small variation in voltage can
in general, a photomultiplier is the most result in a much larger percentage change in
suitable detector. the tube gain. For example, see Fig. 49 which
The most important consideration is the shows the log of the gain as a function of the
light or radiation level to be detected. The log of the voltage. For a 9-stage tube the
use of photomultipliers is recommended slope of the log-gain vs log-voltage curve is
when the level of light flux is very low. If approximately 7; for a 14-stage tube the
levels are relatively high, it may be simpler to slope is about 12. (If the secondary emission
use a solid-state detector. Furthermore, a ratio were linear with voltage, see Fig. 19,
high level of light flux could overload and one would expect the slope of the log-gain vs
damage the photomultiplier. A photomulti- log-voltage curves to be equal to the number
plier may be used if the light flux is 100 of stages.) For a 12-stage tube, a 1% change
microlumens or less or of the order of 0.1 in voltage results in a 10% change in gain.
microwatt or less at the peak of the spectral Thus, there is need for more than ordinary
response. precaution to provide a well-regulated power
When a fairly large detector area is re- supply l

quired, a photomultiplier is also recom-


mended, as is the case in scintillation count- Power Supply, Regulation, Polarity, and
ing where a crystal scintillator may be several Shielding
centimeters in diameter. Silicon avalanche Commercial power supplies are generally
photodiodes have good low-light-level available that have a line-regulation of
capability but their area is generally limited 0.005% with some available at 0.001% for a
to a few square millimeters. 10% change in line voltage when working in-
Spectral response of the photomultiplier, to a fixed divider network. Voltage variation
of course, must be a reasonable match to with temperature might be of similar magni-
that of the source of radiation. Photomulti- tude for a 1 °C change in temperature. It
pliers are useful in the range 120 nanometers would not be too difficult, therefore, to pro-
to 1100 nanometers, depending upon the vide voltage supplies that would result in
type of photocathode and window material. gain stability of the photomultiplier tube due
Responses further in the infrared than 1100 to line voltage and temperature changes of
nanometers require an infrared photocon- better than 0.1%. For requirements not this
ductive detector or some other infrared- critical, BURLE manufactures a simplified
sensitive device. compact power supply that includes a socket
When a fast response time is an important and voltage-divider network for 1-l/8inch
requirement, the photomultiplier is usually diameter, 9-stage, side-on photomultipliers.
the most suitable detector. Photomultiplier Also manufactured by BURLE are Inte-
tubes have response-time capability down to grated Photodetection Assemblies (IPA’s)
the nanosecond range and even better in the that package a photomultiplier tube, optical
case of specially designed tubes. filter, power supply, signal-conditioning

80
Photomultiplier Applications

amplifier, and electrostatic/magnetic


shielding. The IPA operates from a 12-volt
dc supply.
The recommended polarity of the photo-
multiplier power-supply voltage with respect
to ground depends largely on the application
intended. Of course, the cathode is always
negative with respect to the anode. In some
pulsed application, however, such as scin-
tillation counting, the cathode should be
grounded and the anode operated at a high
positive potential with a capacitance-coupled
output. In this case the scintillator and any
magnetic or electrostatic shields should also
be connected to ground potential.
In applications in which the signal cannot
be passed through a coupling capacitor, the
positive side of the power supply should be
grounded. The cathode is then at a high
negative potential with respect to ground.
When this arrangement is used, extra pre- -
cautions must be taken in the mounting and 92CS - 32424
shielding of the photomultiplier. If there is a Fig. 87 - Schematic diagram of a resistive
potential gradient across the tube wall, scin- voltage divider.
tillations occurring in the glass will increase
dark noise. If this condition continues for a
sufficiently long period of time, the photo-
cathode will be permanently damaged by the
ionic conduction through the glass. To pre-
vent this situation when a shield is used, the
shield is connected to photocathode poten-
tial. Light-shielding or supporting materials
used in photomultipliers must limit leakage
currents to 10-12 ampere or less. Fig. 62
shows a curve of the effect of external-shield
potential on photomultiplier noise.
To reduce the shock hazard to personnel,
a very high resistance should be connected
between the shield and the negative high
voltage.
The following formula may be used to
Voltage Divider Design calculate the voltage between stages:
The interstage voltage gradients for the
photomultiplier elements may be supplied by
individual voltage sources. The usual source,
however, is a resistive voltage divider placed
across a high-voltage source, as shown in
Fig. 87.
A resistive voltage divider must be de-
signed to divide the applied voltage equally
or unequally among the various stages as re- The voltage-divider resistor values re-
quired by the electrostatic system of the quired for each stage can be determined
tube. The most common voltage between from the value of the total resistance re-
stages is usually referred to as the stage vol- quired of the voltage divider and the voltage-
tage and the voltage between other stages as divider ratios of the particular tube type.

81
Photomultiplier Handbook

The interstage resistance values are in pro-


portion to the voltage-divider ratios as
follows:

where Rj is the resistance between elements


Dyj - 1 and Dyj. The recommended resis-
tance values for a photomultiplier voltage
divider range from 20,000 ohms per stage to
5 megohms per stage; the exact values are
usually the result of a compromise. If low
values of resistance per stage are utilized, the
power drawn from the regulated power sup-
ply may be excessively large. The resistor
power rating should be at least twice the
calculated power dissipation to provide a Fig. 88 - The relative response of a 931A pho-
safety margin and to prevent a shift in tomultiplier as a function of the light flux us-
ing the circuit of Fig. 87 with equal stage
resistance values as a result of overheating. voltage (at zero light level). (From Engstrom
The highest suitable value of stage resistance and Fischer91)
(after consideration has been given to
average anode current as described below) is The decrease in sensitivity that occurs
dictated by leakage currents in the photo- beyond region A of Fig. 88 results from the
multiplier and socket wiring. extension of voltage losses to the last two or
One criterion for the selection of a suitable three dynode resistors causing defocusing
range of voltage-divider resistance values is and skipping in the associated dynode
the expected maximum anode current that stages. In order to prevent this loss and
may be drawn from the photomultiplier. assure a high degree of linearity, the current
When the anode current is of the same order through the voltage-divider network should
of magnitude as the divider current, non- be at least ten times the maximum average
linear response results. This non-linearity is anode current required. In calculating the
illustrated in Fig. 88 which shows the voltage-divider current, the average anode
response of a 931A photomultiplier as a current must first be estimated; this estimate
function of light level using a conventional requires knowledge of the value of the input
voltage divider such as shown in Fig. 87 with (light) signal and the required output (elec-
equal voltage per stage.91 (The value of RL trical) signal.
was essentially zero for this measurement.) Photo-multiplier noise or a shift in gain
The anode current is shown relative to the may result from heat emanating from the
divider current at zero light level. The voltage-divider resistors. The divider net-
superlinearity region is explained by a work and other heat-producing components,
change which takes place in the voltage therefore, should be located so that they will
distribution between stages from uniform to not increase the tube temperature. Resis-
non-uniform as the light level is increased. tance values in excess of five megohms
Thus, the electron current flow from the last should be avoided because current leakage
dynode to the anode causes less current to between the photomultiplier terminals could
flow through the voltagedivider resistor, cause a variation of the interstage voltage.
The type of resistor used in a divider
voltage between dynodes and a decrease in depends on the dynode structure with which
the collection voltage between the last the divider will be used. Close-tolerance
dynode and the anode. The reduced collec- resistors, such as the laser-trimmed metal-
tion voltage tends to reduce the output cur- film types, are normally required with the
rent slightly, but the increased dynode focused structures. On the other hand, inter-
voltages more than compensate for this dynode voltages in the Venetian-blind struc-
reduction by an increased gain. tures can vary widely with but little effect on

82
Photomultiplier Applications

the photomultiplier. For this reason, the overload the output stages of the photomul-
resistors used with a Venetian-blind structure tiplier, it is possible to eliminate these stages
can be of a less stable variety, such as com- from the circuit. For example, the last
position. several stages of the tube and the anode may
be tied together electrically to form an
anode. The tube is then operated with the
The over-all performance of a tube that reduced gain of the remaining stages. In an
has a cathode-to-first-dynode region essen- extreme case, the photomultiplier may be
tially electrostatically isolated from the re- operated just as a photodiode using only the
maining dynode region can be improved by photocathode and several or all of the re-
maintaining a high electric field, in the maining elements together as an anode. It
cathode-to-first-dynode region to reduce the must be realized in operating the photomul-
transit-time spread of photoelectrons arriv- tiplier in such a manner that many photo-
ing at the first dynode and minimize the ef- cathode types are very resistive (see Figs. 35
fect of magnetic fields. A high first-dynode and 36) and, therefore, the photocurrent will
gain, which implies a high not be linear with light at the high level
which may be available. Photocathodes of
the opaque type with a conductive substrate,
or the semitransparent type with a conduc-
tive undercoating will tolerate a much higher
light level without loss of linearity.

have the disadvantage of reducing the gain in

Intermediate Stages
In applications in which it is desirable to
control the anode sensitivity without
changing the over-all voltage, the voltage of
a single dynode may be varied. Fig. 89 shows
the variation of anode current for a 931A
photomultiplier when one of the dynode
voltages is varied while the total supply 700 800
voltage is held constant. The dynode should
be selected from the middle of the dynode 92CS-32426
string because a variation of dynode poten- Fig. 89 - The output-current variation of a
tials near the cathode or anode would have a 931A when the voltage on one dynode (No. 6)
detrimental effect on photomultiplier opera- is varied while the total supply voltage re-
tion. mains fixed.
Operation with Fewer Stages
A photomultiplier need not be operated Voltage Dividers for Pulsed Operation
with all dynode stages, although the design In applications in which the input signal is
of the tube has been optimized for this con- in the form of pulses, the average anode cur-
dition. In some situations where the light rent can be determined from the peak pulse
level being detected is so high that it would current and the duty factor. The total resis-

83
Photomultiplier Handbook

tance of the voltage-divider network is then decays exponentially through the anode
calculated for the average anode current. load resistor with a time constant of RLCL.
In cases in which the average anode cur- To prevent pulses from piling up on each
rent is much less than a peak pulse current, other, the maximum value of RLCL should
dynode potentials can be maintained at a be much less than the reciprocal of the
nearly constant value during the pulse dura- repetition rate.
tion by use of charge-storage capacitors at An important example of this type of
the tube socket. The voltage-divider current operation is scintillation counting, for exam-
need only be sufficient to provide the ple with NaI:Tl. The time constant of the
average anode current for the photomulti- scintillations is 0.25 microsecond and, be-
plier. The high peak currents required during cause the integral of the output current pulse
the large-amplitude light pulses are supplied is a measure of the energy of the incident
by the capacitors. radiation, the current pulse is integrated on
The capacitor values depend upon the the anode-circuit capacitance for a period of
value of the output charge associated with about 10 microseconds. Because the scin-
the pulse or train of pulses. The value of the tillations occur at random, the maximum
final-dynode-to-anode capacitor C is given average counting rate is limited to about 10
by kHz. If circumstances require a higher
counting rate, the integration time must be
reduced accordingly.
Fast-Pulse Applications
In fast-pulse light applications, it is
where C is in farads, q is the total anode recommended that the photomultiplier be
charge per pulse in coulombs, and V is the operated at negative high voltage with the
voltage across the capacitor. The factor 100 anode at ground potential. A typical voltage-
is used to limit the voltage change across the divider circuit with series-connected capaci-
capacitor to a l-per-cent maximum during a tors is shown in Fig. 90. The parallel con-
pulse. Capacitor values for preceding stages figuration of capacitors may also be used, as
should take into account the smaller values shown in Fig. 91. The parallel arrangement
of dynode currents in these stages. Conser- requires capacitors of higher voltage ratings.
vatively, a factor of approximately 2 per Regardless of the configuration, the
stage is used. Capacitors are not required capacitors must be located at the socket. The
across those dynode stages at which the peak capacitor arrangements just described may
dynode current is less than 1/10 of the also be applied to negative-ground applica-
average current through the voltage-divider tions.
network. For pulse durations in the 1 to 100
ns range, consideration should be given to
the inherent stage-to-stage capacitances
which are in the order of 1 to 3 pF.
Medium-Speed Pulse Applications
In applications in which the output cur-
rent consists of pulses of short duration, the
capacitance CL of the anode circuit to
ground becomes very important. The capaci-
tance CL is the sum of all capacitances from Fig. 90 - Series-connected capacitors in
the anode to ground: photomultiplier-anode voltage-divider circuit using positive ground
capacitance, cable capacitance, and the in- for pulse-light applications.
put capacitance of the measuring device. For
pulses having a duration much shorter than The wiring of the anode or dynode “pick-
the anode time constant RLCL, the output off” circuit is very critical in pulse applica-
voltage is equal to the product of the charge tions if pulse shape is to be preserved. Most
and 1/CL because the anode current is simp- pulse circuitry uses 50-ohm characteristic im-
ly charging a capacitor. The capacitor charge pedance cables and connectors because of

84
Photomultiplier Applications

92cs-32428

Fig. 91 - Parallel-connected capacitors in voltage-divider circuit for pulsed-light ap-


plication.

their ready availability, although 75- and 0.5-nanosecond rise-time light pulse. The
92-ohm components are also used. Careful pulse shape is most easily seen with the aid of
wiring is required. Figs 92 and 95 illustrate a repetitive light pulser and a high-speed
schematically and pictorially the best loca- real-time oscilloscope. Fig. 94 indicates the
tion of pulse bypass capacitors that return general type of distortion encountered with
the anode pulse current to Dyn and Dyn _ 1 the use of improperly wired or excessively in-
by paths of minimum residual inductance. It ductive capacitors. The output pulse il-
should be noted that these bypass capacitors lustrates the ringing that may occur in an im-
also serve the function of charge-storage properly wired socket.
capacitors, as shown in Fig. 91.

Fig. 93 - Pulse shape obtained from photo-


multiplier excited by a light pulse having an
0.5-nanosecond rise time.

92cs-32429

Fig. 92 - Bypass capacitors used to make


the last two dynodes appear as a ground
plane to a fast-pulsed signal.

Wiring Techniques
Good high-frequency wiring techniques
must be employed in wiring photomultiplier
sockets and associated voltage dividers if 92cs-32430

pulse-shape distortion is to be minimized. Fig. 94 - Pulse shape distortion (ringing) en-


Fig. 93 illustrates the pulse shape obtained countered with improperly wired or excessive-
from an 8575 photomultiplier excited by a ly inductive capacitors.

85
Photomultiplier Handbook

Fig. 95 shows a socket wired for a negative photomultiplier current pulses is established
high-voltage application. The disk-type at low pulse amplitudes where linear opera-
bypass capacitors are mounted in series with tion is assured. Next, the light flux is in-
minimum lead length because the self- creased in a series of increments. A constant-
inductance of the lead wires becomes critical current pulse amplitude ratio indicates linear
in nanosecond-pulse work. Care should also operation. A pair of light-emitting diodes
be taken in dressing the bypass capacitors may be used to provide the two light pulses.
and coaxial cable. - The resistors for the The over-all control of the light levels may
voltage divider are shown mounted on the be done with a series of neutral-density
socket. In applications requiring minimum filters. Exact filter calibration is not required
dark current, the resistors should be remote because the system is self-calibrating in the
from the photomultiplier to minimize pulse current measurements.
heating effects. Tapered Dividers
Some applications require that photomul-
tipliers sustain high signal currents for short
time intervals, tens of nanoseconds or less.
In general, photomultipliers are capable of
supplying 0.2 ampere or more into a 50-ohm
load for short durations. However, the vol-
tage divider must be tailored to the applica-
tion to allow a photomultiplier to deliver
these high currents.
The principal limitation on current output
92cs-32432
(into a 50-ohm system) is space charge at the
Fig. 95 - Anode detail of socket wired for a last few stages. This space charge can be
negative high-voltage application showing overcome if the potential difference across
location of charge-storage capacitors. the last few stages is increased by use of a
tapered divider rather than an equal-volts-
per-stage divider. The tapered divider places
Checking Socket and Tube Performance 3 to 4 times the normal interstage potential
Some photomultipliers typically display a difference across the last stage. The pro-
reflected-pulse rise time of the order of 1.5 gression leading to the 4-times potential dif-
nanoseconds for an initiating pulse of the ference should be gradual to maintain prop-
order of 50 picoseconds when the tube and er electrostatic focus between stages; a pro-
socket are tested with a time-domain reflec- gression of 1, 1 . . . 1, 1, 1.5, 2.0, 3, 4.2 is
tometer, the instrument used to test the recommended.
anode-pin region of the socket. Another application of the tapered divider
During tube operation, the output pulse is to provide a large signal voltage across a
can be viewed with a real-time high-speed high-impedance load. Voltage excursions of
oscilloscope. The pulse shape can be in- 400 to 500 volts can be obtained from photo-
spected for signs of clipping or ringing. multipliers. A possible application is in driv-
The effectiveness of the charge-storage ing an electro-optical modulator. Because
capacitors can be verified with a simple the photomultiplier is nearly an ideal con-
linearity test. The output of a photomulti- stant current source, its output voltage signal
is limited only by the potential difference
between the last dynode and the anode. If
plot of pulse amplitude as a function of the the potential difference is 100 volts, the
logarithm of the voltage value should yield a anode cannot swing through more than a
straight line. 100-volt excursion. By impressing a much
A two-pulse technique may be employed higher potential difference between the
to test linearity at constant operating anode and last dynode by means of a tapered
voltage. Consider two sequential pulses hav- divider, greater voltage swings can be ob-
ing amplitude ratios in the range from 2:1 to tained. Tube data sheets should be consulted
10:1. The ratio of the amplitude of the two for maximum voltage ratings.

86
Photomultiplier Applications

Dynamic Compression of Output Signal tection for the tube. If overexposure is ex-
Most photomultipliers operate linearly pected frequently, interdynode currents,
over a dynamic range of six or seven orders which can be quite excessive, may cause loss
of magnitude, a range few monitor devices of gain. In some applications it may be
can accommodate without requiring range worthwhile to protect against dynode
changes. When compression of the dynamic damage by using resistors in series with each
range is desired, a logarithmic amplifier is dynode lead .91
sometimes used. The photomultiplier may Active Divider Network
also be operated in a compressed-output Although normally, the divider network
mode, however, without the need for addi- current should exceed the maximum photo-
tional compression circuitry. multiplier output current by a factor of 10 or
For example, in liquid scintillation more, it is possible by using the emitter-
counting where several different isotopes follower characteristics of transistors to pro-
may be present, the output pulse height vide a power supply requiring much less
might normally vary by as much as 100: 1. By divider current. Fig. 96 is an example of such
limiting the potential difference between the an active divider network devised by C. R.
last dynode and anode to, for example, 10 Kerns92 As the dynode current increases,
volts, space charge will limit the maximum the added current is diverted from the high-
current that can be drawn. The anode pulse beta transistors rather than from the divider-
can then be used for the coincidence timing resistor string, thus improving the voltage
with a more convenient range of pulse regulation by a large factor. The capacitors
heights. Energy measurements can then be shown are the usual ones for high-frequency
made using the current at an earlier dynode bypassing. The circuit also retains a current-
where space-charge saturation is not present. limiting action that prevents damage to the
Current Protection of Photomultiplier photomultiplier.
If a photomultiplier is accidentally ex- MECHANICAL CONSIDERATIONS
posed to an excessive amount of light, it may
be permanently damaged by the resultant Handling
high currents. To reduce this possibility, the Because most photomultipliers have glass
resistive voltage-divider network may be envelopes, they should be handled with care
designed to limit the anode current. The to avoid damage to the tube seals and other
average anode current of a photomultiplier parts. This caution is especially important
cannot much exceed the voltage-divider cur- for tube types having graded-seal envelope
rent; therefore, the zero-light level voltage- construction. The pins or leads of the tube
divider network serves as an overload pro- should also be treated with care.

ANODE

Fig. 96 - An active divider network for an 8575 photomultiplier designed to minimize


voltage changes at the dynodes. (From C.R. Kerns92)

87
Photomultiplier Handbook

Basing attached bases, or stiff leads. Semiflexible


Photomultiplier tubes may have either a leads may be soldered, resistance (spot)
temporary or a permanently attached base. welded, or crimp connected into the
Dimensional outline diagrams such as those associated circuitry. When soldering or
shown in Fig. 97 are provided in the pub- welding is employed for such connections,
lished technical data for individual tubes. In- care should be taken to prevent tube destruc-
dicated on the diagrams are the type of base tion due to thermal stress of the seals at the
employed, maximum mechanical dimen- stem. A heat sink, such as locking forceps,
sions, radii of curvature where applicable, should be placed in contact with the semi-
pin/lead details, location and dimensions of flexible leads between the point being
magnetic parts used (in tubes utilizing mini- soldered or welded and the tube seals. If
mum number of magnetic materials), and soldering is employed, only a soft solder
notes regarding restricted mounting areas, (e.g., 60% Sn, 40% Pb) should be used.
again where applicable. Heat should be applied only long enough to
Photomultiplier tubes intended to be permit the solder to flow freely. By the term
soldered directly to circuit boards or hous- semiflexible, it is implied that excessive
ings are supplied with semiflexible or “fly- bending may break the leads, most common-
ing” leads and a temporary base, intended ly at the stem surface. Some photomulti-
for testing purposes only, that should be re- pliers are supplied with insulating wafers at-
moved prior to permanent installation. tached to the stem to prevent such an occur-
A lead-terminal diagram that shows rence. The semiflexible leads are normally
photomultiplier-tube lead orientation with made of dumet or Kovar and are usually
the temporary base removed, shown in Fig. plated to facilitate soldering.
98, provides a lead indexing reference. A Photomultipliers supplied with perma-
lead-connection diagram, such as the one nently attached bases or stiff leads should
shown in Fig. 99, relates terminal to elec- use only high-grade, low-leakage sockets to
trode. Care must be exercised in interpreting minimize leakage currents between adjacent
basing and lead-terminal diagrams to insure electrode terminals. Teflon and mica-filled
against possible damage to the photomulti- sockets should be used.
plier resulting from incorrect connections. Mounting and Support
Terminal Connections Photomultipliers having permanently at-
BURLE photomultipliers are supplied with tached bases normally require no special
either semiflexible leads, semiflexible leads mounting arrangements. When special
attached to temporary bases, permanently mounting arrangements are used, however,

PHOTOCATHODE

92CM - 32434

Fig. 97 - Typical dimensional-outline drawings showing the type of base supplied


with each tube and pertinent notes.

88
Photomultiplier Applications

metal flanges employed in the construction


of a tube. Such flanges, when present, are
part of the tube’s vacuum enclosure and any
undue force or stress applied to them can
damage the seals and destroy the tube.
The use of resilient potting compounds or
rubber washers is recommended when pho-
tomultipliers are clamp-mounted. If a pot-
ting compound is used, its characteris-
tics-over the temperature range in which
INDEX the tube is to be operated-must be such that
its resilience is maintained at low
temperature and its expansion, in confined
space, is not excessive at high temperature.
Fig. 98 - Lead-orientation diagram. The electrical insulation properties of any
materials supporting or shielding the photo-
multiplier should be considered. If such
PIN I - DYNODE NO. I
PIN 2 - DYNODE NO. 3 materials come into contact with high
PIN
PIN
3 - DYNODE NO.5
4 - DYNODE NO.7
voltage with respect to photocathode,
PIN 5 - DYNODE NO. 9 minute leakage currents can flow through
PIN 6 - ANODE
PIN 7 - DYNODE NO.10 the material and the tube envelope to the
PIN
PIN
8 - DYNODE NO. B
9 - DYNODE NO. 6
photocathode. Not only does this condition
PIN
PIN
IO - DYNODE NO 4
II - DYNODE NO. 2
introduce excessive noise at the tube output
PIN 12 - PHOTOCATHODE but it can also permanently damage the
photocathode sensitivity of the tube through
LEAD I - DYNODE NO. I electrolysis of the glass envelope. This cau-
LEAD 2 - DYNODE NO. 3
LEAD 3 - DYNODE NO. 5 tion is only true when the tube is operated at
LEAD 4 - DYNODE NO. 7
LEAD 5 - DYNODE NO. 9
high negative potential with respect to
L E A D 6 - ANODE
LEAD7 - DYNODE NO.10
ground. Under this operating condition, a
LEAD 8 - DYNODE NO. 8 decrease in sensitivity can occur if the
L E A D 9 - DYNODE NO.6
LEAD 10 - DYNODE NO.4 faceplate of the tube comes into contact with
LEAD II - DYNODE NO.2
LEAD 12 - PHOTOCATHODE
ground. Cathode sensitivity does not recover
after such an occurrence. Photocathode
BOTTOM VIEWS 92CS-32436
“poisoning” due to envelope electrolysis can
destroy the usefulness of a photomultiplier
Fig. 99 - Lead-connection diagram: (a) with in a very short time. Therefore, the in-
base connected, (b) with temporary base sulating property of materials supporting the
removed.
tube should be such that leakage current to
the tube envelope is limited to 1 x 10 -12
the envelope, especially that region near the ampere, or less.
photocathode, must be maintained at
cathode potential. Care should also be taken Shielding
so that tube performance is not affected by Electrostatic and/or magnetic shielding of
extraneous electrostatic or magnetic fields. most photomultipliers is usually required.
Side-on photomultipliers should be mounted When such shields are used and are in con-
to allow rotation of the tube about its major tact with the tube envelope, they must
axis to obtain maximum anode current for a always be connected to photocathode poten-
given direction of incident radiation. An tial.
angular tolerance with respect to incident In applications where the dc component of
light direction is normally specified in tube the signal output is of importance, the
data sheets. cathode is normally operated at high nega-
Direct clamping with non-resilient tive voltage with respect to ground. As a
materials to the envelope of tubes not having result, the shield is at high negative voltage
permanently attached bases is not recom- and precautions must be taken to avoid
mended nor should clamping be made to any shorts to ground and to prevent shock

89
Photomultiplier Handbook

hazard to personnel. A 10-megohm resistor dark current include external leakage caused
should be placed between the negative high by condensation on the tube base and/or
voltage and shields to avoid such hazards. socket when conditions of high humidity ex-
In scintillation counting applications, it is ist and contamination of the tube base
recommended that the photocathode be and/or socket by handling.
operated at ground potential. In this case, Moisture condensation can be minimized
the shields should be operated at ground by potting the tube socket assembly in
potential. silicone rubber compounds such as RTV-11,
Magnetic shielding of most photomulti- or equivalent. If a tube is suspected of
pliers is highly desirable. Characteristic having high ohmic leakage as a result of
curves showing the effects of magnetic fields handling, it is recommended that it and its
on anode current are provided in many data socket be washed with a solution of alkaline
sheets. cleaner such as Alconox*, or equivalent, and
Storage de-ionized or distilled water having a tem-
Photomultipliers should be stored in the perature not exceeding 60 °C. The base or the
socket should then be thoroughly rinsed in
dark. Storage of tubes in areas where light is de-ionized or distilled water (60 °C) and then
incident on the tube results temporarily in a air-blown dry.
higher than normal dark-current level when
the tubes are placed in operation. This in- OPTICAL CONSIDERATIONS
crease in dark current is primarily due to
phosphorescence of the glass and can persist Incident Light Flux
for about 24 hours. Additionally, storage of Photomultiplier tubes are capable of
tubes designed for operation in the near IR operating usefully over a very wide range of
region of the spectrum (above 700 nano- incident light flux. At the very lowest levels,
meters) in illuminated areas may decrease the limit is determined by the useable signal-
the “red” sensitivity of the tube. to-noise ratio. Upper range of usefulness is
The phototube should never be stored or determined by the saturation of the photo-
operated in areas where there are concentra- cathode or by the magnitude of the output
tions of helium because helium readily current levels which either result in space-
permeates glass. The composition of the charge limitations or cause damage to the
envelope material is a major factor govern- secondary emission dynodes.
ing the rate of helium permeation. As the The lower limit of detection is discussed in
silica content in the glass is reduced, the rate detail in Chapter 4, Photomultiplier Charac-
of permeation decreases. Accordingly, the teristics, in the section “Dark Current and
rate of permeation is greatest for fused silica Noise.” See in particular Fig. 67. The lower
and decreases to a minimum in lime glass. It limit in a current-measurement mode is de-
is also to be noted that the rate of permea- termined by dark emission and bandwidth.
tion is proportional to temperature and Photocurrent levels as low as 10 - 16 ampere
varies directly with pressure.691 92a 92b (625 photoelectrons per second) can be
Moisture Condensation measured. This photocurrent level cor-
responds to 5 x 10 - 13 lumens for a
A very small anode current is observed 200-microampere/lumen photocathode. In a
when voltage is applied to the electrodes of a photoelectron-counting mode (see Appendix
photomultiplier in darkness. Among the G), the limit is determined by the statistics of
components contributing to this dark cur- discriminating between photoelectrons and
rent are pulses produced by thermionic emis- thermally emitted electrons. For a Na2KSb
sion, ohmic leakage between the anode and photocathode, the dark emission from the
adjacent elements, secondary electrons photocathode at room temperature may be
released by ionic bombardment of the pho- of the order of 10 - 17 ampere or 62 electrons
tocathode, cold emission from the elec- per second. Counting for one minute in the
trodes, and light feedback to the photocath- dark and one minute in the light, one should
ode. Other conditions contributing to anode be able to detect a photocurrent of only a
*Distributed by Arthur H. Thomas Company, few photoelectrons per second.
Vine Street and 3rd, Philadelphia, PA 19105. For resistive photocathodes (See Table II

90
Photomultiplier Applications

in Chapter IV, Photomultiplier Characteris- has the advantage of providing a reduction


tics, in the section “Photocathode-Related factor that is essentially independent of
Characteristics.“) such as K2CsSb, the max- wavelength. Such neutral density screens can
imum recommended photocurrent is only of be obtained from the Varian Instrument Di-
the order of 10 -9 ampere which cor- vision. **
responds to a flux of the order of 10 -5 Large reduction factors can be achieved
lumen. by the use of opal glass, which scatters trans-
When the photocathode resistivity does mitted light in an approximate Lambertian
not limit the input light flux, the maximum (cosine) distribution (although a bit more
light flux is determined by output currents in concentrated near the normal angles than the
the photomultiplier. For example, the 931A cosine prediction). Unfortunately, the scat-
maximum average anode current is 1.0 tered flux is not neutral, providing more red
milliampere which corresponds to an input than blue. See Fig. 101.
light flux of about 10 -5 lumen with a total
applied voltage of 1000 volts. If the over-all
voltage were reduced to 500 volts, the tube
could tolerate an input flux of 10 - 3 lumen.
At times it may be useful to reduce the
light level on the photomultiplier by a
calibrated amount. Neutral-density filters
can be useful for this purpose. It should be
appreciated, however, that such filters are
frequently not neutral and their stated
density may be only an approximation. A
comparison of the spectral transmittance of
a metalized filter and a gelatin type is shown
in Fig. 100. Wratten filters are reasonably

W
WAVELENGTH - NANOMETERS
92cs-32430

Fig. 101 - The effective spectral transmit-


tance (for scattered light) of an opal-glass
filter, 3-mm thickness, into a solid angle of
approximately 0.01 steradian.

