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1. The diagram below shows a circle with centre O.

The points A, B, C lie on the circumference of


the circle and [AC] is a diameter.

Let OA  a and OB  b .

(a) Write down expressions for AB and CB in terms of the vectors a and b.
(2)

(b) Hence prove that angle AB̂C is a right angle.


(3)
(Total 5 marks)

2. The points A(1, 2, 1), B(–3, 1, 4), C(5, –1, 2) and D(5, 3, 7) are the vertices of a tetrahedron.

(a) Find the vectors AB and AC .


(2)

(b) Find the Cartesian equation of the plane Π that contains the face ABC.
(4)

(c) Find the vector equation of the line that passes through D and is perpendicular to Π.
Hence, or otherwise, calculate the shortest distance to D from Π.
(5)

IB Questionbank Mathematics Higher Level 3rd edition 1


(d) (i) Calculate the area of the triangle ABC.

(ii) Calculate the volume of the tetrahedron ABCD.


(4)

(e) Determine which of the vertices B or D is closer to its opposite face.


(4)
(Total 19 marks)

3. In the diagram below, [AB] is a diameter of the circle with centre O. Point C is on the
circumference of the circle. Let OB  b and OC  c .

(a) Find an expression for CB and for AC in terms of b and c.


(2)

(b) Hence prove that AĈB is a right angle.


(3)
(Total 5 marks)

IB Questionbank Mathematics Higher Level 3rd edition 2


4. Port A is defined to be the origin of a set of coordinate axes and port B is located at the point
(70, 30), where distances are measured in kilometres. A ship S1 sails from port A at 10:00 in a
 10 
straight line such that its position t hours after 10:00 is given by r = t   .
 20 

A speedboat S2 is capable of three times the speed of S1 and is to meet S1 by travelling the
shortest possible distance. What is the latest time that S2 can leave port B?
(Total 7 marks)

5. The equations of three planes, are given by

ax + 2y + z = 3
–x + (a + 1)y + 3z = 1
–2x + y + (a + 2)z = k

where a  .

(a) Given that a = 0, show that the three planes intersect at a point.
(3)

(b) Find the value of a such that the three planes do not meet at a point.
(5)

(c) Given a such that the three planes do not meet at a point, find the value of k such that the
planes meet in one line and find an equation of this line in the form

 x   x0  l
     
 y    y0    m  .
z z  n
   0  
(6)
(Total 14 marks)

IB Questionbank Mathematics Higher Level 3rd edition 3


1
6. Consider the functions f(x) = x3 + 1 and g(x) = . The graphs of y = f(x) and y = g(x) meet
x 1
3

at the point (0, 1) and one other point, P.

(a) Find the coordinates of P.


(1)

(b) Calculate the size of the acute angle between the tangents to the two graphs at the point P.
(4)
(Total 5 marks)

7. The points P(–1, 2, –3), Q(–2, 1, 0), R(0, 5, 1) and S form a parallelogram, where S is
diagonally opposite Q.

(a) Find the coordinates of S.


(2)

  13
 
(b) The vector product PQ  PS   7  . Find the value of m.
 m 
 
(2)

(c) Hence calculate the area of parallelogram PQRS.


(2)

(d) Find the Cartesian equation of the plane, Π1, containing the parallelogram PQRS.
(3)

(e) Write down the vector equation of the line through the origin (0, 0, 0) that is
perpendicular to the plane Π1.
(1)

(f) Hence find the point on the plane that is closest to the origin.
(3)

(g) A second plane, Π2, has equation x – 2y + z = 3. Calculate the angle between the two

IB Questionbank Mathematics Higher Level 3rd edition 4


planes.
(4)
(Total 17 marks)

8. (a) Show that the two planes

π1 : x + 2y – z = 1
π2 : x + z = –2

are perpendicular.
(3)

(b) Find the equation of the plane π3 that passes through the origin and is perpendicular to
both π1 and π2.
(4)
(Total 7 marks)

9. Consider the vectors OA  a, OB  b and OC  a  b . Show that if │a│=│b│ then


(a + b)•(a – b) = 0. Comment on what this tells us about the parallelogram OACB.
(Total 4 marks)

10. The three vectors a, b and c are given by

 2y   4x   4 
     
a    3x , b   y , c    7  where x, y  .
 2x  3  x  6 
     

(a) If a + 2b – c = 0, find the value of x and of y.


