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Getting the basics of MS Word 

Information guide

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

Carmen Nel (2018-06-19)


ABOUT THIS GUIDE

This is not an accredited guide, but rather a guide written out of mostly my own
experience with word processing (and a little help, properly cited). The need arose out
of daily requests received by you, the students. You will be shown how to practically
implement what is in this guide and the guide thus serves as a reminder of what you
will be learning in class.

In the practical class you will not be shown the complicated way to do these “magic
tricks” (and neither is this guide complicated) but it will be on the supposition that you
have already started some form of work, maybe a thesis or dissertation? Or that you
want to make life easier for yourself in the course of your studies when doing
assignments.

No certificate will be given for completion of this course but you will have experienced
a hands-on way to sort through these little things that frustrate you daily.

So sit back and see how easy this can be…

Carmen

i
ABOUT THE LICENSE

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0


International License.

You are free to:

Share — copy and redistribute the material in any medium or format

Adapt — remix, transform, and build upon the material

The licensor cannot revoke these freedoms as long as you follow the license terms,
these terms being:

Attribution — You must give appropriate credit, provide a link to the license,
and indicate if changes were made. You may do so in any reasonable manner, but
not in any way that suggests the licensor endorses you or your use.

NonCommercial — You may not use the material for commercial purposes.

No additional restrictions — You may not apply legal terms or technological


measures that legally restrict others from doing anything the license permits.

ii
TABLE OF CONTENTS

ABOUT THIS GUIDE ............................................................................................................. i


ABOUT THE LICENSE ..........................................................................................................ii
1. INTRODUCTION ........................................................................................................... 1
1.1 The basic elements of a book/assignment/script ..................................................... 1
1.2 Points to remember regarding neatness of your work ............................................. 1
1.3 Page numbering ..................................................................................................... 3
1.3.1 What is a header and a footer? ........................................................................ 3
1.3.2 How to do it ...................................................................................................... 3
1.3.2.1 Method 1................................................................................................... 3
1.3.2.2 Method 2................................................................................................... 6
1.3.3 Editing page numbering ................................................................................... 6
1.4 Shortcuts ................................................................................................................ 6
1.5 Non-printing characters ........................................................................................... 7
1.6 Navigating your document ...................................................................................... 7
1.6.1 Navigation Pane .............................................................................................. 7
1.6.2 Find ................................................................................................................. 7
1.6.3 Table of Contents (TOC) .................................................................................. 8
1.6.4 Go to a specific page/heading/equation, etc. ................................................... 8
2. COVER PAGE ............................................................................................................... 8
3. FRONT MATTER ........................................................................................................... 8
3.1 Inserting a Table of Contents (TOC) ....................................................................... 9
3.2 Inserting a List of Tables/figures ........................................................................... 10
3.2.1 Inserting Captions .......................................................................................... 11
3.3 Numbering ............................................................................................................ 12
4. MAIN MATTER ............................................................................................................ 13
5. ADDENDUMS/APPENDICES ...................................................................................... 13
6. REFERENCING ........................................................................................................... 14
6.1 Why is it important to reference?........................................................................... 14
6.2 General elements of referencing ........................................................................... 15
6.3 What do I do if publication details are not given? .................................................. 16
6.4 Basic examples from Harvard ............................................................................... 16
6.4.1 Referencing a journal article .......................................................................... 16
6.4.2 Referencing an internet source ...................................................................... 16
6.4.3 Referencing a book ........................................................................................ 17
6.5 More information ................................................................................................... 17
6.6 Referencing with Word (adding a citation and create a bibliography) .................... 17

