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Lightning protection

Earthing concept

© 2012 DEHN + SÖHNE / protected by ISO 16016


Standards & Guidelines

• IS 3043

• National Electrical Code

• IEC 62305

• ANSI/ IEEE standard 1100

• ANSI / IEEE standard 142

• ANSI/ IEEE Standard 80

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Parameters Affecting Earthing system

• External changes in the grounding system (environment)

may effect the ultimate functionality of the entire electrical

system.

• Frequency matters in very complex grounding systems.

Leakage currents of Equipment do not return to the earth,

high frequency leakage currents return to the

equipment which generated them, while power frequency

leakage currents return to the derived source.

• The impedance of the system is viewed from the perspective

of power frequencies and immediate harmonics

(i.e., 60Hz and its associated harmonics).


© 2012 DEHN + SÖHNE / protected by ISO 16016
Earthing concept: Parameters Affecting An Earthing System

• Types of soil, resistivity & compactness

• Size & Type of electrode

• Depth of Placement

• Salt Content

• Moisture / rainfalls

• Temperature

• Fulgurites

• Corrosion effect

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Methods of Earthing

1. Conventional Earthing

The Conventional system of Earthing calls for digging of a large pit


into which a GI pipe or a copper plate is positioned in the middle
layers of charcoal and salt.

It requires maintenance and pouring of water at regular interval.

Resistance value is not stable for round the year i.e value changes due
to change in climate and temperature.

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Methods of Earthing ..... Contd..

2. Maintenance Free Earthing

It is a new type of earthing system which is Readymade, standardized


and scientifically developed.
Benefits
• No need to pour water at regular interval- except in sandy soil.
• CONSISTENCY: Maintain stable and consistent earth resistance around the
year.
• MORE SURFACE AREA: The conductive compound creates a conductive
zone, which provides the increased surface area for peak current dissipation
and also get stable reference point.
• LOW EARTH RESISTANCE: Highly conductive. Carries high peak current
repeatedly.
• NO CORROSION.
• LONG LIFE.
• EASY INSTALLATION.
© 2012 DEHN + SÖHNE / protected by ISO 16016
Methods of Earthing ..... Contd..

3. Electrolytic Grounding
Perforated Test Well Cover
a) Vertical Electrode

Test Well
Ventilation
• It is used in the soft & sandy Ports
soil conditions where digging
is easy Copper Conductor
• Normally the length of the
electrode varies from 8ft – Back Fill
10ft

Environmentally
Safe Salts
Copper Tube
Leaching Ports and
Electrolytic Roots

© 2012 DEHN + SÖHNE / protected by ISO 16016


Methods of Earthing ..... Contd..

Electrolytic Grounding
b) Horizontal Electrode Perforated Test Well Cover

• It is ‘L” shape electrode with 2’


Test Well
vertical and 6 to 8’ horizontal.
Ventilation Ports
• It is installed where the water
level is up. Backfill
compound
• It is installed in trenches and Copper Conductor Environmentally
utilized where the soil is rocky Safe Salts
or excavation conditions are
poor.
Copper Tube

Leaching Ports and


Electrolytic Roots

© 2012 DEHN + SÖHNE / protected by ISO 16016


Earthing concept: Methods of EARTHING:
Lightning Protection as per IS/IEC 62305 part 3

5.4 Earth-termination system

5.4.1 General

 When dealing with the dissipation of the lightning current (high frequency
behavior) into the ground, whilst minimizing any potentially dangerous
overvoltage, the shape and dimensions of the earth-termination system are
the important criteria. In general, a low earthing resistance (if possible lower
than 10 Ω when measured at low frequency) is recommended.

 From the viewpoint of lightning protection, a single integrated structure


earth-termination system is preferable and is suitable for all purposes (i.e.
lightning protection, power systems and telecommunication systems).

 Earth-termination systems shall be bonded in accordance with the


requirements of 6.2.