(3)

IB Questionbank Mathematics Higher Level 3rd edition 5


(b) Find the exact value of │a + 2b│.
(2)
(Total 5 marks)

11. (a) Consider the vectors a = 6i + 3j + 2k, b = –3j + 4k.

(i) Find the cosine of the angle between vectors a and b.

(ii) Find a × b.

(iii) Hence find the Cartesian equation of the plane Π containing the vectors a and b
and passing through the point (1, 1, –1).

(iv) The plane Π intersects the x-y plane in the line l. Find the area of the finite
triangular region enclosed by l, the x-axis and the y-axis.
(11)

(b) Given two vectors p and q,

(i) show that p • p = │p│2;

(ii) hence, or otherwise, show that │p + q│2 = │p│2 + 2p • q + │q│2;

(iii) deduce that │p + q│≤│p│ + │q│.


(8)
(Total 19 marks)

12. The system of equations

2x – y + 3z = 2
3x + y + 2z = –2
–x + 2y + az = b

is known to have more than one solution. Find the value of a and the value of b.
(Total 5 marks)

IB Questionbank Mathematics Higher Level 3rd edition 6


13. A plane π has vector equation r = (–2i + 3j – 2k) + λ(2i + 3j + 2k) + μ(6i – 3j + 2k).

(a) Show that the Cartesian equation of the plane π is 3x + 2y – 6z = 12.


(6)

(b) The plane π meets the x, y and z axes at A, B and C respectively. Find the coordinates of
A, B and C.
(3)

(c) Find the volume of the pyramid OABC.


(3)

(d) Find the angle between the plane π and the x-axis.
(4)

(e) Hence, or otherwise, find the distance from the origin to the plane π.
(2)

(f) Using your answers from (c) and (e), find the area of the triangle ABC.
(2)
(Total 20 marks)

14. The three planes

2x – 2y – z = 3
4x + 5y – 2z = –3
3x + 4y – 3z = –7

intersect at the point with coordinates (a, b, c).

(a) Find the value of each of a, b and c.


(2)

IB Questionbank Mathematics Higher Level 3rd edition 7


(b) The equations of three other planes are

2x – 4y – 3z = 4
–x + 3y + 5z = –2
3x – 5y – z = 6.

Find a vector equation of the line of intersection of these three planes.


(4)
(Total 6 marks)

15. Consider the plane with equation 4x – 2y – z = 1 and the line given by the parametric equations

x = 3 – 2λ
y = (2k – 1) + λ
z = –1 + kλ.

Given that the line is perpendicular to the plane, find

(a) the value of k;


(4)

(b) the coordinates of the point of intersection of the line and the plane.
(4)
(Total 8 marks)

16. Consider the vectors a = sin(2α)i – cos(2α)j + k and b = cos α i – sin α j – k, where 0 < α < 2π.

Let θ be the angle between the vectors a and b.

(a) Express cos θ in terms of α.


(2)

(b) Find the acute angle α for which the two vectors are perpendicular.
(2)

IB Questionbank Mathematics Higher Level 3rd edition 8



(c) For α = , determine the vector product of a and b and comment on the geometrical
6
significance of this result.
(4)
(Total 8 marks)

17. The diagram shows a cube OABCDEFG.

Let O be the origin, (OA) the x-axis, (OC) the y-axis and (OD) the z-axis.
Let M, N and P be the midpoints of [FG], [DG] and [CG], respectively.
The coordinates of F are (2, 2, 2).

(a) Find the position vectors OM, ON and OP in component form.


(3)

(b) Find MP MN .


(4)

IB Questionbank Mathematics Higher Level 3rd edition 9


(c) Hence,

(i) calculate the area of the triangle MNP;

(ii) show that the line (AG) is perpendicular to the plane MNP;

(iii) find the equation of the plane MNP.