Convex front-surface spherical aluminum


mirrors can also be used to provide a
calibrated light-reduction factor. Aluminum
mirrors have the advantage of having a
Fig. 100 - Comparison of spectral transmit- reasonably flat spectral reflectance-from
tance of metalized- and organic-type neutral- 92.3% at 300 nanometers to 86.7% at 800
density filters (ND 1.0). nanometers.93 If a lamp of CP candelas is
located at a distance a from the surface of
neutral in the visible range but become the mirror having a reflectivity e and a
transparent in the infrared, which could radius r, the flux (L) in lumens through a test
cause a problem when they are used with a aperture of area A located at a distance b
photomultiplier having a near-infrared from the mirror surface is given by94
response. This effect is much more pro-
nounced for the more dense neutral-density
filters.
Another method for reducing light level is
by the use of a mesh or screen. This method
l *670 E. Arques St., Sunnyvale, Calif. 94086
Photomultlpller Handbook

Angle of Incidence
nent rays on the mirror. Photocathode response varies somewhat
with the angle of incidence (see Fig. 41). It is
Calibration also possible to increase the effective quan-
For some purposes it may be useful to pro- tum efficiency of a photocathode by the use
vide a calibration of the photomultiplier of a specially constructed optical coupling to
anode or photocathode responsivity. A con- the photocathode window that utilizes at the
venient test source is the tungsten lamp (see glass-air interface angles of incidence greater
Appendix F). Lamps with candle power and than the critical angle. (See Fig. 42).
color temperature (2856 K) traceable to the Light Modulation
National Bureau of Standards can be ob-
For some purposes, it may be advan-
tained from BURLE, Lancaster, PA (Type tageous to modulate the light signal with a
AJ2239). Some method of reducing the light
flux such as discussed above would normally light chopper. A synchronous motor may be
be required. used to rotate a chopper disk which could
then provide an approximate square-wave
Spectral response measurements generally modulation. The output signal could then be
require a sophisticated monochromator set-
analyzed with a narrow-band-pass amplifier
up. Reasonably good results, however, can tuned to the chopper frequency. When the
be obtained by use of calibrated narrow- modulated signal is in the presence of an un-
band-pass color filters and a calibrated modulated background whether from the
tungsten lamp. The power through a par-
dark current of the tube itself or from an ex-
ticular filter may be obtained by integrating
ternal source of light, a significant improve-
the product of the filter transmission and the ment in signal-to-noise may be achieved.
tungsten irradiance over the wavelength
band of the filter. Spectral irradiance for a Regarding the testing of photomultiplier
tubes with delta-function light pulses, see the
tungsten lamp calibrated to a color tempera- section on “Time Effects” in Chapter 4,
ture of 2856 K may be obtained from Appen- Photomultiplier Characteristics. Cerenkov
dix F, Table F-I, with a multiplying factor radiation also provides very short pulses of
appropriate to the particular total luminous light.
flux. Details are given in the footnote ac-
companying Table F-I. SPECIFIC PHOTOMULTIPLIER
APPLICATIONS
Spot Size This section discusses various applications
It is generally advisable to utilize a large of photomultipliers and some of the special
part of the photocathode area rather than to considerations for each application. This
focus a small spot of the light flux on the catalogue of applications is not complete
photocathode. If the light flux is fairly high, even for presently known applications, and
concentrating it on a small area could cause new ones are being continually devised. The
damage to the photocathode or result in applications discussed, however, are some of
non-linearity effects because of the resistiv- the major ones and the information given
ity of the photocathode layer. Furthermore, can be readily adapted to other applications
variations in photocathode sensitivity across or to new ones.
the surface area could cause some uncer-
tainty in the measurement if the light spot is Scintillation Counting
too small. In scintillation-counting applica- A scintillation counter is a device used to
tions, spot size is not generally a problem detect and register individual light flashes
because of the diffuse nature of the flux and caused by ionizing radiation, usually in the
the size of the crystal. But, in flying-spot- form of an alpha particle, beta particle,
scanner applications it is particularly impor- gamma ray, or neutron, whose energy may
tant that the image being scanned should not be in the range from just a few thousand
be in focus on the surface of the photomulti- electron-volts to many million electron-
plier because any non-uniformities of volts. The most common use of scintillation
photocathode sensitivity would cause fixed counters is in gamma-ray detection and spec-
pattern modulation. troscopy.

92
Photomultiplier Applications

The gas, liquid, or solid in which a scin- also results. To satisfy the conditions of con-
tillation or light flash occurs is called the servation of energy and momentum, there is
scintillator. A photomultiplier mounted in a maximum energy that can be transferred to
contact with the scintillator provides the the electron. This maximum energy, known
means for detecting and measuring the scin- as the Compton edge, occurs when e in Fig.
tillation. Fig. 102 is a diagram of a basic
given by

the speed of light. The resultant energy im-


parted to the electron can then range from
zero to a maximum of TCM.
In pair production, the energy of a gamma
ray is converted to an electron-positron pair
in the field of a nucleus. The gamma ray
Fig. 102 - Diagram of a scintillation counter. must have energy at least equal to two times
the rest-mass-energy equivalent of an elec-
scintillation counter. The three most prob-
able ways in which incident gamma radiation energy is transferred as kinetic energy. When
can cause a scintillation are by the photoelec- the positron is annihilated, two photons are
tric effect, Compton scattering, or pair pro- produced 180 degrees apart, each with an
duction. The reaction probabilities associ- energy of 0.51 MeV. The photons are then
ated with each of these-types of interaction subject to the normal probabilities of in-
are a function of the energy of the incident teraction with the scintillator .
radiation as well as the physical size and In neutron detection, unlike alpha- or
atomic number of the scintillator material. beta-particle or gamma-ray detection, the
In general, for a given scintillator, the primary interaction is with the nuclei of the
photoelectric effect predominates at small scintillator atoms rather than its atomic elec-
quantum energies, the Compton effect at trons. The interaction may consist of scatter-
medium energies, and pair production at ing or absorption; in either case, some or all
energies above 1.02 MeV. of the energy of the neutron is transferred to
Scintillation Processes. In the photoelectric the recoil nucleus which then behaves
effect, a gamma-ray photon collides with a similarly to an alpha particle.
bound electron in the scintillator and im- In each interaction between a form of
parts virtually all its energy to the electron. ionizing radiation and a scintillator, an elec-
In the Compton effect a gamma-ray photon tron having some kinetic energy is produced.
A secondary process follows which is in-
tron in the scintillator and transmits only dependent of both the kind of ionizing radia-
part of its energy to the electron, as shown in tion incident on the scintillator and the type
Fig. 103. A scattered photon of lower energy of interaction which occurred. In this secon-
dary process, the kinetic energy of the ex-
cited electron is dissipated by exciting other
electrons from the valence band in the scin-
tillator material into the conduction band.
When these excited electrons return to the
valence band, some of them generate light or
scintillation photons. The number of pho-
tons produced is essentially proportional to
92CS-32440
the energy of the incident radiation. In the
Fig. 103 - Compton-effect mechanism. photoelectric interaction described above, all

93
Photomultiplier Handbook

of the incident photon energy is transferred the fluorescence, or activator, centers in the
to the excited electrons; therefore, the generation of excitons or bound hole-
number of photons produced in this secon- electron pairs. These pairs behave much like
dary process, and hence the brightness of the hydrogen atoms and, being electrically
scintillation, is proportional to the energy of neutral, can wander freely through the
the incident photon. crystal until captured by fluorescence
Scintillation Mechanism. The exact mecha- centers. The emission of a photon from a
nism of the scintillation or light-producing phosphorescence center is a relatively slow
process is not completely understood in all or delayed process. Of the three types of
types of materials; however, in an inorganic centers through which an excited electron
scintillator, the phenomenon is known to be can return to the valence band, the first,
caused by the absorption of energy by a fluorescence, is that sought for in the
valence electron in the crystal lattice and its preparation of scintillators. The second
subsequent return to the valence band. Fig. type, quenching, tends to lessen the effi-
104 shows a simplified energy-band diagram ciency of the scintillator because it does not
cause the emission of photons, and the third,
phosphorescence, produces an undesirable
background glow.
Scintillator Materials. The most popular
scintillator material for gamma-ray energy
IMPURITY - _ -
LEVELS spectrometry is thallium-activated sodium
iodide, NaI:Tl. This material is particularly
good because its response spectrum contains
a well-defined photoelectric peak; i.e., the
material has a high efficiency or probability
of photoelectric interaction. In addition, the
92CS-32441
light emitted by the material covers a spec-
tral range from approximately 350 to 500
Fig. 104 - A simplified energy diagram of a nanometers with a maximum at about 410
scintillation crystal: ionized electron-hole nanometers, a range particularly well
pairs; an exciton; an activator center through
which an electron may return to the ground matched to the spectral response of conven-
state causing fluorescence; or through which tional photomultipliers, NaI:Tl does not,
an electron may return to the ground state by however, have a fast decay time in com-
a thermal, non-radiative process; impurity parison to other scintillators, and, therefore,
levels that can trap an electron for a time is generally not used for fast-time resolution.
causing phosphorescence. As a comparison, the decay time constant
for NaI:Tl is approximately 250 nano-
of a scintillation crystal. The presence of seconds, while for a fast plastic scintillator
energy levels or centers between the valence the dominant decay time constant is in the 1
and conduction bands is the result of im- to 4 nanosecond range.
perfections or impurities in the crystal lat- The decay time of a scintillator involves
tice. Three types are important: (1) fluor- the time required for all the light-emitting
escence centers in which an electron, after luminescence centers to return excited elec-
excitation, quickly returns to the valence trons to the valence band. In some of the
band with the emission of a photon; (2) better scintillators the decay is essentially ex-
quenching centers in which the excited elec- ponential, with one dominant decay time
tron returns to the valence band with the constant. Unfortunately, most scintillators
dissipation of heat without emission of light; have a number of components each with dif-
and (3) phosphorescence centers in which the ferent decay time.
excited electron can be trapped in a Collection Considerations. Because scin-
metastable state until it can absorb some ad- tillations can occur anywhere in the bulk of
ditional energy and return to the valence the scintillator material and emit photons in
band with the emission of a photon. An im- all directions, there exists the problem of col-
portant process in the transfer of energy to lecting as many of these photons as possible

94
Photomultiplier Applications

on the faceplate of the photomultiplier. If it cases, a flexible fiber-optics bundle can be


is assumed that the fluctuation in the used. An optically transparent silicone-oil
number of photons resulting from a single coupling fluid should be applied at the scin-
ionizing event follows simple Poisson statis- tillator (-light guide, if used)-photomultiplier
tics*, the relative standard deviation in the interface regardless of the light-conduction
number arriving at the face plate is given by method used.
The next important consideration in scin-
(32) tillation counting is the conversion of the
photons to photoelectrons from the photo-
where Np is the average number of photons cathode. The photocathode should have the
arriving at the faceplate of the photo- greatest quantum efficiency possible over the
multiplier per incident ionizing event. Np is spectral range defined by the spectral
emissivity curve of the scintillator. The
ber of photons per unit energy for the scin- method of determining the quantum effi-
tillation, E is the energy of the incident ciency of a photocathode as a function of
radiation, and t is the fraction of the total wavelength is explained in Appendix E. Of
number of photons produced which arrive at the various photocathodes available, bialkali
the faceplate of the photomultiplier. types, K2CsSb and Rb2CsSb, having peak
Eq. (32) implies that it is highly desirable quantum efficiencies in excess of 25%, pro-
that all emitted photons be collected at the vide the best spectral match to the emission
photomultiplier faceplate. This collection from most scintillators.
problem can be simplified by careful selec- The uniformity of the photocathode, i.e.,
tion of the shape and dimensions of the scin- the variation in quantum efficiency at a
tillator to match the photomultiplier photo- given wavelength as a function of position
cathode dimensions. The coating of all sides on the photocathode, is also important.
of the scintillator except that which is to be Because the number of photoelectrons
exposed to the photomultiplier faceplate emitted for a constant number of photons
with a material that is highly reflective for incident on the photocathode is proportional
the wavelengths of the photons emitted by to the quantum efficiency any variation in
the scintillator also proves helpful. Because quantum efficiency as a function of position
NaI:Tl is damaged by exposure to moist air, results in an undesirable variation in the
it is usually packaged in an aluminum case number of photoelectrons emitted as a func-
lined with highly reflective MgO or Al2O3 tion of position.
powder; the NaI:Tl scintillator is provided When the scintillation is fairly bright, i.e.,
with an exit window of glass or quartz. To when a large number of photons are pro-
avoid total internal reflection, it is important duced per scintillation, and when the scin-
that the indices of refraction of the scin- tillator is thick in comparison to its
tillator material, its window, any light guide, diameter, as shown in Fig. 105(a), the
and the photomultiplier faceplate match as photocathode is approximately uniformly il-
closely as possible. luminated during each scintillation. How-
If it is not convenient for the photomulti- ever, if the scintillator is thin in comparison
plier to be directly coupled to the scintillator, to its diameter, as shown in Fig. 105(b), or if
as when the photomultiplier entrance win- the scintillation is very weak, the illumina-
dow is not flat, light guides can be used. tion of the photocathode as a function of
Again, care should be taken in the design of position is closely related to the position of
the light guide to assure maximum light origin of the scintillation; therefore, photo-
transmission. The outer side or surface of cathode uniformity is much more important
the light guide should be polished and coated when a thin scintillator is used. In this case,
with a highly reflective material. In some the use of a light guide may be advan-
tageous. Photocathode uniformity also be-
*Actually, the variance in the number of photons ex- comes more important as the energy of the
iting from the crystal per event is much higher than ex- incident radiation becomes less and the
pected from the simple expression of Eq. (32). See the
discussion in Chapter 4 on “Scintillation Counting” number of photons per disintegration is
related to Eq. G-l 11. reduced.

95
Photomultiplier Handbook

REFLECTIVE
,-COATING
either by reflected light or by excitation of
photoelectrons f r o m p h o t o c a t h o d e
deposited on the side walls of the envelope.
At high count rates, tubes having copper-
beryllium dynodes generally provide greater
stability than tubes having cesium-antimony
dynodes, although for low count rates the
latter prove to be satisfactory. A tube having
good stability may be expected to shift in
gain by no more than 7% in several months
of continuous operation at a count rate of
10,000 per second. Variation of pulse height
REFLECTIVE or gain with count rate is also of importance.
/-COATING
Well-designed tubes should show a variation
in pulse height of less than 1% between
COUPLING
FLUID
count rates of 1000 per second and of 10,000
per second, related to the photopeak, using
(b)
137Cs and a NaI:Tl crystal.
Photomultiplier dark noise is of particular
92CS -32442 importance in scintillation-counting applica-
Fig. 105 - Scintillator geometries: (a) thick in tions when the energy of the ionizing radia-
comparison to diameter; (6) thin in com- tion is small, or when very little energy is
parison to diameter. transferred to the scintillation medium; in
short, when the flash per event represents
In some photomultipliers, the collection only a few photons. If a photomultiplier is
efficiency for photoelectrons decreases near coupled to a scintillator and voltage is ap-
the outer edges of the photocathode; plied, the composite of all noise pulses
therefore, best results are obtained when the coming from the photomultiplier is referred
scintillator is slightly smaller in diameter to as the background of the system. The plot
than the photocathode. of a frequency distribution of these pulses as
a function of energy is shown in Fig. 106.
Significant Photomultiplier Characteristics.
In scintillation-counting applications (See
also the section on “Pulse Counting” in
Chapter 4, Photomultiplier Characteristics),
a photomultiplier should be selected to pro-
vide a photocathode diameter matching that
of the crystal to be used. The most important
characteristic of the tube to be used in scin-
tillation counting is then the effective photo-
cathode sensitivity to blue and near-ultra-
violet wavelengths. The effective photocath-
ode sensitivity includes the basic quantum PULSE HEIGHT
efficiency and the collection efficiency of the 92CS-32443
electron-optical system. Tubes having
Venetian-blind dynodes provide a fairly large Fig. 106 - Distribution of radiation back-
opening to the first dynode area and thus ground pulses as a function of energy. A cali-
bration spectrum showing the 137CS photo-
frequently have better collection efficiency peak is included for reference.
than tubes having a focused-dynode struc-
ture, although the focused structure is much
better for time resolution. Photomultipliers The well-defined peaks seen in the figure are
having the recent “tea-cup” type of first caused by external radiations and can be
dynode generally have very good collection reduced by placing the photomultiplier and
efficiency and, in addition, are designed to scintillator in a lead or iron vault to reduce
provide increased photocathode emission background radiation.

96
Photomultiplier Applications

It is desirable that the background count with a velocity greater than the velocity of
of the scintillation counter be as low as light in the dielectric (i.e., v greater than c/n,
possible. Photomultipliers have been devel- where n is the index of refraction of the
oped in which the background count is kept dielectric). Polarization of the dielectric by
low by the use of radioactively clean metal the particle results in the development of an
cans instead of glass-bulb enclosures and electromagnetic wave as the dielectric
faceplates of either Lucalox* or sapphire in- relaxes. If the velocity of the particle is
stead of glass. As an additional aid in reduc- greater than the velocity of light, construc-
ing background, the scintillation counter can tive interference occurs and a conical wave-
be surrounded by another scintillator, such front develops, as illustrated in Fig. 107.
as a plastic sheet equipped with its own
photomultipliers. The output from this scin- with respect to the direction of the particle is
tillation shield is then fed into an anticoin- given by the expression
cidence gate with the output from the scin-
tillation counter. The gating helps to reduce
the background contributions from both in- (33)
ternal and external radioactive con-
taminants. where n is the index of refraction of the
Liquid Scintillation Counting
In liquid scintillation counting, the scin- velocity to the velocity of light. The spectral
energy distribution of the radiation increases
tillation medium is a liquid and the ionizing
radiations to be detected are usually low-
limited by the absorption of the medium.
energy beta rays. Because low-energy beta
rays cannot penetrate a scintillation con- Cerenkov radiation is the electromagnetic
tainer, the radioactive material is dissolved counterpart of the shock wave produced in a
in a solution containing the scintillator. The gas by an object traveling faster than sound.
scintillator is generally one or more fluores- It is highly directional and occurs mostly in
cent solutes in an organic solvent. The beta- the near-ultraviolet part of the elec-
ray energy is transferred by ionization and tromagnetic spectrum. Because the radiation
by excitation that in turn results in the emis- is propagated in the forward direction of
sion of photons in the near ultraviolet. In motion of the charged particle, as shown in
some cases, a wavelength shifter is also used Fig. 107, Cerenkov detectors can be made to
to provide radiation at somewhat longer detect only those particles that enter the
wavelengths more compatible with the spec- system from a restricted solid angle.
tral responsivity of the photomultiplier. Cerenkov radiation produced in an
Important characteristics of the photo- aqueous solution by beta emitters can be
multiplier in this application are again high useful in radioassay techniques because it is
responsivity in the spectral region of the unaffected by chemical quenching and
scintillation and low background count rate. because it offers the advantages, over liquid-
A useful figure of merit is the square of the scintillation counting techniques, of simpli-
counting efficiency divided by the back- fied sample preparation and the ability to ac-
ground coincident count rate in a paired commodate large-volume samples. Because
photomultiplier arrangement. Further a fast particle is required to produce
details of liquid scintillation counting ap- Cerenkov radiation, rather high-energy beta
plications are discussed in the section “Pulse rays are required; e.g., the threshold for
Counting” in Chapter 4, Photomultiplier Cerenkov radiation is 261 keV for electrons
Characteristics. in water. Because the photon yield for
Cerenkov Radiation Detection Cerenkov light is usually very low, the same
considerations concerning photomultiplier
Cerenkov radiation is generated when a selection apply for the Cerenkov detection as
charged particle passes through a dielectric for liquid-scintillation counting. The tube
selected should also be equipped with a
*Registered Trade Name for General Electric Co. faceplate capable of good ultraviolet trans-
material. mission. In some experiments it may be im-

97
Photomultiplier Handbook

portant to select photomultipliers for their be as short as possible, and the geometry and
speed of response. Depending upon the reflective coatings of the scintillator should
dispersion of the medium, the duration of be selected so that variations in path lengths
the Cerenkov flash can be very short. of photons from the scintillator to the
photocathode of the photomultiplier are
minimized. The photocathode of the photo-
multiplier selected should have a high quan-
tum efficiency. In addition, the transit-time
dispersion or jitter (variations in the time re-
quired for electrons leaving the photocath-
ode to arrive at the anode of the tube) should
be small over the entire photocathode area.
The major contribution to transit-time
spread occurs in the photocathode-to-first-
dynode region and may be a result of the in-
itial kinetic energies of the emitted photo-
electrons and their angle of emission. Focus-
ing aberrations, and the single-electron
response or rise time, i.e., the output-pulse
shape at the anode for a single photoelectron
impinging on the first dynode, may also be
of some importance. Although the single-
electron response theoretically does not have
much effect on time resolution, it does
change the triggering threshold at which the
best time resolution can be obtained.
The most commonly used time-spectro-
scopy techniques include leading-edge tim-
ing, zero-crossover timing, and constant-
Time Spectroscopy fraction-of-pulse-height-trigger timing. The
technique used depends on the time resolu-
In addition to the energy spectroscopy tion and counting efficiency required and the
described above, there are occasions when it range of the pulse heights encountered. A
is of advantage to measure time differences block diagram of a basic time spectrometer
such as between a pair of gamma rays or a is shown in Fig. 108.
combination of gamma rays and particles in Leading-edge timing makes use of a fixed
cascade de-exciting some level in a nucleus. threshold on the anode-current pulse and
In time spectroscopy, some special con- provides good time resolution over a narrow
siderations must be made in selecting the range of pulse heights. The fractional pulse
scintillator, photomultipliers, and technique height F at which the triggering threshold is
of analyzing the signals from the photomul- set is defined as follows:
tipliers.
In a photomultiplier, time resolution is
proportional to (n) - 1/2, where n is the (34)
average number of photoelectrons per event.
It is therefore important to choose a scin-
tillator material that provides a high light where Vt is the discriminator threshold, and
yield for a given energy of detected radia- Va is the peak amplitude of the anode-
tion. It is also important that the variation of current pulse. The fractional pulse height
the time of interaction of the radiation with has a considerable effect on the time resolu-
the scintillator be as small as possible. This tion obtained; best results are usually ob-
minimum variation is assured by attention to tained with F equal to 0.2.
scintillator thickness and source-to-detector In fast zero-crossover timing, the anode
geometry. The decay time constant of the pulse is differentiated. This differentiation
light-emitting states in the scintillator should produces a bipolar output pulse that triggers

98
Photomultiplier Applications

TIMING
PULSE
DETECTOR I NUMBER TIME
OF EVENTS SPECTRUM

SOURCE OF
COINCIDENT
RADIATION

MULTICHANNEL
DETECTOR 2 (PULSE HEIGHT)
ANALYZER

Fig. 108 - Generalized block diagram of a time spectrometer.

the timing discriminator at the zero A variety of sondes are used in selected
crossover, the time required to collect ap- combinations to determine various aspects
proximately 50 per cent of the total charge in of the lithology (the character of a rock for-
the photomultiplier pulse. Zero-crossover mation), including density, of the media
timing is second to leadingedge timing for along the bore hole. The combinations of
time-resolution work with narrow pulse- sondes used depend very much on the bore-
height ranges, but is better than the leading- hole media. For example, when a formation-
edge method for large pulse-height ranges. density sonde is used in combination with a
In constant-fraction triggering, the point neutron sonde in liquid-filled bore holes,
on the leading edge of the anode-current both lithology and porosity can be deter-
pulse at which leading-edge timing data in- mined. The same pair of sondes allows the
dicate that the best time resolution can be measurement of gas and liquid saturation in
obtained is used regardless of the pulse bore holes drilled through reservoirs of low-
height. For this reason, constant-fraction- pressure gas. The use of the formation-
of-pulse-height timing is the best method for density sonde, along with either an induction
obtaining optimum time resolution no or a sonic sonde, permits a similar type of
matter what the pulse-height range. determination. The final result of the
logging activity is information concerning
the existence of hydrocarbons and other
geological media of interest in establishing
an oil field.
Oil-Well Logging The formation-density sonde is one of the
Logging is the term given to the method of more sophisticated logging devices. Its
determination of the mineral composition operational elements are encased in a rugged
and structure a few miles under the earth’s cylindrical housing, as shown in Fig. 109. It
surface. Oil-well logging companies gather is designed to withstand the high tempera-
data by means of probes, or sondes, that ex- ture and shock encountered in probing bore
amine the geological media along very deep holes miles deep under the earth’s surface.
bore holes. The probes determine various The sonde contains a gamma-ray source,
physical and chemical characteristics of the such as radioactive cesium 137, a detector
material in their vicinity. Measurements consisting of a sodium iodide crystal and a
made by the probes comprise the log. photomultiplier tube, a gamma-ray shield

99
Photomultiplier Handbook

ELECTRONICS

PRESSURE FOOT

GAMMA SHIELD

Fig. 109 - Formation-density sonde sends gamma rays into rock formation and then detects
returns with photomultiplier.

for the detector, a pressure foot that presses lustrated in Fig. 110. Most of the decrease is
the sonde against the bore-hole wall, and the result of photocathode sensitivity loss,
operating electronics. The objective of this but some is associated with the crystal. Be-
sonde is to determine the bulk density of the cause of the loss in photocathode response
material in the region of the probe. and the increase in thermionic emission with
Gamma rays from the source interact with temperature, the desired signal is finally lost
the atoms in the geological medium. in the background noise at a temperature
Compton-scattered gamma rays are detected near 200°C. Permanent damage to the pho-
by the crystal and photomultiplier in the tocathode may also be expected after many
sonde. A knowledge of gamma-ray penetra- cycles of operation at 200°C.
tion of bulk media, mass absorption data,
and the special effects resulting from the
chemical nature of various geological media
allows the information imparted by the
pulses to be deciphered by the electronics
into bulk-density data, which becomes the
substance of the geological formation-
density log.
Because of the increase in temperature
with the depth of the bore hole-to perhaps
150°C at 15,000 feet-a most important
92cs - 32447
characteristic of the photomultiplier is its
resistance to high temperature. Of the Fig. 110 - Pulse-height resolution and pulse
numerous photocathodes which have been height as a function of temperature for a pho-
developed, the Na2KSb “bialkali” photo- tomultiplier having a Na2KSb photocathode
cathode is the most stable at elevated tem- and used with a Nal:TI crystal and a 137Cs
source.
peratures.95 (See Fig. 83 and related text.)
As the temperature is increased on a pho-
tomultiplier with a Na2KSb photocathode Gamma-Ray Camera
coupled to a NaI:Tl crystal, the pulse height The gamma-ray camera originally de-
(137Cs source) gradually decreases, as il- scribed by Anger96is a more sophisticated

100
Photomultiplier Applications

version of the scintillation counter, and is on the left side of the organ are caused to im-
used for locating tumors or other biological pact the left side of the scintillation crystal,
abnormalities. The general principle of the etc. The crystal covers an area about 10
gamma camera is illustrated in Fig. 111. A inches or more in diameter.
Behind the crystal are, perhaps, 19 photo-
multiplier tubes in a hexagonal array. The
light of the individual scintillation is not col-
limated but spreads out to all of the 19 tubes.
The location of the point of scintillation
origin is obtained by an algorithm depending
upon the individual signals from each of the
photomultipliers. Resolution is obtained in
this manner to about 1/4 inch. Each scintilla-
tion is then correspondingly located by a
single spot on a cathode-ray tube. Counting
is continued until several hundred thousand
92CS-32448
counts are obtained and the organ in ques-
Fig. 111 - Structure of gamma-ray camera. tion is satisfactorily delineated. Fig. 112 is a
reproduction of such a scintigram. The par-
radioactive isotope combined in a suitable ticular advantage of the gamma camera over
compound is injected into the blood stream other techniques such as the CT scanner
of the patient or is ingested orally. Certain (described below) is that the gamma camera
compounds or elements are taken up prefer- provides functional information. For exam-
entially by tumors or by specific organs of ple: Tc-99m polyphosphate is used to reveal
the body, such as iodine in the thyroid gland. bone diseases; 123I is used in thyroid studies;
127
As the radioactive isotope disintegrates, Xe is inhaled to provide information on
gamma rays are ejected from the location of lung ventilation.
the concentration. Of great concern to the designer of gamma
A lead collimator permits gamma rays to cameras and, of course, to the ultimate
pass through it only when they are parallel to customer is the inherent resolution capability
the holes in the lead; gamma rays at other of the device. Generally, with more photo-
angles are absorbed in the lead. In this way, multiplier tubes sampling the scintillation
the location of the gamma-ray source may be distribution, the delineation becomes more
determined because gamma rays originating precise. Most of the original cameras utilized

Fig. 172 - Scintigrams obtained by Lancaster General HospitaI with a gamma camera. The scin-
tiphoto on the left shows multiple emboli in the right lung; photo on right shows lungs after
clearing. The isotope technitium-99m was used to tag albumin microspheres-a colloidal form
of the albumin protein, with particles ranging in size from 2 to 50 microns. These particles are
injected into the bloodstream and are filtered and trapped in the lung capillary bed; the scan
can then determine those areas where the capillary bed is intact. Areas of diminished blood
flow show as “cold spots.”

101
Photomultiplier Handbook

a hexagonal array of 19 tubes. By adding This recalibration could be done periodically


another circumferential row, an array of 37 (once a day) and would contribute signifi-
provided better resolution. In the same man- cantly to consistent, distortion-free opera-
ner cameras are now available with 61 tubes tion.
and even 91. (Note the numerical progres- Computerized Tomographic
sion of these hexagonal arrays: 1 + 6 + 12 + X-Ray Scanners
18 + 24 + 30.) Different photomultiplier
dimensions also are used to provide in- The computerized tomographic (CT) scan-
struments with appropriate portability or ner produces an X-ray image in an entirely
coverage. Most common has been the 3-inch different manner from that of conventional
photomultiplier, but a large number of radiography.* The standard X-ray picture is
2-inch tubes are also used and there is con- a shadowgraph. Thus, a chest X-ray pro-
sideration of the use of 1 1/2-inch tubes. Hex- duces an overlay of shadows from the rib
agonal 2- and 3-inch tubes have been cage and internal body structure. Interpreta-
developed to provide better space utilization, tion is frequently difficult because of the in-
and a photomultiplier with a square terfering images. The CT scanner, on the
faceplate is now available. other hand, provides a density image that
represents a cross section of the patient-a
Resolution of the gamma-ray camera de- tomograph. Thus, a CT scan of the head
pends fundamentally upon the pulse-height would show the outer bone structure, the
resolution of the photomultiplier and, folds of the brain, and possibly a tumor in-
hence, the quantum efficiency of the photo- side the skull as though a complete thin slice
cathode. The most common photocathode had been taken through the middle of the
selected for gamma-ray-camera application head. This tomographic image is produced
is the bialkali (K2CsSb). Also important in by exposing the head to X-rays at many dif-
the determination of good pulse-height ferent angles of entrance. The multiplicity of
resolution is collection efficiency of the shadow-type images thus formed are ana-
photoelectrons. Large first dynodes are ap- lyzed by a computer, which produces a
propriate and the “tea-cup” configuration is reconstructed cross-section density image.
used to advantage. A diagram of a typical CT scanner is
Because each scintillation is sensed by a shown in Fig. 113. An X-ray source pro-
number of the photomultipliers in the array, ducing a fan beam rotates around the patient
the spatial uniformity of the photomultiplier in a few seconds. (Short periods are desirable
response and its angular response become to minimize artifacts in the final recon-
important especially as related to the structed image of the patient’s cross section
algorithm of the gamma-ray-camera design. caused by unavoidable motions.) An array
The camera design may also incorporate of several hundred detectors in an outer cir-
modifications in the light pipe such as cle surrounding the patient provides the data
grooves or etched patterns to provide im- from which a computer derives a tomo-
proved spatial location of the scintillations. graphic view of the patient’s body or head.
Finally, the stability of the photomulti- A typical tomograph is shown in Fig. 114.
plier is important in maintaining the resolu- Three different X-ray detector systems
tion and spatial integrity of the display. have been developed for use in CT scanners.
Although the photomultiplier currents are All are in use at present by the various CT-
generally small in this application, changes scanner manufacturers. Each detector
can occur in the photomultiplier gain which system has its problems, but all seem com-
would then result in positional errors in the parable in ultimate performance.
CRT display. Some gamma-ray-camera The original CT-scanner development
designs include a means of recalibrating the utilized a crystal and photomultiplier. A
array of photomultipliers so that the pulse- subsequent development used a tube con-
height “window” is the same for each tube. taining xenon gas at several atmospheres.
The density of the gas and the high atomic
"For a more detailed discussion, see the article in
Scientific American, October, 1975, p 56, “Image weight of xenon provide sufficient absorp-
Reconstruction from Projections,” R. Gordon, G.T. tion so that a large fraction of the X-rays are
Herman, and S.A. Johnson. detected by the resulting ion current. More

102
Photomultiplier Applications

ARRAY OF STATIONARY
DETECTO RS EN C IR C LIN G
PATIENT

92cS-32662
Fig- 113 - Diagram of a typical CT scanner. X-ray source producing a fan beam
rotates around the patient. Array of several hundred detectors in outer circle pro
vides the data from which a computer derives a tomographic (cross-section) view of
the patient’s body or head.

recently, detector packages have been The photomultiplier system uses a BGO
developed using silicon photocells and a (bismuth germanate) crystal usually coupled
CdWO4 crystal. This latter detector package to the photomultiplier by means of a light
appears to have cost advantages. Detection pipe. Spectral emission from the crystal is il-
with the silicon photocell was not feasible in lustrated in Fig. 115. It is rich in the blue-
the early development of CT scanners, but a
combination of higher-speed machines and
the improved light output of the CdWO4
crystal, relative to the Bi3Ge4O12 (BGO)
crystal, has made this combination an
economic possibility.

I I I I I
300 400 500 600
WAVELENGTH-NANOMETERS

92CS-32452

Fig. 115 - Fluorescence spectrum of


Bi4Ge3O12 (Data from Weber and Mon-
champ97).

Fig. 114 - Tomograph showing a “slice” of green region and thus is a good match for
the thoracic cavity. Lung tissue, blood ves- bialkali photocathodes. Recently, it has been
sels, air passages, ribs, and spine may be ob- found that the Rb2CsSb photocathode is
served. (Courtesy Pfizer Medical Systems, more suitable for use with the BGO crystal
Inc.). than the K2CsSb photocathode because of

103
Photomultiplier Handbook

the somewhat higher response and better


spectral match. See Fig. 10. The Rb2CsSb
photocathode is also more suitable because it
has a lower surface resistance than the
K2CsSb photocathode. See Fig. 36.
In the CT-scanner systems, pulse-height
discrimination is not used nor are individual
scintillations counted. The photomultiplier
is used as an integrator of the light flux in
each density measurement. It is important
that the photomultiplier provide a linear
translation of the light flux into output cur-
rent and also that there be no overshoot or
undershoot in photocurrents as the X-ray 92CS -32453

beam path changes from outside to through fig. 116 - Principle of positron coincidence
the patient resulting in a signal variation of detection. A disintegration at “a ” results in
1000:1 or more. Typical maximum photo- oppositely directed gamma rays which are
cathode current (X-ray path through air detected in coincidence by the pair of scintil-
only) is of the order of 2 nanoamperes de- lator-photomultiplier detectors. An event at
"b” results in a count in only one of the detec-
pending on operation conditions. The pho- tors. (From G.L. Brownell and C.A. Burn-
tomultiplier is usually operated at a modest ham98)
gain figure of the order of 60,000. High
photocathode sensitivity is important in pro- one plane may be utilized to provide three-
viding minimum noise in the signal so that dimensional data.
the inherent signal-to-noise ratio in the Reponse time of the photomultiplier is of
transmitted X-ray beam is retained and the particular importance in positron cameras
X-ray dose to the patient in minimized. The because the discrimination against spurious
photomultiplier tubes used are either 1/2 inch coincidences improves as the resolution time
or 3/4 inch in diameter, depending upon the of the system decreases. Photomultiplier
configuration of the particular CT scanner. transit time spreads of the order of 2
Positron Camera nanoseconds or less are advantageous in
these systems although other time- factors,
vides tomographic presentations based on related to the crystal scintillator (CsF has a
coincident gamma-ray emission accompany- time constant of 5 nanoseconds) and cir-
ing annihilation of a positron and an elec- cuitry may limit the system discrimination
tron. Tracer radionuclides such as 11C, 13N, time to perhaps 10-20 nanoseconds. Photo-
or 15O emit a positron upon disintegration. multiplier tubes of 3/4-inch and 1 1/2-inch
In the presence of matter such as the brain, diameter have been the sizes preferred. Of
the positron interacts almost instantly with course, high quantum efficiency matching
an electron resulting in the simultaneous the spectral emission of the scintillators
emission of two gamma rays each having an (NaI:Tl, CsF, Bi4Ge3O12) is also important.
energy of 511 keV, but moving in nearly op- Photometric and Spectrometric Applications
posite directions. When a pair of detectors, The side-on photomultiplier has in gener-
one on either side of the patient, observes al, been the most widely used tube in photo-
coincident events, the point of radionuclide metric and spectrometric applications. The
disintegration lies on a line joining the two side-on tube is relatively small and has a
detectors. See Fig. 116. rectangularly shaped photocathode that
A number of positron cameras have been matches the shape of the light beam from an
designed and built, some commercially. exit slit. Spectrometric applications require
Various geometries and reconstruction tech- tubes with good stability, high anode sen-
niques have been utilized. Complications in sitivity, low dark current, and broad spectral
design arise when each detector can be in sensitivity. A high signal-to-noise ratio is im-
coincidence with any of several detectors on portant because of the generally small signal
the opposite side of the patient. More than levels.

104
Photomultiplier Applications

Before the development of the new measure of the density. The exposure time
negative-electron-affinity type photoemit- using white light and the lens opening used
ters, such as gallium arsenide, it was to obtain the satisfactory print are noted.
necessary to use more than one detector in Next, an area of the production negative
the measurement of radiant energy from the similar to that on the master negative is
near-ultraviolet to the near-infrared part of chosen and the relative proportions of the
the spectrum. A photomultiplier having a red, blue, and green light transmitted are
gallium arsenide photoemitter can now be measured again. By use of magenta and
used to detect radiant energy from the cutoff yellow correcting filters, the color trans-
point of the photomultiplier window in the mitted by the production negative can be
near-ultraviolet to 910 nanometers. balanced with that of the master negative.
Spectrophotometry. Spectrophotometers When the production negative is used, the
measure the optical density of materials as a lens opening is adjusted so that the exposure
function of wavelength and require photo- time with white light is the same as it was for
multipliers having a broad spectral range. exposure of the master negative. When the
The results of measurements of the absorp- values of color-correcting filters and ex-
tion characteristics of substances are fre- posure times thus determined are used,
quently expressed in terms of optical density. prints from the production negative can be
This logarithmic method correlates with the obtained which are very nearly as good as
way the human eye discriminates differences those obtained with the master color
in brightness. negative.
The transmission density D is defined by Most color-balancing photometers employ
steady light sources and handle small-
amplitude signals. Consequently, the photo-
multiplier used must have low values of dark
current and good stability. The life expectan-
cy of tubes used in this application is long
because the small signal levels reduce the ef-
where PO is the radiant flux incident upon a fects of fatigue which might otherwise
sample, Pt is the radiant flux transmitted by adversely affect measurement accuracy and
a sample, and T is the transmission figure repeatability. Low-current operation also
equal to Pt/Po. Density measurements are provides for linear operation where the
useful in various applications to films and anode current is proportional to the input
other transparencies in addition to chemical flux over the range of transmission values
analysis where concentration of a solution is measured. The intensity range of a color-
studied as a function of wavelength. balancing photometer, given in terms of the
ratio of the radiant flux incident upon a
Color-Balancing Photometry. A color- sample to the radiant flux transmitted by a
balancing photometer is used to determine sample, is usually of the order of 1000 to 1 or
color balance and exposure times necessary more. It must be remembered that as in most
to produce photographic color prints from photomultiplier applications, the power sup-
color negatives. Such a device is shown in plies used must be capable of providing
block diagram form in Fig. 117. It allows the voltages sufficiently regulated and free from
matching of the relative proportions of red, ripple to assure minimum variation in sen-
blue, and green light transmitted by a pro- sitivity with possible line-voltage variation.
duction negative to those of a master color
negative. As the first step in the matching Densitometry. Although techniques such
process, the master negative is used to make as those employed in the color-balancing
an acceptable print. This first print is pro- photometer may be used successfully to
duced through trial and error by measure- measure density over an intensity range of 10
ment of the relative proportions of red, blue, or 100 to 1 (density 1 to density 2), their use
and green light transmitted through a key becomes increasingly difficult as the range is
area of the master negative; the key area increased to 1000 to 10,000 to 1 (density 3 to
usually consists of a flesh tone or a gray density 4) or more. The large dynamic ranges
area. The amount of light transmitted is a encountered in color-film processing place

105
Photomultiplier Handbook

92CS-32454

Fig. 117 - Block diagram of a color-balancing photometer.

severe requirements upon the photomulti- tometer to be equipped with a meter or read-
plier because it must be operated in a out scale that is linear and provides precise
constant-voltage mode. Problems develop in readings even at high optical densities.
this mode at high-density values at which the A simplified circuit of a logarithmic
dark current may become a significant pro- photometer capable of measuring film
portion of the signal current. The random density with high sensitivity and stability and
nature of this dark current, which precludes of providing an appropriate logarithmic
its being “zeroed out”, may lead to output- electrical response and linear meter indica-
signal instability. As a result of the type of tion of density over three or four density
operation needed to produce the dynamic ranges is shown in Fig. 118.
range required in density measurements, the The circuit of Fig. 118, in which the
photomultiplier anode current is high at low photomultiplier operates at a constant cur-
density values. These high currents may rent, minimizes photomultiplier fatigue and
result in excessive fatigue, and, depending eliminates the need for a regulated high-
upon the operating point, perhaps non- voltage supply. The feedback circuit il-
linear operation. As with the color-balancing lustrated develops a signal across Rl propor-
photometer, a well regulated low-ripple tional to the anode current. This signal con-
power supply is needed to assure accurate trols the bias applied to the control device
measurements. and automatically adjusts the current in the
voltage-divider network. By this means, the
Logarithmic Photometry. In the measure- dynode voltage is maintained at a level such
ment of absorption characteristics, the that the anode current is held constant at a
changes in brightness levels vary over such a value selected to minimize the effects of
large range that it is advantageous to use a fatigue. At optical densities of 3, the dynode
photometer whose response is approximately supply voltage may be 1000 volts; at optical
logarithmic. This response enables the pho- densities of less than 1, the dynode voltage

106
Photomultiplier Applications

COLOR FILTERS

92CM-32455

Fig. 118 - Block diagram of a logarithmic photometer.

may be as low as 300 volts. Dynode voltage Spectrometric applications include absorp-
is translated into density by means of the tion, emission, Raman, solar, and vacuum
scale on voltmeter V1 . spectrometry, and fluorometry.
Because there is an approximately ex- Absorption Spectrometry. Absorption
ponential variation of sensitivity of a spectrometry, used to detect radiant energy
photomultiplier with applied voltage (see in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared
Fig, 48), in a constant-current mode, the ranges, is one of the most important of the
voltage varies almost linearly with the instrumental methods of chemical analysis.
logarithm of the input light flux. The voltage It has gained this importance largely as a
is thus close to a linear measure of the result of the development of equipment
density. A compensating circuit for the lack employing photomultipliers as detectors.
of linearity is indicated in Fig. 118 in the The principle underlying absorption spec-
form of a variable and automatic shunt trometry is the spectrally selective absorp-
across the voltmeter V1 . As the density tion of radiant energy by a substance. The
values increase, the effective value of the measurement of the amount of absorption
shunt resistance is reduced. This circuit not aids the scientist in determining the amount
only compensates for photomultiplier non- of various substances contained in a sample.
linearity, but also for the non-linearity of the The essential components of an absorp-
optical system employed. tion spectrometer are a source of radiant
energy, a monochromator for isolating the
Spectrometry desired spectral band, a sample chamber, a
Spectrometry, the science of spectrum detector for converting the radiant energy to
analysis, applies the methods of physics and electrical energy, and a meter to measure the
physical chemistry to chemical analysis. electrical energy. The spectral ranges of the

107
Photomultiplier Handbook

source and detector must be appropriate to teraction are so few in number that only the
the range in which measurements are to be highest-quality photomultipliers can be used
made. In some cases this range may include as detectors. The tube should have high col-
one wavelength. In others, it may scan all lection efficiency, high gain, good multipli-
wavelengths between the near-ultraviolet cation statistics, low noise, and high quan-
and the near-infrared. tum efficiency over the spectral range of in-
terest. Fig. 119 shows a Raman spectrum. To
Raman Spectroscopy. There are two types reduce the effects of Rayleigh scattering, a
of molecular scattering of light, Rayleigh source of noise in Raman spectroscopy, the
and Raman. Rayleigh scattering is the elastic photomultiplier is placed at right angles to
collision of photons with the molecules of a the light beam, whose wavelength has been
homogeneous medium. Because the scat- chosen as long as possible within the range
tered photons do not gain energy from or of interest.
lose energy to the molecule, they have the
classic example of Rayleigh scattering of
light from gas molecules is the scattering of
the sun’s light rays as they pass through the
earth’s atmosphere. This scattering accounts
for the brightness and blueness of the sky.
Raman scattering is the inelastic collision
of photons with molecules that produces
scattered photons of higher or lower energy
than the initial photons. During the collision
there is a quantized exchange of energy that,
depending on the state of the molecules,
determines whether the initial photon gains 92CS-32456

or loses energy. The differences in energy Fig. 119 - Typical Raman spectrum.
levels are characteristic of the molecule. If
Fluorometry. The fluorometer is another
emitted after the interaction has a frequency instrument which utilizes the photomulti-
plier’s capability for low-light-level detec-
tion, its high gain, and its good signal-to-
noise ratio. There are numerous applications
of this instrument in the fields of
from the molecule that was in the excited biochemistry, medical research, and in-
state. In the reverse case, the initial photon dustrial toxicology. Typical applications in-
has given up energy to the molecule in the clude the detection and measurement of
unexcited state. minute quantities of air pollutants and of
Early Raman instruments had a number components of the blood or urine. Some
of disadvantages and were difficult to use. It materials are detected by their own
was difficult to find a stable high-intensity fluorescence; others by their quenching ef-
light source and to discriminate against fects on the fluorescence of other materials.
Rayleigh scattering of the exciting line. With Illustrative of fluorometer operation is the
the recent development of high-quality optical design of a model designed by G. K.
monochromators and the advent of the laser Turner associates103 shown in Fig. 120. The
light source, a renewed interest in the Raman sample is irradiated by an ultraviolet source
effect as an analytical method of chemical filtered to eliminate longer wavelength com-
analysis has taken place. Raman spec- ponents of the lamp irradiation. Fluorescent
trophotometers are generally used to in- spectra at a longer wavelength pass through
vestigate the structure of molecules and to a second filter which eliminates scattered
supplement other methods of chemical ultraviolet radiation.
analysis, particularly infrared-absorption A second beam from the ultraviolet source
spectrometry. provides a calibrated reference flux. Both
The scattered photons from a Raman in- the fluorescent beam and the reference beam

108
Photomultiplier Applications

are directed to the photomultiplier and alter- Detection is limited by noise in the anode
nately sampled by means of the light inter- current. At low light levels the noise is
rupter. The output ac signal from the caused primarily by the fluctuations in dark
photomultiplier is processed to provide a current of the photomultiplier (as discussed
null signal by means of the light cam and the in the section, “Dark Current and Noise” in
attached dial records the fluorescence level. Chapter 4 Photomultiplier Characteristics
The null feature of the device eliminates er- and in Appendix G, “Statistical Theory of
rors from changes in the photomultiplier or Noise in Photomultiplier Tubes. ") The noise
from the ultraviolet source. A third flux in- may be minimized by reducing the band-
dicated by the FORWARD LIGHT PATH is width of the measuring system. For example,
provided so that even for an absence of a dc system may be used with a bandwidth of
fluorescence a balance is always possible. only a few hertz if an appropriate low-level
The BLANK KNOB provides an adjustment current meter is selected. Bandwidth can also
so that the calibration can be adjusted to the be reduced by some technique of averaging
zero fluorescence point. the current fluctuations over a period of
Low-Light-Level Detection time.
Systems for the detection of low light Another technique of charge integration is
levels make use of two basic techniques: to chop the light signal with a motor-driven
charge integration, in which the output chopper disk having uniformly spaced holes
photocurrent is considered as an integration or slots. The output current is then fed
of the anode pulses which originate from the through an amplifier having a narrow band-
individual photoelectrons, and the digital width tuned to the frequency of chop. Band-
technique in which individual pulses are widths of the order of 1 Hz are typical.
counted. Digital Method. In the digital method for
Charge-Integration Method. In the the detection of low light levels a series of
charge-integration method, either the output pulses, each corresponding to a pho-
transit-time spread of the photomultiplier or toelectron leaving the photocathode of a
the time characteristics of the anode circuit photomultiplier, appears at the anode. All of
cause the anode pulses to overlap and pro- the output pulses from the tube are shaped
duce a continuous, though perhaps noisy, by a preamplifier before they enter a pulse-
anode current. The current is modulated by amplitude discrimination circuit. Only those
turning the light off and on by means of pulses having amplitudes greater than some
some mechanical device such as a shutter or predetermined value and having the proper
light “chopper”. The signal becomes the dif- rise-time characteristics pass through to the
ference between the current in the light-on signal-processing circuits. The digital tech-
and light-off conditions. nique is superior to charge integration at

109
Photomultlpller Handbook

very low light levels because it eliminates the ratio can also be improved by decreasing the
dc leakage component of the dark current as number of dark-noise pulses. Because these
well as dark-current components originating pulses originate at the photocathode surface,
at places other than the photocathode. Fig. the number can be reduced by reducing the
121 shows a digital system in block form. area of the photocathode or by reducing the
In the special case in which the digital effective photocathode area by using elec-
technique is used to count single photons in- tron optics to image only a small part of the
cident upon the photocathode of a photo- photocathode on the first dynode. It may
multiplier, signal pulses appear at the anode also be desirable to cool the photomultiplier
with an average pulse amplitude PH equal to and thereby reduce the thermionic emission
em, where e is the electron charge and m is from the photocathode.
the photomultiplier gain. The number of In some applications not requiring the use
signal pulses Na arriving at the anode is of the full area of the semitransparent
given by photocathode, it may be useful to restrict the
active area of the photocathode by specially
(36) arranged magnetic fields104 and thus reduce
the collection of thermally emitted electrons
where N is the number of photons incident from non-utilized areas of the photocath-
on the ph ode. Fig. 123 illustrates the design of such
quantum efficiency of the photocathode at a magnetic defocusing system type PF-
the photon wavelength including a factor for 1011 which includes an 8852 photomulti-
the loss of light by reflection and absorption, plier (2-inch diameter, ERMA photocath-
and a factor for the loss resulting from im- ode, and GaP first dynode). The basic ele-
perfect electron-collection efficiency of the ment is a permanent magnet in the form of
front end of the photomultiplier. an annular ring (1) polarized so that the
The dark-noise pulses present in addition S-pole or N-pole is toward the photocath-
to the signal pulses originate mainly from ode. Pole pieces, spacers, and a magnetic-
single electrons and have a pulse-height shield cylinder complete the arrangement.
distribution as shown in the simplified dark- The resulting magnetic field is such that only
noise pulse-height-distribution spectrum of electrons emitted from the central portion of
Fig. 122. Region A of Fig. 122 includes the photocathode arrive at the first dynode.
circuit-originated noise, some single-electron Typical variation of photocathode response
pulses, and pulses caused by electrons as a function of the position of the incident
originating at the dynodes in the multiplier light is shown in Fig. 124. Note that the ef-
section. Pulses originating at the dynodes ex- fective diameter of the photocathode has
hibit less gain than the single-electron pulses been reduced to about one eighth of an inch.
from the cathode. Region B represents the Total dark emission at room temperature
single-electron pulse-height distribution and from the magnetically controlled photo-
is the region in which the single-photon cathode is reduced by approximately 80:1. If
signal pulses appear. Region C is caused by the tube is then cooled to - 20°C, the dark
cosmic-ray muons, after-pulsing, and radio- count is still further reduced to about two
active contaminants in the tube materials electrons per second.
and in the vicinity of the tube. To maximize
the ratio of signal pulses to noise pulses in Very-Low-Light-Level Photon-Counting
single-photon counting, lower- and upper- Technique. Before beginning very-low-light-
level discriminators should be located as level photon counting, the following special
shown in the figure. For a discussion of precautions must be taken:
signal-to-noise ratio and the statistics related 1. The power supply and interconnecting
to pulse counting, see “Pulse Counting Sta- circuits must have low-noise characteristics.
tistics” in Appendix G. 2. The optical system must be carefully
The signal-to-noise ratio may be improved designed to minimize photon loss and to pre-
by the square root of the total count time. vent movement of the image of the object on
Increasing the time of count is analogous to the photocathode, a possible cause of error
decreasing the bandwidth in the charge- if the cathode is non-uniform. It is generally
integration method. The signal-to-noise good practice to defocus the image on the

110
Photomultiplier Applications

ADJUSTABLE
PHOTOMULTIPLIER - - PULSE AMPLITUDE
DISCRIMINATOR

92cs-32458

Fig. 121- Block diagram illustrating a digital system for detection of low light levels.

photocathode, especially in the case of a


point source, to minimize problems which
may result from a non-uniform photocath-
ode.
3. The photomultiplier must be allowed
to stabilize before photon counting is begun.
The tube should not be exposed to
ultraviolet radiation before use and should,
if possible, be operated for 24 hours at the
desired voltage before the data are taken.
4. The photomultiplier should be
operated with the cathode at ground poten-
tial if possible. If the tube is operated with
the photocathode at negative high voltage,
care must be taken to prevent the glass
envelope of the tube from coming into con-
tact with conductors at ground potential or
noisy insulators such as bakelite or felt. 92CS-32460
Without this precaution, a very high dark Fig. 123 - Magnetic defocusing system
noise may result as well as permanent (PF1011) which includes type 8852 photomul-
damage to the photocathode. tiplier. This system permits collection of elec-
5. Large thermal gradients must not be trons only from the central part of the pho-
permitted across the tube as it is cooling. In tocathode and thus substantially reduces dark
addition, care must be taken to avoid ex- emission. Shown are (7) ceramic magnet, (2)
cessive condensation across the leads of the spacer-insulator, (3) magnet pole piece o f
tube or on the faceplate. black iron, and (4) magnetic shield cylinder.
The assembly is designed to fit over the 8852
envelope.

Photomultiplier Selection for Photon


Counting. In the selection of a photomulti-
plier for use in photon counting, several im-
portant parameters must be considered.
First, and most important, the quantum effi-
ciency of the photocathode should be as high
as possible at the desired wavelength. To
minimize the thermionic dark-noise emis-
sion, the photocathode area should be no
larger than necessary for signal collection;
the multiplier structure should utilize as
large a fraction as possible of the electrons
from the photocathode. The over-all tube
PULSE HEIGHT
92cs-32459
should have as low a dark noise as possible.
In some applications, the rise time and time-
Fig. 122 - Dark-noise pulse-height-distribu- resolution capabilities of the tube may also
tion spectrum. be important.

111
PhotomultIplier Handbook

DISTANCE FROM CENTER OF PHOTOCATHODE - INCHES


92CS-32461

Fig. 124 - Typical variation of photocathode sensitivity as a function of incident-light


spot position for an 8852 photomultiplier with the magnetic defocusing system of
Fig. 123 affixed to the tube.

A number of more recent developments in wavelength increases with increasing indium


photomultiplier design are of considerable content. Spectral-response curves for some
significance in photon counting. These of the more recent photocathodes are shown
developments fall into two major categories, in the section “Photoemission” in Chapter 2
secondary-emission materials and photo- Photomultiplier Design.
cathodes. Because of the superior statistics
A
of gallium phosphide (one of the more
recently developed secondary-emission
materials discussed in the section “Secon-
dary Emission” in Chapter 2 Photomulti-
plier Design), a tight single-electron distribu-
tion curve can be obtained, as shown in Fig.
79. The tight distribution permits easy loca-
tion of the pulse-height discriminator, as is
particularly evident when some of the signal
pulses are originated by two or more photo-
electrons leaving the cathode simultane-
ously. If the average number of photoelec-
trons leaving the photocathode per pulse
were three, a pulse-height distribution 92CS-32462

similar to that shown in Fig. 125 would be Fig. 125 - Pulse-height distribution obtained
obtained. Gallium phosphide provides a with a photomultiplier having a gallium
higher signal-to-noise ratio than would con- phosphide first dynode. Light level is such
ventional secondary-emitting materials such that three photoelectrons per pulse time is
as Be0 or Cs3Sb when used in the same tube. the most probable number.
Photocathode developments include
ERMA (Extended Red Multi-Alkali), a Astronomy105. Astronomers were among
semitransparent photocathode having a the first users of photomultiplier tubes. The
response to 940 nanometers, and several high quantum efficiency, low background
negative-electron-affinity materials. Perhaps noise, and high gain recommend the use of
the most significant of these materials is photomultipliers in various astronomical ap-
indium gallium arsenide, whose threshold plications. Requirements are often similar to

112
Photomultiplier Applications

those for low-level photometry or spec- tive run-away dark currents. But, by pulsing
trometry as discussed above. Applications the applied voltage, regenerative effects that
include the guidance of telescopes, intensity depend upon transit time of ions are
measurements, stellar spectrophotometry, eliminated. Post’s circuit is shown in Fig.
Doppler measurement of radial velocities, 126. Not all tubes he tried could tolerate this
and the measurement of stellar magnetic high voltage without field emission and
fields by measuring Zeeman displacements. break-down effects, but on those tubes
Side-on photomultipliers such as the 1P21 which were satisfactory initially or which he
are frequently used in these applications. was able to stabilize by application of
Refrigeration may be utilized to reduce repeated high-voltage pulses, he found some
background. Photon counting may be very interesting advantages. Peak pulse
adopted for very low signal measurement. amplitudes of 0.7 ampere were possible and
For applications requiring a wide spectral provided a 70-volt pulse to drive an
range, tubes with the GaAs:Cs photocathode oscilloscope directly. Thus, a single
are very useful. photoelectron resulted in a 10-to-15-volt out-
Pulsed Photomultipliers put pulse; the tubes were operated at gains in
the neighborhood of 10 9The measured rise
Some years ago, Post106 demonstrated time he found to be slightly more than one
improved characteristics of photomultiplier nanosecond. Refer to Fig. 71. Note in Fig.
tubes by operating them with a pulsed 126 the termination of the coaxial output
voltage supply. He used side-on photomulti- line at the photomultiplier end which re-
pliers types 931A and 1P21 with an applied duced the output RC time constant. It is
voltage of between 4 and 5 kilovolts pulsed pointed out by Post “the loss of a factor of
for 2.5 microseconds or less. At these two in voltage by terminating at the multi-
voltages, 400 to 500 volts per stage, the plier is compensated by voltage doubling at
secondary emission for Cs-Sb dynodes is at a the unterminated end.”
maximum (see Fig. 19) so that the gain
becomes relatively insensitive to the varia- Laser Range Finding
tion of the maximum voltage applied. Nor- A simplified block diagram of a laser
mally, these tubes could not be operated at range finder is shown in Fig. 127. Such a
such high voltages without incurring destruc- device may be utilized by the military for

- 4 kV
PULSE

Fig. 126 - Post’s voltage divider and bypass capacitor connections of photomulti-
plier to output coaxial line for pulsed high-voltage operation.105

113
Photomultiplier Handbook

92CS - 32464

Fig. 127 - Simplified block diagram of a laser range finder.

tank fire control or in various industrial scattered laser return beam. The signal-to-
surveying type applications. Typically, a noise ratio of such a pulse is proportional to
laser is pulsed in a time range of 25 the square root of the product of the number
nanoseconds. Measurements are made of of incident photons on the photomultiplier
beam travel time with a photomultiplier pick and the quantum efficiency of the photoelec-
tric conversion. If the atmospheric attenua-
may be used with a 3/4-inch diameter photo- tion is neglected and it is assumed that the
multiplier having an S-20 spectral response. laser spot falls entirely within the target, the
maximum range in this case would be in-
and solid-state junction lasers such as creased as the square root of the quantum ef-
ficiency of the photocathode. This increase
of the longer wavelengths, the detectors are follows because the number of photons col-
more often silicon avalanche diodes. An in- lected by the aperture of the receiving system
terference filter is used to pass the varies inversely as the square of the distance
wavelength of radiant energy of the laser from the target.
with a minimum of background radiation. In cases where the laser pulse must be
Photomultipliers used in laser range finding detected against the background of a
may have a relatively small photocathode, daylight scene, it is said to be background
but they must exhibit high quantum efficien- limited. If atmospheric attenuation again is
cy, low dark noise, and fast rise time or an neglected, the signal is proportional to the
equivalent large bandwidth. Most photomul- number of incident photons times the quan-
tipliers can provide bandwidths exceeding tum efficiency of the photocathode. The
100 MHz and at the same time maintain number of incident photons from the return
relatively large output signals. The band- beam is inversely proportional to the square
width of a photomultiplier can be limited by of the range, again assuming that the target
the RC time constant of the anode circuit. is larger than the laser spot. The noise,
The range of a laser-range-finding system however, is independent of the range and is
depends on system parameters and opera- determined by the square root of the product
tional environment. The maximum range of of the incident background radiation and the
a given system may be signal-photon limited quantum efficiency. Thus, to a first approx-
or background limited. The photon-limited imation the range is increased in the
case exists when the background and de- background-limited case only by the fourth
tector noise can be considered negligible. root of the quantum efficiency. Because the
The maximum range in this case is deter- photomultiplier current caused by the
mined by the signal-to-noise ratio in the background radiation is proportional to the
photoelectron pulse corresponding to the solid angle of the scene from which the

114
Photomultiplier Applications

photomultiplier collects radiation, the pliers with video amplifiers, and (c) ap-
background current in the photomultiplier propriate filters, color operation is possible.
may be minimized by the use of a photocath- In color operation, the primary wavelengths
ode having a small area or by the use of a are filtered after separation by the light-
limiting aperture on the faceplate of the absorbing filters before being focused upon
photomultiplier. No loss in collected laser each of three photomultipliers, one for each
light need result because the return beam color channel. The output of each photo-
may generally be considered as originating multiplier is then fed to a separate video
from a point source. The system aperture, of amplifier.
course, must be large enough to avoid op- Flying-spot video-signal generators are
tical alignment problems. used in the television industry primarily for
Scanning Applications viewing slides, test patterns, motion-picture
A number of photoelectrically sensed film, and other fixed images. Systems have
scanning systems have been devised such as been developed for the home-entertainment
facsimile scanners in which the material to industry that allow slides and motion-picture
be transmitted-a photograph or printed film to be shown on the picture tube of any
message-is mounted on a drum that is type of commercial television receiver.
rotated to provide scan in one dimension. A A similar system is utilized by the
scanning head moves parallel to the drum photographic industry to provide accurate
axis to provide the other dimension. The pic- exposure control for film copying. By means
ture element is illuminated with a focused of the three color controls, the operator may
light spot and the scattered light is picked up produce a color television display represent-
by a photomultiplier, providing high-speed ing the film and can adjust and measure each
transmission utilizing the modulated output color component to produce a visually satis-
electrical signal. fying balance.
Two more recently developed scanning Several important considerations must be
systems are the flying-spot scanner for the taken into account if the cathode-ray tube in
development of television signals and the the system is to produce a light spot capable
supermarket checkout system which recog- of providing good resolution. The cathode-
nizes a coded symbol on each product. ray tube should be operated with as small a
Flying-Spot Scanning. The elements of a light spot as possible. The cathode-ray-tube
flying-spot scanning system are shown in faceplate should be as blemish-free as
Fig. 128. A cathode-ray tube, in conjunction possible and the tube should employ a fine-
with its power supplies and deflection cir- grain phosphor. Blemishes adversely affect
cuits, provides a small rapidly moving light signal-to-noise performance and contribute
source which forms a raster on its face. This to a loss of resolution.
raster is focused by the objective lens in the The spectral output of the cathode-ray-
optical system onto the object being tube phosphor should match the spectral
scanned, a slide transparency or a motion- characteristic of the photomultiplier. This
picture film. The amount of light passing match can be rather loose in a monochro-
through the film varies with the film density. matic flying-spot generator. The spectral
This modulated light signal is focused upon output of the phosphor of the cathode-ray
the photomultiplier by means of the tube used in a three-color version, however,
condensing-lens system. The photomultiplier must include most of the visible spectrum.
converts the radiant-energy signal into an Phosphors used in monochromatic systems
electrical video signal. The amplifier and its may provide outputs in the ultraviolet region
associated equalization circuits increase the of the spectrum and still perform satisfac-
amplitude of the video signal as required. torily. Phosphors such as P16 and P15,
The flying-spot scanning system is capable when used with an appropriate ultraviolet
of providing high-resolution monochromatic filter, display the necessary short persistence
performance. With the addition of (a) ap- required in a monochromatic system.
propriate dichroic mirrors which selectively The visible portion of the P15 or P24
reflect and transmit the red, blue, and green phosphor is used in color systems. The P15
wavelengths, (b) two additional photomulti- and P24 phosphors are, however, much

115
VERTICAL HORIZONTAL
SCANNING SCANNING

92CM -32465

Fig. 128 - Elements of a flying-spot scanning system.

slower than the P16 phosphor and cause a between the cathode-ray tube and the lens
lag in buildup and decay of output from the and to use a second photomultiplier to sense
screen. any non-uniformities in the cathode-ray tube
The phosphor lag results in trailing, a con- raster display. This sensed signal may then
dition in which the persistence of energy be used to eliminate this source of signal
output from the cathode-ray tube causes a distortion in the primary photomultiplier
continued and spurious input to the photo- pickup.
multiplier as the flying spot moves across the The spectral characteristics of the
picture being scanned. The result is that a photomultiplier (or photomultipliers in the
light area may trail into the dark area in the case of the three-color system) and the
reproduced picture. cathode-ray-tube phosphor should match.
Similarly, the lag in buildup of screen out- Usually, a photomultiplier having an S-4 or
put causes a dark area to trail over into the S-l1 (Cs3Sb) spectral response is suitable for
light area. The result of these effects on the use in a monochromatic system or as the
reproduced picture is an appearance similar detector for the blue and green channels. An
to that produced by a video signal deficient S-20 (Na2KSb:Cs) response is very often
in high frequencies. Consequently, high- utilized for the red channel. The bialkali
frequency equalization is necessary in the cathode (K-CS-Sb) is also well suited for the
video amplifier. blue channel. The speed of the detector must
The objective lens used in a flying-spot be sufficient to provide the desired video
generator should be of a high-quality bandwidth. Most requirements do not ex-
enlarger type designed for low magnification ceed 6 to 8 MHz, a figure well within photo-
and, depending upon the cathode-ray-tube multiplier capabilities.
light output, should be corrected for The anode dark current of the photomulti-
ultraviolet radiation. The diameter of the plier should be small compared to the useful
objective lens should be adequate to cover signal current. The signal-to-noise ratio will
the slide to be scanned. An enlarging f/4.5 be maximized by operation of the photomul-
lens with a focal length of 100 millimeters is tiplier at the highest light levels possible. If
suitable for use with 35-millimeter slides. necessary, the over-all photomultiplier gain
The optics should not image the film on the should be reduced to prevent excessive anode
photomultiplier because shading effects current and fatigue.
would result from non-uniformities of the The amplitude of the light input is usually
photomultiplier response. In some cases it a compromise between an optimum signal-
may be useful to employ a beam splitter to-noise ratio and maximum cathode-ray-

116
Photomultiplier Applications

tube life. Tube life may be reduced because gamma-correction amplifier is required in
of loss of phosphor efficiency at high beam- each channel. The gammacorrection ampli-
current levels. The signal-to-noise ratio can fier assures maximum color fidelity by mak-
also be improved by the selection of photo- ing the linearity or gamma of the system uni-
multipliers having the highest photocathode ty.
sensitivities possible. However, because the
spread of photocathode sensitivities is Supermarket Checkout Systems. Fig. 129
seldom greater than two or three to one, the shows the elements of a supermarket check-
improvement afforded by such selection is out system. The Universal Product Code
limited to two or three dB, an improvement (UPC), which is to be marked on all prod-
difficult to detect during observations of a ucts, is scanned by laser beam by means of
television display but desirable and necessary an oscillating mirror and a rotating mirror
in some critical applications. system. The pattern of the scan is a network
Photomultiplier gain need only be suffi- of overlapping sine waves. The reflected pat-
cient to provide a signal of the required level tern contains the modulation of the UPC
to the succeeding video-amplifier stages. symbol and is converted by the photomulti-
These stages, in addition to providing the plier to an electronic signal that is then
necessary amplification and bandwidth to analyzed for the content of the code.
assure good picture quality, incorporate The laser used in the supermarket
equalization circuits composed of networks checkout system is usually a low-power He-
having different time constants. The Ne type with the principal emission line at
relatively long decay time of these circuits 633 nanometers. A suitable photomultiplier
generally results in appreciable reduction of for this application is a two-inch end-on type
the useful signal-to-noise ratio. Therefore, having an S-20 (Na2KSb:Cs) spectral
the use of short-persistence phosphors is response or an extended-red multialkali
recommended to reduce the required amount type. Stability and good signal-to-noise ratio
of equalization. are important characteristics of the photo-
In addition to the video amplifier, a multiplier tube.

ROTATING MIRROR
POLYGON

92CM - 32466

Fig. 129 - Point-of-sale supermarket checkout system. At left is Universal Product


Code (UPC) symbol that provides 10-digit product identification. At right is sche
matic of optical system for scanning the product symbol and detecting the modula-
tion with a photomultiplier.

117
Photomultiplier Handbook

REFERENCES plication of annihilation coincidence detec-


91. R.W. Engstrom and E. Fischer, “Ef- tion to transaxial reconstruction tomogra-
fects of voltage-divider characteristics on phy,” J. Nucl. Medicine, Vol. 16, No. 3, pp
multiplier phototube response,” Rev. Sci. 210-224, 1975.
Instr., Vol. 28, pp 525-527, July, 1957. 100. S.E. Derenzo, H. Zaklad, and T.F.
92. C.R. Kerns, “A high-rate phototube Budinger , “Analytical study of a high-
base,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci., Vol. NS-24, resolution positron ring detector system for
No. 1, pp 353-355, Feb. 1977. transaxial reconstruction tomography,” J.
92a. V.O. Altemose, “Helium diffusion Nucl. Med., Vol. 16, No. 12, pp 1166-73,
through glass,” J. Appl. Phys., Vol. 32, No. Dec. 1975.
7, pp 1309-1316, 1961. 101. M.E. Phelps, E.J. Hoffman, Sung-
92b. F.J. Norton, “Permeation of gases Cheng Huang, and D.E. Kuhl, “ECAT: a
through solids,” J. Appl. Phys., Vol. 28, computerized tomographic imaging system
No. 1, pp 34-39, 1957. for positron-emitting radiopharmaceuti-
93. American Institute of Physics Hand- cals,” J. Nucl. Med., Vol. 19, No. 6, pp
book, Third Edition, McGraw-Hill, 1972. 635-647, June 1978.
94. R.W. Engstrom, “Luminous Micro- 102. G.L. Brownell, C. Burnham, B.
flux standard,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. Vol. 26, A h l u w a l i a , N . Alpert, D. Chester, S.
No. 6, pp 622-623, June, 1955. Cahavi, J. Correia, L. Deveau, “Positron
95. D.G. Fisher, A.F. McDonie, and A.H. imaging instrumentation,” IEEE Trans.
Sommer, “Bandbending effects in Na2K Sb Nucl. Sci., Vol. 24, No. 2, pp 914-916, Apr.
and K2Cs Sb photocathodes,” J. Appl. 1977.
Phys., Vol. 45, No. 1, pp 487-8, Jan. 1974. 103. Operating and Service Manual, Model
96. H.O. Anger, “Scintillation camera,” 111 Fluorometer,” G.K. Turner Associates,
Rev. Sci. Instrum., Vol. 29, pp 27-33, 1958. 2524 Pulgas Ave., Palo Alto, Calif. 94303.
97. M.J. Weber and R.R. Monchamp,
“Luminescence of Bi4Ge3O 12: spectral and 104. G.Y. Farkas and P. Varga, “Reduc-
decay properties,” J. Appl. Phys., Vol. 44, tion of dark current in transparent cathode
No. 12, pp 5495-99, 1973. photomultipliers for use in optical measure-
98. G.L. Brownell and C.A. Burnham, ments,” J. Sci. Instrum., Vol. 41, pp.
“Recent developments in positron scin- 704-705, 1964.
tigraphy,” Instrumentation in Nuclear 105. Astronomical Techniques, Edited by
Medicine, Vol. 2, Ed: G.J. Hine and J.A. W.A. Hiltner, The University of Chicago
Sorenson, Chapter 4, pp 135-159, Academic Press, 1962.
Press, 1974. 106. R.F. Post, “Performance of Pulsed
99. M.E. Phelps, E. J. Hoffman, N.A. Photomultipliers,” Nucleonics, Vol. 10, No.
Mullani and M.M. Ter-Pogossian, “Ap- 5, pp 46-50, May 1952.

118
Typical Photomultiplier Applications and Selection Guide

Appendix A-
Typical Photomultiplier Applications and Selection Guide

The many and varied requirements of medical applications to map the location of
equipment designers and experimenters isotope disintegrations.
preclude the recommendation of a single High-Temperature Environments: Applica-
photomultiplier as the optimum device for tions such as the logging of deep oil wells, or
any given application category. In most ap- geological exploration, and steel-mill process
plications, some trade-offs must be made in controls.
electrical characteristics; tube size must be Imaging Devices: A cathode-ray tube or
considered; the environment in which the moving mirrors can be used as a light source
device is to be operated can be an influential to sequentially illuminate a film positive or
factor; and of course, over-all cost is impor- negative or a printed page. This system is
tant. Each of these constraints can be best used in (1) optical character recognition, (2)
evaluated by the individual designer for the scanning or printed or written material for
specific application. transmission by telephone, (3) parts inspec-
This Appendix defines a number of the tion, and (4) reproduction of motion pic-
more common applications of photomulti- tures, slides, and educational material on a
pliers and lists tube types which are suitable television receiver (color or black and white).
or are frequently used for the particular ap- Inspection, High-Speed: Small objects such
plication. The listing is not all-inclusive and as fruits, vegetables, seeds, candy, toys,
is intended to serve only as a general guide paper products and even glass, metal, and
for initial type selection. Other photomulti- other industrial parts can be examined for
pliers may be satisfactory for the specified color and defects as they move at high speed
applications when all system requirements past one or more photomultiplier tubes.
are considered. Laser Detection: Lasers provide unique
light sources; they are spectrally pure and
CATALOGUE OF PHOTOMULTIPLIER produce very narrow collimated beams.
APPLICATION CATEGORIES They can be very intense and can be made to
Astronomy: The guidance of telescopes, in- produce light pulses of extremely short dura-
tensity measurements, stellar spectropho- tion. The photomultiplier provides time
tometry, and the like. resolution in the nanosecond and subnano-
Colorimetry: The quantitative color com- second ranges and is capable of detecting
parison of surfaces (reflectance) and solu- very low light levels such as those received
tions (transmission). from weak reflected laser light pulses.
C-T Scanners: A medical X-ray equipment Photometry: The measurement of illumina-
that provides a cross section density map tion or luminance. Levels of light flux vary
(tomograph) of a patient. A photomultiplier over a wide range in photography,
is used to detect and measure the light flux astronomy, television, and other applica-
from a scintillating crystal. tions.
Densitometry: The measurement of optical Photon Counting: A method of detecting
density of photographic negatives, neutral photons by counting single photoelectrons
density filters, and similar materials. released from the photocathode.
Gamma-Ray Cameras: A scintillation Pollution Monitoring: The analysis of the
counter having a single large crystal and a level and the nature of contaminants in solu-
number of photomultiplier tubes used in tions, gases, and other waste materials.

119
Typical Photomultiplier Applications and Selection Guide

Positron Camera: A scintillation-counter- Spectrophotometry


type device providing tomographic presenta- BURLE Photo- Window No. Dia
tions based on coincident gamma-ray emis- Type cathode Material1 of meter2
sion accompanying annihilation of a Material Stages
positron and an electron . Medical applica- 1P21 Cs3Sb 0080 9 1-1/8"s
tions utilize tracer radio nuclides such as 1P28 Cs3Sb 8337 9 1-1/8"s
11
C, 13N, and 15O. 1P28A Cs3Sb 8337 9 1-1/8"s
Process Control: The measurement of 1P28B K2CsSb 8337 9 1-1/8"s
transmitted or reflected light in continuous 931A GaAs 0080 9 1-1/8"s
flow processes using solids, liquids, or gases. 931B GaAs 0080 9 1-1/8"s
4526A Na2KCsSb 0080 10 1-1/2"d
Detects flaws, improper marking, and
C31034 GaAs 8337 11 2"e
changes in color and optical density. By C31034A GaAs 8337 11 2"e
using radioactive sources and scintillators, S83063E Na2KCsSb 7056 10 1-1/8"e
photomultipliers can be used for the control S83068E Rb2CsSb 7056 10 1-1/8"e
of the weight and thickness of opaque 83089-600 Na2KCsSb 7056 10 1-1/8"e
materials. 83101-600 Rb2CsSb B270 10 3/4"e
Radioimmunoassay (RIA): A technique 1
0080, B270 – lime glass; 8337 - Schott, 7056 – borosilicate
that enables the measurement of minute 2
e – end-window; s – side-window; d – dormer window
quantities of substances in biological fluids
as small as 10-12 gram. Compounds are TLD
tagged with radioactive isotopes and are BURLE Photo- Window No. Dia
measured with a liquid scintillation counter Type cathode Material1 of meter2
for beta-emitting isotopes or a solid crystal Material Stages
scintillation counter for gamma-emitting 8575 K2CsSb 7740 12 2"e
isotopes. 8850 K2CsSb 7740 12 2"e
S83062E Rb2CsSb 7056 10 1"e
Radiometry: The measurement of irra- 83087-100 Rb2CsSb B270 10 3/4"e
diance or radiance. 83101-600 Rb2CsSb B270 10 3/4"e
Raman Spectrometry: Measurement of the 1
B270 – lime glass; 7740 – Pyrex ; 7056 - borosilicate
wavelength shift of scattered photons from a 2
e – end-window
highly monochromatic source such as a laser
provides information on molecular structure Gamma -Ray Cameras
and bonding energy. BURLE Photo- Window No. Dia
Scintillation Counting: The measurement of Type cathode Material1 of meter2
nuclear radiation by detecting light or single Material Stages
scintillations emitted from a scintillation 4900 K2CsSb B270 10 3" e
material receiving nuclear radiation. 6199 Cs3Sb 0080 10 1-1/2" e
S83010E Rb2CsSb 0080 10 1-1/2" e
Severe Physical Environments: Applica- S83013F K2CsSb 0080 10 3-1/2" e
tions such as oil-well logging, satellites, and S83019F K2CsSb B270 10 2" e
military vehicles subject to severe shock and S83020F K2CsSb B270 10 60mm h,e
vibration. S83021E K2CsSb B270 10 3" e
Thermoluminescent Dosimetry (TLD): Cer S83022F K2CsSb B270 10 2" h,e
tain phosphors emit light when they are S83025F K2CsSb B270 10 3" h,e
heated after having been exposed to ionizing S83049F K2CsSb B270 8 3" e
radiation. Devices using this principle afford S83053F K2CsSb B270 8 60mm h,e
personnel protection by determining dosage S83054F K2CsSb B270 8 2" e
levels in medical and biological treatments S83056F K2CsSb B270 8 3" h,e
and studies. Energy stored in TLD’s is pro S83069E K2CsSb B270 8 35x46.5mm, mh
portional to dosage over a very wide range. S83079E K2CsSb B270 8 3" sq
1
Time Measurement: In nuclear experiments 0080, B270 – lime glass
2
e – end-window; h – hexagonal; mh – modified hexagonal;
the “time of flight” of nuclear particles is sq - square
important. Photomultipliers permit time
measurements down to a fraction of a
nonosecond.

120
Typical Photomultiplier Applications and Selection Guide

High Temperature Environments Laser Detection


BURLE Photo- Window No. Dia BURLE Photo- Window No. Dia
Type cathode Material1 of meter2 Type cathode Material1 of meter2
Material Stages Material Stages
C31000AP Na2KSb 7056 12 2"e 4526A Na2KCsSb 0080 10 1-1/2"d
C31016G Na2KSb 7056 10 1"e 8575 K2CsSb 7740 12 2"e
C83051 Na2KSb sa 10 1"e 8850 K2CsSb 7740 12 2"e
C83060 Na2KSb sa 10 1-1/4"e 8852 Na2KCsSb 7740 12 2"e
C83065 Na2KSb 7056 10 1"e S83063E Na2KCsSb 7056 10 1-1/8"e
83103 100 Na2KSb 7056 10 3/4"e 83087-100 Rb2CsSb B270 9 3/4"e
1 83101-600 Rb2CsSb B270 10 3/4"e
sa – sapphire, 7056 – borosilicate
2
e – end-window C31034 GaAs 8337 11 2"e
C31034A GaAs 8337 11 2"e
Flying-Spot Scanners 1
0080, B270 – lime glass; 8337 - Schott; 7740 – Pyrex
BURLE Photo- Window No. Dia 7056 – borosilicate
Type cathode Material1 of meter2 2
e – end-window; d – dormer window
Material Stages
Photometry
4552 K2CsSb 0080 9 1-1/8"s
BURLE Photo- Window No. Dia
1P21 Cs3Sb 0080 9 1-1/8"s
Type cathode Material1 of meter2
931A Cs3Sb 0080 9 1-1/8"s
Material Stages
931B K2CsSb 0080 9 1-1/8"s
6199 Cs3Sb 0080 10 1-1/2"e 1P21 Cs3Sb 0080 9 1-1/8”s
83087-100 Rb2CsSb B270 10 3/4"e 931A Cs3Sb 0080 9 1-1/8”s
83090-600 Rb2CsSb B270 9 3/4"e 931B K2CsSb 0080 9 1-1/8”s
83101-600 Rb2CsSb B270 10 3/4"e 4552 K2CsSb 0080 9 1-1/8”s
S83010E Rb2CsSb 0080 10 1-1/2"e 1
0080 – lime glass
2
1
0080 – lime glass; 8337 - Schott s – side-window
2
e – end-window; s – side-window
Photon Counting
Inspection, High Speed BURLE Photo- Window No. Dia
BURLE Photo- Window No. Dia Type cathode Material1 of meter2
Type cathode Material1 of meter2 Material Stages
Material Stages 8575 K2CsSb 7740 12 2"e
1P21 Cs3Sb 0080 9 1-1/8" s 8850 K2CsSb 7740 12 2"e
4552 K2CsSb 0080 9 1-1/8" s 8852 Na2KCsSb 7740 12 2"e
6199 Cs3Sb 0080 10 1-1/2" e 8854 K2CsSb 8337 14 5"e
931A Cs3Sb 0080 9 1-1/8" s C31034 GaAs 8337 11 2"e
931B K2CsSb 0080 9 1-1/8" s C31034A GaAs 8337 11 2"e
S83062E Rb2CsSb 7056 10 1" e S83062E Rb2CsSb 7056 10 1-1/2"e
S83010E Rb2CsSb 0080 10 1-1/2" e 83089-600 Na2KCsSb 7056 10 1-1/8"e
83087-100 Rb2CsSb B270 10 3/4"e 83090-600 Rb2CsSb B270 9 3/4"e
83090-600 Rb2CsSb B270 9 3/4" e 83101-600 Rb2CsSb B270 10 3/4"e
1
83101-600 Rb2CsSb B270 10 3/4" e 0080, B270 – lime glass; 8337 - Schott; 7740 – Pyrex
1 7056 – borosilicate
0080, B270 – lime glass, 7056 – borosilicate 2
2 e – end-window
e – end-window; s – side-window
Positron Cameras
Raman Spectroscopy
BURLE Photo- Window No. Dia
BURLE Photo- Window No. Dia Type cathode Material1 of meter2
Type cathode Material1 of meter2 Material Stages
Material Stages 83087-100 Rb2CsSb B270 10 3/4"e
8850 K2CsSb 7740 12 2”e 83090-600 Rb2CsSb B270 9 3/4"e
8852 Na2KCsSb 7740 12 2”e 83101-600 Rb2CsSb B270 10 3/4"e
C31034 GaAs 8337 11 2”e 83102 100 Rb2CsSb 0080 9 1"e
C31034A GaAs 8337 11 2”e S83062E Rb2CsSb 7056 10 1"e
1
8337 - Schott; 7740 – Pyrex
2 1
e – end-window 0080, B270 – lime glass, 7056 – borosilicate
2
e – end-window

121
Typical Photomultiplier Applications and Selection Guide

Process Control
BURLE Photo- Window No. Dia Time Measurement
Type cathode Material1 of meter2 BURLE Photo- Window No. Dia
Material Stages Type cathode Material1 of meter2
1P21 Cs3Sb 0080 9 1-1/8"s Material Stages
1P28 Cs3Sb 8337 9 1-1/8"s 8575 K2CsSb 7740 12 2"e
1P28A Cs3Sb 8337 9 1-1/8"s 8850 K2CsSb 7740 12 2"e
1P28B K2CsSb 8337 9 1-1/8"s 8852 Na2KSb 7740 12 2"e
931A Cs3Sb 0080 9 1-1/8"s 8854 K2CsSb 8337 14 5"e
931B K2CsSb 0080 9 1-1/8"s S83062E Rb2CsSb 7056 10 1"e
2060 Cs3Sb 0080 10 1-1/2"e S83068E Rb2CsSb 7056 10 1-1/8"e
4856 K2CsSb 0080 10 2"e 83087-100 Rb2CsSb B270 10 3/4"e
4900 K2CsSb 0080 10 3"e 83101-600 Rb2CsSb B270 10 3/4"e
6199 Cs3Sb 0080 10 1-1/2"e 1
0080, B270 – lime glass; 8337 - Schott; 7740 – Pyrex,
S83010E Rb2CsSb 0080 10 1-1/2"e
7056 – borosilicate
S83019F K2CsSb B270 10 2"e 2
e – end-window
S83021E K2CsSb B270 10 3"e
S83049F K2CsSb B270 8 3"e Scintillation Counting
S83054F K2CsSb B270 8 2"e BURLE Photo- Window No. Dia
S83079E K2CsSb B270 8 3"sq,e Type cathode Material1 of meter2
1
0080, B270 – lime glass; 8337 - Schott Material Stages
2
e – end-window; s – side-window 2060 Cs3Sb 0080 10 1-1/2"e
4900 K2CsSb 0080 10 3"e
Severe Physical Environments 6199 Cs3Sb 0080 10 1-1/2"e
BURLE Photo- Window No. Dia 83103 100 Na2KSb 7056 10 3/4"e
Type cathode Material1 of meter2 8575 K2CsSb 7740 12 2"e
Material Stages 8850 K2CsSb 7740 12 2"e
83101 100 Rb2CsSb B270 10 3/4"e 8852 Na2KCsSb 7740 12 2"e
C31016G Na2KSb 0080 10 1"e 8854 K2CsSb 8337 14 5"e
C83051 Na2KSb sa 10 1"e C31000AP Na2KSb 7056 12 2"e
C83060 Na2KSb sa 10 1-1/4"e C31016G Na2KSb 0080 10 1"e
1
0080, B270 – lime glass; sa - sapphire
C31016H Na2KSb 0080 10 1"e
2
e – end-window C31034 GaAs 8337 11 2"e
C31034A GaAs 8337 11 2"e
Radiometry S83006F K2CsSb 0080 10 5"e
BURLE Photo- Window No. Dia S83062E Rb2CsSb 7056 10 1"e
Type cathode Material1 of meter2 S83010E Rb2CsSb 0080 10 1-1/2"e
Material Stages 83087-100 Rb2CsSb B270 10 3/4"e
1P21 Cs3Sb 0080 9 1-1/8"s 83092-500 Na2KSb 0080 10 1"e
1P28 Cs3Sb 8337 9 1-1/8"s 83101-600 Rb2CsSb B270 10 3/4"e
1P28A Cs3Sb 8337 9 1-1/8"s 1
0080, B270 – lime glass; 8337 - Schott; 7740 – Pyrex
1P28B K2CsSb 8337 9 1-1/8"s 7056 – borosilicate
2
931A Cs3Sb 0080 9 1-1/8"s e – end-window
931B K2CsSb 0080 9 1-1/8"s
4526A Na2KCsSb 0080 9 1-1.2"d Radioimmunoassay
2060 Cs3Sb 0080 10 1-1/2"e BURLE Photo- Window No. Dia
6199 Cs3Sb 0080 10 1-1/2"e Type cathode Material1 of meter2
8575 K2CsSb 7740 12 2"e Material Stages
8850 K2CsSb 7740 12 2"e 4856 K2CsSb 0080 10 2"e
8852 Na2KCsSb 7740 12 2"e 4900 K2CsSb 0080 10 3"e
S83010E Rb2CsSb 0080 10 1-1/2"e 6199 Cs3Sb 0080 10 1-1/2"e
S83062E Rb2CsSb 7056 10 1"e S83068E Rb2CsSb 7056 10 1-1/8"e
83087-100 Rb2CsSb B270 10 3/4"e S83010E Rb2CsSb 0080 10 1-1/2"e
83101-600 Rb2CsSb B270 10 3/4"e S83019F K2CsSb B270 10 2"e
1 S83054F K2CsSb B270 8 2"e
0080, B270 – lime glass; 8337 - Schott; 7740 - Pyrex
1
7056 – borosilicate 0080, B270 – lime glass; 7056 – borosilicate
2 2
e – end-window; s – side-window; d – dormer window e – end-window

122
Typical Photomultiplier Applications and Selection Guide

Densitometry
BURLE Photo- Window No. Dia Pollution Monitoring
Type cathode Material1 of meter2 BURLE Photo- Window No. Dia
Material Stages Type cathode Material1 of meter2
1P21 Cs3Sb 0080 9 1-1/8"s Material Stages
1P28 Cs3Sb 8337 9 1-1/8"s 4526A Na2KCsSb 0080 9 1-1/2"d
931A GaAs 0080 9 1-1/8"s S83063E Rb2CsSb 7056 10 1-1/8"e
931B GaAs 0080 9 1-1/8"s 8850 K2CsSb 7740 12 2"e
4552 K2CsSb 0080 9 1-1/8"s 8852 Na2KCsSb 7740 12 2"e
1
0080 – lime glass; 8337 - Schott 83089-600 Na2KCsSb 7056 10 1-1/8"e
2
s – side-window 1
0080 – lime glass; 7740 – Pyrex, 7056 – borosilicate
2
e – end-window; d – dormer window
Colorimetry
BURLE Photo- Window No. Dia Cerenkov Radiation
Type cathode Material1 of meter2 BURLE Photo- Window No. Dia
Material Stages Type cathode Material1 of meter2
1P21 Cs3Sb 0080 9 1-1/8"s Material Stages
1P28 Cs3Sb 8337 9 1-1/8"s 8850 K2CsSb 7740 12 2"e
931A GaAs 0080 9 1-1/8"s 8854 K2CsSb 8337 14 5"e
931B GaAs 0080 9 1-1/8"s S83062E Rb2CsSb 7056 10 1"e
83089-600 Na2KCsSb 7056 10 1-1/8”e 83090-600 Rb2CsSb B270 9 3/4"e
4552 K2CsSb 0080 9 1-1/8"s 83101-600 Rb2CsSb B270 10 3/4"e
1 1
0080 – lime glass; 8337 – Schott; 7056 – borosilicate 0080, B270 – lime glass; 7740 – Pyrex, 8337 - Schott
2 7056 – borosilicate
s – side-window; e – end-window
2
e – end-window
Astronomy
BURLE Photo- Window No. Dia
Type cathode Material1 of meter2
Material Stages
1P21 Cs3Sb 0080 9 1-1/8"s
1P28 Cs3Sb 8337 9 1-1/8"s
1P28B K2CsSb 8337 9 1-1/8"s
8575 K2CsSb 7740 12 2"e
8850 K2CsSb 7740 12 2"e
8852 Na2KCsSb 7740 12 2"e
C31034 GaAs 8337 11 2"e
C31034A GaAs 8337 11 2"e
1
0080 – lime glass; 8337 - Schott; 7740 - Pyrex
2
e – end-window; s – side-window

123
Typical Photomultiplier Applications and Selection Guide

This page is blank.

