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Practice Activities – M&R



Student full Name:

Yuri Paola Infante Tejada

Group: 2017-06
Date: June 3rd/2018

Subject: FP013 – English in the Community

Practice Activities – M&R

Practice Activities

Graddol (2006, p.14) states as a key trend to be expected “the rise and fall of
learners”. That is, he claims that “a massive increase in the number of people learning
English has already begun, and is likely to reach a peak around 2 billion in the next 10-
15 years. Numbers of learners will then decline.” (ibid, p.14)

Bearing in mind this statement, complete the following tasks.

Task 1
More than 10 years have gone by since the original statement. Find updated
figures supporting or refuting the hypothesis. If possible, find sources for the
last five years.

After checking the statistics on HM Government (2013), Graddol (2006)

statement could be partially accurate when saying how the quantity of learners may
reach a top peak in these 10 years, yet 5 more years have to pass to fully see how big
the declination can be from students’ part. It can be seen that throughout these years
there has been a fierce competition among different major languages to become an
international language that helps to develop the market.

Although these languages considered Major, are also measured in a small

instance by government-run agencies and national statistical offices – English and
Japanese for example (English language travel students as measured by NSO Malta,
or Japanese language students by JASSO in Japan) – or by national associations
aligning language centres (e.g. English UK, English Australia, Languages Canada,
FEDELE, etc.). Others lack comprehensive and regular measurement for analysis
purposes (e.g. Italian, Portuguese and Russian). Anyhow, it can be appreciated that
more than 1, 5 million students that study English outside they born country increase in
2011, proving Graddol’s point on how significantly this quantity would increase (HM
Government, 2013).

Furthermore, Graddol (2006) can be supported by checking Rudden’s (2016)

annual report of international students in which a significant amount of foreign student
enroll in American’s higher education system. Although the number may decreased
when advancing their studies still the international students market studying English
represent at least 20% of them (ICEF, 2016).

Practice Activities – M&R

Graddol (2006) may have overrated the value of English as a lingua franca by
using such a high peak, yet it could be possible than in the next five years these
numbers can grow and his statement may be closer to reality. If one thing is sure based
on the numbers is that learners’ number decreased after a high booming is presented
in the beginning of scholar years. With that mentioned, it can be said that the author is
partially right in recognizing the high demand and its fall.

All in all, based on IALC –Trends in the demands for foreign languages- (2016)
languages demands continue to grow in numbers that may not compare to the last
Demand for all screened languages continues to grow
• Over the 2012-2015 periods, the highest growth levels were reported for
English (63% of agents reporting growth in demand), German (56%), French
(41%) and Spanish (41%);
• From 2015-2018, English is anticipated to grow (79% agents), followed
by German (73% agents) and Chinese (65% of agents);
• Product offering of agents tends to be stable
, with 40% of agents not envisaging adding a new language. Of those who do,
22% prefer Chinese, 14% are considering Japanese and 13% German and
French courses. (p.07)

Concluding, it could be possible that in the time lapse of only five more years
these numbers double themselves due to the high importance a second language has
on the market and on economic powerful governments as well. Nowadays Economy
and business mobilize people on different languages learning in order to be more
competitive, although English can be considered as the main one, learning other more
are look as synonym of a competent worker (Robson, 2013).

Practice Activities – M&R

Task 2

Present the updated figures in table form comparing them to Graddol’s

statements and own figures. Analyze the evolution and state whether Graddol’s
hypothesis has been sustained or refuted. Bear in mind:

Based on the figures discussed above and on also on Simons, Gary and Fennig
(2016) 7 major languages were selected and measured –Some together due to their
results- in order to appreciate the figures left on students language demands:

Table 1: Second language learners’ statistics and English mobility trends

Language Years L2 speakers Language learners definition Trend tendency

by selected and Graddol’s figures
languages statements
English 2009- 150 million Regarding these numbers, it can be These new
French & 2016 From 90 to appreciated: tendencies has
Portuguese 100 million - How English has become a high directly
Spanish & 50 to 55 demand L2 on nowadays context. influenced:
Italian million Language learners could be taken as -ELT
German & 30 million a representative amount of this figures -Language
Japanese based on what is was discussed on competences and
task one. standardization.
- Even when other L2s seem to be - New englishes
powerful as well, English represents - Non-native and
almost the 25% of it (Rudden, 2016). foreigners
-Now, English is considered a basic disadvantage on
skill (Graddol, 2006). This global competitive
phenomenon on English perception fields.
to L2 learners, tends to trigger a - a high demand
domino effect in societies in general. on TESOL
-Since English represents 25% of - the role of
students mobility to learn this English as a
language in other countries, it has powerful
shown an increased over 11% from language
2015 to 2016. (Simons et. Al, 2016).

