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Vector and Induction

Vector and Induction

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the circle and [AC] is a diameter.

Let OA a and OB b .

(a) Write down expressions for AB and CB in terms of the vectors a and b.

(2)

(3)

(Total 5 marks)

2. The points A(1, 2, 1), B(–3, 1, 4), C(5, –1, 2) and D(5, 3, 7) are the vertices of a tetrahedron.

(2)

(b) Find the Cartesian equation of the plane Π that contains the face ABC.

(4)

(c) Find the vector equation of the line that passes through D and is perpendicular to Π.

Hence, or otherwise, calculate the shortest distance to D from Π.

(5)

(d) (i) Calculate the area of the triangle ABC.

(4)

(4)

(Total 19 marks)

3. In the diagram below, [AB] is a diameter of the circle with centre O. Point C is on the

circumference of the circle. Let OB b and OC c .

(2)

(3)

(Total 5 marks)

4. Port A is defined to be the origin of a set of coordinate axes and port B is located at the point

(70, 30), where distances are measured in kilometres. A ship S1 sails from port A at 10:00 in a

10

straight line such that its position t hours after 10:00 is given by r = t .

20

A speedboat S2 is capable of three times the speed of S1 and is to meet S1 by travelling the

shortest possible distance. What is the latest time that S2 can leave port B?

(Total 7 marks)

ax + 2y + z = 3

–x + (a + 1)y + 3z = 1

–2x + y + (a + 2)z = k

where a .

(a) Given that a = 0, show that the three planes intersect at a point.

(3)

(b) Find the value of a such that the three planes do not meet at a point.

(5)

(c) Given a such that the three planes do not meet at a point, find the value of k such that the

planes meet in one line and find an equation of this line in the form

x x0 l

y y0 m .

z z n

0

(6)

(Total 14 marks)

1

6. Consider the functions f(x) = x3 + 1 and g(x) = . The graphs of y = f(x) and y = g(x) meet

x 1

3

(1)

(b) Calculate the size of the acute angle between the tangents to the two graphs at the point P.

(4)

(Total 5 marks)

7. The points P(–1, 2, –3), Q(–2, 1, 0), R(0, 5, 1) and S form a parallelogram, where S is

diagonally opposite Q.

(2)

13

(b) The vector product PQ PS 7 . Find the value of m.

m

(2)

(2)

(d) Find the Cartesian equation of the plane, Π1, containing the parallelogram PQRS.

(3)

(e) Write down the vector equation of the line through the origin (0, 0, 0) that is

perpendicular to the plane Π1.

(1)

(f) Hence find the point on the plane that is closest to the origin.

(3)

(g) A second plane, Π2, has equation x – 2y + z = 3. Calculate the angle between the two

planes.

(4)

(Total 17 marks)

π1 : x + 2y – z = 1

π2 : x + z = –2

are perpendicular.

(3)

(b) Find the equation of the plane π3 that passes through the origin and is perpendicular to

both π1 and π2.

(4)

(Total 7 marks)

(a + b)•(a – b) = 0. Comment on what this tells us about the parallelogram OACB.

(Total 4 marks)

2y 4x 4

a 3x , b y , c 7 where x, y .

2x 3 x 6

(3)

(b) Find the exact value of │a + 2b│.

(2)

(Total 5 marks)

(ii) Find a × b.

(iii) Hence find the Cartesian equation of the plane Π containing the vectors a and b

and passing through the point (1, 1, –1).

(iv) The plane Π intersects the x-y plane in the line l. Find the area of the finite

triangular region enclosed by l, the x-axis and the y-axis.

(11)

(8)

(Total 19 marks)

2x – y + 3z = 2

3x + y + 2z = –2

–x + 2y + az = b

is known to have more than one solution. Find the value of a and the value of b.

(Total 5 marks)

13. A plane π has vector equation r = (–2i + 3j – 2k) + λ(2i + 3j + 2k) + μ(6i – 3j + 2k).

(6)

(b) The plane π meets the x, y and z axes at A, B and C respectively. Find the coordinates of

A, B and C.

(3)

(3)

(d) Find the angle between the plane π and the x-axis.

(4)

(e) Hence, or otherwise, find the distance from the origin to the plane π.

(2)

(f) Using your answers from (c) and (e), find the area of the triangle ABC.