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6.6.1 Adding new citations and sources to a document .......................................... 17
6.6.2 Adding additional citations from previously used sources............................... 18
6.6.3 Creating a bibliography .................................................................................. 19
6.6.4 Editing sources in your document .................................................................. 19
6.7 “Cheat” referencing - referencing with Google Scholar ......................................... 20
7. BONUS INFORMATION – PARAPHRASING .............................................................. 21
7.1 What is paraphrasing? .......................................................................................... 21
7.2 How to paraphrase a source ................................................................................. 22
7.2.1 Methods of Paraphrasing ............................................................................... 22
A. Look away from the source then write. ..................................................................... 22
B. Take notes. .............................................................................................................. 22
7.2.1.1 Paraphrasing difficult text ........................................................................ 23
7.2.1.2 More paraphrasing examples.................................................................. 25
REFERENCE LIST ............................................................................................................. 26
MY NOTES ......................................................................................................................... 30

APPENDIX

LIST OF USEFUL KEYBOARD SHORTCUTS

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LIST OF FIGURES

Figure 1-1: Breaks dialogue box ........................................................................................... 1


Figure 1-2: Paragraph formatting Dialogue box ..................................................................... 2
Figure 1-3: A view of the Design toolbar................................................................................ 4
Figure 1-4: Using the Page Number command box ............................................................... 4
Figure 1-5: Page number appearing in footer ........................................................................ 4
Figure 1-6: Closing the Header and Footer ........................................................................... 5
Figure 1-7: Another view of the Page number command box ................................................ 5
Figure 1-8: Page number formatting box ............................................................................... 6
Figure 1-9: Non-printing character sign ................................................................................. 7
Figure 3-1: Style gallery ........................................................................................................ 9
Figure 3-2: Where to find the TOC group .............................................................................. 9
Figure 3-3: Where to find the Caption group ....................................................................... 10
Figure 3-4: Caption dialogue box ........................................................................................ 11
Figure 3-5: Numbering style box ......................................................................................... 12
Figure 6-1: Citation styles ................................................................................................... 17
Figure 6-2: Inserting a citation ............................................................................................. 18
Figure 6-3: Inserting used citations ..................................................................................... 18
Figure 6-4: Creating a bibliography ..................................................................................... 19
Figure 6-5: Editing sources in your bibliography .................................................................. 19
Figure 6-6: Edit source dialogue box ................................................................................... 20
Figure 6-7: Google Scholar ................................................................................................. 20
Figure 6-8: Citations in Google Scholar ............................................................................... 21

LIST OF TABLES

Table 1: Elements of referencing ........................................................................................ 15


Table 2: Abbreviations used in referencing ......................................................................... 16

v
1. INTRODUCTION

1.1 The basic elements of a book/assignment/script

 Cover page
 Front matter (Acknowledgements, dedication, table of contents, list of tables,
etc.)
 Main matter (including references)
 Addendums/Appendices
 Your document is divided into sections and all these sections must all be
separated with a Section break

Layout > Breaks > Next page

(ctrl + shift + enter)

Figure 1-1: Breaks dialogue box

1.2 Points to remember regarding neatness of your work

 Is your writing aligned?


 Is your referencing consistent?

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 What is your line spacing? Is it the same all the way through?

Figure 1-2: Paragraph formatting Dialogue box

My personal preference as seen throughout most of this guide is the following:

 Allignment - justified
 Font:
o Ariel
o Size 12
 Spacing:
o Before 0 pt
o After 8 pt
o Line spacing 1.5 line

That’s my personal choice, it reads clean and neat but it varies from person to
person and maybe some departments have a prerequisite.

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1.3 Page numbering

Notes on page numbering:

 Cover page (no page number)


 Front matter (page numbers normally in roman numerals, starting from page i)
 Main matter (page numbering in normal figures, starting from page 1)
 Addendums (no page numbering)
 Different sections must be separated with a Section break
 To work with different sections, footers must be “disjoined from one another”
 Page numbering is normally done in footer (double click in the bottom part of
the relevant page/section).

1.3.1 What is a header and a footer?

 The header is a section of the document that appears in the top margin of your
document.
 The footer is a section of the document that appears in the bottom margin of
your document.
 These headers and footers generally contain additional information such as
page numbers, dates, author's name, and footnotes, which can help keep
longer documents organized and make them easier to read. Text entered in the
header or footer will appear on every page of the document.

(GCF LearnFree.org, 2017)

1.3.2 How to do it

1.3.2.1 Method 1

 Double click on the bottom (footer) of your page.


o This will bring up the Design tab will appear.

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Figure 1-3: A view of the Design toolbar

 Click > Page Number command, and in the menu that has appeared hold your
mouse over Current Position – choose your page numbering style.

Figure 1-4: Using the Page Number command box

 The page number will now be visible in your footer area.

Figure 1-5: Page number appearing in footer

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 Editing the page number (font size, font, alignment):
o Highlight the page number in the footer and click the Home tab. Word's
normal text formatting options will appear. When you're finished, press
the Esc key or the Close Header and Footer button.

Figure 1-6: Closing the Header and Footer

 Alternatively, you can add page numbers to the header or footer by clicking the
Page Number command and then selecting Top of Page or Bottom of Page.
If you have an existing header or footer, it will be removed and replaced with
the page number.

Figure 1-7: Another view of the Page number command box

(GCF LearnFree.org, 2017)

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1.3.2.2 Method 2

 Click on "Insert" in the top bar. This should bring up a ribbon on the top that
allows you to add page numbers.

1.3.3 Editing page numbering

Notes:

 To work with different page numbers, you need to have pre-set sections
(section break) - Layout > Breaks > Next page OR ctrl + shift + enter)
 Click in the footer area to open the Footer dialogue box
 Highlight the page number and format.

Figure 1-8: Page number formatting box

(GCF LearnFree.org, 2017)

1.4 Shortcuts

There are plenty keyboard shortcuts that you can use in Word, each having different
functions. Getting a grasp of these shortcut keys can definitely make your life easier.

In the Appendice at the end of the document there is a useful list.

6
1.5 Non-printing characters

Before we begin… is your non-printing character mark turn on?

Figure 1-9: Non-printing character sign

(Ctrl + shift + *)

Why should your non-printing characters be on?

So you’re working on a large document and the formatting looks off… where do you start
looking for the problem?

Besides the normal content of your documents in Word, there are also characters that don’t
normally display on the screen. So if you are editing a document and want to find the
mistake in your layout, the non-printing characters are a great help.

It’s easier to understand the spacing and layout in your document when these special
characters are displayed. For example, you can tell when you have inserted two spaces
between words or added an extra carriage return (enter).

(Kaufman, 2015)

1.6 Navigating your document

1.6.1 Navigation Pane

When you use formatting (headings and numbering) in your document, you are
easily able to navigate to the different areas of your document.

View > tick box Navigation Pane

1.6.2 Find

Locating a specific word or sentence in your document (ctrl + f)

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1.6.3 Table of Contents (TOC)

By clicking on a specific heading in your Table of Contents (ctrl + clicking on


heading)

1.6.4 Go to a specific page/heading/equation, etc.

You can navigate to a specific area in your document by typing ctrl + g

There you can select what it is you are looking for.

2. COVER PAGE

Notes:

 Page numbers – none


 Contains name, student number, title, course code, lecturer details, etc.

3. FRONT MATTER

Notes:

 Page numbers – Roman numerals (e.g. i.)


 In a thesis contains:
o Declaration
o Dedication
o Acknowledgements
o Abstract (also keyword)
o List of acronyms/abbreviations
o Table of contents – if you apply styling to your work (headings,
numbering, etc., a Table of contents can be generated automatically and
there is no need to try and align dots, numbers, etc.
o List of tables – also generated automatically if you apply captions.
o List of figures – also generated automatically if you apply captions.
 In an assignment contains:

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o Table of contents
o List of acronyms/abbreviations
 Where to see examples of thesis done http://scholar.ufs.ac.za:8080/xmlui/

3.1 Inserting a Table of Contents (TOC)

If you have used Heading styles in your document, creating an automatic TOC is
unbelievably easy.