© 2012 DEHN + SÖHNE / protected by ISO 16016 9


Earthing concept: Methods of Earthing - Earth-termination
systems

IS/EC 62305-3 : 2010


“5.4.2.1 Type A arrangement
This type of arrangement comprises of horizontal or vertical earth electrodes
installed outside the structure to be protected connected to each down-conductor.
The total number of earth electrodes shall be not less than two.
The minimum length of each earth electrode at the base of each down-conductor is
– l1 for horizontal electrodes, or
– 0,5 l1 for vertical (or inclined) electrodes,
where l1 is the minimum length of horizontal electrodes shown in the relevant part
of Figure 2.
For combined (vertical or horizontal) electrodes, the total length shall be considered.
The minimum lengths stated in Figure 2 may be disregarded provided that an
earthing
resistance of the earth-termination system less than 10 Ω (measured at a frequency
different from the power frequency and its multiple in order to avoid interference) is
achieved.”

© 2012 DEHN + SÖHNE / protected by ISO 16016 10


Earthing concept: Methods of Earthing: Type A earth
electrode, vertical earth electrode (earth rod)

Air-termination “It is recommended that


conductor the first metre of a vertical
earth electrode should not
be regarded as being
effective under frost
conditions!“
Test joint

0.5m
1m
0.5m
approx. 1m

vertical earth electrode 2.5m 2.5m

Ref.: IEC 62305-3:2006, E.5.4.1

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Earthing concept: Methods of Earthing: A type earth electrode,
horizontal earth electrode

Air-termination
“The minimum lengths stated in Figure 2
conductor
may be disregarded provided that an
earthing resistance of the earth-termination
system less than 10 Ω is achieved.“

Per down conductor one horizontal earth


electrode with a length of 5 m is installed in
the ground within a depth of at least 0.5 m
and is connected to each down conductor
Test joint
(via a ring conductor).

min. 0.5 m
Horizontal earth electrode
5m

Ref.: IEC 62305-3:2006, 5.4.2.1 and Annex E.5.4.3.3

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Methods of Earthing: Minimum Length Of Each Earth
Electrode According To The Class Of LPS

Classes III and IV are independent of soil resistivity ρ


80
l1 (m)
70
Class I
60
50
40
30
20 Class II
10
Class III + IV
0
0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000
ρ (Ω
Ωm)
Ref.: IEC 62305-3:2010, 5.4.2.1 Figure 2

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Earthing concept: Methods of Earthing: Earth-termination
Systems Type B Arrangement, Ring

“This type of arrangement


comprises either a ring
conductor external to the
structure to be protected, in
contact with the soil for at least MEB
80 % of its total length, or a
foundation earth electrode.
Such earth electrodes may also Service entrance
be meshed.” equipment room
1m DIN 18012

At least 80% of the length of the


earth electrode must be in contact
with the soil
Ref.: IEC 62305-3:2010, 5.4.2.2
MEB = main earthing busbar
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Foundation Earth

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Earthing concept: Methods of Earthing: Foundation
Earth, examples

Types of Earth Electrodes


Foundation earth electrode
A concrete embedded closed earth electrode ring with a large-area earth contact. If,
in case of "full-perimeter insulation" or a "white tank", this earth contact is not
possible, a ring earth electrode will be installed outside the foundation which takes
over the function of the foundation earth electrode.
Ring earth electrode
A soil embedded earth electrode as closed ring around the building or structure.
Earth rod
A vertically deep driven earth electrode generally made of round steel.
Natural earth electrode
Metal parts that are soil or concrete embedded and originally not intended as earth
electrode, however, being effective in this sense (reinforcements of concrete
foundations, pipelines, etc.).

© 2012 DEHN + SÖHNE / protected by ISO 16016


Earthing concept: Methods of Earthing: Foundation
Earth, examples

© 2012 DEHN + SÖHNE / protected by ISO 16016


Earthing concept: Methods of Earthing: Foundation
Earth, examples

© 2013 DEHN + SÖHNE / protected by ISO 16016


Earthing concept: Methods of Earthing: Foundation
Earth, examples

© 2013 DEHN + SÖHNE / protected by ISO 16016


Earthing concept: Methods of Earthing: Foundation
Earth, examples

© 2013 DEHN + SÖHNE / protected by ISO 16016


Earthing concept: Rocky soil

What is the requirement of Earthing for Rocky soil condition?

For earth electrodes in rocky soil, the requirements of E.5.4.3.5 should be


followed. The 10 Ω requirement is not applicable in this case.

E.5.4.3.5 Earth electrodes in rocky soil


During construction, a foundation earth electrode should be built into the
concrete foundation. Even where a foundation earth electrode has a reduced
earthing effect in rocky soil, it still acts as an equipotential bonding conductor.

At the test joints, additional earth electrodes should be connected to the down-
conductors and foundation earth electrodes.

Where a foundation earth electrode is not provided, a type B arrangement (a


ring earth electrode) should be used instead. If the earth electrode cannot be
installed in the soil and has to be mounted on the surface, it should be
protected against mechanical damage.

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Earthing: Use of Reinforced concrete as Natural down
conductor

E.4.3 Reinforced concrete structures


E.4.3.1 General
Steel reinforcement in reinforced concrete structures conforming to 4.3 may be
used as a natural component of the LPS.

Such natural components must fulfil the requirements of:


– down-conductors according to 5.3;
– earth-termination networks according to 5.4.

The requirement of a maximum overall resistance of 0,2 Ω can be checked by


measuring the resistance between the air-termination system and a ground plate at
ground level.

Steelwork within reinforced concrete structures is considered to be electrically


continuous provided that the major part of interconnections of vertical and
horizontal bars are welded or otherwise securely connected. Connections of
vertical bars shall be welded, clamped or overlapped a minimum of 20 times their
diameters and bound or otherwise securely connected (IS/IEC 62305-3, Para 4.3

© 2013 DEHN + SÖHNE / protected by ISO 16016


Parameters Affecting Earthing system

• External changes in the grounding system (environment)

may effect the ultimate functionality of the entire electrical

system.

• Frequency matters in very complex grounding systems.

Leakage currents of Equipment do not return to the earth,

high frequency leakage currents return to the

equipment which generated them, while power frequency

leakage currents return to the derived source.

• The impedance of the system is viewed from the perspective

of power frequencies and immediate harmonics

(i.e., 60Hz and its associated harmonics).


© 2012 DEHN + SÖHNE / protected by ISO 16016
Measurement of Earth resistance:
Resistance value of Earthing system

• A frequently quoted criteria is the establishment of a


one ohm resistance to earth. A large number of equipment
manufacturers have this in their installation guides.

• The NEC requires twenty-five ohms of resistance for made


electrodes (single electrode rod / pipe / plate)

• ANSI/IEEE Standard ANSI/IEEE 142 (Green Book) specifies


a ground resistance of one to five ohms. (For Industrial
plant substation, Building & commercial installation)

• A large sub station requires earth resistance of ≤ 0.5 to 1.0


Ohm

• Lightning Protection requires earth resistance of ≤ 10 Ohm

© 2012 DEHN + SÖHNE / protected by ISO 16016


Equipotential bonding

6.2 Lightning equipotential bonding


6.2.1 General
Equipotentialization is achieved by interconnecting the LPS with
– metal installations,
– internal systems,
– external conductive parts and lines connected to the structure.
When lightning equipotential bonding is established to internal systems, part
of the Lightning current may flow into such systems and this effect shall be
taken into account.
Interconnecting means
– bonding conductors, where the electrical continuity is not provided by natural
bonding,
– surge protective devices (SPDs), where direct connections with bonding
conductors are not feasible.
– isolating spark gaps (ISGs), where direct connections with bonding conductors
are not allowed.

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DEHN INDIA PVT. LTD.


Plot No. 213, Sec-VII, IMT Manesar,
Gurgaon – 122 050.
Tel.: +91-124-4007680; Fax.: +91-124-4007684
E-mail: info@dehn.in;
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