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A) Introduction

B) About Composite Material

a) Laminar Composite
b) Particle Composite

C) Composite specimen planned to be developed

i.e. Al + SiC.

D) Design Aspect of Roll Bonding Machine

E) Manufacturing of Machine

F) Failure (in detail) i.e. problems faced

G) Future Scope of Work

H) References
Rolling is a metal forming process in which metal strip is passed through
one or more pairs of rolls to reduce the thickness and to make the
thickness uniform. The concept is similar to the rolling of dough. Rolling
is classified according to the temperature of the metal rolled. If the
temperature of the metal is above its recrystallization temperature
(0.4-0.5 times of melting point of the metal strip), then the process is
known as hot rolling. If the temperature of the metal is below its
recrystallization temperature, the process is known as cold rolling. The
invention of the rolling mill in Europe 600 BC may be attributed
to Leonardo da Vinci in his drawings.

Hot rolling is a process that occurs above the recrystallization

temperature of the material. It gives poor surface finish. Hot rolled mild
steel have high amount of included carbon than cold rolled steel, that is
why those are more difficult for a blacksmith to use. Also for similar
metals, hot rolled products seem to be less costly than cold-rolled ones.
Hot rolling is used mainly to produce sheet metal or simple cross
sections, such as rail tracks.

Cold rolling occurs with the metal below its recrystallization

temperature (usually at room temperature), which increases
the strength up to 20%. It also improves the surface finish & toughness.
Typical uses for cold-rolled steel include tables, chairs, motorcycle
exhaust pipes, lawn mowers, metal containers, fan blades, frying pans

Flat rolling is the most basic form of rolling with the starting and ending
material having a rectangular cross-section. The material is fed in
between two rollers, called working rolls that rotate in opposite
directions. The gap between the two rolls is less than the thickness of
the starting material, which causes it to deform. The decrease in
material thickness causes the material to elongate. The friction at the
interface between the material and the rolls causes the material to be
pulled through as it is along the same direction of the metal strip feed
direction thus favorable in the leading side but on the lagging side
friction hinders this forward motion hence unfavorable.

Here, in the first stage the plate is kept between top roller and bottom
rollers and the top roller is given vertical displacement by adjusting the
lead screw and within controlled gap by using Dial Gauge to get the
required thickness. In next stage the bottom roller is driven manually in
forward direction to get the roll bending of the strip.

Probable rolling defects-

1. Waviness - due to roll bending, roll gap not parallel and uneven
speed of rolls
2. Edge cracks & Zipper cracks- result of poor material ductility
3. Aligatoring- due to non-uniform deformation

Major components of roll bonding machine and their

1. Rollers: Compression rollers capable of applying several Kilo-Newton of
line-loading were machined out of high carbon steel.
2. Shafts: Drive the compression rollers and mounted using bearing.
3. Linear Slides: Carry the stage of the compression rollers, and enable
setting the relative gap between the rollers.
4. Dial Gauge: Measures the distance between compression rollers which
are mounted on the linear-slides.
5. Position Handle: Used to drive the upper roller-casing through a
threaded-rod and set its position.
6. Power screw: Used to set the position of the top roller. Locking nuts
secure it in the desired position.
What is Composite Materials?
A composite material is a material made from two or more constituent materials
with significantly different physical or chemical properties that, when combined,
produce a material with characteristics different from the individual components.
The individual components remain separate and distinct within the finished

Basic Components of Composite Objects:

 Reinforcing Elements
 Matrix Elements

Reinforcing Elements:
 Fibrous elements
a) Glass Fiber
b) Carbon Fiber
c) Natural Fiber
 Particulate elements
a) Silicon Carbide particle (SiC)
b) Boron Carbide particle (B4C)
c) Natural particles

Matrix Elements:
 Polymers
a) Linear
b) Branched
c) Cross-linked
 Metals
Types of Composites
Composite materials are usually classified by the type of reinforcement they use.
This reinforcement is embedded into a matrix that holds it together. The
reinforcement is used to strengthen the composite. For example, in a mud brick,
the matrix is the mud and the reinforcement is the straw. Common composite types
include random-fiber or short-fiber reinforcement, continuous-fiber or long-fiber
reinforcement, particulate reinforcement, flake reinforcement, and filler

 Laminar composites involve two or more layers of the same or different

materials. The layers can be arranged in different directions to give
strength where needed. Speedboat hulls are among the very many
products of this kind.
 Like all composites laminar aim at combining constituents to produce
properties that neither constituent alone would have.
 In laminar composites outer metal is not called a matrix but a face. The
inner metal, even if stronger, is not called a reinforcement. It is called a

Composites refer to a material consisting of two or more individual constituents.
The reinforcing constituent is embedded in a matrix to form the composite. One
form of composites is particulate reinforced composites with concrete being a good
example. The aggregate of coarse rock or gravel is embedded in a matrix of
cement. The aggregate provides stiffness and strength while the cement acts as the
binder to hold the structure together.

The most common particulate composite materials are reinforced plastics which
are used in a variety of industries.

Glass reinforced plastics are used in many automotive applications including body
panels, bumpers, dashboards, and intake manifolds. Brakes are made of
particulate composite composed of carbon or ceramics particulates.

Consumer Products
Many of the plastic components we use in daily life are reinforced in some way.
Appliances, toys, electrical products, computer housings, cell phone casings,
office furniture, helmets, etc. are made from particulate reinforced plastics.


• Improved material properties

• Tailored material properties
• Manufacturing flexibility

Parameters for Particulate composite:

a) Percentage of Al2O3> 90%
b) Percentage of Sic > 7%
c) Percentage of B4C or TiC> 3%

Advantages of Composite materials:

 It is light in weight.
 It has high strength.
 It provides better Resistance towards corrosion.
 It has high Impact strength.
 It provides better Dimensional stability.
 Composites are Non-conductive in nature.
 It has low Thermal conductivity.
 Composites are Durable in nature.

Disadvantages of Composite materials:

 Composite materials are generally expensive.
 Complex fabrication process.
 Difficult to detect the damages.

Applications of Composite materials:

 It is used in Aircraft like in Jet engines, Turbine blades, Flywheels etc.
 It is used in Space craft like in solar reflectors, Satellite structures, Radar.
 It is used in Automobile like in Engines, Pistons and Connecting rods.


Prior to the design of this machine, mechanical property of

particulate composite has been studied in thorough and
reinforcement particles along with matrix material have been
From the available elements we had decided to select
 Reinforcing element as particle which is Silicon Carbide and Boron
 Matrix element as Metal which is Aluminium

Selection of machine
 Electromagnetic stir-casting machine
 Accumulative Roll Bonding machine

We have selected ARB MACHINE.

Parameters for Particulate composite:
d) Percentage of Al2O3 as 90%
e) Percentage of SiC as 7%
f) Percentage of B4C as 3%

We had planned to fabricate the composite by the following

Design of An Roll Bonding Machine

The most important functional requirement of the roll-bonding

machine is to apply sufficient levels of loads to induce through-
thickness plastic deformation in the incoming stack of polymer films.
In other words, the rolling machine should achieve desired levels of
plastic-strain (ep) on the stack of incoming films over the interval of
time (τ ) spent under the compression rollers. The time (τ ) is set by
size of the rollers and the specified production rates at which the
films are fed. A conceptual rolling scheme is shown in Figure 2. Here
a stack of polymer films (initially non-bonded sheets with a total
thickness of h1) is fed through the rollers, and for illustration
purposes shown to undergo rigid-plastic reduction

Figure Rigid-perfectly-plastic rolling scheme. In a vertical orientation

the gravity acts along the width dimension.

During active plastic deformation in the roller bite, the polymer

molecules interpenetrate across respective film interfaces and cause
bonding. If the stack thickness is small compared to the roller radius
(R), i.e., h << R, an element in the roller bite will experience almost
homogeneous straining through its thickness and negligible shear
stresses will be developed between the film interfaces. On the other
hand, if there is a non-uniform strain in the thickness direction then
the interfaces (other than the symmetry plane of the film-stack in
thickness direction) will have a tendency to exhibit tangential relative
motion which hinders the molecular interpenetration of polymer
chains and diminishes bonding. In an extreme limit if the film-stack is
quite thick compared to the radius of the rollers, then no through-
thickness (plastic) deformation will incur and only local indentation will
occur due to roller compression. The current deformation induced
bonding is a multi-scale process, since polymer mobility and inter
penetration occurs at a molecular scale when plastic deformation
occurs at a macroscopic continuum scale, thus predicting the exact role
of strain gradient in the thickness direction on bonding is all-together
another detailed modeling task and beyond the scope of this current
work. In order to achieve homogeneous through thickness plastic
strain rollers of radius R such that R/h >> 1, can be considered.
Design of roller
Rolling is a metal forming process in which metal stock is passed through one or
more pairs of rolls to reduce the thickness and to make the thickness uniform.
The concept is similar to the rolling of dough. Rolling is classified according to the
temperature of the metal rolled. If the temperature of the metal is above
its recrystallization temperature, then the process is known as hot rolling. If the
temperature of the metal is below its recrystallization temperature, the process is
known as cold rolling. In terms of usage, hot rolling processes more tonnage than
any other manufacturing process, and cold rolling processes the most tonnage
out of all cold working processes. Compression rollers capable of applying several
Kilo-Newton of lineloading were machined out of stainless steel.
Material used :- mild steel

Rolling force,torque,power Calculations

Thickness of strip before passing through rollers, hi = 3 mm
Final thickness of strip after passing through rollers, hf = 1mm
Width of strip, w = 30 mm
Radius of roller, R = 90 mm
Roller speed, N = 6 rev/min.
Strength coefficient of work material, k = 220 MPa
Coefficient of friction, µ = 0.4
Strain hardening exponent of work material, n = 0.23
(Note: assuming reduction of strip in first and reduction in second pass through
roller is 0.5 mm.)
We will obtain the value of force ,torque ,power, maximum for the initial and final
diameter of 1.5mm and 1mm respectively .
Step -1:
Let, hi= 1.5 mm, hf = 1 mm
Draft, Δh = (1.5-1) mm = 0.5 mm
Maximum draft, Δhmax = µ²R = (0.4)²(90) = 14.4 mm
We know,
Contact length, L=
= = 6.71 mm
True strain, ε = ln(hi/hf)
= ln(1.5/1) =0.4057
Now, flow stress σf = (K*εn)/(1+n)
= (220*0.40570.23)/(1+0.23) = 145.33 MPa
Rolling force, F = σf*w*L = 145.33*10*6.71 = 9752 N

Torque required to drive the roller, τ = 0.5 * F * L = (0.5*9752*6.71)/1000
= 32.716 N-m
Force applied = (τ/0.2) = (32.716/0.2) = 163.6 N (possible)
Human body can apply a maximal push force of 778 N with both hands.
As our calculated force is 360 N which lies within (40-50)% of maximum i.e
778 N. hence we can
do the rolling operation manually.
Power (in kW) = (2*π*F*L*N)/60000 = (2*3.14*9752*6.71*(10-3)*6)/60000
= 0.0411 kW = 41.1 Watt
Power (in hp) = (41.1)/(745.7)= 0.055 hp (Where 1 hp=745.7 W)
From the above two steps we get different value of force ,torque ,power and for
calculation purposes we consider the maximum of the two. i.e.
Maximum power required = 0.055 hp.
Maximum torque required = 32.716 N-m.
Maximum force required = 9752 N.

Roller shaft
A shaft is a rotating machine element, usually circular in cross section, which is
used to transmit power from one part to another, or from a machine which
produces power to a machine which absorbs power.
Shaft is a common and important machine element. It is a rotating member, in
general, has a circular cross-section and is used to transmit power. The shaft may
be hollow or solid. The shaft is supported on bearings and it rotates a set of gears
or pulleys for the purpose of power transmission. The shaft is generally acted
upon by bending moment, torsion and axial force. Design of shaft primarily
involves in determining stresses at critical point in the shaft that is arising due to
aforementioned loading. Other two similar forms of a shaft are axle and spindle.
Axle is a non-rotating member used for supporting rotating wheels etc. and do
not transmit any torque. Spindle is simply defined as a short shaft. However,
design method remains the same for axle and spindle as that for a shaft.
Typical sizes of solid shaft that are available in the market are,
Up to 25 mm 0.5 mm increments
25 to 50 mm 1.0 mm increments
50 to 100 mm 2.0 mm increments
100 to 200 mm 5.0 mm increments
Design based on Strength In this method, design is carried out so that stress at
any location of the shaft should not exceed the material yield stress. However, no
consideration for shaft deflection and shaft twist is included.
Material used:- high carbon steel
Tolerance provided:-
Fit:- Interference fit between shaft and bearing.

Shaft (roller) calculation:

As, maximum power in kW to be transmitted=0.055 kW
N = 6 rpm, for high carbon
Syt = 480 MPa , Sut = 635 MPa , fos = 1.5
Step 1: Permissible shear stress:
τ= ,τ=
τ = 57.15 N/mm2
Step 2: Torsional moment:
Torque (Mt) = 0.5*F*L =0.5*9752*6.71 = 32718 N-mm
Step 3: Bending Moment:
For roller:
Since, length=70mm
M b= )
M b=
Weight of roller = π*R²*h*ƍ*9.81 N = (3.14* 90²*100*7850*9.81)/(10 9) N = 196 N
ƍ for high carbon steel = 7850 kg/m3
Now, Mb = ((9752+196)/2)*70 = 348180 N-mm
Shaft dia on Strength basis:
τmax = (16/( π*d3))*
57.15 = (16/( π*d3))*
dmax = 31.5 mm
hence, minimum diameter of roller shaft as calculated must be 31.5 mm.

Thrust bearing:- A thrust bearing is a particular type of rotary bearing. Like other
bearings they permit rotation between parts, but they are designed to support a
predominantly axial load.

 Thrust ball bearings, composed of bearing balls supported in a ring, can be

used in low thrust applications where there is little axial load.
 Deep Groove Ball Bearing is a common type of bearings and it is used in
several industries from heavy machinery to high precision apparatus. This type
of bearings consists of four elements that include inner ring, outer ring, cage
that holds balls and ball bearings. Because of the flat surface on outer ring and
inner ring, Deep Groove Ball Bearings provides a larger area of contact that
delivers high performance and high load capacity.

Bearing selection:
The net radial load acting on each bearing:
fo = ( )N = 4974 N
Lth=350 * 8 * 10 =28000 hrs
L10 = = 10.08 million rev.
P = fo = 4974 N
C = p * (L10)1/3 = 4974 * (10.08)1/3
C = 10744.66
Let, load factor = 1.5
Then, C = 1.5 * 10744.66
C = 16117
Depending on the value of C we refer to the chart given in machine design by
(bhandari) to obtain the bearing dimension and designation .
Hence , we use bearing of dimension ,
Internal diameter-30mm and outer diameter-55mm
Thus for bearing selection, series will be: 6006

Key/ keyway selection:

key is a machine element used to connect a rotating machine element to a shaft.
The key prevents relative rotation between the two parts and may
enable torque transmission. For a key to function, the shaft and rotating machine
element must have a keyway and a key, which is a slot and pocket in which the
key fits. The whole system is called a keyed joint.
A keyed joint may allow relative axial movement between the parts.

As per the shaft dimension we obtain a standard key and keyway.

