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特別号 （

） ） 43

OUTFLOW DISCHARGE AT A

SERIES OF SABO DAMS

Hao ZHANG ＊＊＊＊

AT A SERIES OF SABO DAMS

Kenji KAWAIKE*** and Hao ZHANG****

Abstract

Debris flows are very dangerous phenomena in mountainous areas. Sabo dams are

commonly used to mitigate debris flows and they are effective countermeasures against

debris flow disasters. However, human life and property remain at risk off debris flows.

In order to develop measures to increase the effectiveness of a Sabo dam, its control

function and design have been reported. Nevertheless, few studies have discussed the

control functions of a series of Sabo dams. This paper estimates debris flow discharges

at a Sabo dam site using overflow equations. A 1-D numerical simulation method of

debris flows is presented. Numerical simulations of debris flow were conducted

including overflow discharge at the dam point and laboratory experiments were

performed to validate the simulation results. Comparisons between the numerical

simulation results and laboratory experimental results show reasonable agreement.

Application of the numerical model used here is recommended to calculate overflow

discharge at Sabo dam sites and to evaluate the sediment capturing effects of Sabo dam

arrangements.

Key words： debris flow, Sabo dam, overflow equation, deposition, numerical simulation

＊

Student Member of JSNDS, Doctoral Student, Department ＊＊＊

Member of JSNDS, Dr. of Eng., Assoc. Prof., DPRI,

of Civil and Earth Resources Engineering, Kyoto Kyoto University (Yoko-oji, Fushimi, Kyoto 612-8235,

University (Katsura Campus, Nishikyo-ku, Kyoto JAPAN)

615-8540, JAPAN) ＊＊＊＊

Member of JSNDS, Dr. of Eng., Assist. Prof., DPRI,

＊＊

Member of JSNDS, Dr. of Eng., Prof., DPRI, Kyoto Kyoto University (Yoko-oji, Fushimi, Kyoto 612-8235,

University (Yoko-oji, Fushimi, Kyoto 612-8235, JAPAN) JAPAN)

43

44 A STUDY ON DEBRIS FLOW OUTFLOW DISCHARGE AT A SERIES OF SABO DAMS

Many types of sediment-related disasters occur effective structural countermeasure to control

in mountainous areas (Fig. 1). Sediment-related debris flow. They play an important role in the

disasters are caused by localized torrential management and development of a river basin.

downpours, earthquakes, volcanic eruption, and so Sabo dams can be distinguished into two types:

forth. These are natural phenomena. However, as closed and open dams (Di Silvio., 1990; Armanini et

urbanization continues to expand in mountainous al., 1991). Closed-type Sabo dams intercept debris

areas, the risk of sediment-related disasters is flow to the downstream. In contrast, open-type

increasing. In particular, debris flows frequently Sabo dams are constructed with suitable openings

cause extensive damage to property and loss of life. in the body of the structure. Therefore part of the

Debris flows are generally initiated from sediment is allowed to pass through. These two

upstr eam of a mountainous ar ea when types of Sabo dams are constructed in series along

unconsolidated material becomes saturated and the channel.

unstable or originate directly from landslides. They The advance of science and technology has led to

can flow down several kilometers and damage the more advantageous counter measures for

residential areas at the foot of mountains. They mitigating debris flow damage. To increase the

contain various particle sizes from fine material to effectiveness of Sabo dams, the control functions of

large boulders and these large boulders such dams have been reported. Such Sabo dam

accumulate at the front part of the flow. Thus functions have been described in many laboratory

damage caused by debris flow can be severe. In experimental studies and numerical simulation

addition debris flows can cause morphological studies (Honda et al., 1997; Imran, J. et al., 2001).

changes, serious casualties and damage to Also, considerable theoretical and numerical works

property. Figure 2 shows the number of debris have been performed on the size, shape and

flow occurrences from 2000 to 2012 in Japan. structure of Sabo dams (Mizuyama et al., 1988;

Countermeasures designed to reduce debris Johnson et al., 1989). These studies contribute to

flow disasters are classified into structural and non- technical standard guidelines on debris flows.

structural measures. Structural measures include Thus, there are studies on methods of evaluating

Sabo dams, guide levees and training channels, the control function of a series of Sabo dams (Osti

while non-structural measures include warning et al., 2008). However, further studies are required

systems, proper land use in the areas and the

Fig.1 Sediment-related disasters (Photo source : Fig.2 The number of debris flow occurrence in Japan

DPWH, Japan) (Data source : MLIT, Japan)

自然災害科学 特別号（ ） 45

dams. Few studies have reported about control (3)

functions of a series of Sabo dams.