Figure 3-1: Style gallery

If you want an automatic TOC you need to label all of your chapter titles and front
matter headings (e.g. “Dedication” and “Acknowledgements”) in the style Heading
1. All major headings within your chapters should be labelled Heading 2. All
subheadings should be labelled Heading 3, and so on.

To insert the TOC:

1. Place your cursor where you want your TOC to be.

Figure 3-2: Where to find the TOC group

2. On the References Ribbon, in the Table of Contents Group, click on the arrow
next to the Table of Contents icon, and select Insert Table of Contents….
o Note: If you are using Word 2013, this option is called Custom Table of
Contents.
3. If you want to change the style of your TOC (e.g. you want more space between
the items on level 1 and level 2 of your TOC, or you want all your level 1 items

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to be bold), click on the Modify button, select the TOC level you want to change,
then click the Modify button to do so.
4. If you want to change which headings appear in your TOC, you can do so by
changing the number in the Show levels: pulldown.
5. Click OK to insert your TOC.

Notes:

 A TOC is inserted at the completion of the document.


 This table can be updated at any time by right-clicking on it and selecting
Update field. Notice that once the TOC is in your document, it will turn grey if
you click on it. This indicates that it is getting information from somewhere else.

3.2 Inserting a List of Tables/figures

If you have captioned your figures, table and equations using Microsoft Word’s
captioning feature, Word can automatically generate a list of tables, figures or
equations (just like a TOC).

Figure 3-3: Where to find the Caption group

1. Place your cursor where you want your list to be.


2. On the References Ribbon, in the Captions Group, click the Insert Table of
Figures icon () (even for lists of tables and equations).
3. In the Table of Figures dialog box, select the label for which you want to make
a list from the Caption Label pulldown.
4. If you want to change the style of your list (e.g. you want more space between
each item in the list), click on the Modify button, select the Table of
Figures style, then click the Modify button to do so. Click OK when you are
done.
5. Click OK to insert your chosen list.

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Notes:

 The list is inserted at the completion of the document.


 This table can be updated at any time by right-clicking on it and
selecting Update field. Notice that once the list is in your document, it will turn
grey if you click on it. This indicates that it is getting information from
somewhere else.
 The above steps can be repeated to insert other lists into your document.

3.2.1 Inserting Captions

1. Right-click the object you wish to caption and select Insert Caption… from the
shortcut menu. For tables, right-click the crosshair icon that appears at the top-
left corner of the table when your cursor is anywhere on top of it.

Figure 3-4: Caption dialogue box

2. In the Caption dialogue box, select the label that applies to the object you have
selected (e.g. “Figure” or “Table”) and select the positioning of the caption (e.g.
above or below the object).
3. Type your text in the Caption: box.
4. To include the chapter number in your caption (e.g. “Figure 3-2” or “Table 2.1”),
you need to set up your Heading 1 style first (see the Automatic Chapter and
Subsection Numbering on page 8). This is the only way Word understands
where each chapter starts; otherwise, you will get an error. If you’ve done that,
then in the Caption dialog box,
o Click the Numbering… button and check the Include Chapter Number
box.

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o Select the separator you wish to have between your chapter number and
the caption number and click OK.
5. Click OK to exit the dialog box.

Notes:

 If you do not like the appearance of your caption text, it is not necessary to edit
them one-by-one, you can modify the style instead. Detailed information on this
can be found at http://guides.lib.umich.edu/c.php?g=283073&p=1886003.
 Word will renumber your captions appropriately if you insert a new figure before
other figures in your document.

3.3 Numbering

Word can automatically number sections (Chapter 1, 1.1, 1.2, etc.) of your document
and include the chapter number in the captions (Figure 1.2, 2.2, etc.).