124
Glossary of Terms

Appendix B-
Glossary of Terms Related to Photomultiplier Tubes
and Their Applications

This Appendix contains a glossary of anode is operated at a voltage positive with


terms frequently used in connection with respect to that of the last dynode and collects
photomultiplier tubes and their applications. the secondary electrons emitted from the last
Where suitable definitions were available dynode. (112)
from established standards or other reliable Anticoincidence circuit: A circuit that pro-
sources, they were used, possibly with minor duces a specified output signal when one
modifications. For these cases, the sources (frequently predesignated) of two inputs
of the definitions are indicated by the receives a signal and the other receives no
reference number at the end of the defini- signal within an assigned time interval. (112)
tion. In many cases, however, the definitions
Background counts (in radiation counters):
were prepared by the writers of this Manual. Counts caused by ionizing radiation coming
In these latter cases, no source reference is from sources other than that to be measured.
indicated after the definition.
(112)
Absorptance: The ratio of the radiant flux Bandwidth: In electrical measurements, the
absorbed in a body of material to that inci- difference between limiting frequencies in a
dent upon it. If the absorptance is a, the frequency band, expressed in hertz (cycles
per second). The noise equivalent bandwidth
is the bandwidth of a rectangular equivalent
spectrum and may be defined as
Acceptor: An impurity element in a p-type
semiconductor that may become ionized by
taking an electron from the valence band
and induce conduction by holes. For exam-
ple, boron with a valence of three is a possi-
ble acceptor impurity in silicon (valence, circuit, A is the maximum absolute value of
four).
angular frequency. (110)
Afterpulse: A spurious pulse induced in a
photomultiplier by a previous pulse. (112) Bleeder: Resistive voltage divider.
Angle of incidence: The angle between a ray Cage: Part of a photomultiplier including
of light striking a surface and the normal to the dynodes, focusing structure, anode, and
that surface. support members.
-10
Angstrom unit, Å : 1 0 meter, or 0.1 Candela, cd: The SI unit of luminous in-
nanometer. In the International System of tensity .
Units (SI units), the nanometer or microm- Cathode: See Photocathode.
eter is the preferred unit for use in specifica- CAT-Scanner or CT-Scanner: Computer-
tion of wavelengths of light. ized Axial Tomography - scanner; a medical
Anode: An electrode through which a prin- X-ray equipment which provides a cross-
cipal stream of electrons leaves the inter- sectional density map of a patient. In a
electrode space. In a photomultiplier, the typical device, an X-ray fan beam incident

125
Photomultiplier Handbook

on and rotating around the patient is Crystal: See Scintillator.


detected by a large array of scintillation Curie, Ci: A unit of radioactivity defined as
crystals and photomultiplier tubes. the quantity of an radioactive nuclide in
Cerenkov radiation: Radiation generated by which the number of disintegrations per
a high-energy charged particle moving second is 3.7 x 1010. (B4)
through a dielectric with a velocity greater
than the velocity of light in the dielectric Current amplification (photomultipliers):
The ratio of (1) the output signal current to
(i.e., greater than c/n where n is the index of
refraction of the dielectric). (2) the photoelectric signal current from the
photocathode. (112)
Channel, channel number: In scintillation
counting, a number proportional to pulse Dark current: That current flowing in the
height specifying a generally narrow range of cathode circuit (cathode dark current) or in
pulse heights. the anode circuit (anode dark current) in the
Channel multiplier: A tubular electron- absence of light or radiation in the spectrum
multiplier having a continuous interior sur- to which the photomultiplier is sensitive.
face of secondary-electron emissive material. Delay line: A transmission line for intro-
(107) ducing signal time delay. (112)
Coincidence circuit: A circuit that produces Delta function (Dirac Delta Function): A
a specified output signal when and only
when a specified number (two or more) or a 1, when the integration is
specified combination of input terminals carried out over the full range of the
receives signals within an assigned time inter- variable. Pulsed light sources are sometimes
val. (112)
-- -- referred to as delta light sources when the
Collection efficiency: The fraction of elec- length of the pulse is short with respect to the
trons emitted by the photocathode of a response time of the photomultiplier or
photomultiplier that lands on the first detecting instrument.
dynode. Or more generally, the fraction of
electrons emitted by one electrode that lands Detectivity, D: Reciprocal noise equivalent
on the next electrode (dynode or anode). power, NEP; it is expressed in W -1. Detec-
tivity is a figure of merit providing the same
Color temperature: The temperature of a information as NEP but describes the
black body radiator such that its chromati- characteristic such that the lower the radia-
city is the same as that of the light under con- tion level to which the photodetector can
sideration. (109)
respond, the higher the detectivity. See Noise
Conduction band: A partially filled energy Equivalent Power. (108)
band in which the electrons can move freely,
allowing the material to carry an electric cur- Discriminator, constant-fraction pulse-
rent. The term is usually restricted to height: A pulse-height discriminator in
semiconductors and insulators, where the which the threshold changes with input
conduction band is normally empty and is amplitude in such a way that the triggering
separated by an energy-gap from the full point corresponds to a constant fraction of
bands below it. (109) the input pulse height. (112)
Count (in radiation counters): A single Discriminator, pulse-height: A circuit that
response of the counting system. (112) produces a specified output signal if and
Counting efficiency (scintillation counters): only if it receives an input pulse whose
The ratio of (1) the average number of amplitude exceeds in one case or is less than
photons or particles of ionizing radiation an assigned value in another case. (112)
that produce counts to (2) the average Donor: An impurity element in an n-type
number incident on the sensitive area. (112) semiconductor that may become ionized by
Crosstalk: As applied to photomultipliers losing an electron to the conduction band
used in liquid scintillation counting, light and induce conduction by electrons. For ex-
originating internally in one photomultiplier ample, phosphorus with a valence of five is a
and transmitted to another, causing coinci- possible donor impurity in silicon (valence,
dent background pulses. four).

126
Glossary of Terms

Dynode: An electrode that performs a incident upon a surface. It is recommended,


useful function, such as current amplifica- however, that the use of the term exitance be
tion, by means of secondary emission. (107) restricted to emission from a surface because
EADCI, Equivalent Anode Dark Current terms such as irradiance, spectral irradiance,
Input: The input flux in lumens or watts at a and illuminance are commonly used to in-
specific wavelength which results in an in- dicate flux density incident on a surface.
crease in the anode current of a photomulti- Extended Red Multi-Alkali, ERMA: A
plier tube just equal to the anode dark cur- designation of a Na2K Sb:Cs photocathode
rent. processed to obtain increased red-near-
E2/B: A figure of merit used to evaluate infrared response.
performance of liquid scintillation counters. Fall time: The mean time difference of the
E is the counting efficiency in per cent. B is trailing edge of a pulse between the 90- and
the number of background coincident counts 10-per cent amplitude points.
per minute. Fatigue: The tendency of a photomultiplier
Electron affinity, EA: The energy, usually responsivity to decrease during operation.
expressed in electron volts, required to move Most commonly, responsivity loss is the
an electron from the bottom of the conduc- result of a lowering of secondary emission,
tion band to the vacuum level. particularly in the latter stages of a photo-
Electron multiplier: That portion of the multiplier. Recovery may or may not occur
photomultiplier consisting of dynodes that during a period of idleness.
produce current amplification by secondary Fermi level: The value of the electron energy
electron emission. (112) at which the Fermi distribution function has
Electron resolution: The ability of the elec- the value one-half. (107)
tron multiplier section of the photomulti- Focusing electrode: An electrode whose
plier to resolve inputs consisting of n and potential is adjusted to control the cross-
n + 1 electrons. This ability may be expressed sectional area of the electron beam. (112)
as a fractional FWHM of the nth peak, or as Flying-Spot Scanner: A system for generat-
the peak-to-valley ratio of the nth peak to the ing video signals for a television display. In a
valley between the n th and the (n+ 1)th typical conception, the scanned raster of a
peaks. (112) cathode-ray tube is focused onto a photo-
Electron volt: The energy received by an graphic transparency. The modulated trans-
electron in falling through a potential dif- mitted light signal is directed onto the photo-
ference of one volt. (108) cathode of a photomultiplier tube which
provides the electrical video signal.
Equivalent Noise Input, ENI: That value of
input radiant or luminous flux that produces Footcandle: A unit of illuminance equal to
an rms signal current that is just equal to the one lumen per square foot. The SI unit of il-
rms value of the noise current in a specified uminance, the lux (lumen per square meter),
bandwidth (Usually 1 Hz). See N o i s e is preferred. (108)
Equivalent Power. (108) Footlambert: A unit of luminance equal to
Exitance: The density of radiant flux emit-
the candela per square meter (nit), is pre-
ted from a surface. Radiant exitance is the ferred. (108)
integral of radiant flux over all wavelengths
with units of watt per square meter. Lumi- Forbidden band: In the band theory of
nous exitance is the total of all luminous flux solids, a range of energies in which there are
from a surface with units of lumen per no electronic levels. (109)
square meter. Spectral radiant exitance is the Full Width at Half Maximum, FWHM: The
exitance at a particular wavelength for a full width of a distribution measured at half
specified wavelength interval; units are watt the maximum ordinate. For 1/2a normal distri-
per square meter and micrometer. The term bution it is equal to 2(2 ln 2) times the stan-
emittance (now deprecated) is synonomous
with exitance. Sometimes the term exitance Gain (photomultipliers). See Current Ampli-
is used to indicate the density of radiant flux fication.

127
Photomultiplier Handbook

Gamma-ray camera: A device used in It is expressed in lumens per watt. For exam-
nuclear medicine to image distributions of ple, the maximum luminous efficacy of a
gamma-ray emitters. In a typical instrument, black body (which occurs at about 6600 K) is
gamma rays emanating from tracer elements 95 lumens per watt. (108)
introduced into the patient are collimated Luminous efficiency: The ratio of the
and cause scintillations in a single large, thin luminous efficacy of a given source to the
sodium iodide crystal. An array of photo- maximum spectral luminous efficacy. For
multiplier tubes views the crystal and pro- example, the maximum luminous efficiency
vides addressing information with which an of a black body (which occurs at about 6600
output image of dots is constructed on a K) is 95 lumens per watt/680 lumens per watt
cathode-ray tube. = 0.14.
Hertz: Hz, the SI unit of frequency Luminous intensity: The luminous flux per
equivalent to cycle per second. (108) unit solid angle in the direction in question.
Hysteresis: A borrowed term to describe a It is expressed in candelas (lumens per stera-
cyclic gain variation in photomultipliers dian). (107)
sometimes observed as a result of insulator Lux, lx: The SI unit of illuminance equal to
charging and discharging. the flux of one lumen uniformly distributed
Illuminance: The density of the luminous over an area of one square meter.
flux on a surface; it is the quotient of the Microchannel plate: An array of small
flux by the area of the surface when the lat- aligned channel multipliers usually used for
ter is uniformly illuminated. The SI unit is intensification. (107)
the lux, lumen per square meter. (109) Multichannel Analyzer, MCA: See Pulse-
Irradiance: The density of radiant flux on a height analyzer.
surface; it is the quotient of the flux by the Negative Electron Affinity, NEA: A term
area of the surface when the latter is referring to an electron emitter whose sur-
uniformly irradiated. The SI unit is the watt face has been treated with an electropositive
per square meter. material in such a way that the conduction
Lambert’s cosine law: A law stating that the band minimum lies above the vacuum level.
flux per solid angle in any direction from a Nit: The name recommended by the Inter-
plane surface varies as the cosine of the angle national Commission on Illumination for
between that direction and the perpendicular the unit of luminance equal to one candela
to the surface. (107) per square meter. Note: Candela per square
Light pipe: An optical transmission element meter is the unit of luminance in the Interna-
that utilizes unfocused transmission and tional System of Units (SI). (107)
reflection to reduce photon losses. (112) Noise (photomultiplier tubes): The random
Liquid scintillation counter: The combina- output that limits the minimum observable
tion of a liquid scintillator and one or more signal from the photomultiplier tube. (112)
(usually two) photomultiplier tubes used to Noise Equivalent Power, NEP: The radiant
measure or count radioactive disintegra- flux in watts incident on a detector which
tions. The most common application is the gives a signal-to-noise ratio of unity. The
counting of beta rays emanating from a bandwidth and the manner in which the
sample mixed with the liquid scintillator. radiation is chopped must be specified as
Lumen, lm: The SI unit of luminous flux. It well as the spectral content of the radiation.
is equal to the flux through a unit solid angle The most common spectral specification is
(steradian) from a uniform point source of for monochromatic radiation at the peak of
one candela. (107, 108) the detector response. (Some detector
manufacturers rate their detectors in terms
Luminance: The luminous intensity per pro- of an NEP having units of watts Hz - 1/2.
jected area normal to the line of observation. Assuming that the noise spectrum is flat
Formerly called photometric brightness or within the range of the specification and that
brightness. (108) NEP is normally specified for a bandwidth
Luminous efficacy: The quotient of the of one hertz, the two forms of NEP are
total luminous flux by the total radiant flux. numerically equal.) (108)
Glossary of Terms

Noise&signal, (photomultiplier tubes): The Pulse-height resolution, PHR: The ratio of


noise output resulting from the statistical the full width at half maximum of the pulse-
variation in the signal current itself as con- height-distribution curve to the pulse height
trasted with that which may be present when corresponding to the maximum of the distri-
the detector is in the dark. bution curve. In scintillation spectroscopy, it
Opaque photocathode: A photocathode is customary to state pulse-height resolution
wherein photoelectrons are emitted from the as a percentage. (112)
same surface as that on which the photons Pulse jitter: A relatively small variation of
are incident. (Also called reflective photo- the pulse spacing in a pulse train. In
cathode.) (112) photomultipliers, pulse jitter is the result of
Peak-to-valley ratio: In a pulse-height- electron transit time variations. (109)
distribution characteristic, the ratio of the Pulse width: The time interval between the
counting rate at the maximum to that at the first and last instants at which the instan-
minimum-usually preceding the maximum. taneous amplitude reaches a stated fraction
Photocathode: An electrode used for ob- of peak pulse amplitude. (109)
taining photoelectric emission when ir- Quantum efficiency (photocathodes): The
radiated. (112) average number of electrons photoelectric-
Photocell: A solid-state photosensitive elec- ally emitted from the photocathode per inci-
tron device in which use is made of the varia- dent photon of a given wavelength. (107)
tion of the current-voltage characteristic as a Rad: A unit of absorbed radiation equal to
function of incident radiation. (112) 100 ergs per gram-O.01 J/kg in SI units.
Photomultiplier, PMT: A phototube with (109)
one or more dynodes between its photocath- Radiance: The radiant flux per unit solid
ode and output electrode. (112) angle per unit of projected area of the
Photon counting: The technique, using a source. The SI unit is the watt per steradian
photomultiplier, of counting output pulses and square meter, Wsr - 1 m - 2. (109)
originating from single photoelectrons. Radiant intensity: The radiant flux pro-
Photopic vision: Vision mediated essential- ceeding from the source per unit solid angle
ly or exclusively by the cones. It is generally in the direction considered. The SI unit is
associated with adaptation to luminance of watt per steradian. (107)
at least 3 candelas per square meter. (107) Reflectance: The ratio of the radiant flux
Phototube: An electron tube that contains a reflected from a body of material to that in-
photocathode and has an output depending cident upon it. (See Absorptance.)
at every instant on the total photoelectric Reflective photocathode: A photocathode
emission from the irradiated area of the wherein photoelectrons are emitted from the
photocathode. (112) same surface as that on which the photons
Plateau: (counter): The portion of the are incident. (Also called opaque photocath-
counting-rate-versus-voltage characteristic ode.)
curve in which the counting rate is substan- Rem: Abbreviation for roentgen equivalent
tially independent of the applied voltage. man. (1) In older usage, the dose (absorbed)
(109) of any ionizing radiation that will produce
Pulse-height analyzer, PHA: An instrument the same biological effect as that produced
capable of indicating the number or rate of by one roentgen of high voltage x-radiation.
occurrence of pulses falling within each of (2) The unit of the RBE (relative biological
one or more specified amplitude ranges. effectiveness) dose that is equal to the ab-
(112) sorbed dose in rads times the RBE. (109)
Pulse-height distribution: A histogram dis- Resistance per square: The resistance of a
playing the pulse count versus channel num- square of a thin conductive coating mea-
ber as obtained with a multichannel ana- sured between opposite sides of the square.
lyzer, particularly as applied to scintillation The value is independent of the size of the
counting. square.

129
Photomultiplier Handbook

Responsivity: The ratio of the output cur- is 680 lumens per watt at a
rent or voltage to the input flux in watts or wavelength of 555 nm. (107)
lumens. For example, as applied to photo- Spectral luminous efficiency (radiant flux): ,
multipliers: radiant responsivity expressed in The ratio of the spectral luminous efficacy
mA W - 1 at a specific wavelength or for a given wavelength to the maximum
spectral luminous efficacy. Accordingly, the
lm - 1. (108) spectral luminous efficiency, V(X), is the
Rise time: The mean time difference of the ratio V(X) = K(X)/680 and is identical to the
leading edge of a pulse between the 10- and standard visibility factor of the photopic
90-percent amplitude points. human eye and to the y-tristimulus value
Roentgen: A unit of X- or gamma-radiation
exposure such that the associated secondary tristimulus system. (107, 111)
ionizing particles produce, in air, ions carry- Spectral radiant intensity: Radiant intensity
ing one electrostatic unit of charge of either per unit wavelength interval; for example,
sign per 0.001293 gram of air. This quantity watts per (steradian-nanometer). (107)
is the equivalent of 2.58 x 10 -4 coulomb per Stage: One step of a multiplier, as one
kilogram of air. (109) dynode stage.
Scintillation counter: The combination of Stem: The portion of a photomultiplier
scintillator , photomultiplier, and associated envelope containing the leads to electrodes.
circuitry for detection and measurement of Steradian: The unit of solid angle which
ionizing radiation. (112) subtends an area equal to the square of the
Scintillator: The body of scintillator radius. (107)
material together with its container. (107) Tea-cup: Descriptive term for an RCA
Scotopic vision: Vision mediated essentially photomultiplier type having a large cup-
or exclusively by the rods. It is generally shaped first dynode.
associated with adaptation to luminance Time jitter: See Transit-time spread.
below about 0.03 candela per square meter. Time-to-amplitude converter, TAC: An in-
(107) strument producing an output pulse whose
Secondary emission: Electron emission amplitude is proportional to the time dif-
from solids or liquids due directly to bom- ference between start and stop pulses. (112)
bardment of their surfaces by electrons or Traceability: Process by which the assigned
ions. (107) value of a measurement is compared, di-
Secondary emission ratio (electrons): The rectly or indirectly, through a series of
average number of electrons emitted from a calibrations to the value established by the
surface per incident primary electron. U.S. national standard. (107)
Note: The result of a sufficiently large Transit time: For a discussion of the several
number of events should be averaged to en- definitions of this term, refer to the section
sure that statistical fluctuations are negli- “Time Effects” in Chapter 4. Photomulti-
gible. (107) plier Characteristics.
Semitransparent photocathode: A photo- Transit-time spread: The FWHM (full-
cathode in which radiant flux incident on width-at-half maximum) of the time distri-
one side produces photoelectric emission bution of a set of pulses each of which cor-
from the opposite side. Synonymous with responds to the photomultiplier transit time
Transmission-mode photocathode. (112) for that individual event. (112)
Sensitivity: See Responsivity, the preferred Transmission-mode photocathode: A pho-
term. tocathode in which radiant flux incident on
Spectral luminous efficacy (radiant flux): one side produces photoelectric emission
The quotient of the luminous flux at a given from the opposite side. Synonymous with
wavelength by the radiant flux at that Semitransparent photocathode. (112)
wavelength. It is expressed in lumens per Transmittance: The ratio of the radiant flux
watt. The maximum spectral luminous ef- transmitted through a body of material to
Glossary of Terms

that incident upon it. See Absorptance. REFERENCES


Vacuum level: The minimum potential ener- 107. IEEE Standard Dictionary of Electrical
gy level an electron must reach to escape en- and Electronics Terms, Wiley-Interscience.
tirely from the attraction of a solid or an 108. RCA Electro-Optics Handbook,
atom. EOH-11.
Valence band: The range of energy states in 109. The International Dictionary of
the spectrum of a solid crystal in which lie Physics and Electronics, D. Van Nostrand.
the energies of the valence electrons that 110. Information Transmission, Modula-
bind the crystal together. (107) tion, and Noise, Mischa Schwartz, McGraw-
Hill, 1959.
Venetian-blind dynode: A descriptive term 111. Leo Levi, Applied Optics, Vol. 1, John
for a photomultiplier dynode structure. The Wiley and Sons, Inc., 1968.
dynode is constructed with a number of 112. An American National Standard,
parallel slats with space between permitting IEEE Standard Test Procedures for Photo-
secondary electrons to be directed to the next multipliers for Scintillation Counting and
stage. Glossary for Scintillation Counting Field.
Voltage divider (photomultiplier): A series ANSI N42.9-1972; IEEE Std 398-1972.
string of resistors across which a voltage is
applied providing an appropriate voltage
drop per stage.
Work function: The minimum energy re-
quired to remove an electron from the Fermi
level of a material into field-free space. (107)

131
Photomultiplier Handbook

Appendix C-
Spectral Response Designation Systems

The spectral response of a photomultiplier mation is of value to the photomultiplier


tube depends primarily on the chemical com- user because it will help in the interpretation
ponents of the photocathodes. Differences of the published spectral characteristics data
in spectral response, however, can result for a specific tube type regardless of which
from variations in the processing of response designation system is used.
photocathodes even for the same chemicals.
Some photocathodes are of the “opaque” or Numerical System
“reflective” type where the photoemission is In 1971 RCA/BURLE introduced a
from the same side as the excitation. Others, numerical system of spectral response des-
having essentially the same chemistry but of ignations supplementing and overlapping
the “semitransparent” type where the the JEDEC S-designation system. The rea-
photoemission is from the side opposite son for this extended system was the prolif-
from that of the excitation, may have a eration of spectral responses resulting from
somewhat different spectral response. The the combinations of different glasses, new
short-wavelength-cutoff characteristic of the photocathode types, and processing varia-
spectral response is the result of the tions. Table C-II is a catalogue of this 1971
transmission characteristic of the particular numbering system providing an identifica-
glass used for the photocathode window. tion and description of each number.
S-Designation System Alphanumeric Coded System
In the early 1940’s, the JEDEC (Joint In 1976, RCA/BURLE changed its number
Electron Devices Engineering Council) in- system for spectral-response characteristics to
dustry committee on photosensitive devices an alphanumeric combination coded system.
developed the “W-system of designating The new designations were combinations of
spectral responses. The philosophy included alphanumerics based on (1) the photocath-
the idea that the product user need only be ode material, (2) the window material, and
concerned about the response of the device, (3) the photocathode operating mode. Table
not by how it might be fabricated. And, in C-III provides the code for the spectral
fact, the chemical compositions of some of response designation in four columns. The
the photocathodes and dynodes were con- first two digits in the designation number
sidered proprietary by various manufac- (Column I) indicate the photocathode
turers. S-numbers were registered from S-l material; the following alphabetic character
through S-40. See Table C-I. Subsequently, (Column II) indicates the window material;
the lack of activity of the industry committee the next alphabetic character (Column III)
on photosensitive devices resulted in in- indicates the photocathode operating mode.
dependent assignment of codes for spectral Where required, the letter “X” is used as a
responses. In other cases, the spectral suffix to the designation to indicate an ex-
response was described by a curve and an ac- tended response in the red or near infrared.
tual description of the photocathode com- As an example of the usage of this system,
position and of the window material. tube type 931A has a spectral response that
The following material is a brief account was previously designated as 102 (S-4) in
of the different designation systems and Table C-II. This tube type has a Cs3Sb
their relationship and meaning. This infor- photocathode, a 0080 lime glass window,

132
Spectral Response Designation Systems

and a reflection-type photocathode. Its few are sufficiently acquainted with the code
designation according to the 1976 code to make good use of it. Instead, most
system is 20AR. knowledgeable customers prefer to be in-
Similarly, a tube type having a Cs3Sb formed directly of the nature of the
photocathode, a 0080 glass window, and a photocathode and the window. As a result,
transmission-type photocathode is desig- therefore, BURLE has discontinued the use of
nated 20AT. This response was previously coded spectral response designations except
designated 107 (S-l 1). for occasional reference to some of the more
Current Practices common JEDEC S-numbers, which have
become well established. Instead, reference
When the coded spectral response designa- is made to the photocathode material, the
tion system was devised in 1976, it was an- window material, and any special processing
ticipated that all the information provided information. In addition, typical spectral
by the code would be useful to customers in response and other related data are pro-
specifying the type of photomultiplier vided .
needed. Experience has indicated that very

133
Photomultiplier Handbook

Table C-I Spectral Response Designations as Specified by JEDEC


Photocathode
S-Designation Composition Window* Notes
S-l Ag-O-Cs lime glass semitransparent or
opaque
S-2 (Obsolete; formerly similar to S-l)
S-3 Ag-O-Rb lime glass opaque
S-4 Cs3Sb lime glass opaque
S-5 Cs3Sb Corning 9741 opaque
S-6 Na uv transmitting opaque
S-7 Ag-O-Rb-Cs borosilicate opaque
S-8 Cs3Bi lime glass opaque
S-9 (Obsolete; formerly similar to S-l1)
S-10 Ag-Bi-O-Cs lime glass semitransparent
S-11 Cs3Sb lime glass semitransparent
S-12 (CdS - a photoconductive crystal)
S-13 Cs3Sb fused silica semitransparent
S-14 (Ge - photovoltaic)
S-15 (CdS-CdSe - a photoconductor)
S-16 (CdSe - a photoconductor)
S-17 Cs3Sb lime glass opaque with
reflecting substrate
S-18 (Sb-S - photoconductor, camera tubes)
S-19 Cs3Sb fused silica opaque
S-20 Na2KSb:Cs lime glass semitransparent
S-21 Cs3Sb Corning 9741 semitransparent
S-22 (Not used)
S-23 Rb-Te fused silica semitransparent
S-24 (Not used)
S-25 Na2KSb:Cs lime glass semitransparent,
processed for ex-
tended red response
S-26 (InSb - photovoltaic)
S-27 (Ge:Au - photoconductive)
S-28 (InAs - photovoltaic)
S-29 (PbSe - photoconductive)
S-30 (Ge:Cu - photoconductive)
S-31 (PbS - photoconductive)
S-32 (PbS - photoconductive)
S-33 (PbS - photoconductive)
S-34 (InAs - photovoltaic)
S-35 (InSb - photoconductive)
S-36 (GaAs - photovoltaic)
S-37 (Si - photovoltaic) *Window may be of material other than that
specified, but it will have equivalent spectral
S-38 (PbSe - photoconductive) characteristics.
S-39 (PbSe - photoconductive)
S-40 (Ge:Hg - photoconductive) References: 113, 114

134
Spectral Response Designation Systems

Table C-II RCA/BURLE 1971 Spectral Response Numbering Code

JEDEC Photocathode
Number S-Designation Composition Window Notes
101 S-l Ag-o-cs lime glass
102 S-4 Cs3Sb lime glass
103 Cs3Sb Corning 9741 glass uv transmitting
104 S-5 Cs3Sb Corning 9741 glass uv transmitting
105 S-8 Cs-Bi lime glass
106 S-10 Ag-Bi-O-Cs lime glass
107 S-l 1 Cs3Sb lime glass
108 S-13 Cs3Sb SiO2
109 S-19 Cs3Sb SiO2
110 S-20 Na2KSb:Cs Borosilicate glass
111 Na2KSb:Cs lime glass
112 Na2KSb:Cs Corning 9823 glass uv transmitting
113 Na2KSb:Cs Pyrex
114 Na2KSb:Cs SiO2
115 K2CsSb Lime or boro-
silicate glass
116 K2CsSb Pyrex
117 K2CsSb Corning 9823 glass uv transmitting
118 K2CsSb Corning 9741 glass uv transmitting
119 Na2KSb:Cs Pyrex extended red:
ERMA III
120 K2CsSb Sapphire, uv grade
121 Cs-Te SiO2
122 K2CsSb Al203
123 Cs3Sb Sapphire, uv grade
124 Cs3Sb Corning 9741 glass
125 Cs-Te LiF
126 K2CsSb Borosilicate or lime
glass
127 Ag-Bi-O-Cs Corning 9741 glass
128 Ga-As Corning 9741 glass
129 Ga-As-P Corning 9741 glass
130 Na2KSb:Cs Borosilicate or lime
glass
131 Na2KSb:Cs Borosilicate glass extended red:
ERMA III
132 Na2KSb:Cs Lime or extended red:
borosilicate glass ERMA II
133 K2CsSb SiO2
134 Ga-As Sapphire, uv grade
135 Ga-As-P Sapphire, uv grade
136 K2CsSb Lime glass

135
Photomultiplier Handbook

Table C-II RCA/BURLE 1971 Spectral Response Numbering Code (cont’d)

JEDEC Photocathode Window Notes


Number S-Designation Composition

137 Na2KSb:Cs Corning 9741 glass extended red:


ERMA II
138 Na2KSb:Cs Corning 9741 glass extended red:
ERMA I
139 Na2KSb Borosilicate glass high temperature
140 In.06 -Ga.94 -As Corning 9741 glass Type I
141 In.12-Ga- .88-As Corning 9741 glass Type II
142 I n.18- G a.82- A s Corning 9741 glass Type III