(7)

(d) Determine the coordinates of the point where the line (AG) meets the plane MNP.
(6)
(Total 20 marks)

18. A triangle has vertices A(1, –1, 1), B(1, 1, 0) and C(–1, 1, –1).

Show that the area of the triangle is 6.


(Total 6 marks)

19. (a) Show that a Cartesian equation of the line, l1, containing points A(1, –1, 2) and B(3, 0, 3)
x 1 y  1 z  2
has the form   .
2 1 1
(2)

x 1 y  2 z  3
(b) An equation of a second line, l2, has the form   . Show that the lines l1
1 2 1
and l2 intersect, and find the coordinates of their point of intersection.
(5)

(c) Given that direction vectors of l1 and l2 are d1 and d2 respectively, determine d1 × d2.
(3)

(d) Show that a Cartesian equation of the plane, Π, that contains l1 and l2 is –x – y + 3z = 6.
(3)

IB Questionbank Mathematics Higher Level 3rd edition 10


(e) Find a vector equation of the line l3 which is perpendicular to the plane Π and passes
through the point T(3, 1, –4).
(2)

(f) (i) Find the point of intersection of the line l3 and the plane Π.

(ii) Find the coordinates of T′, the reflection of the point T in the plane Π.

(iii) Hence find the magnitude of the vector TT  .


(7)
(Total 22 marks)

x 1
20. Find the angle between the lines = 1 – y = 2z and x = y = 3z.
2
(Total 6 marks)

21. Consider the planes defined by the equations x + y + 2z = 2, 2x – y + 3z = 2 and


5x – y + az = 5 where a is a real number.

(a) If a = 4 find the coordinates of the point of intersection of the three planes.
(2)

(b) (i) Find the value of a for which the planes do not meet at a unique point.

(ii) For this value of a show that the three planes do not have any common point.
(6)
(Total 8 marks)

22. The position vector at time t of a point P is given by

OP = (1 + t)i + (2 – 2t)j + (3t – 1)k, t ≥ 0.

IB Questionbank Mathematics Higher Level 3rd edition 11


(a) Find the coordinates of P when t = 0.
(2)

(b) Show that P moves along the line L with Cartesian equations

y  2 z 1
x–1=  .
2 3
(2)

(c) (i) Find the value of t when P lies on the plane with equation 2x + y + z = 6.

(ii) State the coordinates of P at this time.

(iii) Hence find the total distance travelled by P before it meets the plane.
(6)

The position vector at time t of another point, Q, is given by

 t2 
 
OQ   1  t  , t ≥ 0.
 2

1  t 

(d) (i) Find the value of t for which the distance from Q to the origin is minimum.

(ii) Find the coordinates of Q at this time.


(6)

(e) Let a, b and c be the position vectors of Q at times t = 0, t = 1, and t = 2 respectively.

(i) Show that the equation a – b = k(b – c) has no solution for k.

(ii) Hence show that the path of Q is not a straight line.


(7)
(Total 23 marks)

IB Questionbank Mathematics Higher Level 3rd edition 12


23. Given that a = 2 sin θ i + (1 – sin θ)j, find the value of the acute angle θ, so that a is
perpendicular to the line x + y = 1.
(Total 5 marks)

 x  1   1
     
24. The vector equation of line l is given as  y    3     2  .
 z   6   1
     

Find the Cartesian equation of the plane containing the line l and the point A(4, –2, 5).
(Total 6 marks)

25. Two lines are defined by

  3  3 
    x4 y7
l1 : r =   4     2  and l 2 :  = –(z + 3).
 6    2  3 4
   

(a) Find the coordinates of the point A on l1 and the point B on l2 such that AB is
perpendicular to both l1 and l2.
(13)

(b) Find │AB│.


(3)

(c) Find the Cartesian equation of the plane Π that contains l1 and does not intersect l2.
(3)
(Total 19 marks)

IB Questionbank Mathematics Higher Level 3rd edition 13


26. The points A, B, C have position vectors i + j + 2k, i + 2 j + 3k, 3i + k respectively and lie in the
plane .

(a) Find

(i) the area of the triangle ABC;

(ii) the shortest distance from C to the line AB;

(iii) the cartesian equation of the plane .


(14)

The line L passes through the origin and is normal to the plane , it intersects  at the point D.

(b) Find

(i) the coordinates of the point D;

(ii) the distance of  from the origin.


(6)
(Total 20 marks)

27. Given any two non-zero vectors a and b, show that │a × b│2 = │a│2│b│2 – (a • b)2.
(Total 6 marks)

28. Consider the points A(1, −1, 4), B(2, − 2, 5) and O(0, 0, 0).

(a) Calculate the cosine of the angle between OA and AB.


(5)

(b) Find a vector equation of the line L1 which passes through A and B.
(2)

The line L2 has equation r = 2i + 4j + 7k + t(2i + j + 3k), where t .

(c) Show that the lines L1 and L2 intersect and find the coordinates of their point of
intersection.
(7)

IB Questionbank Mathematics Higher Level 3rd edition 14


(d) Find the Cartesian equation of the plane that contains both the line L2 and the point A.
(6)
(Total 20 marks)

 4 
 
29. A ray of light coming from the point (−1, 3, 2) is travelling in the direction of vector  1  and
  2
 
meets the plane π : x + 3y + 2z − 24 = 0.

Find the angle that the ray of light makes with the plane.
(Total 6 marks)

30. Find the vector equation of the line of intersection of the three planes represented by the
following system of equations.

2x − 7y + 5z =1
6x + 3y – z = –1
−14x − 23y +13z = 5
(Total 6 marks)

31. Three distinct non-zero vectors are given by OA  a, OB  b, and OC  c .

If OA is perpendicular to BC and OB is perpendicular to CA , show that OC is


perpendicular to AB .
(Total 6 marks)

32. The angle between the vector a = i – 2j + 3k and the vector b = 3i – 2j + mk is 30°.

Find the values of m.


(Total 6 marks)

IB Questionbank Mathematics Higher Level 3rd edition 15


33. (a) Find the set of values of k for which the following system of equations has no solution.

x + 2y – 3z = k
3x + y + 2z = 4
5x + 7z = 5
(4)

(b) Describe the geometrical relationship of the three planes represented by this system of
equations.
(1)
(Total 5 marks)

34. (a) Write the vector equations of the following lines in parametric form.

 3 2
   
r1 =  2   m  1
7 2
   
1  4 
   
r2 =  4   n  1
 2  1 
   
(2)

(b) Hence show that these two lines intersect and find the point of intersection, A.
(5)

(c) Find the Cartesian equation of the plane Π that contains these two lines.
(4)

  8  3
   
(d) Let B be the point of intersection of the plane Π and the line r =   3     8  .
 0   2
   
Find the coordinates of B.
(4)

IB Questionbank Mathematics Higher Level 3rd edition 16


(e) If C is the mid-point of AB, find the vector equation of the line perpendicular to the plane
Π and passing through C.
(3)
(Total 18 marks)

35. The line L is given by the parametric equations x = 1 – λ, y = 2 – 3λ, z = 2.


Find the coordinates of the point on L that is nearest to the origin.
(Total 6 marks)

36. (a) Show that the following system of equations will have a unique solution when a ≠ –1.

x + 3y – z = 0
3x + 5y – z = 0
x – 5y + (2 – a)z = 9 – a2
(5)

(b) State the solution in terms of a.


(6)

(c) Hence, solve

x + 3y – z = 0
3x + 5y – z = 0
x – 5y + z = 8
(2)
(Total 13 marks)

37. Consider the points A(1, 2, 1), B(0, –1, 2), C(1, 0, 2) and D(2, –1, –6).

(a) Find the vectors AB and BC .


(2)

(b) Calculate AB BC .


(2)

IB Questionbank Mathematics Higher Level 3rd edition 17


(c) Hence, or otherwise find the area of triangle ABC.
(3)

(d) Find the Cartesian equation of the plane P containing the points A, B and C.
(3)

(e) Find a set of parametric equations for the line L through the point D and perpendicular to
the plane P.
(3)

(f) Find the point of intersection E, of the line L and the plane P.
(4)

(g) Find the distance from the point D to the plane P.


(2)

(h) Find a unit vector that is perpendicular to the plane P.


(2)

(i) The point F is a reflection of D in the plane P. Find the coordinates of F.


(4)
(Total 25 marks)

x 2 y 2 z 3 x 2 y 3 z 4
38. (a) Show that lines   and   intersect and find the
1 3 1 1 4 2
coordinates of P, the point of intersection.
(8)

(b) Find the Cartesian equation of the plane Π that contains the two lines.
(6)

IB Questionbank Mathematics Higher Level 3rd edition 18


(c) The point Q(3, 4, 3) lies on Π. The line L passes through the midpoint of [PQ]. Point S is
on L such that PS  QS = 3, and the triangle PQS is normal to the plane Π. Given that
there are two possible positions for S, find their coordinates.
(15)
(Total 29 marks)

39. A triangle has its vertices at A(–1, 3, 2), B(3, 6, 1) and C(–4, 4, 3).

(a) Show that AB  AC = –10.


(3)

(b) Find BAC .
(5)
(Total 8 marks)

 cos sin    cos 2 sin 2 


40. (a) Given that A =   , show that A2 =  .
  sin  cos    sin 2 cos 2 
(3)

(b) Prove by induction that

 cos n sin n 
An =   , for all n  +
.
  sin n cos n 
(7)

(c) Given that A–1 is the inverse of matrix A, show that the result in part (b) is true
where n = –1.
(3)
(Total 13 marks)

IB Questionbank Mathematics Higher Level 3rd edition 19


41. Prove by mathematical induction that, for n  +
,

2 3 n 1
1 1 1 1 n2
1 + 2   3   4   ...  n   4 .
 2  2  2 2 2 n 1
(Total 8 marks)

42. (a) Show that sin 2 nx = sin((2n + 1)x) cos x – cos((2n + 1)x) sin x.
(2)

(b) Hence prove, by induction, that

sin 2nx
cos x + cos 3x + cos 5x + ... + cos((2n – 1)x) = ,
2 sin x

for all n  +
, sin x ≠ 0.
(12)

1
(c) Solve the equation cos x + cos 3x = , 0 < x < π.
2
(6)
(Total 20 marks)

43. (a) Consider the following sequence of equations.

1
1×2= (1 × 2 × 3),
3
1
1 × 2 + 2 × 3 = (2 × 3 × 4),
3
1
1 × 2 + 2 × 3 + 3 × 4 = (3 × 4 × 5),
3
.... .

(i) Formulate a conjecture for the nth equation in the sequence.

IB Questionbank Mathematics Higher Level 3rd edition 20


(ii) Verify your conjecture for n = 4.
(2)

(b) A sequence of numbers has the nth term given by un = 2n + 3, n  +. Bill conjectures
that all members of the sequence are prime numbers. Show that Bill’s conjecture is false.
(2)

(c) Use mathematical induction to prove that 5 × 7n + 1 is divisible by 6 for all n  +


.
(6)
(Total 10 marks)

n
44. Prove by mathematical induction  r (r!)  (n  1)! 1, n 
r 1
+
.

(Total 8 marks)

 1 1 1 1 0 0 
   
45. Let A =  0 1 1 and B = 1 1 0  .
 0 0 1 1 1 1 
   

(a) Given that X = B – A–1 and Y = B–1 – A,

(i) find X and Y;

(ii) does X–1 + Y–1 have an inverse? Justify your conclusion.


(5)

 n(n  1) 
1 n 
 2 
(b) n
Prove by induction that A =  0 1 n  , for n  +
.
0 0 1 
 
 
(7)

1 x y
n –1 
(c) Given that (A ) =  0 1 x  , for n  +
,
0 0 1
 

IB Questionbank Mathematics Higher Level 3rd edition 21


(i) find x and y in terms of n,

(ii) and hence find an expression for An + (An)–1.


