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TRANSFORMER An ideal transformer is an imaginary transformer which does not have any loss in it, means no core

losses, copper losses and any other losses in transformer.

A transformer is a static machine used for transforming power from one circuit to another without
changing frequency. Transformer is also called a static device and works on the principle of mutual Emf Equation of Transformer
E = 4.44∅m fN
Types of Transformer
1. Step Up Transformer and Step Down Transformer - Where
2. Three Phase Transformer and Single Phase Transformer E is the induced emf in volts
3. Electrical Power Transformer, Distribution Transformer and Instrument Transformer ∅m is the mutual flux in Weber
4. Two Winding Transformer and Auto Transformer f is the frequency in hertz
5. Outdoor Transformer and Indoor Transformer - N is the number of turns
6. Oil Cooled and Dry Type Transformer
7. Core type, Shell type and Berry type transformer If E1 and E2 are the primary and secondary emf and N1 and N2 are primary and secondary turns then,
voltage ratio or turns ratio of transformer is,
Working Principle of Transformer
E1 4.44∅m fN1
Whenever we apply alternating current to an electric coil, there will be an alternating flux surrounding E2 4.44∅m fN2
E2 N2
that coil. Now if we bring another coil near the first one, there will be an alternating flux linkage with K= =
that second coil. As the flux is alternating, there will be obviously a rate of change in flux linkage with E1 N1
respect to time in the second coil. Naturally emf will be induced in it as per Faraday's law of
electromagnetic induction. K is the ratio of transformation of a transformer which is equal to the voltage ratio and turn ratio.

Again for an ideal transformer, the input power is equal to the output power.

V1 I1 = V2 I2 𝑜𝑟 E1 I1 = E2 I2
E2 I1 N2
K= = =
E1 I2 N1

I1 is the primary current in amperes
I2 is the secondary current in amperes
Which are inversely proportional to their respective turns

The three main parts of a transformer are,

1. Primary Winding of Transformer

2. Magnetic Core of Transformer
3. Secondary Winding of Transformer-

pg. 1 1st edition MARADAZA2017

example1: A 50 kVA, single phase transformer has 400 turns on the primary and 100 turns on the example2: A single phase transformer is connected to a 230V, 50Hz supply. The net cross-sectional area
secondary. The primary is connected to 2000V, 50 Hz supply. Determine (i) the secondary voltage on of the core is 60cm2. The number of turns in the primary is 500 and in the secondary is 100. Determine
open circuit, (ii) the current flowing through the two windings on full-load, and the maximum value of (i) the transformation ratio, (ii) the emf induced in secondary winding, and (iii) maximum value of flux
flux. ANS V2=500V, I1=20A, I2=80A and ∅𝑚𝑎𝑥 = 0.0225𝑊𝑏 density in the core. ANS K=0.2, ẞmax=0.345 Tesla and E2=46V

example3: The core of 1000kVA, 11000/550 V, 50Hz, single phase transformer has a cross-section of
20cm x 20 cm. If the maximum core density is not to exceed 1.3 tesla, calculate (i) the number of h.v.
and l.v. turns per phase and emf per turn. Assume a stacking factor of 0.9. ANS N1=1059, N2=53 and

pg. 2 1st edition MARADAZA2017