For the range 50mm to 58mm of shaft diameter we use key and keyway of size
having cross-sectional width 16mm and thickness 10mm with a depth of 6mm.
Power screw
Design of a power screw must be based on the stresses developed in the
constituent parts. A power screw is subjected to an axial load and a turning
Compressive stress is developed in a power screw due to axial load. Depending on
the slenderness ratio it may be necessary to analyze for buckling.
Calculating the weight of roller and its components which is supported by lead
screw/power screw.
ƍ for high carbon steel = 7850 kg/m3
Shaft weight = (π/4)*d2*L* ƍ*9.81 = (3.14*0.0572*0.3098*7850*9.81)/4 = 60.85 N
Roller weight = π*(R2-r2)*h* ƍ*9.81 = 3.14*0.1*(0.092-0.02852)*7850*9.81 =
176.22 N
Weight of roller components = 7850*(0.2*0.2*0.0125*2 + 0.2*0.2*0.02)*9.81 =
138.62 N
Total weight on lead screw = (60.85+176.22+138.62) N = 375.69 N
Taking fos = 3, E for high carbon steel = 200 GPa
Length of power screw = 150 mm
Compressive strength ( c) = Syt = 480 MPa
P = (Load acting on roller while rolling +Weight of roller and its components)
dc =8.89mm.
Slenderness ratio = L /k = 100/(8.89/4)= 44.99
Where, L= length of column,
K = least radius of gyration of the cross-section about its axis
= =
here, k = dc/4
when slenderness ratio is less than 30,there is no effect of buckling and such
components is designed on the basis of compressive strength, so dc = 8.89 mm.
we chose a square thread of lead screw of size 22X5 i.e., 22 mm nominal diameter
and 5 mm that buckling can be neglected.
Now, check for self- locking.
No. of start = 1, lead = pitch = 5 mm = p
dm (dia mean)= d-0.5*p =22-0.5*5= 19.5 mm.
tan α = lead/( dm) = 5 /( X19.5) =0.08166 or, α=4.67o
friction force between bronze nut & steel screw = 0.18
tan ø = µ = 0.18 or, ø = 10.2 o
As ø > α so the screw is self-locking.
The torque required to move up the roller by lever arm,
Mt = *tan (α+ø) = *tan (10.2 o+4.67 o) = 972.59 N-mm
Force needed by operator with 200 mm long handle,
F= = 4.863 N

Angle bar
An angle bar, also known as an "L-bracket" or an "angle iron," is a metal bracket in
the form of a right angle. It is made of galvanized steel and often used in masonry
or applied to different surfaces through welding or drilling. Angle bars are often
utilized to support beams and other platforms, but their usefulness goes beyond
their usual role. Angle bars can provide additional strength, protect structures
from corrosion and even provide additional stability.
Size used:-2”*2”*3/16”
Steel Plates:- Mild Steel Plates can come in various sizes and grades. Thicknesses
available range from 3mm up to as thick as150mm. Stock sizes range from 2000 x
1000mm up to 4000 x 2000mm.
Sizes used for the roll bonding cage and support plate are;
 ½” mild steel plate

 ¾” mild steel plate

Dial guage: dial gauge. : a gauge consisting of a circular graduated dial and a
pointer actuated by a member that contacts with the part being calibrated.
possible range 0.25 mm to 300 mm.
Used here:- spherical tip type dial gauge having range 1 mm to 10 mm and least
count of 0.01mm.
Making Of Machine
From design it is clear which type of material will be used, what will be
its dimension, what type of load will be there, how much machine can
carry etc. but still it is theoretical calculation, but main fundamental is
hiding behind practical. Practical way only can tell you original.
During making of Accumulated Roll Bonding Machine not only we used
machine parts with which it can be made but also we had to use machine
List of materials, which are used, listed below:
1. Angle [M.S.]
2. Plate [M.S.]
3. Roller [C.S.]
4. Solid Rod [H.C.S. with High Chromium]
5. Shaft [C.S.]
6. Channel Section [M.S.]
7. Nut [H.C.S]
8. Adapter [H.C.S]
9. Bearing [Deep Groove Ball and Thrust]
10. Square Block [M.S.]
11. Rod [M.S.]
12. Nut, Bold and Washer [C.S]
13. Pipe [M.S.]
14. Rectangle rod [M.S.]
15. Dial Gauge [KANN]
List of Machine tools are used:
1. Hand Cutter [Bosch]
2. Hand Grinder [Bosch]
3. Stand Grinder
4. Range [Fixed and Adjustable]
5. Hammer [ Different size]
6. Vise
7. Hand Drilling
8. Welding Machine [Arc Welding]
9. Chipping Hammer
10. Ellen key
11. File
12. Sieve Cutter
13. Punching
14. C Attachés

Other Equipment are used:

1. Hand Gloves
2. Welding Glasses
3. Steel Ruler
4. Pencil
5. Marker
6. Extension Cord
7. Working Table
8. Lubricating Oil
9. Safety Shoe
10. Apron
11. Glasses
12. Spirit Level
Whole Machine is made stepwise, which are listed below
STEP 1- Making of Upper and lower ‘C’ Section
1. Boring [40mm dia] and Drilling [10mm dia] on two side
plates lower C.
2. Boring [40mm upper and 60 lower of upper plate],
Boring [40mm on side plate] and drilling on Upper C.
3. Boring [30mm] and making channel in two Rollers.
4. Put Bearings on side plates of C, and put Roller through
Shaft in each C-section.
5. Plates are joined by welding
STEP 2 – Making of Power Screw, nut and adapter
1. Square threads are cut on outer side of Solid rod.
2. Internal threads are cut on nut.
3. Adapter is made but turning and Internal threading.

