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philosophy of PBL

Dr. E. Garianto, M.Kes

9/3/2011 dr. E. Garianto, M.Kes 1


Latar belakang
• 20 th terakhir terjadi perkembangan yg sangat cepat di
bidang ilmu pengetahuan, teknologi kedokteran serta
munculnya tantangan di bidang etik dan moral akibat dari
kemajuan donor organ, cloning, euthanasia, stem cell
research, bank DNA dan masalah genetik lainnya

Pendidikan
kedokteran

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Latar belakang
• Akankah pengajaran scr konvensional dpt memenuhi
kebutuhan mhs sekarang?
• Akankah dapat mencukupi keterampilan dan kompetensi di
tempat kerja ?
• Akankah mahasiswa mampu menghadapi perkembangan ilmu
pengetahuan dan teknologi kedokteran yg cepat ?
• Akankah mhs mampu menjadi life-long learner ?

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Rekomendasi Internasional “New guidelines for
medical education”

• 1988, the Edinburgh Declaration of the World Federation for Medical


Education.
• 1994, the World Summit for Medical Education.
• 1989, the Ministerial cosultation of the World Health Organization and
the World Federation for Medical Education.

• à Diperlukan perubahan dalam pendidikan dan kurikulum


kedokteran untuk membentuk lingkungan pembelajaran yg sesuai
dengan profesionalisme yg diharapkan dari mahasiswa.
• à disarankan menggunakan integrated PBL atau CBL dan suatu multi-
professional approach

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The four level of student/teacher interaction In a
curriculum

LEVEL STUDENT TEACHER EXAMPLES


Level 1 Dependent Authority, Passive learning. Lecture-based
information teaching encouraging rote learning
provider
Level 2 Interested Motivator, guide Inspiring lecture with occasional
guided discussion
Level 3 Takes the lead Fascilitator, PBL, CBL, case-based reasoning,
feedback provider and other types of small group
learning
Level 4 Self-directed Delegator, Self-directed study, e.g. using
consultant computer-aided programs

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Problem Based Learning
• Diterapkan sejak 40 thn lalu dlm kurikulum ilmu
kesehatan di Amerika utara.
• Di Medical faculty-McMaster University canada
sebagai metode pembelajaran utama untuk
mendorong “long life learning” dalam praktek
kedokteran (1974).
• Harvard medical school’s “hybrid” model.
• Medical Faculty of Maastricht University.
• Tahun 1980 diterapkan diberbagai bidang profesi
lain.
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Problem Based Learning ?
• Suatu cara melaksanakan kurikulum dengan menghadapkan
siswa pada problem-problem dalam praktek, sebagai pemicu
proses pembelajaran.
• Dalam PBL mhs belajar dalam kelompok kecil. menggunakan
problem/kasus atau skenario sbg “pemicu” untuk menentukan
tujuan pembelajarannya.
• Untuk membahas kasus mhs perlu kerjasama dgn mhs lain dlm
kelompoknya utk identifikasi problem, membuat hipotesis, dan
mencari informasi tambahan utk memastikan hipotesis.

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Problem Based Learning ?
• Selama pembahasan problem mhs akan
mendapatkan learning issues (gap pengetahuan)
yang harus dicari untuk menjawab pertanyaan-
pertanyaan yg muncul.
• Setelah mempelajari learning issues mhs
menyampaikan pd kelompoknya.
• Semua proses dikerjakan oleh seluruh mahasiswa
dalam kelompoknya.

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The student role
In PBL In Traditional course
1. You learn how to apply 1. You learn how to focus on
knowledge to real-life situation factual knowledge
2. You become producers of 2. You consume knowledge
information
3. You ask question and research 3. Your teacher ask, and may
for answer answer, all question
4. You research your own 4. You rote learn knowledge given
resources to you
5. You actively analyse 5. You sometimes accept
information knowledge as it is
6. You actively work in small group 6. You listen passively to lectures
with a large number of student

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The student role
In PBL In Traditional course
7. You learn from other student 7. You learn from your teacher
8. You learn by cooperation 8. You learn by competition
9. You learn for understanding 9. You learn for examination
10. You learn to elaborate on what 10. You learnt to memorise fact
you learnt 11. You sometimes with dry
11. you see the relevance of information (for example, you
knowledge learnt are not clear about its use in
12. You rely on a wide range of your career and its applications
learning resources 12. You use the recommended
textbook

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Problem pasien

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Problem Based Learning?
• Mahasiswa bebas dan menentukan sendiri apa yg
mereka pelajari sebelum mereka kembali ke dalam
kelompok diskusi dan merumuskan pengetahuan yg
mereka dapat.