(2)

(Total 20 marks)

2x – 2y – z = 3

4x + 5y – 2z = –3

3x + 4y – 3z = –7

(2)

(b) The equations of three other planes are

2x – 4y – 3z = 4

–x + 3y + 5z = –2

3x – 5y – z = 6.

(4)

(Total 6 marks)

15. Consider the plane with equation 4x – 2y – z = 1 and the line given by the parametric equations

x = 3 – 2λ

y = (2k – 1) + λ

z = –1 + kλ.

(4)

(b) the coordinates of the point of intersection of the line and the plane.

(4)

(Total 8 marks)

16. Consider the vectors a = sin(2α)i – cos(2α)j + k and b = cos α i – sin α j – k, where 0 < α < 2π.

(2)

(b) Find the acute angle α for which the two vectors are perpendicular.

(2)

7π

(c) For α = , determine the vector product of a and b and comment on the geometrical

6

significance of this result.

(4)

(Total 8 marks)

Let O be the origin, (OA) the x-axis, (OC) the y-axis and (OD) the z-axis.

Let M, N and P be the midpoints of [FG], [DG] and [CG], respectively.

The coordinates of F are (2, 2, 2).

(3)

(4)

(c) Hence,

(ii) show that the line (AG) is perpendicular to the plane MNP;

(7)

(d) Determine the coordinates of the point where the line (AG) meets the plane MNP.

(6)

(Total 20 marks)

18. A triangle has vertices A(1, –1, 1), B(1, 1, 0) and C(–1, 1, –1).

(Total 6 marks)

19. (a) Show that a Cartesian equation of the line, l1, containing points A(1, –1, 2) and B(3, 0, 3)

x 1 y 1 z 2

has the form .

2 1 1

(2)

x 1 y 2 z 3

(b) An equation of a second line, l2, has the form . Show that the lines l1

1 2 1

and l2 intersect, and find the coordinates of their point of intersection.

(5)

(c) Given that direction vectors of l1 and l2 are d1 and d2 respectively, determine d1 × d2.

(3)

(d) Show that a Cartesian equation of the plane, Π, that contains l1 and l2 is –x – y + 3z = 6.

(3)

(e) Find a vector equation of the line l3 which is perpendicular to the plane Π and passes

through the point T(3, 1, –4).

(2)

(f) (i) Find the point of intersection of the line l3 and the plane Π.

(ii) Find the coordinates of T′, the reflection of the point T in the plane Π.

(7)

(Total 22 marks)

x 1

20. Find the angle between the lines = 1 – y = 2z and x = y = 3z.

2

(Total 6 marks)

5x – y + az = 5 where a is a real number.

(a) If a = 4 find the coordinates of the point of intersection of the three planes.

(2)

(b) (i) Find the value of a for which the planes do not meet at a unique point.

(ii) For this value of a show that the three planes do not have any common point.

(6)

(Total 8 marks)

(a) Find the coordinates of P when t = 0.

(2)

(b) Show that P moves along the line L with Cartesian equations

y 2 z 1

x–1= .

2 3

(2)

(c) (i) Find the value of t when P lies on the plane with equation 2x + y + z = 6.

(iii) Hence find the total distance travelled by P before it meets the plane.

(6)

t2

OQ 1 t , t ≥ 0.

2

1 t

(d) (i) Find the value of t for which the distance from Q to the origin is minimum.

(6)

(7)

(Total 23 marks)

23. Given that a = 2 sin θ i + (1 – sin θ)j, find the value of the acute angle θ, so that a is

perpendicular to the line x + y = 1.

(Total 5 marks)

x 1 1

24. The vector equation of line l is given as y 3 2 .

z 6 1

Find the Cartesian equation of the plane containing the line l and the point A(4, –2, 5).

(Total 6 marks)

3 3

x4 y7

l1 : r = 4 2 and l 2 : = –(z + 3).

6 2 3 4

(a) Find the coordinates of the point A on l1 and the point B on l2 such that AB is

perpendicular to both l1 and l2.

(13)

(3)

(c) Find the Cartesian equation of the plane Π that contains l1 and does not intersect l2.

(3)

(Total 19 marks)

26. The points A, B, C have position vectors i + j + 2k, i + 2 j + 3k, 3i + k respectively and lie in the

plane .