Table C-III RCA/BURLE 1976 Coded System for Spectral Response Designation

Column I Column II Column III


10 = AgOCs A = 0080 (lime glass) or D = Dormer-window type
15 = AgBiOCs 7056 (Borosilicate glass) R = Reflection Type
20 = CsSb C = 7740 (Pyrex) T = Transmission Type
25 = CsBi E = 9741 (UV transmitting
30 = CsTe glass)
35 = KCsSb (Bialkali) G = 9823 (UV transmitting
40 = NaKSb (High glass)
temperature bialkali) J = SiO2 (Fused silica)
45 = RbCsSb M = UV-grade Sapphire
50 = NaKCsSb (Multialkali) P = LiF
51 = NaKCsSb (ERMA I)
52 = NaKCsSb (ERMA II)
53 = NaKCsSb (ERMA III)
60 = GaAs Column IV
71 = InGaAs (Type I) X = Extended Response
72 = InGaAs (Type II)
73 = InGaAs (Type III)

REFERENCES 114. “Typical characteristics of photosen-


113. “Relative spectral response data for sitive surfaces,” JEDEC Publication No. 61,
photosensitive devices (“S” curves)“, Electronic Industries Association, Engineer-
JEDEC Publication No. 50, Electronic In- ing Department, 2001 Eye Street, N. W.,
dustries Association, Engineering Depart- Washington, D.C. 20006. (1966)
ment, 2001 Eye Street, N.W., Washington,
D.C. 20006 (1964)

136
Spectral Response Designation Systems

Appendix D-
Photometric Units and Photometric-to-Radiometric Conversion

Photometry is concerned with the mea- energy spectrum for each wavelength in the
surement of light. Because the origins of the visible range, assuming foveal vision. An ab-
photoelectric industry were associated with solute “sensitivity” figure established for
the visible spectrum, the units first used for the standard eye relates photometric units
evaluating photosensitive devices were pho- and radiant power units. At 555 nanometers,
tometric. Today, however, even though the wavelength of maximum sensitivity of
many of the applications of photosensitive the eye, one watt of radiant power cor-
devices are for radiation outside the visible responds to approximately 680 lumens. The
spectrum, the photometric units are still re- quotient of the luminous flux at a given
tained for many purposes. Because these wavelength by the radiant flux at that
units are based on the characteristics of the wavelength is referred to as the Spectral
eye, this discussion begins with a considera- Luminous Efficacy ,
tion of some of these characteristics.
D-l
CHARACTERISTICS OF
THE EYE Various determinations of the maximum
The sensors in the retina of the human eye value, K (555 nanometers), have varied
are of two kinds: “cones” which predomi- somewhat from the nominal value of 680
nate the central (or foveal) vision and lumens per watt.
“rods” which provide peripheral vision. The For the dark-adapted eye, the peak sen-
cones are responsible for our color vision; sitivity increases and is shifted toward the
rods provide no color information but in the violet end of the spectrum. A tabulation of
dark-adapted state are more sensitive than the relative scotopic vision is also given in
the cones and thus provide the basis of dark- Table D-I. The peak luminosity for scotopic
adapted vision. Because there are no rods in vision occurs at 511 nanometers and is the
the fovea1 region, faint objects can more equivalent of 1746 lumens/watt. Fig. D-l
readily be observed at night when the eye is shows the comparison of the absolute
not exactly directed toward the faint object. luminosity curves for scotopic and photopic
The response of the light-adapted eye (cone vision as a function of wavelength.
vision) is referred to as the Photopic eye The sensitivity of the eye outside the
response; the response of the dark-adapted wavelength limits shown in Table D-I is very
eye (rod vision) is referred to as Scotopic eye low, but not actually zero. Studies with in-
response. tense infrared sources have shown that the
Although characteristics of the human eye eye is sensitive to radiation of wavelength at
vary from person to person, standard least as long as 1050 nanometers. Fig. D-2
luminosity coefficients for the eye were shows a composite curve given by Griffin,
defined by the Commission Internationale Hubbard, and Wald115 for the sensitivity of
d’Eclairage (International Commission on the eye for both foveal and peripheral vision
Illumination) in 193 1. These standard C . I. E. from 360 to 1050 nanometers. According to
luminosity coefficients for photopic vision Goodeve 116 the ultraviolet sensitivity of the
are given in Table D-I. They represent the eye extends to between 302.3 and 312.5
relative luminous equivalents of an equal- nanometers. Below this level the absorption

137
Photomultiplier Handbook

Table D-I
Relative Luminosity Values for Photopic and Scotopic Vision
Wavelength
(nm) (B>3 cd m-2 ) ( B < 3 x 1 0- 5c d m- 2)
- 0.0003
- 0.0008
- 0.0022
0.00004 0.0055
0.00012 0.0127
0.0004 0.0270
410 0.0012 0.0530
420 0.0040 0.0950
430 0.0116 0.157
0.023 0.239
450 0.038 0.339
460 0.060 0.456
470 0.091 0.576
480 0.139 0.713
490 0.208 0.842
500 0.323 0.948
510 0.503 0.999
520 0.710 0.953
530 0.862 0.849
540 0.954 0.697
550 0.995 0.531
560 0.995 0.365
570 0.952 0.243
580 0.870 0.155
590 0.757 0.0942
0.631 0.0561
610 0.503 0.0324
620 0.381 0.0188
630 0.265 0.0105
640 0.175 0.0058
650 0.107 0.0032
660 0.061 0.0017
670 0.032 0.0009
680 0.017 0.0005
690 0.0082 0.0002
700 0.0041 0.0001
710 0.0021 -
720 0.00105 -
730 0.00052 -
740 0.00025 -
750 0.00012 -
760 0.00006 -
770 0.00003 -

138
Photometric Units and Photometric-to-Radiometric Conversion

of radiation by the proteins of the eye lens


apparently limits further extension of vision
into the ultraviolet. Light having a wave- 2 I
-PERIPHERY
length of 302 nanometers is detected by its
fluorescent effect in the front part of the eye.

- 8

-10
300 . 500 700 900 1100
WAVELENGTH - NANOMETERS

92CS- 32468

Fig. D-2 - Relative spectral sensitivity of the


dark-adapted foveal and peripheral retina.

A suitable standard for practical photo-


electric measurements is the AJ2239 cali-
brated lamp, which operates at a current
of about 4.5 amperes and a voltage of 7 to 10
volts. A typical lamp calibrated at a color
temperature of 2856 K provides a luminous
intensity of 55 candelas. The luminous inten-
sity of a tungsten lamp measured in candelas
is usually numerically somewhat greater than
WAVELENGTH-NANOMETERS
the power delivered to the lamp in watts.
A color temperature of 2870 K served as
92CS- 32467 the basic test standard in this country for
Fig. D-7 - Absolute luminosity curves for about 30 years. A change had been made to
scotopic and photopic eye response. agree with C.I.E. illuminant A, a more wide-
spread standard that at first required a color
temperature of 2854 K, but has more recent-
PHOTOMETRIC UNITS ly been adjusted to 2856 K to accommodate
Luminous intensity (or candlepower) de- to the international practical temperature
scribes luminous flux per unit solid angle in a scale of 1968. See also Appendix F. The dif-
particular direction from a light source. The ference between the old lamp standard at
measure of luminous intensity is the fun- 2870 K and at the new temperature is
damental standard from which all other pho- generally negligible. 117
tometric units are derived. The standard of Luminous flux is the rate of flow of light
luminous intensity is the candela; the older energy, the characteristic of radiant energy
term candle is sometimes still used, but that produces visual sensation. The unit of
refers to the new candle or candela. luminous flux is the lumen, which is the flux
The candela is defined by the radiation emitted per unit solid angle by a uniform
from a black body at the temperature of point source of one candela. Such a source
solidification of platinum. A candela is one-
sixtieth of the luminous intensity of one A radiant source may be evaluated in
square centimeter of such a radiator. terms of luminous flux if the radiant-energy

139
Photomultiplier Handbook

Table D-II
is the total radiant power in watts per unit Typical Values of Natural Scene Illuminance
wavelength, total radiant power over all
Approx. Levels of
Sky Condition Illuminance-
as follows: lux (lm m-2)

D-2 Direct sunlight . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . l-l.3 x 105


Full daylight (not direct sunlight) . l-2 x 104
Overcast day . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10 3
efficiency. The lumen is the most widely Very dark day . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102
used unit in the rating of photoemissive Twilight . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
devices. For photomultipliers, the typical Deep twilight ........................ 1
test levels of luminous flux range from 10 -7 Full moon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-1
to 10-5 lumen (0.1 to 10 microlumens). Quarter moon ..................... 10 -2
Illuminance (or illumination) is the density Moonless, clear night sky. ........... 10 -3
of luminous flux incident on a surface. A Moonless, overcast night sky ......... 10 -4
common unit of illuminance is the footcan-
dle, the illumination produced by one lumen
uniformly distributed over an area of one
square foot. It follows that one candela pro-
duces an illuminance of one footcandle at a
distance of one foot. The preferred SI unit
(International System of Units) of illumi-
nance is the lux, which is the illumination
produced by one lumen uniformly distri-
buted over an- 2 area of one square meter. (1 lx
= 1 lm m ) It also follows that one
candela produces an illuminance of one lux
at a distance of one meter.

1 lux = 0.0929 footcandle

Table D-II lists some common values of il-


luminance. Further information concerning
natural radiation is shown in Fig. D-3 which
indicates the change in natural illumination
at ground level during, before, and after
sunset for a condition of clear sky and no
92CS-32469

Photometric luminance (or brightness) is a Fig. D-3 - Natural illuminance on the earth
measure of the luminous flux per unit solid for the hours immediately before and after
angle leaving a surface at a given point in a sunset with a clear sky and no moon.
given direction, per unit of projected area.
The term photometric luminance is used to For a surface that is uniformly diffusing,
distinguish a physically measured luminance luminance is the same regardless of the angle
from a subjective brightness. The latter from which the surface is viewed. This con-
varies with illuminance because of the shift dition results from the fact that a uniformly
in spectral response of the eye toward the diffusing surface obeys Lambert’s Law (the
blue region at lower levels of illuminance. cosine law) of emission. Thus, both the emis-
The term luminance describes the light emis- sion per unit solid angle and the projected
sion from a surface, whether the surface is area are proportional to the cosine of the
self-luminous or receives its light from some angle between the direction of observation
external luminous body. and the surface normal.

140
Photometric Units and Photometric-to-Radiometric Conversion

The SI unit of luminance is the candela per


square meter or a lumen per steradian and
square meter. This unit is called the nit. A
commonly used unit of luminance is the and the total flux from the area, A, is given
by
per square foot.
1 nit = 0.2919 footlambert

The relationship between luminance and


total luminous flux from a uniform diffuser
is illustrated by the use of Fig. D-4.

Fig. D-4 - Diagram illustrating Lambert’s law


and the calculation of total luminous flux
from a diffuse radiator.

Consider an elementary portion of the dif-


fusing surface having an area, A, and a On the other hand if a perfectly diffusing
luminance of L. The projected area at the and reflecting surface is illuminated with 1

sented by the differential area on the surface square meter (nits).


Table D-III provides data on luminance
luminance, L, represents the luminous flux values of various sources. Table D-IV is a
per unit solid angle leaving the surface per conversion table for various photometric
unit of projected area. Therefore, the flux units.

Table D-III
Luminance Values for Various Sources

Luminance Luminance
Source (Footlamberts) (Candelas m -2 )

Sun, as observed from Earth’s surface at meridian . . . . . 4.7 x 108 . . . . . 1.6 x 109
Moon, bright spot, as observed from Earth’s surface. . . 730 . . . . . . . . . . 2500
Clear blue sky . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2300. . . . . . . . . 7900
Lightning flash . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 x 1010 . . . . . . 7 x 1010
Atomic fission bomb, 0.1 millisecond after firing,
90-feet diameter ball . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 x 1011 . . . . . . 2 x 1012
Tungsten filament lamp, gas-filled, 16 lumen/watt . . . . 6 x 10 6 . . . . . 9 x 106
Plain carbon arc, positive crater . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.7 x 106 . . . . . 1.6 x 107
Fluorescent lamp, T-12 bulb, cool white, 430 mA,
medium loading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2000 . . . . . . . . . . 7000
Color television screen, average brightness . . . . . . . . . . . 50 . . . . . . . . . . . . 170

141
Photomultiplier Handbook

CALCULATION OF RADIANT Table F-I in Appendix F. The integrations


RESPONSIVITY FROM indicated in Eq. D-7 have been performed
LUMINOUS RESPONSITIVITY for most photocathode spectral responses. A
Specification of photocathode responsi-
vity is most frequently given in terms of watt, is provided in Table I. This factor
lumens from a tungsten source at a color represents the ratio of the peak radiant
temperature of 2856 K. If a relative spectral responsitivity in amperes per watt to the
response is known, it is possible to calculate luminous responsivity in amperes per lumen.
the absolute radiant responsivity of the
photocathode as follows.
Let the relative spectral response (with a Table D-IV
maximum value of unity) of the photocath- Conversion Table for
Various Photometric Units
absolute radiant response at the peak of the
SI Units Other Units
response characteristic is then given by
Luminous Intensity (I)
lamp radiation striking the photocathode be 1 candela (cd) = 1 lumen/steradian
(lm sr - 1)
The response of the photocathode (in am-
peres) to the total radiation is then given by

D-4 uniform point source of 1 candela


The integration is done over the complete Illuminance (E)
range of wavelengths either as limited by 1 lux (lx) = 1 lumen/ 1 footcandle (fc) =
The light flux (in lumens) represented by 1 lux = 0.0929 footcandle
the total radiant flux is given by
Luminance (L)
D-5 1 nit (nt) = 1 candela/ 1 footlambert (fL) =

0.ciency as given in Table D-I and 680 lumens 1 nit = 0.2919 footlambert
per watt is taken as the maximum spectral
luminous efficacy.
The luminous responsivity of the photo-
cathode in amperes per lumen is then given
by the ratio of expressions D-4 and D-5: REFERENCES
115. D.R. Griffin, R. Hubbard, and G.
D-6 Wald, “The sensitivity of the human eye to
infrared radiation,” JOSA, Vol. 37, No. 7,
pp 546, (1947).
From Eq. D-6, the maximum radiant
116. C.F. Goodeve, “Vision in the ultra-
amperes per watt: violet,” Nature (1934)
117. R.W. Engstrom and A.L. Morehead,
“Standard test lamp temperature for
photosensitive devices-relationship of ab-
solute and luminous sensitivities,” R C A
Note that the absolute magnitude of the Review, Vol. 28, pp 419-423 (1967)
118. I.E.S. Lighting Handbook, Illuminat-
lamp operated at a color temperature of ing Engineering Society, New York, New
York (1959).

142
Spectral Response and Source-Detector Matching

Appendix E-
Spectral Response and Source-Detector Matching

This appendix covers the significance of


the spectral response of photomultiplier of a photon is
tubes; describes some of the methods used E-l
for measuring this response; and discusses in
some detail the calculations and other con-
siderations useful for matching the radiation quency of the incident radiation, c is the
source and the photomultiplier tube type for
a specific application. the incident radiation. If the quantum effi-

of emitted photoelectrons to the number of


incident photons), the responsivity is given
SPECTRAL-RESPONSE by
CHARACTERISTICS
A spectral-response characteristic is a
display of the response of a photosensitive = - -
device as a function of the wavelength of the hc E-2
exciting radiation. Such curves may be on an
absolute or a relative basis. In the latter case in units of coulombs per joule or amperes
the curves are usually normalized to unity at per watt where e is the charge on the elec-
the peak of the spectral-response curve. For tron. Solving for the quantum efficiency:
a photocathode the absolute radiant sen-
sitivity is expressed in amperes per watt.
Curves of absolute spectral response may
also be expressed in terms of the quantum ef-
ficiency at the particular wavelength. If the
curve is presented in terms of amperes per
watt, lines of equal quantum efficiency may
be indicated for convenient reference.
Typical curves are usually included in the E-3
published tube data. It should be understood
that because of variations in processing,
deviations from these typical curves may be
expected. It would not be unusual for the MEASUREMENT TECHNIQUES
wavelength for peak response to vary by 30 In order to determine a spectral-response
nanometers from the typical value. The same characteristic, (1) a source of essentially
variation may be expected in the long- monochromatic radiation, (2) a current-
wavelength cutoff as judged by the wave- sensitive instrument to measure the output
length for which the response is 10% of the of the photocathode, and (3) a method of
maximum. On the other hand, the short- calibrating the monochromatic radiation for
wavelength cutoff is more closely held by the its magnitude in units of power are required.
glass transmission characteristic of the Monochromatic radiation is often pro-
envelope. vided by a prism or a grating type of mono-
The relationship between the spectral chromator. Interference filters may also be
used to isolate narrow spectral bands.

143
Photomultiplier Handbook

Although interference filters do not provide greater than 1000 nanometers because of its
the flexibility of a monochromator, they uniform and stable spectral-emission charac-
may be indicated in situations in which teristic. A mercury vapor discharge lamp
repeated measurements are required in a par- provides a high concentration in specific
ticular region of the spectrum. radiation lines and thus minimizes the
The width of the spectral transmission background scattered-radiation problem.
band in these measurements must be narrow The mercury lamp is particularly useful in
enough to delineate the spectral-response the ultraviolet end of the spectrum where the
characteristic in the required detail. How- tungsten lamp fails. Another useful source
ever, for the most part, spectral-response for the ultraviolet is the deuterium lamp.
characteristics do not require fine detail and (See the discussion on radiant energy sources
generally have broad peaks with exponential in Appendix F.)
cutoff characteristics at the long-wavelength
limit and rather sharp cutoffs at the short- MEASUREMENT OF
wavelength end. For spectral measurements, RADIANT POWER OUTPUT
therefore, a reasonably wide band is used. A radiation thermocouple or thermopile
Such a band has the following important ad- having a black absorbing surface is com-
vantages: (1) because the level of radiation is monly used to measure the radiation power
higher, measurements are easier and more output at a specific wavelength. Although
precise; and (2) spectral leakage in other these devices are relatively low in sensitivity,
parts of the spectrum is relatively less impor- they do provide a reasonably reliable means
tant. Spectral leakage is a problem in any of measuring radiation independent of the
monochromator because of scattered radia- wavelength. The limitation to their accuracy
tion, and in any filter because there is some is the flatness of the spectral absorption
transmission outside the desired pass band. characteristic of the black coating on the
A double monochromator may be used and detector. Throughout the visible and near-
will greatly reduce the spectral leakage out- infrared regions there is usually no problem.
side the pass band. The double monochro- There is some question, however, as to the
mator is at a disadvantage in cost and com- flatness of the response in the ultraviolet
plexity. If a pass band of 10 nanometers is part of the spectrum.
used, spectral leakage can be insignificant The output of the thermocouple or
for most of the spectral measurements. At thermopile is a voltage proportional to the
the same time, this pass band is narrow input radiation power. This voltage is con-
enough to avoid distortion in the measured verted by means of a suitable sensitive
spectral-response characteristic. It is often voltmeter to a calibrated measure of power
advisable to vary the pass band depending in watts. The calibration may be accom-
upon what part of the curve is being plished by means of standard radiation
measured. For example, at the long- lamps obtained from the National Bureau of
wavelength cutoff where the response of the Standards. It is theoretically possible to
photocathode may be very small, the leakage calculate the monochromatic power from a
spectrum may play an important part; thus it knowledge of the emission characteristic of
is advisable to increase the spectral bandpass the source, the dispersion characteristic of
of the measurement. Wide pass-band color the monochromator or the transmission
filters that exclude the wavelength of the characteristic of the filter, and from the
measurement and include the suspected spec- transmission characteristic of the various
tral leakage region, or vice versa, are used in lenses. This procedure is difficult, subject to
checking the magnitude of the possible error, and is not recommended except
leakage spectrum. perhaps in the case of a tungsten lamp source
combined with a narrow-band filter system.
ENERGY SOURCES Another useful reference standard is the
Various radiant-energy sources are used to pyroelectric detector. In this case, the radia-
advantage in spectral-response measure- tion to be measured must be interrupted by
ments. A tungsten halogen lamp is useful means of a light chopper at about 15 hertz.
from 350 nanometers to wavelengths much Absolute calibration might proceed in a

144
Spectral Response and Source-Detector Matching

manner similar to that of the thermopile. MATCHING CALCULATIONS


Special pyroelectric detectors have been The average power radiating from a light
fabricated that can be self-calibrated by source may be expressed as follows:
means of electric power input. 119
E-4
MEASUREMENT OF
PHOTOCATHODE OUTPUT where PO is the incident power in watts per
unit wavelength at the peak of the relative
For measuring the spectral characteristic
of a photocathode, a very sensitive ammeter which is normalized to unity.
is required. When the output of the photo- If the absolute spectral distribution for the
cathode of a photomultiplier is measured, light source and the absolute spectral
the tube is usually operated as a photodiode response of the photomultiplier tube are
by connecting all elements other than the known, the resulting photocathode current
photocathode together to serve as the anode. Ik when the light is incident on the detector
When the photomultiplier is operated as a can be expressed as follows:
conventional photomultiplier, the output is
very easy to measure. It is necessary, how- E-5
ever, to be careful to avoid fatigue effects
which could distort the spectral-response photocathode in amperes per watt at the
measurement. It should be noted that the
spectral response of a photomultiplier may sents the relative photocathode spectral
be somewhat different from that of the response as a function of wavelength nor-
photocathode alone because of the effect of malized to unity at the peak. When Eq. E-4
initial velocities on collection efficiency at is solved for the peak power per unit wave-
the first dynode and because of the possibili- length, PO, and this solution is substituted in-
ty of a photoeffect on the first dynode by to Eq. E-5, the cathode current is expressed
light transmitted through the photocathode, as follows:
especially if the first dynode is a photosen-
sitive material such as cesium-antimony.
SOURCE AND DETECTOR
MATCHING The ratio of the dimensionless integrals can
One of the most important parameters to be defined as the matching factor, M. The
be considered in the selection of a photo- matching factor is the ratio of the area under
multiplier type for a specific application is the curve defined by the product of the
the photocathode spectral response. The relative source and detector spectral curves
spectral response of BURLE photomultiplier to the area under the relative spectral source
tubes covers the spectrum from the ultra- curve.
violet to the near-infrared region. In this
range there are a large variety of spectral
responses to choose from. Some cover nar-
row ranges of the spectrum while others
cover a very broad range. The published Fig. E-l shows an example of the data in-
data for each photomultiplier type show the volved in the evaluation of the matching fac-
relative and absolute spectral-response tor, M, as given in Eq. E-7.
curves for a typical tube of that particular If the input light distribution incident on
type. The relative typical spectral-response the detector is modified with a filter or any
curves published may be used for matching other optical device, the matching-factor
the detector to a light source for all but the formulas must be changed accordingly. If
most exacting applications. The matching of the transmission of the filter or optical
detector to source consists of choosing the
photomultiplier tube type that has a spectral
response providing maximum overlap of the
spectral distributions of detector and light
source.

145
Photomultiplier Handbook

When M is substituted for the integral


ratio in Eq. E-6, the photocathode current
becomes

E-10
In any photomultiplier application it is
desirable to choose a detector having a
photocathode spectral response that will
maximize the photocathode current, Ik, for
a given light source. Maximizing the cathode
current is important to maximize the signal-
to-noise ratio. From Eq. E-9, it can be seen
that the product of the matching factor M
and the peak absolute photocathode sensitiv-
cathode current.
The importance of taking into account the
absolute photocathode sensitivity, as well as
the matching factor, is illustrated by a com-
parison of the S-l and S-20 photocathodes
with a tungsten light source operating at a
color temperature of 2856 K. The S-l and
the S-20 matching factors are 0.516 and
0.112, respectively. From the matching fac-
tors alone it appears that the S-l is the best
WAVELENGTH-NANOMETERS choice of photocathode spectral response.
92cs-32470
The S-l has a peak absolute sensitivity of 2.3
milliamperes per watt and the S-20 has a
Fig. E-l - Graphic example of factors used in peak absolute sensitivity of 64 milliamperes
evaluation of matching factor, M. per watt. Then, from Eq. E-9 the expected
photocathode currents are
Table E-I shows a number of matching fac- Ik(S-1)=0.0023 x 0.516 P=0.00119 P
tors calculated for various light sources and
spectral response characteristics. When the Ik(S-20)=0.064 x 0.112 P=0.00717 P
spectral range of a source exceeded 1200 These calculations show that the S-20
nanometers, the integration was terminated photocathode will provide a response to the
at this wavelength. Because none of the tungsten lamp six times that of the S-l
photoresponses exceed 1200 nanometers, photocathode.
conclusions as to the relative merit of
various combinations are still valid.
It should also be noted that since these
data were originally published there has been REFERENCES
a proliferation of photocathode develop- 119. W.M. Doyle and B.C. McIntosh (Laser
ment. Many of the new photocathodes, how- Precision Corp., Irvine, California) and Jon
ever, have spectral responses similar to those Geist (National Bureau of Standards, Wash-
listed in Table E-l. As a result, the spectral ington, D.C.), “Implementation of a system
matching factors given could also be used of optical calibration based on pyroelectric
for many of the new photocathodes. For radiometry,” Optical Engineering, Vol. 15,
example, the data on S-l 1 could well be sub- No. 6, pp 541-548, (Nov.-Dec. 1976)
stituted for photocathodes such as Rb2CsSb, 120. E.H. Eberhardt, “Source-detector
K2CsSb or Na2KSb, with only moderate spectral matching factors,” Applied Optics,
error. Vol. 7, p 2037 (1968)

146
Spectral Response and Source-Detector Matching

Table E-1
Spectral Matching Factors**
Other
Detectors
Light Photocathodes Pho- Sco-
topic topic
S1 S4 S1O S11 S17 S20 S25 eye eye
Source Notes k k k k k k k 1 m
Phosphors
P1 a 0.278 0.498 0.807 0.687 0.892 0.700 0.853 0.768 0.743
P4 a,b 0.310 0.549 0.767 0.661 0.734 0.724 0.861 0.402 0.452
P7 a 0.312 0.611 0.805 0.709 0.773 0.771 0.882 0.411 0.388
P11 a 0.217 0.816 0.949 0.914 0.954 0.877 0.953 0.201 0.601
P15 a 0.385 0.701 0.855 0.787 0.871 0.802 0.904 0.376 0.495
P16 a 0.830 0.970 0.853 0.880 0.855 0.902 0.922 0.003 0.042
P20 a 0.395 0.284 0.612 0.427 0.563 0.583 0.782 0.707 0.354
P22B C 0.217 0.893 0.974 0.960 0.948 0.927 0.979 0.808 0.477
P22G C 0.278 0.495 0.807 0.686 0.896 0.699 0.855 0.784 0.747
P22R C 0.632 0.036 0.264 0.055 0.077 0.368 0.623 0.225 0.008
P24 a 0.279 0.545 0.806 0.696 0.827 0.725 0.869 0.540 0.621
P31 a,d 0.276 0.533 0.811 0.698 0.853 0.722 0.868 0.626 0.65 1
NaI e 0.534 0.923 0.885 0.889 0.889 0.900 0.933 0.046 0.224
Lamps
2870/2856
std f 0.516* 0.046* 0.095* 0.060* 0.072* 0.112* 0.227* 0.071†* 0.040*
Fluorescent g 0.395 0.390 0.650 0.496 0.575 0.635 0.805 0.502 0.314
Sun
In space h 0.535* 0.308* 0.388* 0.328* 0.380* 0.406* 0.547* 0.179* 0.172*
+2 air
masses 0.536* 0.236* 0.348* 0.277* 0.315* 0.360* 0.513* 0.197* 0.175*
Day sky 0.537* 0.520* 0.556* 0.508* 0.589* 0.581* 0.700* 0.170* 0.218*
Blackbodies
6000K - 0.533* 0.308* 0.376* 0.320* 0.375* 0.397* 0.521* 0.167* 0.159*
3000K - 0.512* 0.053* 0.102* 0.067* 0.080* 0.120* 0.232* 0.075* 0.044*
2870 K - 0.504* 0.044* 0.090* 0.057* 0.069* 0.106* 0.216* 0.067* 0.038*
2856 K - 0.500* 0.042* 0.088* 0.055* 0.068* 0.103* 0.211* 0.065* 0.037*
2810 K - 0.493* 0.039* 0.081* 0.051* 0.062* 0.097* 0.150* 0.061* 0.034*
2042 K - 0.401* 0.008* 0.023* 0.011* 0.014* 0.033* 0.090* 0.018* 0.007*
*Entry valid only for 300-1200-nm wavelength j From Gates (Science, Vol. 151, p 523
interval. (1966)) between 300 nm and 530 nm. bet-
†For the total wavelength spectrum this entry ween 300 nm and 530 nm.
would be 0.0294. A 12,000 K blackbody spectra) dis-
Notes: a Registered spectral distribution. tribution was assumed between 530 nm
Data extrapolated as required. and 1200 nm.
b Sulfide type. k Registered spectral distribution. Data
c BURLE data. extrapolated as required.
d Low brightness type. l Standard tabulated
e Harshaw Chemical Co. data. photopic visibility
f Standard test lamp distribution. distribution.
g General Electric Co. data. m Standard tabulated
h From Handbook of Geophysics. scotopic visibility
i Approximately noon sea level flux at distribution.
60° latitude. ** Data from E.H. Eberhardt, 120.

147
Photomultiplier Handbook

Appendix F -
Radiant Energy and Sources

Radiant energy is energy traveling in the hole. The radiation from the hole ap-
form of electromagnetic waves. It is mea- proaches that from a theoretical black
sured in joules, ergs, or calories. The rate of radiator if the cross-sectional area of the
flow of radiant energy is called radiant flux, cavity is large compared with the area of the
and it is expressed in watts (joules per exit hole. The characteristic of 100-per-cent
second). absorption is achieved because any radiation
Planck’s equation for the spectral radiant entering the hole is reflected many times in-
exitance of a black body in a vacuum is side the cavity.
The radiation distribution for a source
which is not black may be calculated from
F-l the black-body radiation laws provided the
emissivity as a function of wavelength is
(in W m -2 m -1 ) , known. Spectral emissivity is defined as the
where ratio of the output of a radiator at a specific
wavelength to that of a black body at the
h = Planck’s constant (J s)-1 same temperature. Tungsten sources, for
c = velocity of light (m s ) which tables of emissivity data are
k = Boltzmann’s constant (J K-1) available,121 are widely used as practical
T = absolute temperature (K) standards, particularly for the visible range.
Tungsten radiation standards for the visible
BLACK-BODY RADIATION range are frequently given in terms of color
temperature, instead of true temperature.
As a body is raised in temperature, it first The color temperature of a selective radiator
emits radiation primarily in the invisible in- is determined by comparison with a black
frared region. Then, as the temperature is in- body. When the outputs of the selective
creased, the radiation shifts toward the radiator and a black body are the closest
shorter wavelengths. A certain type of radia- possible approximation to a perfect color
tion called black-body radiation is used as a match in the range of visual sensitivity, the
standard for the infrared region. Other color temperature of the selective radiator is
sources may be described in terms of the numerically the same as the black-body true
black body. temperature. For a tungsten source, the rela-
A black body is one which absorbs all inci- tive distribution of radiant energy in the visi-
dent radiation; none is transmitted and none ble spectral range is very close to that of a
is reflected. Because, in thermal equilibrium, black body, although the absolute tempera-
thermal radiation balances absorption, it tures differ. However, the match of energy
follows that a black body is the most effi- distribution becomes progressively worse in
cient thermal radiator possible. A black the ultraviolet and infrared spectral regions.
body radiates more total power and more
power at a particular wavelength than any
other thermally radiating source at the same TUNGSTEN SOURCES
temperature. Although no material is ideally
black, the equivalent of a theoretical black Tungsten Lamps
body can be achieved in the laboratory by Tungsten lamps are probably the most im-
providing a hollow radiator with a small exit portant type of radiation source because of
Radiant Energy and Sources

their availability, reliability, and constancy length. Methods of computing the response
of operating characteristics. Commercial of a given photodetector to a particular
photomultiplier design has been consider- radiation source are outlined in Appendix E,
ably influenced by the characteristics of the Spectral Response and Source-Detector
tungsten lamp. A relative spectral-emission Matching.
characteristic for a tungsten lamp at 2856 K The relative spectral irradiance from a
color temperature is shown in Fig. F-l. standard tungsten test lamp operated at 2870
K or 2854 K color temperature has been cal-
culated by Engstrom and Morehead.123
Their data utilized the black body character-
istic, the tungsten spectral emissivity, and
the transmission of the lamp envelope.
Tabulated data (ST-3340) are available from
BURLE Application Engineering. Their
data in the wavelength range 300 to 1200
nanometers has been adjusted to a tempera-
ture of 2856 K color temperature and are
shown in Table F-I. The data are normalized
to unity at the maximum. The conversion
was made by multiplying by the appropriate
WAVELENGTH-NANOMETERS Planckian functions with a value for the se-
92cs-32471
cond radiation constant, C2 = 14,387.86 µm
Fig. F-l - Relative spectra/emission charac- K. 124
teristic for a tungsten lamp at a color temper-
ature of 2856 K.
Tungsten-Halogen Lamps
A variation of the tungsten lamp is the
As a result of the work of industry com- tungsten-halogen lamp which is remarkable
mittees, virtually the entire photosensitive- in that it can be operated at relatively high
device industry in the United States uses the temperatures with increased life and with
tungsten lamp at 2856 K color temperature* practically constant light output until the
125
as a general test source. The lamp is cali- end of life. Darkening of the envelope is
brated in lumens and is utilized in the infra- virtually prevented in these lamps by a reac-
red spectrum as well as the visible. Typical as tion of the halogen gas and the evaporated
well as maximum and minimum photosensi- tungsten. In a typical application the lamp
tivities are quoted in microamperes per may contain between 0.2 and 0.3 micro-
lumen. moles/per cubic centimeter of I2 which is
The principal disadvantages of using the broken down to atomic iodine by the heat of
tungsten lamp as an industry standard test the filament. The atomic iodine reacts with
are that it does not provide a direct measure the evaporated tungsten on the envelope wall
of radiant sensitivity as a function of wave- to form WI,. The volatile WI2 diffuses to the
length and that it is a somewhat misleading filament where it is decomposed, depositing
term when the response of the photomulti- W on the filament and freeing I to repeat the
plier lies outside the visible range. To assist cycle.
the scientist in using photomultipliers, The temperature of the envelope wall must
technical specifications for BURLE photomul- be in the range 250 to 1200°C for the iodine
tiplier types include photocathode spectral- cycle to operate successfully. It is common,
response curves which give the sensitivity in therefore, for the envelopes to be made of
absolute terms such as amperes per watt and quartz. Because the envelopes are small,
quantum efficiency as a function of wave- even for high power lamps, the wall attains
the proper temperature. If the envelope wall
*Formerly 2870 K, but changed to agree with C.I.E. is at too low a temperature, the WI2 will not
designated Illuminant A at 2854 K, and again more be desorbed and a brown deposit of WI2 will
recently to 2856 K because of the adoption of the inter- be formed. At too high a wall temperature,
national practical temperature scale of 1968.122 the reaction, WI2 - W + 2I will occur and

149
Photomultiplier Handbook

Table F-I
Relative Spectral Irradiance from a
Tungsten Test Lamp Operated at a
Color Temperature of 2856 K
Relative Relative Relative
Wavelength, spectral Wavelength, spectral Wavelength, spectral
nm Irradiance nm Irradiance nm Irradiance
300 .0004 610 .5179 910 .9916
310 .0017 620 .5449 920 .9945
320 .0044 630 .5717 930 .9965
330 .0078 640 .5984 940 .9977
340 .0117 650 .6249 950 .9990
350 .0164 660 .6500 960 1.0000
360 .0221 670 .6747 970 .9985
370 .0285 680 .6988 980 .9963
380 .0361 690 .7219 990 .9961
390 .0450 700 .7438 1000 .9934
.0551 710 .7649 1010 .9909
410 .0663 720 .7860 1020 .9865
420 .0789 730 .8054 1030 .9823
430 .0928 740 .8233 1040 .9787
440 .1082 750 .8402 1050 .9747
450 .1249 760 .8557 1060 .9692
460 .1428 770 .8719 1070 .9647
470 .1623 780 .8861 1080 .9582
480 .1830 790 .8993 1090 .9529
490 .2048 800 .9114 1100 9457
500 .2278 810 .9228 1110 .9412
510 .2517 820 .9346 1120 .9321
520 .2766 830 .9444 1130 .9257
530 .3025 840 .9545 1140 .9174
540 .3286 850 .9624 1150 .9111
550 .9692 1160 .9037
560 .3826 870 .9751 1170 .8948
570 .4097 880 .9809 1180 .8868
580 .4368 890 .9862 1190 .8796
590 .4636 900 .9893 1200 .8704
600 .4906

= 680 lumens per watt, the luminous flux repre-


sented by the tabular values is 2797 lumens. (There is
some uncertainty about the value 680 lumens per watt;
relative spectral luminous efficiency values. If the max- various slightly differing values have been reported in
imum luminous efficacy at 555 nanometers is recent years.)

150
Radiant Energy and Sources

the W will not be removed from the wall.


Because of the higher operating tempera-
tures and the long life with minimum
envelope darkening, the tungsten-halogen
lamps are useful as standard test lamps. 126
Robert Saunders, Jr., of the Optical
Radiation Section of the National Bureau of
Standards has developed an empirical for-
mula* representing the spectral irradiance of
1000-watt quartz-halogen type DXW lamps.
Saunders formula is
0 ’
4 0 0 500 600 700
WAVELENGTH-NANOMETERS
92CS-32472

Fig. F-2 - Typical spectra/emission curve for


a water-cooled mercury-arc lamp at a
The fit of this formula to the actual data is pressure of 130 atmospheres.
of the order of 0.1% at each wavelength in
the range of 350 to 900 nanometers for each character of the light emitted from a mer-
of four lamps tested. Rounded-off averages cury arc varies with pressure and operation
of the constants in Eq. F-2 are A=0.867; conditions. At low pressure, the spectral out-
put consists of sharp lines, which are very
useful as reference spectra. Table F-III pro-
pressed in nanometers. Ts is the apparent vides a list of some of the mercury lines in
black-body temperature. The term ea repre- the visible and near-visible spectral range. In
sents a magnitude. Saunder’s data were the case of germicidal lamps, most of the
taken at a temperature, Ts , of approximate- energy radiated is in one spectral line, 253.7
ly 3025 K. nanometers.
For various purposes it is useful to have a At increasing pressures, the spectral-
tabulation of the relative radiant spectral energy distribution from the arc changes
flux from a tungsten-halogen lamp operating from the typical mercury-line spectral char-
at 3200 K color temperature. Saunder’s data acteristic to an almost continuous spectrum
were used to extrapolate to this temperature. of high intensity in the near-infrared, visible,
A value of Ts = 3184 K was found to provide and ultraviolet regions. Fig. F-2 shows the
a spectral distribution most closely fitting a spectral-energy distribution from a water-
black body at 3200 K and thus providing a cooled mercury arc at a pressure of 130 at-
color temperature of 3200 K. Using a value mospheres.
of 1.4388 x 107 nm K for the second radia- Deuterium Lamps
tion constant, C2, the relative spectral ra-
diant flux values from such a lamp were These lamps provide a continuous, line-
determined from Eq. F-2 and are tabulated free spectrum in the ultraviolet range. The
in Table F-II. lamps are useful in spectrophotometry and
related applications. A typical relative spec-
ARC AND GAS-DISCHARGE SOURCES. tral energy distribution from a deuterium
Mercury Lamps lamp is shown in Fig. F-3. Deuterium lamps
may also be obtained with calibrated spectral
Of the various types of electrical discharge irradiance over the wavelength range of 180
that have been used as radiation sources, the to 400 nanometers.
mercury arc is one of the most useful. The
Zirconium Concentrated-Arc Lamps
*Private Communication A very useful point source is the zir-
@More detailed information on arc and gas-discharge conium concentrated-arc lamp. Concen-
sources may be found in Handbook of Optics, trated-arc lamps are available with ratings
sponsored by the Optical Society of America, W. G.
Driscoll and W. Vaughan, editors, McGraw-Hill,
1978. These lamps may be obtained from Cenco Company.

151
Photomultiplier Handbook

Table F-II
Relative Spectral Irradiance from a Tungsten-Halogen Lamp in a
Quartz Envelope Operated at a Color Temperature of 3200 K
Relative Relative Relative
Wavelength, Spectral Wavelength, Spectral Wavelength, Spectral
nm Irradiance nm Irradiance nm Irradiance
300 .0109 610 .6714 910 .9969
310 .0151 620 .6966 920 .9950
320 .0204 630 .7211 930 .9924
330 .0269 .7444 940 .9893
.0347 650 .7669 950 .9859
350 .0440 660 .7883 960 .9820
360 .0548 670 .8086 970 .9778
370 .O671 680 .8280 980 .9733
380 .0811 690 .8464 990 .9683
390 .0967 700 .8636 1000 .9629
.1139 710 .8796 1010 .9572
410 .1327 720 .8945 1020 .9515
420 .1531 730 .9083 1030 .9454
430 .1749 740 .9213 1040 .9392
440 .1981 750 .9327 1050 .9327
450 .2224 760 .9434 1060 .9259
460 .2480 770 .9530 1070 .9194
470 .2745 780 .9618 1080 .9125
480 .3018 790 .9694 1090 .9052
490 .3299 800 .9763 1100 .8984
500 .3585 810 .9820 1110 .8911
510 .3875 820 .9870 1120 .8838
520 .4169 830 .9912 1130 .8766
530 .4463 840 .9943 1140 .8693
540 .4757 850 .9969 1150 .8621
550 .5048 860 .9985 1160 .8544
.5338 870 .9996 1170 .8472
570 .5625 880 1.0000 1180 .8399
580 .5908 890 .9996 1190 8326
590 .6183 900 .9985 1200 .8254
600 .6450

=680 lumens per watt, the luminous flux


sent watts per 10-nanometer interval, the sum, represented by the tabular values is 3861 lumens. (There
is some uncertainty about the value 680 lumens per
relative spectral luminous efficiency values. If the max- watt; various slightly differing values have been
imum luminous efficacy at 555 nanometers is reported in recent years.)

152
Radiant Energy and Sources

CARBON-ARC LAMP
Table F-III 8
Some of the Principal Spectral Lines
Characteristic of a Low-Pressure
Mercury Discharge (in nanometers)
237.8 365.0
253.7 404.7
265.3 435.8
296.7 546.1
302.1 577.0
313.2 579.0
334.1
(A more complete table may be found in
American Institute of Physics Handbook,
Third edition, 1972, McGraw-Hill, pp 7-92 92cs-32474
-7-96.)
Fig. F-4 - Typical spectra/emission curve for
a dc high-intensity carbon-arc lamp.
from 2 to 300 watts, and in point diameters
from 0.08 mm to 2.9 mm. These lamps re-
quire one special circuit to provide a high
starting voltage and another well-filtered
and ballasted circuit for operation.
Arc Lamps
The carbon arc is a source of great inten-
sity and high color temperature. A typical
energy-distribution spectrum of a dc high-
intensity arc is shown in Fig. F-4. Figs. F-5
and F-6 show relative spectral-emission
characteristic curves for xenon and argon
I
1000 1200
WAVELENGTH - N A N O M E T E R S
92cs-32475
DEUTERIUM L A M P
Fig. F-5 - Typical spectralemission curve for
a xenon-arc lamp.

WAVELENGTH -NANOMETERS
92cs-32473 WAVELENGTH-NANOMETERS
92CS-32476
Fig. F-3 - Typical relative spectral energy
distribution from a deuterium lamp. (From Op- Fig. F-6 - Typical spectral-emission curve for
tronic Laboratories, Inc., Silver Spring, Md.) an argon-arc lamp.

153
Photomultiplier Handbook

Fluorescent Lamps SUMMARY OF TYPICAL SOURCES


The common fluorescent lamp, a very ef- Table F-IV provides typical parameters
ficient light source, consists of an argon- for the most commonly used radiant energy
mercury glow discharge in a glass envelope sources.
internally coated with a phosphor that con-
verts ultraviolet radiation from the discharge
into useful light output. There are numerous LASERS AND LIGHT-
types of fluorescent lamps, each with a dif- EMITTING DIODES
ferent output spectral distribution depending
In recent years the development of various
upon the phosphor and gas filling. The spec- types of lasers and p-n light-emitting diodes
tral response shown in Fig. F-7 is a typical with very high modulation frequencies and
curve for a fluorescent lamp of the daylight
short rise times has increased the types of
type. sources that photomultipliers are called
upon to detect. Although many of these in-
teresting devices have their principal wave-
lengths of emission in the infrared beyond
the sensitivity range of photomultiplier
tubes, some do not. Because of the growing
importance of laser applications and the use
of photomultipliers for detecting their radia-
WAVELENGTH-NANOMETERS tion, Tables F-V through F-IX are provided
92cs-32477
as reference data on crystalline, gas, and li-
Fig. F-7 - Typical spectra/emission curve for quid lasers, and on p-n junction light-
a daylight-type fluorescent lamp. emitting diodes.

Table F-IV
Summary of Typical Sources/Parameters for the Most Commonly Used
Radiant Energy Sources
Lamp Type DC Arc Luminous Luminous Average
Input Dimensions Flux Efficiency Luminance
Power (mm) (lm) (lm W-1) (cd mm- 2)
(watts)
Mercury Short Arc
(high pressure) 200 2.5 x 1.8 9500 47.5 250
Xenon Short Arc 150 1.3 x 1.0 3200 21 300
Xenon Short Arc 20,000 12.5 x6 1,150,000 57 3000 (in 3
mmx6mm)
Zirconium Arc 100 1.5 250 2.5 100
(diam.)
Vortex-Stabilized
Argon Arc 3x10 422,000 17 1400
Tungsten - 79 7.9 10
Light - 1630 16.3
Bulbs - 21,500 21.5 25
Fluorescent Lamp
Standard Warm White 40 - 2,560 64 -
Carbon Arc
Non-Rotating 2,000 =5x5 36,800 18.4 175
Rotating 15,800 =8x8 350,000 22.2 800
Deuterium Lamp 40 1.0 (Nominal irradiance at 250 nm at
(diam.)

154
Radiant Energy and Sources

Table F-V
Typical Characteristics of a Number of
Useful Crystal Laser Systems
Host Dopant Wavelength Mode and Highest
of Laser Temperature of .
Operation (K)
Al2O3 0.05% 0.6934 CW,P 350
Cr3 + 0.6929 P 300
Al2O3 0.5% 0.7009 P 77
Cr3 + 0.7041 P 77
0.7670 P 300
MgF 2 1% 1.6220 P 77
Ni2 +
MgF 2 1% 1.7500 P 77
Co2 + 1.8030 P 77
ZnF2 1% 2.6113 P 77
Co2+
CaWO 4 1% 1.0580 CW 300
Nd3 + 0.9145 P 77
1.3392 P 300
CaF2 1% 1.0460 P 77
Nd3 +
CaMoO4 1.8% 1.0610 CW 300
Nd3 +
Y3Al5O12 Nd3 + 1.0648 CW 360
P 440
LaF 3 1% 1.0633 P 300
Nd3 +
LaF3 1% 0.5985 P 77
Pr3 +
CaWO 4 0.5% 1.0468 P 77
Pr3 +
Y203 5% 0.6113 P 220
Eu3 +
3

CaF2 Ho3 + 0.5512 P 77


CaWO 4 0.5% 2.0460 P 77
Ho3 +
Y3Al5O12 Ho3 + 2.0975 CW 77
P 300
CaWO4 1% 1.6120 P 77
Er3 +
Ca(NbO 3 ) 2 Er3 + 1.6100 P 77
Y3Al5O12 Er3 + 1.6602 P 77
CaWO 4 Tm3+ 1.9110 P 77
Y3Al5O12 Tm3+ 2.0132 CW 77
P 300
Tm 3+ 1.9340 CW 77
Yb3+ 1.0296 P 77

CW = Continuous P = Pulse

155
Photomultiplier Handbook

Table F-V
Typical Characteristics of a Number of
Useful Crystal Laser Systems (Cont’d)
Host Dopant Wavelength Mode and Highest
of Laser Temperature of
Operation (K)
CaF2 0.05 % 2.6130 P 300
U 3+ CW 77
SrF2 U 3+ 2.4070 P 90
CaF2 0.01 % 0.7083 P 20
Sm2+
SrF2 0.01% 0.6969 P 4.2
Sm2+
CaF2 0.01% 2.3588 CW 77
Dy2 + P 145
CaF2 0.01% 1.1160 P 27
Tm 2+ CW 4.2

CW = Continuous P = Pulse

Table F-VI
Comparison of Characteristics of Continuous
Crystalline Lasers
Material Sensitizer Optical Pump Wave- Power Operating
Active System Length Eff.(%) (Watts) Temp.(K)

- W 2.36 - 0.06 1.2 77


- Hg 0.69 0.1 1.0 300
- W 1.06 0.2 2 300
1.06 0.6 15 300
Nd3+Y 3Al5 012 - Plasma Arc 1.06 0.2 200 300
Nd3+Y 3Al5 012 Cr3+ Na Doped Hg 1.06 0.4 0.5 300
Nd3+Y 3Al5 012 Hg 10 300

Table F-VII
Typical Characteristics for Two
Liquid Lasers
Liquid Principal Pulse Energy(J)
Wavelength (Pulse Width)

Eu(O-ClBTFA)4DMA* 0.61175 0.1 J


Nd + 3*:SeOCl
3 2** 1.056
+dimethylammonium salt of tetrakis europium-ortho-chloro-benzoyltrifluoracetonate.
**trivalent neodymium in selenium oxychloride.

156
Radiant Energy and Sources

Table F-VIII
Typical Characteristics of a Number of Useful Gas Lasers
Gas Principal Output Power
Wavelengths Pulsed or
Typical Maximum Continuous
Ne 0.3324 - 10 mW Pulsed
(ionized) 10 mW CW
Ne 0.5401 - 1 kW Pulsed
(unionized)
He-Ne 0.5944-0.6143 - Pulsed
(unionized) 0.6328 1 mW 150 mW
1.1523 l-5 mW 25 mW CW
3.3913 <1 mW 10 mW CW
Xe 0.4603-0.6271 5 mW - Pulsed
(ionized) 0.5419-0.6271 10 mW 1W CW
0.4965 - 0.5971 1 mW 1W Pulsed
Xe 2.026 1 mW 10 mW CW
(unionized) 3.507 - 1 mW CW
5.575 0.5 mW 5 mW CW
9.007 0.5 mW 5 mW CW
A 0.4880 0.5 W 5W CW
(ionized) 0.5145 0.5 W 5 W CW
0.4545 to 1.5 W 40 W CW
0.5287
N2 0.33 - 200 kW Pulsed
(ionized - 100 mW CW
Kr 0.3507 - 300 mW CW
(ionized) 0.5208-0.6871 - 3W CW
0.5682 - 100 mW CW
CO2 10.552
(molecular 10.572 50 W 3.2 kW CW
excitation) 10.592
CF3I 1.315 - 10 kW Pulsed
H2O 27.9 - 1.2 W Pulsed
(molecular 118 - 1 mW Pulsed
excitation) 118 - CW
CN 337 - 50 mW Pulsed
(molecular
excitation)

157
Photomultiplier Handbook

Table F-IX
Typical Characteristics of p-n Junction
Light-Emitting Diodes
crystal Wavelength Laser
Action

PbSe 8.5 Yes


PbTe 6.5 Yes
InSb 5.2 Yes
PbS 4.3 Yes
3.15 Yes
0.85-3.15 Yes
In PxAs1-x) 0.91-3.15 Yes
GaSb 1.6 No
InP 0.91 Yes
GaAs 0.90 Yes
0.80-0.90 Yes
0.55-0.90 Yes
CdTe 0.855 No
(ZnxCd l-x)Te 0.59-0.83 No
CdTe-ZnTe 0.56-0.66 No
BP 0.64 No
Cu2Se-ZnSe 0.40-0.63 No
Zn(SexTe1-x) 0.627 No
ZnTe 0.62 No
GaP 0.565 No
GaP 0.68 No
SiC 0.456 ?

LIGHT SOURCES FOR TESTING it is relatively simple, stable, and inexpen-


Monochromatic sources of many wave- sive, and maintains its calibration. The
lengths may be produced by narrow-band tungsten lamp emits a broad band of energy
filters or monochromators. Narrow-band with relatively smooth transitions from one
filters are more practical for production end of the spectrum to the other. Its prin-
testing, but, at best, such tests are time- cipal disadvantage as a general source is its
consuming and subject to error. Monochro- lack of ultraviolet output and relatively low
matic sources are not used in general- blue output.
purpose testing because most applications Sources such as arcs and glow discharges
involve broader-band light sources; a are difficult to calibrate and show serious
monochromatic test might grossly misrepre- time variations.
sent the situation because of spectral- Filters are frequently used to narrow the
response variations. spectral range for specific purposes; how-
A broad-band source is probably more ever, they sometimes contribute to errors
useful as a single test because it tends to in- because of significant transmission outside
tegrate out irregularities in the spectral- the band of interest. Filters are also subject
response characteristic and more nearly rep- to change in transmission with time and are
resents the typical application. The tungsten very difficult to reproduce with identical
lamp has been used for many years because characteristics.

158
Radiant Energy and Sources

In many applications it is appropriate to REFERENCES


test photomultipliers in the same manner in 121. J.C. DeVos, “A new determination of
which they are to be utilized in the final ap- the emissivity of tungsten ribbon,” Physica,
plication. For example, photomultipliers to Vol. 20, pp 107-131, (1954).
be used in scintillation counting may be 122. “Color temperature, luminous efficacy
tested by means of an NaI:Tl crystal and a and the international practical temperature
137
Cs source or a simulated NaI light source scale of 1968,” National Bureau of Stan-
utilizing a tungsten lamp whose light passes dards Technical News Bulletin, Vol. 54, No.
through a one-half stock-thickness Corning 9, pp 206-7, Sept. 1970.
CS5-58 filter (5113 glass). Interference-type 123. R.W. Engstrom and A.L. Morehead,
filters are becoming increasingly important “Standard test-lamp temperature for
in isolating specific wavelengths for testing photosensitive devices-relationship of ab-
photomultiplier tubes for laser applications. solute and luminous sensitivities,” RCA
When a photomultiplier is manufactured Rev., Vol. 28, pp 419-423 (1967).
for a variety of purposes, including scientific 124. E.R. Cohen, CODATA Bulletin 11,
applications, it would be highly desirable if Dec. 1973. See also D.G. Fink and H.W.
sensitivity were specified by a complete spec- Beaty, Standard Handbook for Electrical
tral response in terms of quantum efficiency Engineers, 11th Edition, McGraw-Hill,
or radiant sensitivity. This information 1978.
could then be utilized with the known spec- 125. E.G. Zubler and F.A. Mosby, “An
tral emission of any source to compute the iodine incandescent lamp with virtually 100
response of the photomultiplier to that per cent lumen maintenance,” Illuminating
source. Complete spectral sensitivity data, Engineering, Vol. 54, No. 12, pp 734-740,
however, are rarely provided because it is Dec. 1959.
unnecessary for most practical situations 126. R. Stair, W.E. Schneider and J.K.
and would considerably increase device Jackson, “A new standard of spectral irra-
costs. diance,” Appl. Opt., Vol. 2, p 1151, (1963).

159
Photomultiplier Handbook

Appendix G -
Statistical Theory of Noise in Photomultiplier Tubes

Generating Functions
In this treatment of noise and signal-to-
noise ratio in photomultiplier operation,
generating functions 127 will be used to devel- The variance is defined as
op the statistics of the different processes
and their combinations. This approach has
been selected because it provides a general,
straightforward, and relatively simple
method of solving problems of this nature.
Those not acquainted with the use of
generating functions may find it worthwhile
to investigate some of the sources in
reference127. A short summary of generating
functions and their use is provided in this
section. Others may use this Appendix for
the summarized expressions relating to
photomultiplier statistics.
A generating function may be defined as

Substituting G-3 and G-8 in G-6 establishes


the identity of G-6 and G-7, and thus of G-6
and G-5.

Additive Events
Now, suppose there are two independent
events whose scores are to be added. An ex-
ample is the roll of two dice, or in the case of
a photomultiplier, the photocathode current
generated thermally and photoelectrically.
Assume two corresponding generating func-
tions: QA(s) and QB(s). It may be shown that
the generating function for the sum is
and

160
Statistical Theory of Noise in Photomultiplier Tubes

PHOTON NOISE

The case of subtraction is just a modifica-


tion of the addition. In this case
G-13
and, as before,
G-13a
Cascade Events
Consider a pair of independent sequential
events such as the emission of photoelec- . G-22
trons and the multiplication that occurs at
the first dynode of a photomultiplier. Each
photoelectron is multiplied by a secondary
emission factor that has an average value
and a variance. Assume two generating func-
tions: A(s) for the primary event, and B(s)
for the secondary or multiplying event. It
may then be shown that the generating func-
tion for the cascaded event is G-25
Q (s) = A[B(s)]
AB
G-14 Thus;the signal-to-noise ratio of the photon

There are a few cases in which the fluctua-


tion in the photon flux has an additional
term. 128 In broad-band thermal sources,
however, Eq. G-24 yields the proper expres-
sion for the noise in the input photon flux.

In the case of the cascaded event relating PHOTOEMISSION NOISE


to the photomultiplier, each electron from
the preceding stage is acted on independently The physics of photoemission and
by the secondary emission gain. In contrast, photocathodes is discussed in Chapter 2 on
consider the case of multiplication of two in- Photomultiplier Design. In the following
dependent scores: i.e., a die is rolled and the discussion it is assumed that the time be-
score noted, then rolled again and scores tween the absorption of a photon and the
multiplied. The order of the events is not subsequent emission of an electron, when
12
significant. The generating function for one emission occurs, is short (about 10-
event may be second). In addition, it is assumed that all
the statistical processes of absorption, elec-
G-17 tron transport within the photocathode, and
photoemission can be described and
characterized by one number, the quantum
G-18
function of the photon wavelength.

161
Photomultiplier Handbook

A simple model of photoemission will aid


in understanding the noise contributions of G-30
the photocathode. For each photon that
strikes the photocathode, an electron is Thus, for quantum efficiencies less than
unity, the statistics of the photoemission
reflection effects at the various cathode in- process result in a finite signal-to-noise ratio
for the photoelectron number even though
The chance that no electron is emitted is there is no assumed noise in the photon
stream.
In practice, the signal-to-noise ratio of the
input photon flux is never infinite; the flux
always contains some noise. In most sources,
the signal-to-noise ratio of the photon flux is
given by Eq. G-25.

The photoelectron signal-to-noise ratio is


G-33
A quantum efficiency of 40 per cent reduces
the signal-to-noise ratio of the photoelectron
flux to about 63 per cent of that of the
photon flux.
It is important to realize that the degrada-
being less than unity is irreversible in that no
amount of noise-free amplification can im-
prove the photoelectron signal-to-noise
ratio.
In some applications, multiphoton pulses
form the input signal. In these applications,
integral numbers of photoelectrons are
emitted from the photocathode within a time

162
Statistical Theory of Noise In Photomultiplier Tubes

that is short with respect to the resolution ber of ways such an output can occur among
time of the photomultiplier. Examples of the m-photon inputs.
this type of input can be found in radioactive
tracer scintillations, such as those observed
in tritium and carbon spectroscopy.

92cs-32483

G-l - Photoelectron output pulse spec-


trum resulting from a flux of I-photon input

Fig. G-2 - Photoelectron output pulses


resulting from a flux of 4-photon input pulses

or

is no photoemission only 13 per cent of the


time; most of the photoemission is divided
between 1- and (2-, 3-, of 4-) photoelectron
Eq. G-39 is just the coefficient of sr in the ex- pulses in the ratio of 13 to 20. In sharp con-

occur 96 per cent of the time. Of the times


the chance of (m-r) failures to photoemit when photoelectrons are emitted, single-
and the binomial coeffi- electron pulses occur 70 times more often
than any others; 3- and 4-photoelectron
pulses almost never occur. It should be clear
that in multiphoton-pulse spectroscopy it is

163
Photomultiplier Handbook

The signal-to-noise ratio expected in the For a given primary energy, it is possible
photoelectron pulse distribution generated to obtain any number of secondaries ns from
from an m-photon input depends upon the zero to a maximum ns(max). The maximum
quantum efficiency. From Eqs. G-34 and number is given by the quotient of the
G-35, the relation primary energy EP and the energy required to
produce a hole-electron pair within the
G-40
G-42
Over many repeated measurements using
primary electrons of the same energy, a trun-
THERMAL EMISSION ADDED TO cated distribution is obtained for nS. A
PHOTOEMISSION NOISE model that describes the observed distribu-
Another source of photocathode noise is tions from most practical dynodes follows.
the thermionic emission of single electrons. The observed number distributions for
The strength of the emission varies with secondary electrons vary among the dif-
photocathode type. In the bialkali cathode, ferent types of dynodes used commercially.
for example, thermionic emission is virtually Nearly all the distributions fall within the
absent; on the other hand, Ag-O-Cs class limited by a Poisson distribution130 at
photocathodes exhibit relatively large dark one extreme131and an exponential distribution
currents as a result of thermionic emission. at the other. To describe this wide variety
These currents can be eliminated to some ex- of distributions the Polya, or compound
tent by cooling the tube. Poisson, distribution is employed. 132
Randomly emitted thermionic electrons Through the adjustment of one parameter,
add a term to the fluctuation in the the distribution runs from purely Poisson to
photoelectron current proportional to their exponential. Therefore, this one distribution
number. Because of their independence with can be used to describe and to interpret the
respect to any usual signal current, the term bulk of the observed secondary-emission
adds to that of the signal noise in statistics.
quadrature. (See Eq. G-l1.) That is, The distribution has the following form:

STATISTICS RELATED TO where P(n,b) is the probability of observing


SECONDARY EMISSION
distribution, and b is the parameter con-
Although the amplification (multiplica- trolling the shape of the distribution. With
tion) of the photoelectron current in the
dynode chain of a photomultiplier is often b = 0, the distribution is Poisson, as follows:
referred to as noise-free, careful examina-
tion of the statistics of the gain mechanisms G-44
involved shows that this statement is not en- 1 distribution
tirely correct. Approximate noise-free opera-
tion can be attained, however, with the use
of proper electron optics and newly G-45
developed dynode materials. In the fol- Fig. G.3 shows a family of distributions for
lowing discussion the statistical gain pro- various values of b.
cesses in the individual dynodes are ex- The generating function for P(n,b) is
amined and then combined to yield the given by
statistical properties of the entire multiplier
chain. Much of the work presented was ac-
complished at a very early stage in
photomultiplier history. 129 G-47

164
Statistical Theory of Noise In Photomultiplier Tubes

Fig. G-4 - A comparison of the SNR as a

Polya distributions. For Poisson statistics


(b = 0), the SNR increases as the square root

square root of b - for large mean gains.