Adapted from: Simons et al. (2016) Ethnologue: Languages of the World, Nineteenth edition.

Practice Activities – M&R

Based on the above it can be stated that: firstly, education policies are
directly influenced. English has become a priority in curriculums along with literacy
and numeracy in L1. Alongside with English Information Technology has also gained
importance within syllabus (Graddol, 2006). Furthermore, nowadays society urges
professionals to fit in and be able to compete in the global market by having flexible
skills, critical thinking and creativity. These new trends portray a significant shift in
the way education is currently managed, yet it implies different challenges that may
threat social order and political stability (Graddol, 2006: 71).

Communication technologies and students migration to new sectors of

education have brought a diversity of reasons for people to learn English proficiency
and even in an L2 environment. All in all, these factors and changes have made
English a core skill comparing to other languages and it copes with the new
education and professional needs. It is now seen as the medium to achieve the goal
of being competitive in nowadays work life. Graddol hypothesis still sustains and
could be considered as viable because students’ international mobility keeps
increasing and going.

Task 3

Based on the figures you had, propose your own claim to the future development
of English as a Foreign Language. Take into account the figures you found, the
materials of the class, the readings available in the campus and other external
sources that you might deem relevant.

Based on Graddol (2006) and the different data analysis on recent

percentages retrieved from HM Government (2013), ICEF (2016), IALC (2016) and
Simons et al. (2016) it is logical to support Graddol stamen when saying how the rise of
English as an international language will increase up to 2 billion due to the
overcrowding of marketing competence.

If a claim has to be made based on the statistics and figures, also it is

necessary to consider the motivations, needs and interests that a language learner has
to prefer English as their L2. As Johnson (2009) pointed out, “Knowledge of the
English language has indeed acted as a powerful tool for development and
advancement throughout the world, and fluency constitutes a huge step forward in

Practice Activities – M&R

many peoples’ (and countries’) struggles for self-sufficiency and success.”

Regarding this, learners learn this language to be considered as an active
competition in this ever-growing market; considering English as the language of
power and opportunities (Kachru, 2002).

Bearing in mind that only five more years are yet to come in order to prove
Graddol’s Claim, It is right to say that the numbers of learners may be even more
than 2 billion, taken into account the high-pace growing demand and the
development of English as a core skill. It has become an essential language that
needs to be incorporated into curriculum programs to take their place in a globalized
To claim that English demand will arise to more than 2 billion learners, also it
is a must to know who the learners are, and based on Rudden (2016) most of them
come from developed countries with a top-economics such as: Learners of digital
English language learning products in China, consumers in Australia of English
language learning mobile edugames for children and mobile digital and English
language products have the highest growth rates in Asia, Latin America, North America,
and Western Europe; making English apps and platform technologies 13%
representative of the app market in these places.

To conclude, it is certain to claim that based on the last ten years data and
nowadays coalition English international learners could represent more than 2,5
billion of L2 speakers by the year 2020 and the dissertation percentage may not
even close to the 20% of this quantity.

Practice Activities – M&R


Braj Kachru, quoted in Guo, Zhongshi, and Yu Huang (2002), “Hybridized Discourse:
Social Openness and Functions of English Media in Post-Mao China” World

Graddol, D. (2006). English next. December 12, 2006,

HM Government, International student mobility. https//

IALC. (2016). Trends in the Demand for Foreign Languages Study Travel Research
Report 2016 Herrengasse 1-3, 1010 Vienna, Austria, Retrieved from:

Johnson, A. (2009) The Rise of English: The Language of Globalization in China and
the European Union. Macalester International: Vol. 22, Article 12. Retrieved from:

Monitor ICEF, (2016) 2.28 million abroad for language study in 2014, 12 Apr
Robson, M. The English Effect: The impact of English, what it’s worth to the UK and
why it matters to the world.

Rudden, E. (2016) International Student Numbers Top 1 Million.

Simons, Gary F. and Charles D. Fennig (eds.). 2018. Ethnologue: Languages of the
World, Twenty-first edition. Dallas, Texas: SIL International. Online version: