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Amborella trichopoda: 2:6

(1) Cabomb-
An isolated species.
Evidence suggests it
Water lilies, aceae
MAGNOLIIDS ANGIOSPERMS: The flowering plants
Barclaya 22:200 Canellaceae 5:3615 mansa 5:6
is sister to all other S & E Asia,
flowering plants. Nymphaeaceae
Water lilies
N & S Am Trees Himant- 5:11
Sweetshrub 2:75
50:2500 Trees,
shrubs, lianas
trees: (Sub)trop Piperaceae Saururaceae 5-8:480
A chart of flowering plant families
Cosmopolitan, (2) Degeneri- andraceae Lauraceae E As, N Am
Magnoliaceae Trees 1:2 Shrubs, trees Siparunaceae Am, Gtr Afr Pepper, Pepper elder, Birthwort, Pipe-
(3) freshwater aceae Cinnamon, Bay, Monimiaceae Herbs
This chart depicts a phylogeny of all existing flowering plants. The disks represent
NYMPHAEALES Trees and shrubs Fiji 1:2 SE Asia, Calycanthaceae Trop Am, W Afr White cinn- Betel pepper,Kava,Cubeb vine, Snake-root
Austr Avocado, Camphor, (Sub)tropics, amon
1:1 1:12 (1) & (2) aquatics with Magnolia,Champak, N Am, E As, Aromatic
Sassafras: Trees, Austr, S Am, Shrubs, herbs, Aristolochiaceae families of plants. Groups of related families are indicated by a hierarchy of regions.
shrubs, trees,
Amborell- Annual,
diverse flower structure. Tulip tree NE Austr
few lianas shrubs, parasitic SE Asia 4-7:60-90 small trees and lianas Root Herbs, shrubs,vines 1:1Lactori-
daceae Some of these groups are named. Insets below explain how to interpret the chart
New aceae tufted aquatics 2: 227 129:2220 vines: (Sub)trop, Pantropical, parasites Widespread,
Caledonia Hydatellaceae
(3) many characters Eupom- 6-7:16 Winteraceae
Juan Fern- and describe the information associated with each family.
Shrub anomalous. Annonaceae atiaceae 1:3 Athero- SE As,S Am 5:55 Trees and shrubs forests not Arctic andez Is
Austr, NZ, Forest Ylang-ylang,Sweetsop, Trees,shrubs 1:1 Winter’s bark Gtr Afr, 2:7 Shrub
trees, often spermataceae Greasenut
India 4:75 Soursop,Custard apple, New Guinea E&W S Pacific
Warm mts & cool C&S Am For more than 250 years, families of flowering plants and relationships between
Herbs, aromatic Chile aceae LAURALES temp:S hemis,
shrubs, trees Myristicaceae
Pawpaw (Asimina), E Austr Trees, shrubs Aromatic
Trees, shrubs, not Afr families were determined mainly by morphology (the structure, shape and number
Indian mast tree Blackheart vines of plant parts). Since the early 1990s, genetic information has become available
CHLORANTHALES Chloranthaceae Nutmeg, Mace Trees, shrubs, lianas sassafras tree Pantropical, PIPERALES
Position unclear, Pacific,S&E As, coastal and now the affinity of species, genera and families is based primarily on this
1:1-2 tropical Am, Pantropical Pantropical,N Am,
Austro- possibly sister to 20:475 Old World molecular evidence. The previous morphological classifications were, to some
baileyaceae the Magnoliids. Madgscr CANELLALES
NE Austr extent, supported by the molecular analysis. However, major changes have been
Lianas MONOCOTS 189:2361 necessary both to the circumscription of some families and to the placement of
including vanilla, Arecaceae ARECALES families relative to each other and to the corresponding higher groupings.
3:92 Mainly families of aquatic plants, (Sub)tropics -
Kadsura,Star 1-2:6 helleborines,salep etc.
anise: Trees, W Pacific (except (1) and (2)), with the only few Afr & temp
shrubs & climbers Trimeniaceae truly marine flowering plants. (3) PANDANALES Orchidaceae Trees, shrubs, vines This chart is based on the extensive recent work aimed at resolving the molecular
Schisandraceae Trees,vines, includes Lilaeaceae and Maundia, Cosmopolitan,wet tropics Palms: Date, Sago, phylogeny of flowering plants (see the references below) and is updated as new
N&C America, (1) shrubs (4) Limnocharitaceae. 12:225 Smilax, Woolly
Mycorrhizal herbs, many Coconut,Rattan, results become available. It depicts a classification in terms of a hierarchical
S&E Asia 7:102 Panama hat epiphytic, some lianas Areca,Talipot
Cosmopolitan, 1:1-10
1:9 plant Sarsaparilla
lily-like herbs grouping of families. Most placements are now well-established, but uncertainties
Med, Austr Smilacaceae Lanariaceae and subterranean remain - these we have tried to indicate on the chart (see the inset below for details).
Posidoni- Herbs, Cyclanthaceae Liliaceae Afr Cape 788:20000 Austr,
Potamogetonaceae Subaquatic, Herbs, shrubs, Prickly climbers 1:1 S&E Asia1:6
AUSTRO- Freshwater herbs aceae climbers Lily, Fritillary, Hanguan-
BAILEYALES coasts Submarine lianas Widespread Tulip,Calochortus Hypoxis Spiderwort, The aim of the chart is to present some of the recent work in plant phylogeny in an
Pondweed 5:16 Stemonaceae Herbs: corms 2-4:36 Marsh aceae
(1) includes (Potamogeton) Cymodoce- E As, Austr, Tropic Am 2:315 Geophytic herbs 1:4 herbs Tradescantia attractive and easily assimilable form and, at the same time, to provide a map of
Illicium. or rhizomes Astelia Blandfordi- Commelinaceae
4:15 aceae E N Am N temp,E As, flowering plant families with brief notes on each family. We hope that this will provide
Arrowgrass Manatee grasses N Am Hypoxidaceae Asteliaceae aceae Succulent herbs,
Arrowgrass 2:14 4:27 Trees, Lily-like herbs a useful resource. Conservation of all biodiversity is both highly important and urgent.
Marsh herbs Undersea grass Tropics-temp, S&C Pacific, 4:5 few climbers
Eel-grass Trop & warm 8:48 shrubs, lianas Herbs: Indian Ocean E Austr Herbs
Juncaginaceae (Sub)tropics Screw pines saprophytic S Africa (Sub)tropics Many species of significance in plant phylogeny are particularly endangered.