(a) Find

(14)

The line L passes through the origin and is normal to the plane , it intersects at the point D.

(b) Find

(6)

(Total 20 marks)

27. Given any two non-zero vectors a and b, show that │a × b│2 = │a│2│b│2 – (a • b)2.

(Total 6 marks)

28. Consider the points A(1, −1, 4), B(2, − 2, 5) and O(0, 0, 0).

(5)

(b) Find a vector equation of the line L1 which passes through A and B.

(2)

(c) Show that the lines L1 and L2 intersect and find the coordinates of their point of

intersection.

(7)

(d) Find the Cartesian equation of the plane that contains both the line L2 and the point A.

(6)

(Total 20 marks)

4

29. A ray of light coming from the point (−1, 3, 2) is travelling in the direction of vector 1 and

2

meets the plane π : x + 3y + 2z − 24 = 0.

Find the angle that the ray of light makes with the plane.

(Total 6 marks)

30. Find the vector equation of the line of intersection of the three planes represented by the

following system of equations.

2x − 7y + 5z =1

6x + 3y – z = –1

−14x − 23y +13z = 5

(Total 6 marks)

perpendicular to AB .

(Total 6 marks)

32. The angle between the vector a = i – 2j + 3k and the vector b = 3i – 2j + mk is 30°.

(Total 6 marks)

33. (a) Find the set of values of k for which the following system of equations has no solution.

x + 2y – 3z = k

3x + y + 2z = 4

5x + 7z = 5

(4)

(b) Describe the geometrical relationship of the three planes represented by this system of

equations.

(1)

(Total 5 marks)

34. (a) Write the vector equations of the following lines in parametric form.

3 2

r1 = 2 m 1

7 2

1 4

r2 = 4 n 1

2 1

(2)

(b) Hence show that these two lines intersect and find the point of intersection, A.

(5)

(c) Find the Cartesian equation of the plane Π that contains these two lines.

(4)

8 3

(d) Let B be the point of intersection of the plane Π and the line r = 3 8 .

0 2

Find the coordinates of B.

(4)

(e) If C is the mid-point of AB, find the vector equation of the line perpendicular to the plane

Π and passing through C.

(3)

(Total 18 marks)

Find the coordinates of the point on L that is nearest to the origin.

(Total 6 marks)

36. (a) Show that the following system of equations will have a unique solution when a ≠ –1.

x + 3y – z = 0

3x + 5y – z = 0

x – 5y + (2 – a)z = 9 – a2

(5)

(6)

x + 3y – z = 0

3x + 5y – z = 0

x – 5y + z = 8

(2)

(Total 13 marks)

37. Consider the points A(1, 2, 1), B(0, –1, 2), C(1, 0, 2) and D(2, –1, –6).

(2)

(2)

(c) Hence, or otherwise find the area of triangle ABC.

(3)

(d) Find the Cartesian equation of the plane P containing the points A, B and C.

(3)

(e) Find a set of parametric equations for the line L through the point D and perpendicular to

the plane P.

(3)

(f) Find the point of intersection E, of the line L and the plane P.

(4)

(2)

(2)

(4)

(Total 25 marks)

x 2 y 2 z 3 x 2 y 3 z 4

38. (a) Show that lines and intersect and find the

1 3 1 1 4 2

coordinates of P, the point of intersection.

(8)

(b) Find the Cartesian equation of the plane Π that contains the two lines.

(6)

(c) The point Q(3, 4, 3) lies on Π. The line L passes through the midpoint of [PQ]. Point S is

on L such that PS QS = 3, and the triangle PQS is normal to the plane Π. Given that

there are two possible positions for S, find their coordinates.

(15)

(Total 29 marks)

39. A triangle has its vertices at A(–1, 3, 2), B(3, 6, 1) and C(–4, 4, 3).

(3)

(b) Find BAC .

(5)

(Total 8 marks)

40. (a) Given that A = , show that A2 = .

sin cos sin 2 cos 2

(3)

cos n sin n

An = , for all n +

.

sin n cos n

(7)

(c) Given that A–1 is the inverse of matrix A, show that the result in part (b) is true

where n = –1.

(3)

(Total 13 marks)

41. Prove by mathematical induction that, for n +

,

2 3 n 1

1 1 1 1 n2

1 + 2 3 4 ... n 4 .

2 2 2 2 2 n 1

(Total 8 marks)

42. (a) Show that sin 2 nx = sin((2n + 1)x) cos x – cos((2n + 1)x) sin x.

(2)

sin 2nx

cos x + cos 3x + cos 5x + ... + cos((2n – 1)x) = ,

2 sin x

for all n +

, sin x ≠ 0.

(12)

1

(c) Solve the equation cos x + cos 3x = , 0 < x < π.

2

(6)

(Total 20 marks)

1

1×2= (1 × 2 × 3),

3

1

1 × 2 + 2 × 3 = (2 × 3 × 4),

3

1

1 × 2 + 2 × 3 + 3 × 4 = (3 × 4 × 5),

3

.... .

(ii) Verify your conjecture for n = 4.

(2)

(b) A sequence of numbers has the nth term given by un = 2n + 3, n +. Bill conjectures

that all members of the sequence are prime numbers. Show that Bill’s conjecture is false.

(2)

.

(6)

(Total 10 marks)

n

44. Prove by mathematical induction r (r!) (n 1)! 1, n

r 1

+

.

(Total 8 marks)

1 1 1 1 0 0

45. Let A = 0 1 1 and B = 1 1 0 .

0 0 1 1 1 1

(5)

n(n 1)

1 n

2

(b) n

Prove by induction that A = 0 1 n , for n +

.

0 0 1

(7)

1 x y

n –1

(c) Given that (A ) = 0 1 x , for n +

,

0 0 1

(i) find x and y in terms of n,

(6)

(Total 18 marks)

46. (a) The sum of the first six terms of an arithmetic series is 81. The sum of its first eleven

terms is 231. Find the first term and the common difference.

(6)

(b) The sum of the first two terms of a geometric series is 1 and the sum of its first four terms

is 5. If all of its terms are positive, find the first term and the common ratio.

(5)

(c) The rth term of a new series is defined as the product of the rth term of the arithmetic

series and the rth term of the geometric series above. Show that the rth term of this new

series is (r + 1)2r–1.

(3)

(r 1)2

r 1

r 1

n2 n , n +

.

(7)

(Total 21 marks)

47. The function f is defined by f (x) = x e2x.

It can be shown that f (n) (x) = (2n x + n 2n−1) e2x for all n +

, where f (n) (x) represents the nth

derivative of f (x).

(a) By considering f (n) (x) for n =1 and n = 2, show that there is one minimum point P on the

graph of f, and find the coordinates of P.

(7)

(5)

(2)

(d) Sketch f, clearly showing any intercepts, asymptotes and the points P and Q.

(4)

(e) Use mathematical induction to prove that f (n) (x) = (2nx + n2n−1) e2x for all n +

, where

f (n) (x) represents the nth derivative of f (x).

(9)

(Total 27 marks)

48. (a) Find the sum of the infinite geometric sequence 27, −9, 3, −1, ... .

(3)

+

(b) Use mathematical induction to prove that for n ,

a 1 r n

.

1 r

(7)

(Total 10 marks)

(5)

(3)

(c) If all of the elements of M are positive, find the range of possible values for a.

(3)

(3)

.

(6)

(Total 20 marks)

50. (a) The independent random variables X and Y have Poisson distributions and Z = X + Y. The

means of X and Y are and respectively. By using the identity

n

P Z n P X k P Y n k

k 0

(6)

(b) Given that U1, U2, U3, … are independent Poisson random variables each having mean m,

n

use mathematical induction together with the result in (a) to show that U

r 1

r has a

(6)

(Total 12 marks)

n

, n +

.

sin cos sin n cos n

(9)

(5)

(Total 14 marks)

.

(Total 9 marks)

(6)

(b) Given that α lies in the second quadrant of the Argand diagram, mark α and β on an

Argand diagram.

(2)

(c) Use the principle of mathematical induction to prove De Moivre’s theorem, which states

that cos nθ + i sin nθ = (cos θ + i sin θ)n for n +.

(8)

3

(d) Using De Moivre’s theorem find in the form a + ib.

2

(4)

(3)

(f) Find the exact value of αβ* + βα* where α* is the conjugate of α and β* is the conjugate

of β.

(5)

(3)

(Total 31 marks)

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