1. Make sure each of your chapter titles are in the Heading 1 style, and then click
on one of your chapter titles.
2. If you just need the chapter number included in captions, on the On the Home
Ribbon, in the Paragraph Group, click the Multilevel List icon and select the
one with the words Chapter 1 in it from the List Library section.

Figure 3-5: Numbering style box

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If you need subsections numbered (for example, 2.1, 2.2, 2.12, etc.) as well,
then choose the list the 1 Heading 1; 1.1 Heading 2, etc. option (right side,
middle row). Note that doing this once sets the formatting for all heading levels.
3. Click OK when you are finished.
4. If you typed in the text “Chapter #”, and now it is duplicating your efforts, delete
the text you typed and leave the automatically generated chapter number.
5. To follow the automatically generated chapter number with the title of your
chapter on a new line, click just before the text of your title, hold down
the Shift key on the keyboard, and then press the Enter key.

Notes:

 If you have any problems with word automatically adding outline numbering to
parts of your front matter, simply delete it. Your chapter numbers will reset to
show the correct number of chapters.

4. MAIN MATTER

Notes:

 Page numbers – normal numbering (e.g. 1)


 In a thesis contains:
o Chapters
o References
 In an assignment contains:
o Headings/sections
 Every Chapter starts on it’s own page, done with a Page break
 Layout > Breaks > Page (ctrl + enter)

5. ADDENDUMS/APPENDICES

Notes:

 No page numbers

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6. REFERENCING

6.1 Why is it important to reference?

Referencing allows you to acknowledge the contribution (give credit to) other writers
and researchers in your work. Any work in your assignment or script that draws on the
ideas, words or research of other writers must contain citations, by citing the work of
a particular scholar you acknowledge and respect the intellectual property rights of
that researcher, all you need to do is acknowledge their contribution to your
assignment.

Notes:

 Referencing is a way to provide evidence to support the assertions and claims


in your own assignments.
 References should always be accurate, allowing your readers to trace the
sources of information you have used.
 The best way to make sure you reference accurately is to keep a record of all
the sources you used when reading and researching for an assignment.

(UNSW Sydney, 2013)

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6.2 General elements of referencing

Table 1: Elements of referencing

Name of Author(s) An individual or organisation responsible for creating the source.


Year published The year the source was published, for example the edition year or the copyright © date on a website
Title of article / chapter When you are referring to a section of a bigger piece of work, you may need to give the title of the section that
you’re looking at, for example a book chapter.
Publication Title The name of the source, for example book title or journal name.
City published Location listed on the source, for example the office address of the book publisher. This should be a town or
city, not a country. Use the first place listed.
Publisher Normally a company who has produced the information and made it publicly available.
Edition or volume This is to indicate if it is a part of a series or if a source replaces an earlier copy. A second edition of a book is
information an update to the first. For example, it may include more or different information to the earlier version. A journal
will produce a number of issues a year, so you need to include the volume and issue number to demonstrate
where in the series this source comes from.
Page span (pages used) If you are referring to something within a larger piece of work, you should include the first and last page of that
section, for example of the book chapter.
URL or web address If you have accessed something from the internet, you will need to include the full web address for that
information. You can copy and paste this from your browser bar, into your reference.

 Remember: to note down the complete reference details for any source that you use, whether it is a book, journal article,
website or a source that you have photocopied.

15
6.3 What do I do if publication details are not given?

Occasionally you will come across documents that lack basic publication details. In
these cases it is necessary to indicate to your reader that these are not available. A
series of abbreviations can be used and are generally accepted for this purpose.

Table 2: Abbreviations used in referencing

Missing publication details Abbreviation

Author/corporate author not given use [Anon]

no date use [n.d]

no place (sine loco) use [s.l.]

no publisher (sine nomine) use [s.n.]

not known Use [n.k.]