Marsh herbs Zosteraceae sea,Austr 1:6 7-9:200 Herbs Philydraceae
Cosmopolitan Undersea grass Triuridaceae Pandanaceae Corsiaceae SW Pacific E Asia,
106:4025 coastal (3)
coastal Subtropical- Non-green OW (sub)tropics, W Pacific, Rhipogon-
Araceae temp saprophytic coast & marsh S S Am aceae Cormose Austr (1) 9:33 MONOCOTS
Apono- herbs 3:30 Climbers 14:116
Arum,Philodendron, 15:88 3:885 herbs 1:3 1:2 Boryaceae Pickerelweed, Relationship with
getonaceae Aquatic and Petro- 9:240 Herbs Ixioliriaceae Doryanth- Water hyacinth Bloodwort,
Taro,Monstera,Anthurium, Marsh saviaceae Xeromorphic aceae Xeromorphic Kangaroo paw Magnoliids and
Duckweed,Water lettuce Cape pondweed, Scheuch- marsh herbs
Herbs & myco
Paris, Trillium, SS Am Egypt to Pontederiaceae
Water hawthorn zeriaceae Alismataceae shrubs False hellebores Lapageria C As Giant herbs ‘lily trees’ Aq/marsh herbs Haemodoraceae Eudicots: possibly
Herbs,climbers,aquatics Aqu/marsh herbs NArrowgrass -trophs 2:4 E Austr
polar: 1:1 Water plantain
S&EAs Velloziaceae Melanthiaceae Philesiaceae 2:12 (Sub)tropics, Austr, S Af, Am, 16:94 sister to Eudicots.
including Lemna OW trop,S Afr N polar 1:1
Pod-grass Cosmopolitan, Shrubs, 2:2 8:23 temp,Am Marsh herbs
Cosmopolitan, (1) 1:43 (4) N temp,Am Arid: Tropical N hemisphere, New Guinea Age: > c110-120
vines Tecophilae- 67:1800 Herbs Rapateaceae
PETRO- S Am,Gtr Afr, E As, EN Am aceae COMMELINALES 4:16 5:260 Mya (earliest re-
18:116 SAVIALES Iridaceae Dasypogon- Trop S Am, POALES cognised monocot
OW temp China 16:170 Cormose herbs 57:1400 Guiana mtns, Yellow-eyed
Small herbs Frogbit, Elodea Butomaceae Bog Crocus, Iris, Freesia, Stout aceae Bromeliaceae grass (Xyris) (1) includes pollen).
Chile, Calif, 2:35 1 sp W Af
1:2-30 Acoraceae Tofieldiaceae Hydrocharitaceae Flowering asphodel 5:170 Gtr Afr Crocosmia, Gladiolus Banana, herbs to Bromeliads: Airplants, Xyridaceae Mossy Sparganiaceae.
Sweet flag rush 13:126 Nartheciaceae SW Pacific Alstroemer- Manila hemp small trees 1:4 herbs
Hornwort SE USA,N S Am Submersed aquatics, Campynem- 1:15 Pineapple,Spanish moss Marsh herbs
Cosmopolitan Wet: N Am, N temp including marine Mycotrophic N temp, NS Am, Herbs, iaceae Perennial herbs Musaceae Lowiaceae W&S Austr Mayacaceae
Eurasia ataceae 120-150: Bird Herbs and shrubs, (Sub)tropics to 2:4
Ceratophyllaceae 3-5:27 (2) Cosmopolitan, forest herbs, SE Asia:Herbs climbers:Peruvian Widespread Giant herbs warm temp, Am, 1 sp in
Herbs 2300-2650 OW (sub)trop Orchid-like of paradise xerophytes & epiphytes Afr Thurniaceae
tropics inc Thismia (2) 4-5:41 lily, Bomarea Asparagaceae forest herbs Strelitziaceae N Am Grassy herbs
rootless ACORALES Burmanniaceae Xero- forests (Sub)tropic Am, Pipewort
herbs C&S Am,NZ, Widespread: Squill, nemataceae SE Asia S Am,Gtr Afr Cattail, S Afr,S Am
Tropics, E As, Yams, 1:1 Large herbs 3:7 1 sp W Af Grassy herbs
E Austr (1) Austr Asparagus, Hyacinth, Bur-reed 98:4350
Petermanni- Yucca, Agave, Ruscus, Asphodel, 1:2 NZ, New
Typhaceae (1)
Eriocaulaceae Cyperaceae
EUDICOTS Position unclear, possibly EUDICOTS Bat plant, Ube, Aloe, Daylily Caledonia ZINGIBERALES Scattered, 7:430
aceae 15:245 Aspidistra, Cordyline 4:110 Widespread Grassy herbs, few
Age: c125 Mya sister to the Eudicots. CORE EUDICOTS (1) Polynesian arrowroot Climber Herbs,shrubs, Widespread, Austr (sub)tropics,S.Am Juncaceae
(triaperturate Dioscoreaceae Gloriosa, Costaceae Marsh herbs shrubs and lianas
trees,succs Xanthorrhoeaceae
Large herbs 1:100-200 2:22-27 marsh areas Sedges,Clubrush,Coco Rushes, including
pollen appears). Climbers, herbs Meadow saffron (4) Large herbs Woodrush
Pantropical (3) Geophytic herbs Pantropical: Am, 10:1160 grass,Papyrus,Eleoch-
RANUNCULALES PROTEALES Colchicaceae to ‘grass trees’ Heliconiaceae Joinville- aris(Water chestnut) Grassy herbs, shrubs
4:817 Geophytes, some 60:1605 SE As - Austr Widespread,
E Asia 35:900 Lobster-claw 1:2 aceae Widespread,cool
Nelumbo- 1:10 climbers Geophytic herbs (2) Costa (Heliconia) Coarse herbs marsh, cool
Euptele- 44:760 1:1-2 naceae Platanaceae 80:1600 DIOSCOREALES 1:4 marshes
aceae Sacred lotus OW, N Am Amaryllidaceae Aromatic S and C Am, Flagellari- Malaysia,
W Austr
& mtns
Tree, shrub Herbs, few
Am, S As, Plane trees
Proteaceae (1) includes Taccaceae and (2) forest herbs aceae Pacific Ecdeiocol-
shrubs,vines Agapanthus, Garlic, SW Pacific
1:2 N Austr Grevillea, Banksia, Thismiaceae, both provisionally. Zingiberaceae 31:550 OW tropics 2:3 eaceae 3:11
Papaveraceae N Am,SE As, Macadamia, Protea Onion, Daffodil, Clivia, Climbers
LILIALES Herbs, lianas Sedge-like
Poppy, Fumitory, S Europe Trees, shrubs Amaryllis, Snowdrop Ginger, E Ind arrowroot, 668:10025 herbs Anarthriaceae
VITALES (1) includes Marantaceae 1:10 3:35 58:520
Opium, Hypecoum Austr, NZ, (S) Afr, Widespread Cardamom, Turmeric Cannaceae Poaceae Rush-like Cape rush
9:36 Position unclear, Luzuriagaceae. Bamburanta, Prayer herbs Centro-
Widespread, C&S Am,S&E As Pantropical, The grasses, including lepidaceae
Akebia, N temp possibly sister Indomalaysia plant,W.Ind arrowroot, (Sub)trop Am W Austr Restionaceae
Sargentodoxa 70:420 Arid areas Water canna Large lily-like Wheat, Rice, Maize/Corn, Grassy/mossy
Lianas, trees, 3:100 to other Rosids. c50:c1200 Rush-like herbs
Lardizabalaceae ASPARAGALES (Sub)tropics, herbs herbs: Austr, NZ,
shrubs and herbs Sabiaceae Sorghum, Oat, Millet, Rye, SE As, SS Am, S hemis & SE As,
Vines, shrubs Menispermaceae Trees,shrubs, TROCHO- Position of (1) uncertain. (2) includes Am Canna Bamboo, Sugar-cane, Age: c60-55 trop mtns S Af, Austr, NZ
S & E Asia, few climbers Trees DENDRALES 14:850 Asphodelaceae and Hemerocallidaceae, Mya (grass
Chile Moonseed, Curare Barley, Tef, Reed COMMELINIDS
(Chondrodendron) Tropical Am, Trochoden- Vitaceae (3) Alliaceae and Agapanthaceae, and pollen).
(Sub)tropics, S&E As draceae Grape,Cissus,Leea CELASTRALES (4) Agavaceae, Aphyllanthaceae, Cosmopolitan Relationship of
2:2 Barberry, S&E Asia ZYGO-
few temp Climbers, herbs, (1) includes Hyacinthaceae, Laxmanniaceae, orders uncertain.
Circae- Epimedium,Twin- 2:2 shrubs & trees PHYLLALES
asteraceae leaf,Sacred bamboo Stackhousiaceae, Themidaceae and Ruscaceae.
1:2 Widespread, 1:18 Parnassiaceae and
India,China Berberidaceae Cercidi- (sub)tropics EUDICOTS CORE EUDICOTS
Herbs Trees, shrubs, herbs Rhatany Pottingeriaceae. MALPIGHIALES
N temp, SE As, 1:13 Katsura tree Krameriaceae Plants of varied habitat, including MYRTALES
C&S Am mts Hemiparasitic 2:2-3 ROSIDS
62:2525 1:33 Altingiaceae E Asia Lepido- important component of tropical GERANIALES (1) includes Heteropyxidaceae
Paeoniaceae Sweetgum
herbs & shrubs
rainforest understorey. (1) includes FABIDS MALVIDS and Psiloxylaceae, (2) Mem-
1:10 America botryaceae (1) includes Hypse-
Ranunculaceae Trees
Peony, Moutan S&E As, Med, C&S Am,Afr Turneraceae & Malesherbiaceae, Relationship of ocharis, (2) Franco- ecylaceae and (3) Sonnerati-
Buttercup, Hellebore, Peridiscaceae Daphniphyll- 22:285 orders tentative. SAPINDALES
Herbs & shrubs C&N Am aceae Trees aceae and Greyia, aceae (some mangroves), (4)
Anemone, Clematis, Lignum vitae, 95:1400 (2) Hugoniaceae, (3) Aneulophus, (1) includes Aceraceae
Tropical N temperate, Trees (3) Ledocarpaceae Oliniaceae (1:5; trees, shrubs)
Glaucidium, Hydrastis etc Trees, shrubs Creosote bush (1) Staff trees,Kokoon, (4) Medusagyne & Quiinaceae, (5) and Hippocastanaceae.
S Am,W Afr E Asia and Rhynchotheca. & Rhynchocalycaceae (1 tree).
Herbs,climbers,shrubs (1) 27:82 E&S Asia Zygophyllaceae Spindle trees,Mayten, Samydaceae, Scyphostegiaceae
Cosmopolitan, Witch hazel Herbs, shrubs, Khat,Grass of Parnassus and Trichostephanus, (6) Bhesa.
2:14 30:145 7:805 (3) Shrubs
N temp 34:1370 Hamamelidaceae few trees: xeros Celastraceae (7), (8) and (9) need regrouping. 2:6 18:550
1:2 Widespread, Lacistemat- (5) 56:1012 Achariaceae Pelargonium, & wdy herbs 3:16 Sumac(h),
GUNNER- Aphano- Succ herbs, Trees, shrubs
1:150 Cosmopolitan,tropics Many relationships unresolved Cranesbill, Erodium Shrubs Kirkiaceae Pistachio, Trees,shrubs
petalaceae shrubs,1 aquatic Widespread, (sub)trop aceae Salicaceae Trees, shrubs, Vivianiaceae Harmal Trees,shrubs
ALES Trees, shrubs Trees, shrubs, (climbing) herbs Geraniaceae Cashew, Poison ivy, Burseraceae
Viny shrubs Crassulaceae E As climbers, some 2:21 Trees,shrubs Willow, Sallow, 1:2 S Am,Andes Nitrariaceae E&S Afr, Mango, Lacquer tree Frankincense,
Gtr Afr Austr Grossulariaceae herbs Trop Am C&S Am Osier, Aspen, Poplar, NE S Am (Sub)tropics Herbs,few shrubs 4-7:18 Arid, N hemis, Mdgsr
BUXALES Myrothamn- Stonecrop,House- Goupiaceae Chaulmoogra oil, Widespread,
Anacardiaceae Myrrh, Pili-nut
N temp, Andes Trees, shrubs 13:584 Brushholly, Kei apple few Austr & Tropics, warm
Includes Didymelaceae 1:2 aceae leek, Kalanchoe Evergreen Afr dogrose temp 5:13 N Am
Trees, shrubs, vines
(2 species of trees from Resurrection 8:145 Widespread, 33:540 Gooseberry, 26:280 Caryocaraceae Pantropical Widespread, tropics, trees (2) (Sub)tropics,temp temperate
plants Saxifragaceae Currants Cunoniaceae Position few Austr,none NZ (1) Afr, S S Am 19:95
Madagascar). Aquatic/marsh S Afr, Mex Souari tree, Clusiaceae Melianthaceae Tropics, temp
herbs, few shrubs Saxifrage, Astilbe, Eucryphia,Ulmo, uncertain, Pequi Gamboge,Pitchapple, Trees 23:800 Passion- Bieber-
1:40-50 Rodgersia, Heuchera Kamahi,Coachwood Trop Afr possibly in 3:15 3:35 Violaceae fruit, Stripeseed, Natal bottlebrush steiniaceae Simaroubaceae
4:70 Box, Gunneraceae Haloragaceae 1:1 Huaceae Pandaceae Mangosteen,Bacuri SE Asia, Granadilla, Damiana Shrubs,trees, Greece-C As Trees and shrubs 161:1815
Pachysandra Mainly herbs Tropics, S hemis, Shrubs, trees Oxalidales. Violet, Pansy, 2:46 Trees,
Marsh herbs Water milfoil Tasmania N temp-Arctic,trop few Africa Trees,shrubs Trees, shrubs, C&S Am White ipecacuanha Passifloraceae herbs Macary bitter
Hairy herbs Tree of heaven, few (sub)shrubs Rutaceae
Buxaceae Widespread, Tetracarp- Trees, shrubs, Garlic-tree epiphytes 1:5
S&C Pacific, mnts,S temp 2:3 W Africa to 1:1 Bonnetiaceae Trees, shrubs, vines, Tropics, warm temp, Picramniaceae Quassia Meliaceae Citrus, Choisya, Rue,
Mainly shrubs Gtr Afr, S hemis aeaceae 2-3:21 climbers
Shrub SE Asia Liana Evergreen some herbs Am,Af. Herbs,vines, 14:500 (Sub)tropical Mahogany, Omu, Angostura, Dictamnus,
Widespread, S Am 1:2 Iteaceae (2) 6:770 14:476 Trees,shrubs, Toon, Sapele, Jaborandi, Cneorum
Penthor- 4-5:21 Lophopyxid- shrubs Widespread, (1) shrubs,trees America 135:1580
tropics aceae Sweetspire Oxalidaceae 1:55 aceae 9:560 Calophyllaceae tropics 26:932 lianas,mangroves WI Cedar,Neem Aromatic trees, shrubs,
Trees, shrubs Wood sorrel, Oca, Pantropical Trees Sapindaceae
Fleshy herbs Brunelliaceae SE As Widespread Tamanu Combretaceae Maple,Guarana,Akee, (Sub)tropics & lianas, few herbs
10:300 E As,N Am SE As, E Afr, Carambola, Bilimbi Ixonanthaceae 3:210 (Punnai) oil 52:621 Widespread,tropics,
In core Eudicots, Dilleniaceae Herbs, few shrubs, Woolly trees Trees and Hypericaceae (Sub)tropics, esp PICRAM- Rambutan,Mamoncillo,
C&N Am Tropical Am, Putranjivaceae Trees & shrubs 218:5735 22:656 NIALES S Af,Austr
but placement Trees, shrubs, trees and lianas shrubs St John’s wort,
African savannah Lichee,Horse-chestnut (1)
provisional. climbers, herbs 17:50 Widespread, esp mtns Evergreen trees and Tutsan Pantropical 5:135 (8) Afara, Idigbo Onagraceae Position Trees,shrubs,vines
SAXIFRAGALES 12:180 shrubs Herbs,shrubs, Riverweed Rubber, Cassava, Evening primrose,
Dillenia,Hibbertia (1) includes Soyauxia and (sub)trop 1:1 Peraceae Jatropha,Castor oil provisional. Widespread,
non-green herbs Connaraceae Cephalot- (Sub)tropics, E As, trees (Podostemum) Fuchsia, Willowherb,
(Sub)tropics, Balanophoraceae (1) Medusandra, (2) Ptero- aceae Aquatic herbs Shrubs to trees Euphorbiaceae Clarkia, Gaura
Asia,Austr Some ‘zebrawoods’ 1:165 Afr, SE As 31:620 2:5
Root parasites stemonaceae. Trees, shrubs , Flycatcher Podostemaceae Pantropical Trees, shrubs, herbs, Herbs, shrubs, trees 2:16
Olacaceae W Austr
Lythraceae Cosmopolitan, Trees Trees,shrubs HUERTEALES
(Sub)tropics, (Sub)tropics woody vines Pantropical Ctenolo- (Sub)tropics: Clutia, Pera lianas, succulents 1:2 Tapisciaceae Petenaea (1 tree
E Asia phonaceae Herbs, shrubs, trees W N Am Dipentodont-
SANTALALES Shrubs, trees and Pantropical, 12:605 Dichapetalaceae 1:9 Am, As, N Am Widespread, Gerrardin- C&S Am, sp., C. Am) may
SW Pacific W Af, SE As 24:80 tropics Henna,Crape myrtle, E Af aceae aceae
Includes various 6:18 lianas: Some root esp OW Trees & shrubs 48:270 Stem and Pomegranate,Trapa (3) China SE As, Austr, belong here.
4:13 1:10 Trees and lianas Balanop- Trees Picrodendr- (9) Scrambling
“mistletoes”. Family Tropics Trees, shrubs
hemiparasites Misodendr- Elaeocarpaceae (1) aceae
4:240 aceae root parasites (7) (Water caltrop) shrubs C&S Am
limits provisional. Strombosi- 3:c58 Aerial aceae OXALIDALES Crinodendron, Poisonleaf Tropics, Am Lebombo 7:190
aceae Ximeniaceae Trees Rafflesiaceae 8:50 Widespread,
(1) position in order Inc hemiparasites hemiparasitic Ceylon olive 3:10 ironwood tropics Jaboty,
Shrubs to trees subshrubs
(1) includes 17:460 1:1-2 Erythroxylaceae (Sub)tropics Rafflesia Trees,shrubs 3:10 Daphne,
uncertain. (2) includes Kulim & Afina Trop-warm temp 73:988 Tremandraceae. (Sub)trop & temp, Euphro- Trees: Bush 16:149 SE Asia Quaruba Herbs and
Comandraceae, Thes- ‘Yellow/hog plum’ (on S Beech) Coco plum, Coca (cocaine) Trees Humiriaceae Ramin,Gaharu 4:21
woods Loranthaceae SS Am not Afr niaceae mango, Dika nut Pantropical 3:20 Liberian cherry, Vochysiaceae subshrubs (3) 2:18
iaceae, Viscaceae, (Ximenia) Hemiparasites Makita Guyana mtns Small trees, 59:1745 Tropic Am, W Af Thymelaeaceae Bixaceae
3:3 Irvingiaceae Rhizophoraceae Bastard bullet Neuradaceae Toxic trees, shrubs, Annatto, Sphaero-
Nanodeacae, Amph- Shrubby epiphytes, 3:c50 3:23(+) Chrysobalanaceae Trees shrubs Tropics, SE Asia , Trop Am, Trees, shrubs,
Coulaceae 1:7-14 Root parasites C&W Africa, Red mangrove Allspice, Arid: India, lianas and herbs Rose imperial sepalaceae
orogynaceae and Tropical trees shrubs,lianas,trees Schoepfiaceae Non-green Trees and shrubs 5:28 (3) Trees,shrubs,inc S temp, few N temp W Af Myrtle, Cloves, climbers, few Afr, Med Madagascar
Evergreen parasites SE As herbs Widespread, Trees to herbs
Cervantesiaceae. Gabon nut, trees & shrubs (Sub)trop, temp, Trees,shrubs,herbs (Sub)tropics Evergreen mangroves
Phyllanthaceae 10-12:300 Guava,Eucalyptus, (2) S hemis & Afr (Sub)trop, Trees and
3:35 Huambula
S. hemis Apodanthaceae trees and lianas Herbs to trees, few Linaceae Bottlebrush,Tea tree arid shrubs
Octoknemaceae C&S America, Am,Austr,E Afr, (1) 32:551 (4) (1) 50:891
Shrubs, trees, E Asia Trigoniaceae Ochnaceae aquatics Flax, Linseed Myrtaceae 243:4225+
Tropical African Med-SW As 68:1250 Hawaiian snowbush,
lianas forests Macachi C&S Am,SE As Trees, shrubs, Herbs, shrubs, Shrubs and trees Malvaceae (1) 8:175
Erythropalaceae 11:c35 Climbers, 2:35 Indian Gooseberry, 17:680 Rockrose, 3:3
8:c33 Opiliaceae 44:990 Coryno- Madgsr few herbs, lianas shrubs, small trees Leafflower trees, lianas (Sub)tropics, Trees, shrubs , herbs, Shorea, Meranti Muntingi-
(Sub)tropics, 4:34 Ochna, Azobe, Waterwort Am,Austr Labdanum
Trees, shrubs (Sub)tropics Sandalwood carpaceae 1:5 (2) Widespread few climbers: Cotton, Tropics, SE Asia Cistaceae aceae
trop Am Many ‘mistletoes’ Ovoga wood Shrubs,trees Warm temp Bird’s eye bush Malpighiaceae Elatinaceae 131:4620 Kapok,Cocoa/Chocolate, Dipterocarpaceae Trees
Aptandraceae Trees, shrubs, Santalaceae Aromatic herbs,
Angueuk wood, Anisophylle- SW Pacific Coriariaceae 1:35 Tropics, Acerola, Aq herbs,shrubs Hibiscus,Baobab,Durian, Trop Am
climbers: root Widespread, (sub)trop aceae 1:6 Trees, shrubs S Am Forest trees: often (sub)shrubs
Isano oil parasites Trees,shrubs Surette, Caapi Worldwide, Okra,Cola,Lime trees
Trees, shrubs Coriaria Nothofagaceae 2:6 Trees (2) 188:5005 gregariously N temp (Med), (4)
SE China
(2) Root & stem hemi-
parasites: Trees, Tropics W Af, SE As
(Sub)tropics, tropics Jongkong Glory bush,
flowering S S Am 2:10
2:2 Southern beech S Am tropics Cytinaceae
Aextoxic- shrubs,herbs Centropl- Crypter- Dissotis, Medinilla East
1:1 aceae Trees SW Pacific, 7:670 acaceae (6) Non-green root
Tetramel- 1:2 S Am oniaceae Melastomataceae Madagascar
Berberid- Chilean 118:845 aceae Fagaceae Trees 38:1100 S&SE Asia MALVALES parasites
opsidaceae tree Melon, Luffa, S&E As,
Tall herbs Trees, few shrubs Moraceae Shrubs, herbs, few (1) includes Tiliaceae, Sterculiaceae Sarcolaenaceae Med,S Af,C Am,
Vines, shrubs Datiscaceae 3:10 trees, lianas Trees & shrubs Madagascar
Athel Cucumber, Pumpkin Austr
Med-C As, 7-10:50 Oak, Sweet chestnut, 52:925 6:35 Fig, Iroko, Fustic, and Bombacaceae, (2) Tepuianthus,
Austr,Chile 43:1110 Hickory, Pecan, Beech, Chinquapin, Ulmaceae Mulberry, Breadfruit, (Sub)tropics, and (3) Cochlospermaceae and 8:60
2:3 tree, Tamarisk Cucurbitaceae W USA
Tanoak, Cork
Cosmopolitan, 9:29
Tamaricaceae Polygonaceae Mainly climbers Walnut, Wingnut (sub)tropics Trees,shrubs Banyan, Osage orange S America Diegodendraceae. Family relation-
BERBERID- Begonia Juglandaceae Temp & tropical 3:45 Heathy
1:3 Shrubs-small trees Buckwheat,Rhubarb, Widespread, Rhamnaceae N temp, SE Asia, Trees,shrubs,lianas, shrubs, trees (4) ships unclear, especially (4).
OPSIDALES Eurasia & Africa, Begoniaceae Trees & shrubs forests Oleaster, C Am: Zelkova, stranglers,herbs
Rhabdo- Sorrel,Dock,Russian vine tropics N temp,SE As, (1) Sea buckthorn Trees, shrubs, lianas Penaeaceae Trees
dendraceae sands esp Med Herbs, shrubs, Elaeagnaceae Buckthorn,Jujube, Elm,Keaki (Sub)tropics, 3:11
Trop S Am 5:90 Herbs, shrubs, few vines C&S Am 3:57 few temp Afr, St Helena, Alzateaceae 1:1
tropical trees & lianas Bog myrtle, 90:2520 Shrubs, trees Ceanothus, S Africa C & S Am Miswak
Trees (Sub)tropics,E As, 4:95 Cascara Trees Setchell- Shrub 1:2
1:90 Cosmopolitan, Wax myrtle Rosaceae N Am, Austr, 1:2? anthaceae OW (sub)tropics
Casuarin- 11:170 (2) (1) Akaniaceae Koeberlini- Halophytes
Sea heaths N temp 3:115 not Austr or NZ aceae Myricaceae Apple, Pear, Strawberry, Eurasia 1:1 Worldwide
SE Asia, Mexico 1:1 aceae Bataceae Salvadoraceae
Shrub Frankeniaceae Widespread Quince, Cherry, Bramble, Urticaceae Shrub Trees, shrubs
Simmonds- Halophytes Carnivores CUCURBITALES 2:1401 SW Pacific ,
Trees, shrubs:
Barbey- Cannabaceae E Austr 16:480 Arid: N Am, Am, Pacific: of savannah
27:836 Droseraceae SE Asia, Rose, Almond, Plum etc 1:2 Tree aceae Nettles, Cecropia, (1) 2:2 Trees, shrubs , Limn- Bolivia coasts
1:1 iaceae Herbs,shrubs (1) position unclear, aromatic Dirachm- Trees to herbs Ramie, Mamaki, Helxine, anthaceae
SW N Am Sea lavender, Sundew, Indian Ocean Cosmopolitan, Arabia, Hackberry, Hemp, herbs and lianas
Warm, dry Thrift, Plumbago here provisionally. She-oaks Tree aceae NE Af Pellitory-of-the-wall,Pilea Garden Meadowfoam
Jojoba areas Venus’ fly-trap N temperate Socotra, Cannabis, Hop, nasturtium Capparaceae N Am herbs
Plumbaginaceae Widespread, 6:145 Herbs, trees, NE Af Pigeon wood, Worldwide, tropics 2:45 2:8 1:1
Cosmopolitan,Med shrubs Hairy herbs, Bladdernut Tropaeolaceae Caper, Karir 10:300
Austr, NZ Some families are 1:1 Betulaceae Celtis Guam- Widespread, Viny shrub
1:2 - C As, dry, saline Ticodendr- shrubs, lianas, Staphyleaceae atelaceae Succ climbers Cleome, Pentadipl-
Astero- Herbs,shrubs, possibly associated Trees, shrubs ROSALES 730:19400 few trees C&S Am, mts tropics Spectacle fruit andraceae
peiaceae Physen- 1:90 aceae S&E Asia,C&S Am, Brambly
aceae climbers 1:1 with ‘Normapolles- Tree Hazel, Hornbeam, Fabaceae shrub 1:1 1:95 338:3710 W Afr
Trees,shrubs Trees,shrubs Droso- Pitcher plants
C Am Birch, Alder
(1) includes N temp : Trees, Cleomaceae 1:2
Nepenthaceae ROSIDS type’ pollen, origin- Pea,Bean,Soya,Acacia, shrubs C Am Brassicaceae Shrub,herb
Madgscr Madgscr phyllaceae N temp, Andes, Cecropiaceae, 21:940 Papaya Herbs and shrubs
Carnivores Indian Ocean, ating c98-94 Mya. (2) Celtidaceae. Alfalfa,Clover,Senna,Lupin, Caricaceae Wallflower,Turnip,Stock, Widespread Tovariaceae
W Med ASTERIDS SE Asia Polygalaceae Shrubs Cabbage,Cress,Radish, C&S Am
SE Asia, Lentil,Indigo,Carob,Mimosa, Herbs,shrubs,trees, 1:3 Trees, C&S Am, Afr tropics, Am
N Austr E As SW N Am
86:2200 174:2050 Peanut,Broom,Liquorice etc Small trees 5:8 shrubs Stachy- Small trees, Mustard,Rapeseed
(1) Marsh samphire, 1:12 FAGALES lianas, parasites Crossosomat- 5:18+
Carnation, Pink, Cosmopolitan Quillajaceae Surianaceae uraceae aceae few vines Herbs, few shrubs Herbs,
Beet,Spinach,Orache, Ancistro- Grubb- (1) includes Rhoiptelea, Milkwort, (Sub)tropics, Trees,1:5 Cosmopolitan, Gyrostem-
Campion, Pearlwort iaceae Herbs, shrubs, Senega root Temp S Am Greasebush 4-6:34 few shrubs
Caryophyllaceae Quinoa,Celosia,Saltbush cladaceae Heathy 1:3 17:190 1 tree species, SE Asia. Austr shrubs N temperate Resedaceae onaceae
Amaranthaceae Trop Afr, SE As Trees, shrubs, trees, lianas Widespread 4:12 Shrubs - Trees & shrubs,
Herbs, shrubs and vines shrubs massive trees 1:1 Mignonette,Weld
Herbs, shrubs & vines Non-carnivores S Af lianas, few herbs FABALES 2:2 (1) Trees, Moringaceae Subshrub lvs often succ
Widespread, Strasburg- Scattered, Med Austr
Worldwide, esp Vines Curtis- Hydrangeaceae Internal relation- shrubs Xero Ben nut, Moringa Emblingi-
mainly N temp, warm temperate, ships uncertain. aceae shrub.1:1 aceae 3-7:75
iaceae Hydrangea, Deutzia, Aphloiaceae Med-India, Gtr Afr W Austr
Med arid,saline W Afr Evergreen SW Pacific Geissolom-
Achato- Dionco- 7:107 Philadelphus 2:1000 Trees E Gtr Afr ataceae semi-arid
carpaceae phyllaceae trees S Af Cornaceae N temp,SE As, 1:12
Impatiens, 1:1 S Af
Trees,shrubs Vines, some 1:1/2 Dogwood, Tupelo, S Am FABIDS BRASSICALES
Warm Am 1:3 carnivores Davidia Busy Lizzie 7:130 CROSSOSOMATALES (1) includes Bretschneidera.