Poisson statistics significantly reduce the


signal-to-noise ratio at moderately high
gains of 10 to 20. It can be anticipated that
departures from Poisson statistics degrade
the single-electron pulse-height resolution.
The Polya distribution has an interesting
interpretation with respect to secondary-
emission statistics. 132 For non-zero values of
b, the distributions described by Eq. G-43
can be shown to be composed of a number
of different Poisson processes, each with a
different mean value. The mean values are,
in turn, distributed according to the Laplace
distribution. When b equals 0, the distribu-
Fig. G-3 - Single-particle output distribution tion of the mean values collapses to a delta
for a dynode displaying Polya statistics. A
value of b = gives an exponential distribu- Poisson distribution. For b equals 1, the
tion; b = 0 gives a Poisson distribution; b = 0.2 distribution of the mean values is exponen-
is intermediate between the two extreme tial. The physical interpretation for a dynode
values. displaying non-Poisson statistics is that
physical non-uniformities on the dynode sur-
Fig. G-4 shows a log-log plot of the signal- face cause each element of the surface to
have a different mean value for emission.
parameter. The signal-to-noise ratio im- Although each small element exhibits
Poisson statistics with respect to emission,
distribution, but approaches unity with large the total emission from the entire dynode is
non-Poisson because it comprises a distribu-
any non-zero value of b, the signal-to-noise tion of Poisson distributions. It is possible
that the basic emission process from a given
in Fig. G-4, even small departures from dynode is not a Poisson process. However,

165
high-gain GaP dynodes exhibit nearly Statistics for a Series of Dynodes
Poisson statistics130 and at present it is Assume that one primary electron im-
believed that departures from this norm are pinging on the first dynode releases, on the
caused, to a large extent, by dynode non-
uniformities. The output of the first dynode striking the
The departure from Poisson statistics af- second dynode produces an average gain at
fects the single-particle pulse-height resolu-
tion. Fig. G-5 shows the output-pulse
distribution from a single dynode for a events, the average gain and its variance may
number of multiple-particle inputs. The be related to the individual dynode statistics
resolution is clearly degraded in passing as follows:
from a Poisson distribution to an exponen- G-50
tial one. With the exponential distribution
shown in Fig. G-5, it would be difficult to and
2
distinguish among one-, three-, and five- G-51
particle input pulses, whereas the problem
virtually disappears for a Poisson distribu- emission and variance for the second dynode
for a single-input electron. Continuing in
this manner, the gain and fluctuation from
the third stage are given by
G-52
and
2
G-53
Eq. G-53 can be rearranged to read

Eq. G-55 states the expected results: that


the total average gain for a series of k
dynodes is the product of the secondary-
emission yields of the individual dynodes in
the series. Eq. G-56 shows that the relative
contribution of any state to the total fluctua-
0
tion decreases with the proximity of the
dynodes to the output end of the chain. The
92CS-32478 first stage contributes most to the total
Fig. G-5 - A comparison of multiple-particle variance. The higher the first-stage gain, the
distributions from a single dynode having less each subsequent stage contributes to the
Poisson and exponential distribution. Clearly, total variance. This property is an important
the particle resolution characteristics of the feature of the high-gain GaP first-dynode
exponential distribution are much poorer. photomultipliers.

166
Statistical Theory of Noise in Photomultiplier Tubes

The signal-to-noise ratio for the multiplier evolves toward a steady-state distribution
chain is given by after four or five stages, and exhibits little
change thereafter. Fig. G-6 shows some
single-electron distribution132 computed by
use of the Polya statistics for each stage in
the chain as explained above. As b ap-
proaches 1, the distribution becomes more
sharply peaked.

For large first-stage gains, the multiplier


signal-to-noise ratio is high. Most of the
noise contribution is from the first stage. If,
in addition to a large gain, the first stage ex-
hibits Poisson statistics, as explained above,
the signal-to-noise ratio becomes

G-58

0 I 2 3 4
The noise added to the input signal is very PULSE HEIGHT
small. It is in this sense that the multipli-
92CS-32479
cation chain is said to provide noise-free
gain. Fig. G-6 - Computed singleelectron distribu-
tion for a range of values of parameter b.
Multiple-Particle Inputs Parameter b is defined in Appendix B.
The output-pulse distribution for
multiple-particle inputs is obtained from the
generating function for the multiplier chain. Computer values of multiple-particle out-
By an extension of Eq. G-14 for the puts for a131two-stage structure are shown in
generating function for a cascaded event, the Fig. G-7. The two curves relate to two dif-
generating functions for a chain of k dy- ferent structures that have the same dynode
nodes may be obtained: as a first stage. The solid-line curve shows
the output when the first stage is followed by
G - 5 9

The probability Pk(n) of observing n elec- nearly pure Poisson statistics (b = 0.01). The
trons (for a one-electron input) at the output output peaks are sharply defined, and pulses
of a k-stage chain is derived from Eq. G-4 as up to a ten-electron input pulse are clearly
follows: resolvable. The dashed line describes the
final output distribution when the first stage

The generating function for a k-stage


multiplier chain for multiple-particle inputs
is given by extension of Eq. G-9 as follows:
Q k(s,m)=[Qk(s)]m G-61
The probability of observing n output elec-
trons from m input particles is therefore
given by
NUMBER OF SECONDARY ELECTRONS IN A
PULSE FROM DYNODE SURFACE

92CS-32480

When identical dynodes are used, the output Fig. G-7 - Theoretical pulse-height distribu-
distribution for single-electron input pulses tion,

167
Photomultiplier Handbook

having an exponential output distribution.


Individual peaks are no longer discernible;
the large variance associated with the ex-
ponential statistics of the second stage
eliminates all the structure in the output of
the first stage.
BURLE has developed a high-gain gallium
phosphide dynode which, when used as the
first stage in a conventional copper
beryllium multiplier chain, greatly increases
the pulse-height resolution of the
photomultiplier. The high-gain first stage in
a photomultiplier having multiple photoelec- 92CS-32482

tron events originating from the photo- Fig. G-Q - A comparison of the tritium scin-
cathode is similar to the case illustrated in tillation pulse-height spectra obtained using
Fig. G-7 for a multiplier where the high-gain a conventional photomultiplier having ail
second dynode amplifies the multiple pulses CuBe dynodes and a photomultiplier having a
originating from the first dynode which in GaP first stage. Note: The first photoelectron
turn are initiated by single electrons. Typi- peak of the 8850 spectra includes dark noise
from the photomultiplier, chemiluminescence
cal gains for the gallium phosphide dyn- and phosphorescence from the vial and
odes are 30 to 45, and their statistics are cocktail, as well as 3H disintegration.
nearly Poisson. Fig. G-8 shows the multiple-
particle pulse-height distribution for the
tube, and Fig. G-9 shows the pulse-height FLUCTUATIONS IN THE TUBE
curves for a tritium scintillation input for a AS A WHOLE
conventional tube using the standard In the previous sections the noise con-
copper-beryllium first dynode along with tributions from the photocathode and the
that for a tube with a gallium phosphide first multiplier chain were considered. These
dynode. The increased resolution of the results can be combined to obtain the signal-
gallium phosphide dynode is clearly shown. to-noise ratio for the photomultiplier as a
Note: The first photoelectron peak of the whole.
8850 spectra includes dark noise from The average number of photoelectrons
the photomultiplier, chemilumi-
nescence and phosphorescence from G-63
the vial and cocktail, as well as H3
disintegration. The variance is given by
2
G-64

flux of photons displays Poisson statistics. If

process, Eq. G-l6 must be used to obtain


2

RESOLUTION = 4 0 % Using these expressions to describe the in-


put to the photomultiplier chain, the average
number of electrons collected at the anode
can be stated as follows:
0 I
G-65
2 3 4 5 6
PULSE HEIGHT-PHOTOELECTRON EQUIVALENTS

92cs-32481
average gain of a k-stage multiplier. The
variance for the output electron stream is
Fig. G-8 - Typical photoelectron pulse-height given by
spectrum for a photomultiplier having a GaP
first dynode.

168
Statistical Theory of Noise in Photomultiplier Tubes

variance in the average gain of a k-stage total anode fluctuation then becomes
multiplier chain.
Eq. G-66 can be rearranged as follows:
G-67
For large dynode gains,
For equal-gain stages described by Poisson G-76
statistics in the multiplier chain, Eq. G-56
becomes Even for large dynode gains, exponential

G-68 drop in SNR, is accompanied by a severe loss


in single- and multiple-electron pulse-height
resolution, as shown in Fig. G-7. To resolve
single-photoelectron pulses, the multiplier
chain must exhibit both high gain and good
G-69 (i.e., Poisson) statistics.
A significant improvement in SNR, results
when the photocathode quantum efficiency
In this case

G-70 0.7 would improve SNRa by a factor of 1.4.

would have an SNR, equal to the square root


much less than 1 and hence that
G-7 1 the ideal SNRa by a factor of 0.59. Con-
siderable improvement can be expected with
The signal-to-noise ratio at the anode is the development of photocathode materials
given by of increased sensitivity.
The application of these equations to pre-
G-72 sent photomultipliers indicates that the
available photocathode quantum efficiency
For high-gain dynodes exhibiting Poisson is the principal degrading influence on
statistics, therefore, SNRa is essentially that
of the photoelectrons, SNRp.e. , as given in the multiple-photon input-pulse resolution
Eq. G-33.
In a photomultiplier in which the dynode greater than 6) do not significantly degrade
gain is not high but still exhibits Poisson the input signal-to-noise ratio of photoelec-
statistics, SNRa is given by trons provided the dynode statistics are
nearly Poisson.
G-73
OTHER SOURCES OF NOISE
IN PHOTOMULTIPLIER TUBES
Within a photomultiplier there are sources
decreased by a factor of 0.87 from its value of noise that are not associated directly with
the processes of photoelectric conversion
changes the degradation factor to 0.94. Fur- and electron multiplication. These sources
can, in general, be separated into two
very much. groups: (1) those that are not correlated
In the case of fully exponential dynode with and (2) those that are correlated with
statistics, the variance for each dynode in a the signal pulse.
chain of identical dynodes is given by Eq. Non-Correlated Noise Sources
G-48; i.e., The materials used to fabricate the in-
G-74 ternal structure and the glass envelope of a

169
Photomultiplier Handbook

photomultiplier may contain amounts of first dynode. The positive ion thus created
certain radioactive elements that decay and travels backward to the cathode where it
give off gamma rays or other high-energy may release one or more electrons from the
particles. If one of these emitted particles photocathode. Because there is a time delay
strikes the photocathode or one of the first in the ion-emitted electron pulse equal to the
few dynodes, it will produce an anode dark time of flight of the ion to the photocathode,
pulse. The size of the anode pulse may be the resulting pulse, usually referred to as an
equivalent to one or more photoelectrons afterpulse, occurs after the true signal pulse
emitted at the photocathode. These pulses at the anode. Afterpulses are caused mainly
are randomly emitted. In tube manufacture by hydrogen ions and their occurrence can
this type of emission is minimized through be minimized in tube processing.
the careful selection of materials. Primary electrons produce photons as well
Analytically, the fluctuations resulting as secondary electrons within the dynodes of
from non-correlated random sources add in the multiplier chain. Despite the low effi-
quadrature to those of the signal. Because ciency of this process, some of the emitted
they are random, the dark-pulse variances photons may eventually reach the photo-
- cathode and release additional electrons. A
time delay is observed corresponding to the
transit time for the regenerated electron
pulse to reach the point of origin of the light.
Depending upon the type of dynode
The total anode variances are given by: multiplier cage, this time may be of the order
of 20 nanoseconds. Most of the photons
comprising the light feedback originate in
the region of the last few dynodes or of the
anode.
If the voltage across the tube is increased,
the dark-pulse rate also increases and usually
are the average single- produces some observable light near the
photoelectron and the average single-dark- anode region, a fraction of which is fed back
emitted electron numbers observed in a time to the photocathode. The result of this
positive feedback. is that, at a certain
anode signal-to-noise ratio. Again, in those voltage, the photomultiplier becomes
instances where the incoming radiation unstable and allows the output dark-pulse
signal comprises more than one photon, rate to increase to an intolerably high level.
coincidence techniques can be employed to The voltage at which this increase occurs is
reduce the effect of randomly emitted elec- generally above the recommended maximum
trons originating at the cathode. operating voltage.
Electrons may originate at dynodes well Not every signal pulse initiates an after-
along in the multiplier chain. At the anode, pulse. Therefore, coincidence techniques,
these electrons appear as fractional- using more than one photomultiplier, can be
photoelectron pulses. Such pulses also result employed in some instances to eliminate this
from interstage skipping, generally near the source of noise as well as the uncorrelated
beginning of the chain. With good statistics sources discussed above.
in the chain, the fractional pulses may be If correlated noise sources cannot be
discriminated against because the single- eliminated by time discrimination or other
electron peak in the pulse-height spectrum means, an analytical treatment for the total
stands out sharply. variance would follow the form given by Eq.
Correlated Noise Sources G-12.
A gas atom or molecule within the
photomultiplier may be ionized by a NOISE AND THE BANDWIDTH
photoelectron pulse, This ionization may OF THE OBSERVATION
occur at the first-dynode surface or in the At high counting rates, noise calculations
vacuum between the photocathode and the are performed with the average and variance

170
Statistical Theory of Noise in Photomultiplier Tubes

of the photoelectron current rather than with


individual photoelectron pulses. The expres-
sions which have been developed for signal-
to-noise ratio by consideration of the where i is the photocathode emission current
in amperes and e is the charge of the elec-
variance from average may be converted to tron. If the signal current is considered as i,
expressions of signal-to-noise ratio involving the noise in the bandwidth B for the
currents and bandwidth, B, by considering photocurrent is the familiar shot noise
the reciprocal nature of the observation time formula (2eiB)1/2.
and the bandwidth. The equation for the photon noise squared
Noise equivalent bandwidth B may be is given by
defined 133 as follows:
G-86
G-79
The photocurrent noise squared is given by

transfer response of the circuit, and Am is


Both these equations involve the photon
"circuit” in this case counts pulses in a time “current” I,.
If the photons are not randomly emitted,
Laplace transform of the impulse response. Eq. G-86 must be modified. In the case in
The impulse response is a rectangular pulse which the variance in the photon current is
case,

For a randomly emitted photon, the noise


and Am is found to be equal to 7. The noise current squared at the anode is given by
equivalent bandwidth is then readily found
to be
G-81
where the multiplier chain is assumed to be
It is of interest to compare this relation with composed of k high-gain dynodes exhibiting
the equivalent noise bandwidth for exponen- Poisson statistics, each with an average gain
tial impulse response as in an RC circuit; in
this case At the anode, the input resistance and ca-
pacitance of a preamplifier generate a noise
B=1/4RC G-82 current squared given by

From Eq. G-25, the SNR for a random


photon flux is given by
G-83

where I, is the average photon arrival rate


and 7 is the time interval of the count. When where g = l/R is the shunt conductance in
the anode lead, C is the shunt capacitance, B
is the bandwidth, k is Boltzmann’s constant,
T is the absolute temperature, and Rn is the
equivalent noise resistance of the preamplifi-
In the case of the photocathode electron cur- er input. The total noise current squared
rent,
Photomultiplier Handbook

statistics of the measurement are improved


by increasing the count time. The present
discussion recommends the optimum time
division between the dark and the light
counts.

G-93
G-94
The variances for the light and dark mea-
surements are given by
The value of I, shown in Eq. G-92 is the
lower limit for the average photon current G-95
and makes the squared anode-current fluc-
tuation greater than the squared noise cur- G-96
rent in the photomultiplier preamplifier in- The final “signal” which is a measure of I,
put by a factor of ten. The resulting value of is given by
the average photon current corresponds to a
photoelectric current of about 10-14 am-
pere, or about 6 x 104 photoelectrons per G-97
second. In cases in which the dark current is
effectively higher than 6 x 104 photoelec- Assume that the times of the counts are ac-
trons per second, the photomultiplier sen- curately determined so that the respective
sitivity limit is set by the dark current and
not by the preamplifier noise. It is the noise- use of Eq. G-21 for multiplication (by the
free gain of the multiplier chain which in- reciprocal of the count times), the variance
creases the rms photocurrent shot noise by a of each term in G-97 is then

operation. See also Fig. 65 in Chapter 4, G-98


Photomultiplier Characteristics.

PULSE COUNTING STATISTICS* G-99


In utilizing a photomultiplier in a
“photon” counting mode, individual anode For the variance of a difference, using Eq.
pulses initiated by electrons from the G-11,
photocathode are counted. Because the
count at very low light levels originates from G-100
both photoemission and thermionic emis-
sion, two separate counts are required: one
in the light and one in the dark. In deter- The signal-to-noise ratio in the determina-
mining the photoelectron count rate, the tion of I, is then given by

*Measured signal-to-noise ratios are similar for pulse-


counting or for current -measurement techniques.134
Baum135 has shown that in some cases, pulse counting G-101
can have an advantage of the equivalent of a factor of
1.2 in quantum efficiency.

172
Statistical Theory of Noise in Photomultiplier Tubes

Let the average number of photons exiting


to be minimized with respect to the division from the scintillator onto the photocathode
per photoelectrically converted gamma-ray

nd from G-93 and G-94: average quantum efficiency of the photo-

emission process is as before (Eq. G-28):


G-102
G-104

sidering the other quantities as invariant. Now, using G-15 and G-16 for a cascaded
event, the average number of photoelectrons
imum SNR condition: per pulse is
G-105
G-103 and the variance in the number of photoelec-
trons per pulse is
The implication of Eq. G-103 is as
follows: For example, if the signal count is
much less than the dark count, about equal
times should be spent for both readings. If It is instructive to consider the signal-to-
the signal count and dark count are about noise ratio at each stage of the photo-
multiplier. For the photocurrent in the pulse,
using G-105 and G-106:

PULSE-HEIGHT RESOLUTION IN
SCINTILLATION COUNTING
In scintillation counting, for the case of a
K2CsSb photocathode and a NaI:Tl scin- For the current pulse leaving the first
tillator, the typical photoemission yield is dynode, assuming a secondary emission
approximately 8 photoelectrons per keV of
gamma-ray energy absorbed in the crystal- statistics), again using G-15 and G-16:
or 125 eV per photoelectron. The peak of the
emission spectrum for NaI:Tl is approx-
imately at 415 nm which corresponds to a Variance in this number =
photon energy of 3 eV. The quantum effi-
ciency of the bialkali photocathode for the
blue spectrum of the scintillator is approx-
imately 25 per cent. If the crystal were 100 SNR (pulse out of first dynode) =
per cent efficient in converting gamma-ray
energy to light energy, one would expect a
photoelectron for every 12 eV. Thus, the G-108
conversion efficiency of the crystal is about
10 per cent.
The statistics of the pulse-height distribu-
tion, therefore, involve both the crystal and Similarly, for the pulse out of the second
the photomultiplier processes. On the other dynode:
hand, if the conversion efficiency of the
crystal were 100 per cent, the photoelectric
conversion of the gamma-ray would yield Variance in this number =
essentially a constant number of photons per
conversion and the crystal would then not
contribute to the statistical process.
Photomultiplier Handbook

SNR (pulse out of second dynode) = SUMMARY


The more important expressions relating
to signal and noise discussed in this Appen-
dix are summarized below. Beginning at the
input to the photomultiplier, the signal is
followed through the tube, and the variance
and the SNR associated with the signal are
noted.
If a tube having k stages of equal secon- Photon flux: Conditions: random emis-
sion, Poisson statistics. Terminology: av-

G-l10

In pulse-height resolution measurements it


is common to refer to the Full-Width-Half-
Maximum (FWHM) which may be related to
the SR as follows:
FWHM =2.355/SNR
Dark emission from a photocathode: Ter-
minology: average number of thermionic

G-111

The first term in the brackets represents the


relative variance of the photomultiplier con- Combined dark and photoemission from
tribution and the second term is the relative the photocathode: Terminology: average
variance of the crystal contribution.
the number of photons
per pulse. In this case,

Photoemission determined from total


emission: Conditions: dark emission de-
Actually, the crystal statistics are worse than
the above assumption. This question is so that the variance in the measurement is
discussed in more detail in Chapter 4, negligible; dark emission to be subtracted
Photomultiplier Characteristics in the sec- from total emission to determine photoemis-
tion on “Pulse Counting.” sion .

174
Statistical Theory of Noise In Photomultiplier Tubes

Photomultiplier tube: Conditions: Each


stage identical with exponential statistics.

(Also, see section above on Pulse Counting gain dynodes assumed, high photon-
Statistics for cases in which the dark emis- counting rates, output circuit noise contribu-
sion count is not determined over a long time tions included. Terminology: charge on the
interval.) electron, e; bandwidth, B; Boltzmann’s con-
Multiplier chain with single electron input: stant, k; temperature, T, (degrees Kelvin);
equivalent noise resistance of the input of
the preamplifier that processes the anode
signal, Rn; shunt conductance in the anode
2 lead, g; shunt capacitance in the anode lead,
C.

Photomultiplier tube: Conditions: high-


gain dynodes assumed, gain and output cur-
rent sufficient so that circuit noise com-
ponents can be neglected. Terminology:
photocathode emission current, i.

Photomultiplier tube: Terminology: av-


erage number of electrons collected at the

Photomultiplier tube and scintillator:


Conditions: scintillations resulting from
gamma-ray photoelectric excitation in the
crystal; equal gain per stage assumed. Ter-
minology: full width half maximum,
FWHM; photocathode quantum efficiency,

average number of photons incident on the


Photomultiplier tube: Conditions: Each variance in the number of photons in each
stage is identical and has Poisson statistics.

FWHM = 2.355/SNR

The first term inside the brackets is the


relative variance associated with the photo-
multiplier; the second term is the relative
variance associated with the scintillator.
Photomultiplier Handbook

REFERENCES first dynode photomultipliers,” Appl. Phys.


127. T. Jorgensen, “On Probability Gener- Lett., Vol. 13, p 356 (1968).
ating Functions,” Am. J. Phys., Vol. 16, p 131. L.A. Dietz, L.R. Hanrahan and A.B.
285 (1948); E. Breitenberger , “Scintillation Hance, “Single-electron response of a
Spectrometer Statistics,” Prog. Nuc. Phys., porous KCl transmission dynode and appli-
Vol. 4, (Ed. O.R. Frisch, Pergamon Press, cation of Polya statistics to particle counting
London, p. 56 (1955); William Feller, An In- in an electron multiplier,” Rev. Sci. Inst.,
troduction to Probability Theory and Its Ap- Vol. 38, p 176 (1967).
plications, Vol. 1, John Wiley and Sons, 132. J.R. Prescott, Nuc. Instr. Methods,
Third Edition (1968). “A statistical model for photomultiplier
128. R.H. Brown and R.Q. Twiss, “Inter- single-electron statistics,” Vol. 39, p 173
ferometry of the intensity fluctuations in (1966).
light,” Proc. Royal Soc. London, Vol. 133. M. Schwartz, Information Transmis-
243A, p 291 (1958). sion, Modulation, and Noise, McGraw-Hill,
129. W. Shockley and J.R. Pierce, “A p. 207 (1959).
theory of noise for electron multipliers,” 134. F. Robben, “Noise in the measure-
Proc. IRE, Vol. 26, p 321 (1938); V.K. ment of light with photomultipliers,” Appl.
Zworkykin, G.A. Morton, L. Malter, “The Opt., Vol. 10, No. 4, pp 776-796, (1971).
secondary emission multiplier-a new elec- 135. W.A. Baum, “The detection and
tron device,” Proc. IRE, Vol. 24, p 351 measurement of faint astronomical sources,”
(1936). Astronomical Techniques, Edited by W.A.
130. G.A. Morton, H.M. Smith, and H.R. Hiltner, The University of Chicago Press,
Krall, “Pulse height resolution of high gain (1962).

176
Index

Index

A bsorptance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18,125 Darkcurrent . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4,8,16,126


Absorption coefficient . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 Dark current and noise . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .54
Acceptor. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125 Dark current and temperature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8
Acceptor levels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 Dark current, increase following exposure
After pulse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57, 125 to fluorescent lamps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .43,58
Aging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .... 58, 75 Dark current, sources of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .19,53
Air pressure and photomultiplier operation . . . . 76 Dark noise pulse spectrum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .59
Angle of incidence and photoemission . . . . . 39,92 Dark noise reduction with cooling . . . . . .50,54,58
Angle of polarization and photoemission . . . 39,40 Degaussing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..46
Angstrom unit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125 Delayline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..12 6
Anode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3,34,125 Delta function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .59,63,126
Anode current maximum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 Densitometry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .105
Anode pulse current maximum . . . . . . . . . . . . . .47 Detectivity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .56,90, 126
Anticoincidence circuit. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .125 Deuterium lamp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .151
Applications list. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Appendix A Differential cooling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .74
Argon arc lamp. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .153 Discriminator, pulse height . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126
Astronomy, application to . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5,112 Discriminator setting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
Avalanche photodiodes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 Donor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126
Dynamic compression of output signal . . . . . . .87
B ackground counts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..12 5 Dynode.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Band bending . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14 Dynode, Cs-Sb . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .96
Bandwidth and noise spectrum . .59,125,170,171 Dynode, Cu-Be . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...98
Basing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...88 Dynode, GaP:Cs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .68,83
Beta radiation, effect on photomultiplier . . . . . .44 Dynode glow. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .56
Black-body radiation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .148 Dynode voltage control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .83
Bleeder.................................125
Box-andgrid dynode structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . .28 EADCI (Equivalent Anode Dark
Current Input). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .55, 127
Ca g e . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 2 5 E2B . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Calibration, standard lamp. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .92 Einstein . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
Candela ............................. 125,139 Electron affinity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13,127
Capacitors, by pass. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .84 Electron multiplier. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .127
Carbon-arc lamp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .153 Electron optics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .26-35
CAT scanner . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . See CT-scanner Electron resolution (See also Pulse-height
Cerencov radiation . . . . . . . . . . . .19,57,92,97,126 resolution, single electron) . . . . . . . . . . . . .127
Channel multiplier . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .32,126 Electron volt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2O, 127
Channel number . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .126 Electrostatic focus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4
Circular cage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4,27 Energy diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10, 13,14,94
Coincidence counter., . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .72 Energy distribution, photoelectrons . . . . . . . . . .12
Collection efficiency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 ENI (Equivalent Noise Input) . . . . . . . . .8,9,55,127
Collection uniformity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .41 Environmental effects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .74
Color temperature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .126,139 Environment, high humidity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .76
Color-temperature standard. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .149 Environment, pressure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .76
Compton effect . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .93 ERMA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15,16,127
Conduction band . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126 Escape depth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13,18
Connections, terminal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .88
Constant-fraction triggering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .99
Cooling photomultipliers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .74 F all time. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62,127
Count . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..12 6 Fatigue . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50,51,127
Counting efficiency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .126 Fatigue and dynode materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .51
Count-rate stability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .52,96 Feed back. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
Crossed-field photomultiplier . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .33 Fermi-Dirac energy distribution function . . 11,13
Crosstalk...............................12 6 Fermilevel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10,11,13,127
Cross talk in liquid scintillation counting . . . . . .73 Fiber-optic communication systems. . . . . . . . . . .8
Cryostats for photomultipliers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .54 Field emission . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
CT-scanner . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6,7,102,125 Filters, narrow bandpass color . . . . . . . . . .92,158
Curie...................................12 6 Filters, neutral density . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .91
Current-voltage characteristic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .36 Fluorescent lamp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .154

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Photomultiplier Handbook

Fluorometry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106
Flying-spot scanner. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .115,127
Focussing electrode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .127
Focussing-electrode voltage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .42
Foot candle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127
Foot Lambert . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127
Forbidden band . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13,127
FWHM (Full Width at Half Maximum) . .63,64,127

G ain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3,9,127
Gain control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83
Gain, maximum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75
Gain, variation with temperature . . . . . . . . . . . . .49
Gain, variation with voltage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .44
Gamma radiation and glass discoloration . . . . .43
Gamma-ray camera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6,100,128
Generating functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .160
Glass, browning of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .19,77
Glass charging effects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .56
Glass, properties of. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .19
Glass transmission . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .19
Ground potential . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75

H eadlight dimmer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
Helium penetration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .57,76,90
Hertz (Hz) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128
History of photomultiplier development . . . . . .3-6
Hofstadter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
“Hysteresis” (cyclic instability) . . . . . . .47,52,127

Illuminance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .128,140
Illuminated area, photocathode. . . . . . . . . . . . . .92
Insulator charging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .47,52
IPA’s (Integrated Photodetection Assemblies) .80
Irradiance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..13 2
Johnson noise . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
L ambert’s cosine law . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .128,141
Laplace’s equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .27
Laser range finding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8,113
Lasers .............................. 155-157
Lasers, Nd:YAG . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8
Leading edge timing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..9 6
Leakage, ohmic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .53
Life expectancy........................... 3
Light chopper. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .92
Light emitting diodes, (LED’s) . . . . . . . . . . . .8,158
Light level for photomultiplier use. . . . . . . . .89,90
Light level reduction methods . . . . . . . . . . . .90,91
Light pipe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95,128
Light shielding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .75
Light sources for testing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .158
Linearity.................................4 7
Linearity and photocathode resistivity . . . . . . . .47
Linearity and voltage divider current. . . . . . . . . .82
Linearity measurement. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .49
Linearity, pulse measurement of . . . . . . . . . . . . .86
Liquid scintillation counting . . . .69,72,87,97,128
Lithium fluoride . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .19
Lumen(lm)..............................128
Luminance.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..128.14 0
Luminous efficacy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .128
Luminous Intensity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .128,129
Lux..................................... 128

178
Index

179
Photomultiplier Handbook

180