• “ PBL bukanlah tentang problem solving, tetapi lebih


merupakan penggunaan problem untuk
meningkatkan pengetahuan dan pemahaman.

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Keunggulan PBL
• Bukan hanya “knowledge” tetapi juga:
• Communication skills
• Team work
• Problem solving
• Independent responsibility for learning
• Sharing information
• Respect for others

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Keunggulan PBL

• Dengan PBL dalam “small group teaching” akan


diperoleh “knowledge” diikuti dengan
berkembangnya “generics skills” dan “Attitudes”
• Mengintegrasikan basic sciences dan clinical
sciences
• kasus-kasus klinis menjadi “trigger” belajar
mahasiswa untuk memahami relevansi ilmu
pengetahuan dan prinsip dalam praktek klinis.

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Generic skills and attitude

• Team work
• Chairing a group
• Listening
• Recording
• Cooperation
• Respect for colleagues’ views
• Critical evaluation of literature
• Self directed learning and use of resources
• Presentation skills
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SCL vs TCL
mission & purpose
1. produce learning 1. provide/deliver
instruction
2. elicit student discovery 2. transfer knowledge from
and construction of faculty to students
knowledge 3. offer courses and
3. create powerful learning programs
environments
4. improve quality of
4. improve the quality of instruction
learning 5. achieve access for
5. achieve success for diverse students
diverse students

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TCL vs SCL
Learning Theory
SCL TCL

• knowledge exists in each person’s • knowledge exists “out there”


mind and is shaped by individual
experience • knowledge comes in chunks and bits
• knowledge is constructed, created delivered by instructors
and “gotten”
• learning is a nesting and interacting • learning is cumulative and linear
of frameworks

• learning is student-controlled • learning is teacher-controlled


• “active” learner required but not • “live” teacher and “live” student
“live” teacher required
• learning environments and learning • classroom and learning are
are cooperative, collaborative, and competitive and individualistic
supportive
• talent and ability are abundant • talent and ability are rare
success for diverse students

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TCL vs SCL
Nature of Roles
SCL TCL

• faculty are primarily designers of • faculty are primarily lecturers


learning methods and
environments • faculty and students act
• faculty and students work in independently and in isolation
teams with each other and other • teachers classify and sort
staff students
• teachers develop every student’s
competencies and talents
• all staff are educators who • staff serve/support faculty and
produce student learning and the process of instruction
success
• shared governance • line governance: independent
actors

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Faculty objectives

Problem

Discussion in
tutorial group

Student-generated
learning issues
Tutor Guidance Previous unit
Learning activities Learning
during self-study resources
Additional
Curricular activities
Lecturer
Achievement
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Tutorial
• Tutorial dalam PBL dilaksanakan dalam
kelompok-kelompok kecil mahasiswa (small
group discussion).
• Tiap kelompok terdiri dari 10-12 mahasiswa
• Metode PBL menggunakan model “seven
jump steps” dari medical faculty maastricht
university.

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skenario
• “seorang ibu membawa anak perempuannya,
Diana 3 tahun ke unit gawat darurat rsal dr
Ramelan dikarenakan demam dan kejang-
kejang

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Langkah dalam Tutorial

Problem Hipotesis Mekanis I Don’t More Info Learning


me Know Issue

- Umur 3 - Infeksi Bakteri/Virus - Respon -anamnesa - Sistem imun


tahun - Ggn saraf – respon imun imun -Pemeriksaan (respon imun
- Demam - Epilepsi à demam - Kejang fisik thd infeksi)
- Kejang - -Neurology
(convulsi)

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Tutorial
Komponen dalam tutorial:
• Tutor
• Ketua
• Pencatat / sekretaris
• Anggota

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Tutorial
Tutor Chair
• Encourage all group • lead the group trough the
members to participate process
• Assist chair with group • Encourage all members to
dinamics and keeping to participate
time • Maintain group dynamics
• Check scribe keeps an • Keep to time
accurate record • Ensure group keeps to task
• Prevent side tracking in hand
• Ensure group achieves • Ensure scribe can keep up
appropriate learning and is making an accurate
objective record
• Check understanding
• Assess performance
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Tutorial
Scribe
Group member
• Record points made by
group • Follow the steps of the
process in sequence
• Participate in discussion
• Help group order they
thoughts • Listen to and respect
contributions of others
• Ask open question
• Participate in discussion
• Research all the learning
objectives
• Record resources used by • Share information with
group others

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Anak Cerdas
Cari Solusi

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