Stegnosp- 3:3 Scattered, (2) Balsaminaceae Am tropics ROSIDS MALVIDS
9:87 ermataceae (1) includes Ixerbaceae. Stixaceae belongs some-
Green N temp,S&E Asia Fleshy herbs Marcgraviaceae 3:5 Tetra-
Wdy climbers Trees & shrubs, Widespread, OW meristaceae EUASTERIDS where in the Brassicales.
2:23 C Am 1:20 creepers Lianas,epiphytes, Trees, shrubs ASTERIDS
Molluginaceae Limeaceae Hydro- 14:265 esp Gtr Afr, not some shrubs &
Herbs,shrubs C&S Am,
Herbs, 2:6 stachydaceae Loasaceae S Am,Austr small trees (5) Malaya LAMIIDS DIPSACALES
Tropics,warm subshrubs Lophio- Aquatic herbs CAMPANULIDS
arid, Afr Rock nettle (1) includes Linnaeaceae,
Africa,S As, carpaceae Madagascar, (C) includes
(4) Austr Corbichonia C&S Afr (1) Hairy herbs, 2:17 1:1 (C) 34:c190 Diervillaceae, Morinaceae,
vines and shrubs 18:385 Eucom- Apodytes, 5-7:43-45 (1) 12:80
1:1 7:16 Afr, As Am, temp Eurasia Ocotillo, Garryaceae GARRYALES 1:7 Lemon thorn, Cassinopsis, AQUIFOLIALES Dipsacaceae and
Halophy- Didiereaceae Am, Gtr Afr (3) 25:310 Garrya,Aucuba Decid miaceae 1:2 Citronella-tree Shrubs & trees
Polemoniaceae Boojum tree Trees & shrubs tree C&S Am Oncothe- African white pear Emmotum (1) includes Leptaulus. Valerianaceae.
taceae Woody, mainly Evergreen trees Mettenius- caceae Cardiopteridaceae Stemonuraceae
Argentina 1:1 Phlox, Cobaea, Fouquieriaceae Lecythidaceae China aceae Icacinaceae provisionally.
9:140+ column plants Barbeu- Spiny shrubs and shrubs N Caledonia (Sub)tropics
Herb Madagascar, Gilia, Polemonium Brazil nut,Cannonball N&C Am, Evergreen Tree,shrub Trees, shrubs, lianas Trees,shrubs, Tropics: Austr, C Am-
Succulent herbs iaceae CORNALES Herbs, some SW N Am 660:11150 trees SE As BRUNIALES Chile, mtns
4:19 S & E Afr Madagascar Family relationships tree, Barringtonia C&E As (Sub)tropics, vines 12:75
Climbers Montiaceae
shrubs, trees & 1:11
Tropics, S Am, Rubiaceae E Asia (A) and (B) Holly,
(1) includes Columelli-
Basellaceae Blinks, Lewisia, unclear. (1) uncertain lianas Trees,shrubs,lianas, Desfontainia. S Afr:Cape
W Afr positions Yerba mate, Shrubs,trees
(Sub)tropics,Am Spring beauties position (in Lamiales?), (2) few herbs, 1 sp. aqu. (A)
148:2740 1:4 1:3 Winterberry 2:5 (1) Bruniaceae
Indian spinach, Widespread, Hottentot fig, CARYOPHYLLALES (2) includes Nyssaceae Chicle, Star 87:1655 Gardenia, Coffee, Boraginaceae (B) 1:8
uncertain. Phyllonom- Helwingi- Brunia, Berzelia
Madeira vine, W America Lithops, Mesembs Evidence suggests sister 58:2590 Gentian, Exacum, Vahliaceae (A) includes aceae aceae Aquifoliaceae Heath-like
Oca quina and Alangium. apple, Sapodilla, Madder, Ipecacuanha, Forget-me-not,Borage, Trees,shrubs C&E Asia Trees,shrubs & vines ESCALLONIALES shrubs
Aizoaceae to Asterids. (1) includes Primulaceae Lisianthus, Centaury Quinine, Bedstraw Comfrey,Heliotrope,Lung- Gtr Afr, India Hydrophyll- Shrubs,small
Chenopodiaceae. Family Argan, Gutta-percha C&S Am trees Worldwide, Includes Polyosmaceae,
Leaf succulent herbs Primrose, Pimpernel, Gentianaceae Widespread, Hairy herbs, aceae and
limits uncertain in places: Sapotaceae E Afr, wort,Phacelia,Waterleaf shrubs Am & SE Asia Tribelaceae, Anopterus and
Succulent herbs Arid (sub)tropics and Cyclamen, Soldanella, SE Asia Herbs, shrubs, trees, (sub)tropics Herbs, shrubs, trees, (tentatively) 1:405 Eremosynaceae. Position
(2), (3) & (4) may be dis- Colicwood, Featherfoil, Pantropical, few temp Sladeniaceae Hoplestig-
Portulacaceae warm temperate, mantled. (3) includes few mycotrophs lianas, parasites of order not fully resolved. 3:36
Purslane (Portulaca) S Afr, Austr Cudjoe-wood Trees and shrubs Evergreen
Cosmopolitan, GENTIANALES Widespread mataceae. 84:2380 Paracryphi-
Agdestis and Petiveria. (7) trees: 2:3 13:420 Campanulaceae
Worldwide, 123:2020 Worldwide 53:1100 temp, mtns (1) includes Asclep- 9:130 PARACRYPHIALES aceae
Trees to herbs, Strychnine Lobelia, Throatwort, Escallonia,
Sub(trop) America (4) iadaceae, (2) Dialy- Bindweed, Includes Quintinia Trees,shrubs