(6)
(Total 18 marks)

46. (a) The sum of the first six terms of an arithmetic series is 81. The sum of its first eleven
terms is 231. Find the first term and the common difference.
(6)

(b) The sum of the first two terms of a geometric series is 1 and the sum of its first four terms
is 5. If all of its terms are positive, find the first term and the common ratio.
(5)

(c) The rth term of a new series is defined as the product of the rth term of the arithmetic
series and the rth term of the geometric series above. Show that the rth term of this new
series is (r + 1)2r–1.
(3)

(d) Using mathematical induction, prove that

 (r  1)2
r 1
r 1
 n2 n , n  +
.

(7)
(Total 21 marks)

IB Questionbank Mathematics Higher Level 3rd edition 22


47. The function f is defined by f (x) = x e2x.

It can be shown that f (n) (x) = (2n x + n 2n−1) e2x for all n +
, where f (n) (x) represents the nth
derivative of f (x).

(a) By considering f (n) (x) for n =1 and n = 2, show that there is one minimum point P on the
graph of f, and find the coordinates of P.
(7)

(b) Show that f has a point of inflexion Q at x = −1.


(5)

(c) Determine the intervals on the domain of f where f is

(i) concave up;

(ii) concave down.


(2)

(d) Sketch f, clearly showing any intercepts, asymptotes and the points P and Q.
(4)

(e) Use mathematical induction to prove that f (n) (x) = (2nx + n2n−1) e2x for all n +
, where
f (n) (x) represents the nth derivative of f (x).
(9)
(Total 27 marks)

48. (a) Find the sum of the infinite geometric sequence 27, −9, 3, −1, ... .
(3)

IB Questionbank Mathematics Higher Level 3rd edition 23


+
(b) Use mathematical induction to prove that for n ,

a + ar + ar2 + ... + arn–1 =



a 1 r n
.

1 r
(7)
(Total 10 marks)

49. Let M2 = M where M =  ac db , bc  0.


 

(a) (i) Show that a + d = 1.

(ii) Find an expression for bc in terms of a.


(5)

(b) Hence show that M is a singular matrix.


(3)

(c) If all of the elements of M are positive, find the range of possible values for a.
(3)

(d) Show that (I − M)2 = I − M where I is the identity matrix.


(3)

(e) Prove by mathematical induction that (I − M)n = I − M for n +


.
(6)
(Total 20 marks)

IB Questionbank Mathematics Higher Level 3rd edition 24


50. (a) The independent random variables X and Y have Poisson distributions and Z = X + Y. The
means of X and Y are  and  respectively. By using the identity

n
P Z  n    P  X  k  P Y  n  k 
k 0

show that Z has a Poisson distribution with mean ( + ).


(6)

(b) Given that U1, U2, U3, … are independent Poisson random variables each having mean m,
n
use mathematical induction together with the result in (a) to show that U
r 1
r has a

Poisson distribution with mean nm.


(6)
(Total 12 marks)

51. (a) Using mathematical induction, prove that

 cos  sin    cos n  sin n 


n

    , n  +
.
 sin  cos   sin n cos n 
(9)

(b) Show that the result holds true for n = –1.


(5)
(Total 14 marks)

52. Use mathematical induction to prove that 5n + 9n + 2 is divisible by 4, for n  +


.
(Total 9 marks)

53. The roots of the equation z2 + 2z + 4 = 0 are denoted by α and β?

(a) Find α and β in the form reiθ.


(6)

IB Questionbank Mathematics Higher Level 3rd edition 25


(b) Given that α lies in the second quadrant of the Argand diagram, mark α and β on an
Argand diagram.
(2)

(c) Use the principle of mathematical induction to prove De Moivre’s theorem, which states
that cos nθ + i sin nθ = (cos θ + i sin θ)n for n  +.
(8)

3
(d) Using De Moivre’s theorem find in the form a + ib.
2
(4)

(e) Using De Moivre’s theorem or otherwise, show that α3 = β3.


(3)

(f) Find the exact value of αβ* + βα* where α* is the conjugate of α and β* is the conjugate
of β.
(5)

(g) Find the set of values of n for which αn is real.


(3)
(Total 31 marks)

IB Questionbank Mathematics Higher Level 3rd edition 26