For web pages it is often necessary to look beyond the page you are referencing to
the ‘Home Page’ for the whole site or at a link such as ‘About Us’ from that home
page. Dates are often given at the bottom of web pages.

6.4 Basic examples from Harvard

6.4.1 Referencing a journal article

Santini, A. 2018. The Importance of Referencing. The Journal of Critical Care


Medicine, 4(1), pp.3-4.

6.4.2 Referencing an internet source

UNSW. 2013. Why is referencing important. Available from


https://student.unsw.edu.au/why-referencing-important [accessed 19 June 2018].

16
6.4.3 Referencing a book

Holosko, M.J. & Thyer, B.A. 2011. Pocket glossary for commonly used research terms.
California: Sage.

6.5 More information

For a more detailed referencing guides see https://www.ufs.ac.za/library/library-


information-services/unlisted-page/electronic-resources/citation-and-research-guides

Notes on referencing:

 When referencing remember to pick one style and to apply it consistently!

6.6 Referencing with Word (adding a citation and create a bibliography)

Before you can create a bibliography you need to have citations and sources in your
document – these will appear in your bibliography.

6.6.1 Adding new citations and sources to a document

1. References tab > Citations & Bibliography group > click the arrow next to Style.

Figure 6-1: Citation styles

2. Click the style that you want to use for the citation and source (e.g. Harvard, APA).
3. Click at the end of the sentence or phrase that you want to cite.
4. References tab > Citations & Bibliography group > Insert Citation.

17
Figure 6-2: Inserting a citation

5. Do one of the following:


 To add the source information, click Add New Source, then begin to fill in the
source information by clicking the arrow next to Type of source. For example,
your source might be a book, a report, or a Web site.
6. Fill in the bibliography information for the source.
 To add more information about a source, click the Show All Bibliography
Fields check box.
Now you can create your bibliography.

6.6.2 Adding additional citations from previously used sources

You can easily access citations already added to your list and reuse them throughout
your document.

1. Place the cursor where you want to insert a citation, and click References > Insert
Citation.
2. Find the citation by the Author or Tag name, and select the citation.

Figure 6-3: Inserting used citations

18
6.6.3 Creating a bibliography

Once you have inserted your citations and sources in your document you will be able
to create a bibliography.

1. Click where you want to insert a bibliography, usually at the end of the document.
2. References tab > Citations & Bibliography group > click Bibliography.

Figure 6-4: Creating a bibliography

3. Click a predesigned bibliography format to insert the bibliography into the


document.

6.6.4 Editing sources in your document

1. References tab > Citations & Bibliography group > click Manage Sources

Figure 6-5: Editing sources in your bibliography

2. In the Source Manager dialogue box, under Master List or Current List, select
the source you want to edit, and then click Edit.
3. In the Edit Source dialog box, make the changes you want and click OK.

19
Figure 6-6: Edit source dialogue box

6.7 “Cheat” referencing - referencing with Google Scholar

Go to Google Scholar (https://scholar.google.co.za/)

 Once you have located the correct title, click on the citation mark
 Type (or copy and paste) the name of your source in the search box.

Figure 6-7: Google Scholar

 Once you have located the correct title, click on the citation mark

20
 Click in the citation you want – it is automatically highlighted – copy and paste
in your list of references.

Figure 6-8: Citations in Google Scholar

7. BONUS INFORMATION – PARAPHRASING

7.1 What is paraphrasing?

According to the University of Bedforshire, pharaphrasing means…

“... putting the ideas/theories/models/concepts/practices you have been reading and


learning about into your own words.”

There guideline goes on to say…

“You will need to provide details of these in your assignment, according to the assessment
brief. Paraphrasing ideas in your own words helps you understand information and
furthermore helps you remember that information.”