lianas Trees 12:337 (1) Loganiaceae Bellflowers, Rampion 4:13 Tasmanian laurel
1:27 Sarco- 30:395 and (sub)shrubs Trees,shrubs 415:4555 Herbs, shrubs, petalanthaceae and Sweet potato,Jalap,
Cosmopolitan Rousseaceae Escalloniaceae and Sphenostemon. SW Pacific
(2) Talinaceae bataceae Herbs to (2) Ebenaceae Apocynaceae Theligonaceae, and Morning glory,Dodder
Thorny shrubs trees, lianas Pentaphylacaceae trees & climbers
(3) (provisionally) Herbs, some trees, Trees & vines
Trees, shrubs , herbs
Cacti, Herbs, shrubs W N Am Styrax, Ebony, Persimmon Sakaki,Cleyera, Periwinkle, Milkweed, Tropics, temp, Pteleocarpa. Convolvulaceae C&S Am,C&E Asia, Teasel,
including Peyote, (some scandent) Nyctaginaceae Oleander, Dogbane, Herbs, shrubs, climbers, shrubs & cactus- SW Pacific, Austr, NZ,
1:2 Benzoin resin, (Sub)tropics, Eurya Gtr Austr 3:5 like lobelias (3) Herbs, Scabious,
Prickly pear,Saguaro America,Africa (Sub)tropics,Am Silverbell tree Hoya, Frangipani trees, some parasites Mauritius Reunion
Indochina (Sub)tropics, (3) 2:11 Afr, Mdgsr shrubs and trees Weigela,Valerian,
Cactaceae Ombu, Bougainvillea, Styracaceae Trees, shrubs, Cosmopolitan,
Pokeweed 4:548 few Afr Carolina 1:12
warm areas Adoxaceae Honeysuckle,Abelia
Xerophytic trees, Mirabilis Shrubs and trees lianas , few herbs Shrubs,trees, 1:30 Viburnum,Moschatel, Caprifoliaceae
3:32 (Sub)tropics, Am
N temp, tropical Widespread, jessamine Marsh/aquatic lianas 57:1625 (2) Herbs,shrubs,trees
succulents & epiphytes Subshrubs (3) Gelsemiaceae herbs, shrubs 5:10 SE Asia Elderberry
Phytolaccaceae S Am, SE As trop forests 1:12
America: arid, (few Anacamp- Trees, shrubs, 1:5
2:320 Shrubs, lianas Hydroleaceae
Herbs , Alseuosmi- Pentaphrag- Widespread, (1) Cosmopolitan
OW tropics) serotaceae lianas, herbs Giseki- 11:160 SE Asia, Am, Spheno- Phellinaceae aceae mataceae N temp 40-43:890
aceae (1) Lodh bark, Pitcher Tropics, shrubs,trees,lianas
111:1500 Scattered: Afr, 17:60 6:18 plants Gtr Africa warm temp cleaceae New Caledonia Fleshy
Gtr Afr, S As Bogota tea Tropical marsh Solanaceae SW Pacific
Austr, Am Herbs Herbs,shrubs Symplocaceae Sarraceniaceae Potato,Tomato,Aubergine, Trees Shrubs herbs
Diapensiaceae N America,
C Am herbs APIALES
Trees & shrubs Plocosper- 1:2 Chilli, Tobacco, Petunia, (1) includes Aralidiaceae 3:10
Shortia,Galax Guyana mts mataceae 24:615 Capsicum, Mandrake etc 2:17
(Sub)tropics, 3:15 Shrubs,trees 6:245 and Melanophyllaceae, Trees
not Africa Shrub - tree Oleaceae Cosmopolitan, Trigger plants Torricelliaceae
N temp 1:1 Trees, shrubs, lianas 2:5 tropical Am Argophyllaceae (2) Mackinlayaceae, (3)
1:2 3:355 Carlemann- Stylidiaceae Madagascar,
7:195(+) S Africa Kiwi fruit Olive, Lilac, Privet, iaceae 102:2460 Wire-netting Hydrocotylaceae.
Roridulaceae Forsythia, Jasmine, 229:c4000 bush Cushion-plants, SE Asia
Theaceae Actinidiaceae Herbs,shrubs
ERICALES Small 2:3 Ash, Osmanthus SE Asia Acanthaceae SW Pacific herbs,shrubs,vines 1:4 (1)
Tea, Franklin tree, shrubs Trees,shrubs,lianas Tetra- (2) SOLANALES Pennant- 1:6
Plants of varied habitat, chondraceae Worldwide, Austr , S S Am,
INTERPRETING THE CHART including an important
Camellia,Loblolly bay (Sub)tropics, America,NZ
SE As, Austr Acanthus, Thunbergia,
Aphelandra, Avicennia
(1) includes
(1) NZ,SE As iaceae
aceae 434:3780
Trees, shrubs, lianas S & E Asia, Herbs
Nolanaceae, 5:c58 Trees,shrubs Apiaceae
Designed by David E. Rydeheard, University of Manchester, U.K.

The chart corresponds to a phylogenetic tree. Regions on the chart, component of tropical Cosmopolitan, tropics OW mainly tropics, SW Pacific
Tropics, Am, As, Clethra, not Afr 2:260 Goetzeaceae, Bogbean NZ,S Am
rainforest understorey. Shrubs, herbs, vines, arid and coasts Parsley, Dill, Hemlock,
delimited by boundaries or shaded areas, correspond to nodes in a few temp Purdiaea
Herbs, shrubs,
Herbs to trees and Duckeod- Menyanthaceae Carrot, Parsnip, Fennel,
147+:3200 aquatics & trees, 12:440
Copyright 2011. All rights reserved. Version 1.0 (Online).