STEP 3 – Making of Base

1. Base is made by Plate.
2. Blocks are put by welding on plate.
STEP 4 – Making of Frame
1. Angles are cut according to design.
2. Angles are welded with plate.

STEP 5 – Making of Slider

1. Slider is made on frame by channel section and square
2. Channels are welded on frame and square rod are
welded in C section
STEP 6 – Making of Handle
1. Handle is made by rectangular rod and pipe
2. Drilling on shaft of lower roller
3. Attached with handle on shaft by nut and washer joint

STEP 7 – Fitting of Dial Gauge

1. Drilling on Channel
2. Put Dial gauge by Nut and Bolt joint
Failure and future scope:
1. Since the cooling rate of aluminium is high, while taking the
specimen from furnace to machine it cools down and
temperature becomes lower than recrystallization temperature
thus prevents bonding to occur.
So there should be a heating components nearby attached to
machine. Heating of the specimen and rolling should be

2. Since rolling involves the application of very high forces,

there is considerable amount friction between the rolled product
and rolled surface. Because of this friction one half of the
specimen get expand more than other half of the specimen thus
get bent.
So there should be a guide to take the specimen in between roller
after heating and a guide to hold the specimen after rolling so
that specimen remain straight.

3. Due to the wavy edges of roller surfaces some portion of the

specimen get compressed more than others and due to lateral
strain it gets bent.
So very fine machining of the roller surface is needed.

4. Since our working range is 0 to 10 mm and our specimen is of

very less thickness, while rolling due to small deflection in upper roller
casing gives inefficient force on specimen thus making improper
A very tight fit is needed while assembling the casings.
So due above problem faced we could not make proper specimen and
do testing.
After overcoming this failure an accumulated roll bonding machine will
be there which will heat the specimen and guide it through the roller
without bending it after rolling.
1. Mohammad Reza Toroghinejad, Roohollah Jamaati, Ali Nooryan and Hossein
Edris. “Hybrid composites produced by anodizing and accumulative roll
bonding (ARB) processes”. Ceramics International 40 (2014) 10027–10035.

2. Suprim Sardar, Atanu Mandal, Surjya Kanta Pal, Shiv Brat Singh.
“Accumulative Roll Bonding of AA6005 and AA1060 Metal Strip: Study
on Microstructure, Mechanical Properties and Evaluation of Minimum
Bonding Criteria”. 5th International & 26th All India Manufacturing
Technology, Design and Research Conference (AIMTDR 2014) December
12th–14th, 2014, IIT Guwahati, Assam, India.

3. Saeed Tamimi, Mostafa Ketabchi, Nader Parvin, Mehdi Sanjari and Augusto
Lopes. “Accumulative Roll Bonding of Pure Copper and IF Steel”.
Hindawi Publishing Corporation International Journal of Metals Volume 2014,
Article ID 179723, 9 pages.

4. Frank Kümmel, Tina Hausol, Heinz Werner Hoppel and Mathias Goken,
“Enhanced fatigue lives in AA1050A/AA5005 laminated metalcomposites
produced by accumulative roll bonding”. 2016 Acta Materialia Inc.
Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

5. Harveer S Pali and Naveen Kumar, “Optimisation of Process Parameters

of EDM on Al6082/SiC Metal Matrix Composite”.
SAE Technical Papers · April 2016.

6. M.D.Antony Arul Prakash and M. Arockia Jaswin, “Microstructural Analysis

of Aluminium Hybrid Metal Matrix Composites Developed Using Stir
Casting Process”.
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Aksheyaa College of Engineering,

7. Shashi Prakash Dwivedi, Satpal Sharma and Raghvendra Kumar Mishra,

“Electromagnetic Stir Casting and its Process Parameters for the
Fabrication and Refined the Grain Structure of Metal Matrix Composit-A
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Gautam Buddha University.