(University of Bedfordshire, 2018)

21
7.2 How to paraphrase a source

General advice

1. When reading a passage, try first to understand it as a whole, rather than


pausing to write down specific ideas or phrases.
2. Be selective. Unless your assignment is to do a formal or "literal" paraphrase,
you usually don’t need to paraphrase an entire passage; instead, choose and
summarize the material that helps you make a point in your paper.
3. Think of what "your own words" would be if you were telling someone who's
unfamiliar with your subject (your mother, your brother, a friend) what the
original source said.
4. Remember that you can use direct quotations of phrases from the original
within your paraphrase, and that you don't need to change or put quotation
marks around shared language.

7.2.1 Methods of Paraphrasing

A. Look away from the source then write.

 Read the text you want to paraphrase several times until you feel that you
understand it and can use your own words to restate it to someone else.
Then, look away from the original and rewrite the text in your own words.

B. Take notes.

 Take abbreviated notes; set the notes aside; then paraphrase from the notes
a day or so later, or when you draft.
 If you find struggle with A or B, this may mean that you don't understand the
passage completely or that you need to use a more structured process until
you have more experience in paraphrasing.
 The method below is not only a way to create a paraphrase but also a way to
understand a difficult text.

22
7.2.1.1 Paraphrasing difficult text

(University of Wisconsin - Madison, 2018)

Consider the following passage from Love and Toil (a book on motherhood in London
from 1870 to 1918), in which the author, Ellen Ross, puts forth one of her major
arguments:

Love and Toil maintains that family survival was the mother's
main charge among the large majority of London’s population
who were poor or working class; the emotional and intellectual
nurture of her child or children and even their actual comfort
were forced into the background. To mother was to work for and
organize household subsistence. (p. 9)

1. Change the structure

Begin by starting at a different place in the passage and/or sentence(s), basing your
choice on the focus of your paper. This will lead naturally to some changes in wording.
Some places you might start in the passage above are:

"The mother's main charge," "Among the . . . poor or working class," "Working
for and organizing household subsistence," or "The emotional and intellectual
nurture." Or you could begin with one of the people the passage is about:
"Mothers," "A mother," "Children," "A child." Focusing on specific people rather
than abstractions will make your paraphrase more readable.

At this stage, you might also break up long sentences, combine short ones, expand
phrases for clarity, or shorten them for conciseness, or you might do this in an
additional step. In this process, you'll naturally eliminate some words and change
others.

Here's one of the many ways you might get started with a paraphrase of the passage
above by changing its structure. In this case, the focus of the paper is the effect of
economic status on children at the turn of the century, so the writer begins with
children:

23
Children of the poor at the turn of the century received little if any emotional or
intellectual nurturing from their mothers, whose main charge was family survival.
Working for and organizing household subsistence were what defined mothering.
Next to this, even the children's basic comfort was forced into the background (Ross,
1995).

Now you've succeeded in changing the structure, but the passage still contains many
direct quotations, so you need to go on to the second step.

2. Change the words

Use synonyms or a phrase that expresses the same meaning. Leave shared
language unchanged.

It's important to start by changing the structure, not the words, but you might find that
as you change the words, you see ways to change the structure further. The final
paraphrase might look like this:

According to Ross (1993), poor children at the turn of the century received little
mothering in our sense of the term. Mothering was defined by economic status, and
among the poor, a mother's foremost responsibility was not to stimulate her children's
minds or foster their emotional growth but to provide food and shelter to meet the basic
requirements for physical survival. Given the magnitude of this task, children were
deprived of even the "actual comfort" (p. 9) we expect mothers to provide today.

You may need to go through this process several times to create a satisfactory
paraphrase.

24
7.2.1.2 More paraphrasing examples

(EasyBib, 2001-2017)

Take note of these good practices!

 The paraphrase reflects the same ideas as the original quote, but is
in its own words and writing style.
 The “underground purgatory” is placed in quotes, as it is a unique
phrase used in the original quote.
 There is a parenthetical citation, citing the source of the idea.

Example of a poor paraphrase

Take note of these mistakes!