tree, and families, as disks on the chart, are leaves of the tree. In Relationships of some Clethraceae and lianas endraceae,(2) Cosmopolitan
Shrubs,small trees Gesneriaceae Calceolariaceae mangroves Sesame Herbs, shrubs 2:19 Anise, Cumin, Arracacha,
phylogenetic trees, proximity of two families is represented by the depth families unresolved. 126:3995 Cuscutaceae. Aqu/marsh few trees Trees,shrubs Celery, Coriander etc
SE As,Madeira, African violet, Gloxinia, Calceolaria and Trees,
of the root of the smallest subtree containing the two families. Here it is (1) includes Halesiaceae, Ericaceae 110:800 shrubs 1:6 herbs Goodeniaceae Myodocarp- Herbs, few trees
1:2 Am. 2:75 Columnea,Streptocarpus Jovellana 11:39
(2) Lissocarpaceae, Parasites Rhododendron, Trees to herbs, Thomanders- Goodenia aceae Widespread,
represented by a shared region. Proximity does not cross boundaries: Mitrastem- Blueberry, Heathers, Herbs, shrubs, few C&S Am, NZ Stilbaceae often vines iaceae
Leschenaultia, SW Pacific (2) N temp
(3) Scytopetalaceae, (6) Bignoniaceae W&C Af
families close on the chart but separated by a boundary are no closer (4) Ternstroemiaceae,
onaceae 2:2 Monotropa, Kalmia, etc. lianas and trees Gtr Africa,Cape 1620:23600 (Sub)tropics, (not NZ)
than their common region indicates. Areas and boundaries are given S&E As, (Sub)shrubs ,trees,herbs, Tropics (esp OW), Afr forest elder Catalpa,Jacaranda,
(5) Pellicieraceae, and C Am (8)
Cyrillaceae 1:6 Shrubs, Calabash tree, 3:320 Asteraceae Austr (2) (3) 43:1450
varying colours and styles - this is merely to aid the eye and has no Trees,shrubs lianas,epiphytes, some few temp 4:28 Hairy herbs herbs Butterwort, Daisy, Sunflower, Shrubs,
(6) Empetraceae, Epacr- America mycotrophs Trumpet vine Araliaceae
phylogenetic significance. C&S Am Byblidaceae Tropics,S Am Bladderwort Lettuce, Chicory, Dahlia, S&C Am, trees, climbers
idaceae, Monotropaceae Titi Worldwide,temp Pittosporaceae Ivy, Ginseng, Fatsia,
Uncertainties: Many of the placements of families are now well- and mtns 236:7173 Schlegeliaceae New Guinea, Lentibulariaceae Camomile, Echinacea, Andes, arid
and Pyrolaceae, (7) Austr Parchment-bark,Karo, Udo, Water pennywort
established and much work has been done to resolve remaining issues. Lamiaceae Trees,shrubs, 34:1175 Aquatic/marsh: Marigold, Thistle, etc. Calyceraceae Cosmopolitan,
Myrsinaceae, Maesaceae vines, Daisy-like Tarata,Petroleum nut
However, uncertainties remain. Where evidence is poor, we have Herbs,shrubs,trees, c13:195 Verbenaceae cosmopolitan Cosmopolitan trop Am, SE As
and Theophrastaceae. vines: Mints,Sage,Basil, epiphytes Carnivores herbs OW tropics-temp
either (a) left relationships unresolved (as a ‘poly(cho)tomy’), or (8) position unclear. Herbs, aquatics Verbena (Vervain), Shrubs, herbs, few 6:60 Austr, S Asia Trees, shrubs, vines
Rosemary,Thyme,Teak, 1:6 Linderniaceae Fogfruit, Lantana, trees & vines and herbs
(b) chosen the best supported on current evidence, or (c) indicated Patchouli,Chaste tree, E Asia 5:16 6-9:200
Paulowni- Torenia, Beebrush
alternative placements. On the whole, we have been conservative ASTERIDS Oregano,Lavender etc aceae Micranthemum Herbs, shrubs, (Sub)trop Am ASTERALES
in the depiction of family relationships. Cosmopolitan, Foxglove Pantropical, warm trees, lianas & xeros Martyniaceae (1) includes Donatia-
Med,C As trees (Sub)tropic,Am, ceae, (2) Brunoniaceae, CAMPANULIDS
An estimated age of some taxa is indicated. We have included this temp, Am
few temp
Unicorn plant
Sticky herbs (3) Lobeliaceae.
information only when the age is clearly supported by fossil pollen SOURCES 90:1700 Figwort, 100:2066
evidence, but even these estimates should be treated with caution. Plantaginaceae Ngaio, Buddleia, 95:234
This chart is based on the work of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group and many Hebe,Water starwort,
Nomenclature: Following standard practice, we name only those other phylogenists. Angiosperm families are an update of those in Nemesia, Diascia, Lousewort,Eyebright Herbs, few wdy, LAMIALES
groups of families where a name has proved useful, e.g. Monocots, Veronica,Culver’s root, Mullein, Boobialla aquatics Family limits and relat-
Angiosperm Phylogeny Group. An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Mare’s-tail (Hippuris), Scrophulariaceae Orobanchaceae Phrymaceae ionships unclear, even FAMILY KEY The size
Asterids etc. and the names of orders (suffix -ALES, mainly coloured Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG III Foxglove,Snapdragon (Hemi)parasites:
grey on the chart). Common, or vernacular, names are used to Herbs,shrubs herbs , shrubs
Monkey-flower, those depicted. (1) Approx. number of genera : of the disk
Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society, 2009, 161:105-121. Herbs,shrubs,aquatics Lopseed includes Buddlejaceae 38:1100
Worldwide Cosmopolitan, Approx. number of species Moraceae indicates
describe some familiar plants and plant products. These names can, Cosmopolitan, (4) 65:1700 (1) Widespread, and Myoporaceae, (2)
in some cases, be misleading. An Index of Flowering Plants is available The Angiosperm Phylogeny Website of Stevens, P.F (2001 onwards) Version 9, temp N temp,Gtr Af (3) N Am,Austr Avicenniaceae, (3) Family name Fig, Iroko, Fustic, the number
to accompany the chart. This provides a more comprehensive list of June 2008 [and more or less continuously updated since] at Nesogenaceae and Mulberry, Breadfruit, of species, (tentatively) Rehman-
Some familiar plants Banyan, Osage orange
names and more details about the use of common names. and products Trees,shrubs,lianas, in ranges:
Distribution: The predominance of the tropics in flowering plant is a valuable and detailed resource which is kept up-to-date as new results nia, (4) Globulariaceae
become available. It should be consulted for details of the families and relation- LAMIIDS and Callitrichaceae, Range of growth forms stranglers,herbs 1-10
diversity is evident. Indeed, the richness of tropical forests is astonishing. EUASTERIDS (Sub)tropics, 10-100
ships on this chart. (5) Peltanthera. Distribution
For example, in parts of the Amazon forest, areas as small as 100km2 AVAILABILITY
few temp
may contain over 1,000 species of trees. The role of certain areas Phrases in italics are to be read as ‘mainly/predominantly’, including 1000-10000
amongst whose endemics are species of high significance in phylogeny The chart was designed by David E. Rydeheard (2011). It is available from the
Botanical Chart website An extended Unplaced families: Cynomoriaceae (Root parasites 1:2 Med-C As) Evidence weak: Saxifragales, Rosales, etc? ‘centres of distribution’. (Sub)tropics = tropics and subtropics. N/S/E/W 10000+
is clear from this chart. Such areas are concentrated in the tropics and index of names and their locations on the chart is available from this website. UNPLACED Haptanthaceae (Evergreen tree 1:1 C America - may be extinct) Possibly in Buxales. Apodanthaceae (Non- = North/South/East/West, C = Central, SE Asia includes the islands
subtropics but also include isolated Gondwanaland fragments and The chart was prepared using Framemaker (TM). It will be updated as further
green parasites 3:23(+) Scattered, America) Possibly associated with Malvales or Cucurbitales. between mainland Asia and Austr. C Am includes the Caribbean islands,
areas of high diversity in the northern temperate zone. Unplaced genera: Gumillea (ex Cunoniaceae), Nicobariodendron (Celastraceae?). Other familes OW = Old World, Gtr Africa = Africa, Madagascar, Arabia and nearby islands,
phylogenetic results become available. and genera of uncertain position have been included in the chart, indicating a possible placement. Med = lands adjacent to the Mediterranean Sea, Mya = Million years ago.