 The paraphrase has a very similar sentence structure to the original quote;
it essentially has a few different words from the original quote and does not
flow well.
 The term “civic hub” is not in quotes (it should be, as it is a unique phrase
used in the original quote).
 There is no citation crediting the source of the idea.

25
REFERENCE LIST

EasyBib, 2001-2017. Examples of paraphrasing. [Online] Available at:


http://www.easybib.com/guides/students/research-guide/paraphrasing-patchwriting-
direct-quotes/b-an-example-of-an-effective-paraphrase/ [Accessed 19 June 2018].

GCF LearnFree.org, 2017. Word 2013: Headers, Footers, and Page Numbers.
[Online] Available at: https://www.gcflearnfree.org/word2013/headers-footers-and-
page-numbers/1/ [Accessed 20 June 2018].

Kaufman, L., 2015. How to display non-printing characters in Word. [Online] Available
at: https://www.howtogeek.com/215425/how-to-display-non-printing-characters-in-
word/ [Accessed 19 June 2018].

University of Bedfordshire, 2018. What is paraphrasing?. [Online] Available at:


https://lrweb.beds.ac.uk/a-guide-to-referencing/avoid_plagiarism/paraphrasing
[Accessed 19 June 2018].

University of Wisconsin - Madison, 2018. How to paraphrase a source. [Online]


Available at: https://writing.wisc.edu/Handbook/QPA_paraphrase2.html
[Accessed 19 June 2018].

UNSW Sydney, 2013. Why is referencing important?. [Online]


Available at: https://student.unsw.edu.au/why-referencing-important [Accessed 19
June 2018].

26
APPENDIX

LIST OF USEFUL KEYBOARD SHORTCUTS

Shortcut Purpose
Ctrl + Home Jump to the top of the document

Ctrl + End Jump to the bottom of the document


Ctrl + right
arrow Jump to the next word

Ctrl + left
arrow Jump to the previous word

Ctrl + down
arrow Jump to the next paragraph

Ctrl + up arrow Jump to the previous paragraph


Home Jump to the start of the line

End Jump to the end of the line

Ctrl + c Copy selected text/object

Ctrl + v Paste the copied text/object

Ctrl + x Cut selected text/object


Ctrl + w Close the document

Ctrl + z Undo the last operation

Ctrl + y Redo the last operation

Ctrl + s Save the document


F12 Save as

Ctrl + n Create a new document

Ctrl + o Open a document

Ctrl + p Print the document


Alt Display access keys

Ctrl + f Find

Alt + tab Alternate between open windows

Shift + left
arrow Select or unselect one character to the left.

Shift + right
arrow Select or unselect one character to the right.

Ctrl + shift +
left arrow Select or unselect one word to the left

Ctrl + shift +
right arrow Select or unselect one word to the right

Shift + end Select from the cursor to the end of the entry

Shift + home Select from the cursor to the beginning of the entry

Ctrl + b Make selected text bold

Ctrl + u Underline selected text

Ctrl + shift + w Underline selected words but not spaces

Ctrl + shift + d Double-underline text


Ctrl + i Make selected text italic

Ctrl + shift + < Decrease the font size of the selected text by one value

Ctrl + shift + > Increase the font size of the selected text by one value
Go to a page, bookmark, footnote, table, comment, graphic,
Ctrl + g or other location

Alt + ctrl + m Insert a comment


Ctrl + delete Delete one word to the right

Ctrl +
backspace Delete one word to the left
Shift + enter Insert a line breaks

Ctrl + enter Insert a page break

Alt + ctrl + c Insert a copyright symbol

Alt + ctrl + t Insert a trademark symbol

In a table: tab To jump to the next cell in the table


In a table: shift
+ tab To jump to the previous cell in the table

Ctrl + shift + c Copy formatting from text

Ctrl + shift + v Apply copied formatting to text

F1 Display help
MY NOTES

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