This paper describes a methodological approach where, M (= uh) is the x components of the flow

for estimating debris flow discharge at a series of flux, x is the flow direction coordinate, t is time, β is

Sabo dams, and proposes equations for evaluating the momentum correction factor equal to 1.25 for a

the effectiveness of a series of closed-type Sabo stony debris flow (Takahashi et al., 1992), u is the

dams. A 1-D numerical model of debris flow is components of mean velocity, g is the acceleration

presented. Numerical simulations were conducted of gravity, h is flow depth, θb is the bed slope, τb is

including debris flow overflow at the dam point and components of the resistance to flow, ρT is mixture

analyzed with boundary conditions. To verify the density (ρT=σC+(1-C)ρ), σ is density of the sediment

suggested numerical model, laborator y particle, ρ is density of the water, i is erosion (>0) or

experiments were performed. deposition (≤0) velocity, C is the sediment

The numerical model is used to study the effect concentration in the flow, C* is maximum sediment

of Sabo dam arrangement. Through the proposed concentration in the bed.

calculation method of overflow discharge at the The equation of bed variation due to erosion or

dam point, determination of optimal distance deposition is described as follows:

between Sabo dams is expected.

(4)

2. NUMERICAL MODEL

2.1 Governing Equations where, zb is erosion or deposition thickness of the

(1) Transport and bed surface elevation equations bed measured from the original bed surface

Debris flows are a fluid mixture that consists of elevation. In the fixed bed, zb equals 0. Actually, the

granular materials and water. The equations used sediment in the fixed bed should be contained in

are the depth averaged one-dimensional the flow parts when erosion occurs. However there

momentum and continuity equations. The is no sediment in the fixed bed.

equations for the mass conservation of sediment-

water mixture and mass conservation of sediment (2) Erosion and deposition velocity equations

are as follows. The erosion and deposition i are source terms.

Momentum equation of sediment and water flow The velocity equations that have been given by

mixture: Takahashi et al. (1992) are described as follows:

46 A STUDY ON DEBRIS FLOW OUTFLOW DISCHARGE AT A SERIES OF SABO DAMS

C∞ is the equilibrium sediment concentration (14)

described as follows (Nakagawa et al., 2003).

In the case of turbulent flow, the Manning s

If tanθw > 0.138, a stony type debris flow occurs, equation is used to determine the bottom shear

and stress. When C is less than 0.02,

(7) (15)

If 0.03< tanθw ≤ 0.138, an immature type of debris where, n is the Manning resistance coefficient.

flow occurs, and

2.2 Conditions of Sabo Dam

(8) The closed-type Sabo dam is set at the grid line

where discharge is calculated (Fig. 3). The grid

If tanθw ≤ 0.03, a turbulent water flow with bed load size is 5 cm. The flow surface gradient, θw, and bed

transport occurs, and gradient, θb, are calculated at the center of the cell.

The flow surface gradient θw and bed gradient θb are

(9) calculated by the average of each value of θw, i+1,

θb, i+1 and θw, i-1, θb, i-1. However, if there is a Sabo dam,

(10) the calculation method is changed as follows:

(12) (16)

of the interstitial muddy fluid, ϕ is internal friction

angle of the sediment τ*c is the non-dimensional Gradient at the dam point (zi ≥ zdam);

critical shear stress and τ* is the non-dimensional

shear stress. (18)

The resistance terms are given by the following

equations for a stony debris flow:

(13)

than 0.4C* and the bottom shear stress is described

as follows:

Fig.3 Definition of the variables

自然災害科学 特別号（ ） 47

3. LABORATORY EXPERIMENTS

(19)

Figure 4 shows the experimental flume setup.

2.3 Overflow Equations The laboratory experiments were conducted using

Sabo dams involve obstructing the path of flow. a rectangular flume, which is 6.5m long, 13 cm

This is a vertical obstruction over which the debris high, 10 cm wide and has an incline of 18°. The

must flow such as a weir. At that time, outflow flume is divided into two parts by an 8cm high sand

discharge at the dam point can be calculated using stopper that is installed 1.5m from the upstream

cer tain equations. To calculate debris flow end of the flume. The upstream part is filled with a

discharge at the dam point, the overflow equation movable bed that consists of silica sand and gravel

and free overfall equation are applied.

Table 1 Flow conditions at Sabo dam

Overflow equation (Complete flow):

(20)

(21)

(22)

at the dam point, and c is the overflow coefficient.

As the overflow equation and free overfall equation

are adjusted at the dam point, flow conditions are

changed by the bed elevation (Table 1).

48 A STUDY ON DEBRIS FLOW OUTFLOW DISCHARGE AT A SERIES OF SABO DAMS

mixtures. The movable bed was set 20cm upstream wide and 1 cm thick were used for the

from the upstream end of the flume, length 150 cm, experiments. The lower Sabo dam was set 30 cm

8 cm high, and 10 cm wide. Sediment materials upstream from the downstream end of the flume

with mean diameter d m=2.86mm, maximum the upper Sabo dam was set 30 cm, 55 cm, 80 cm

diameter dmax=15mm and density σ=2.65g/cm , 3

upstream from the lower Sabo dam.

internal friction angle of a sediment tanϕ=0.7 were Two runs were conducted under the same

used. The particle size distribution of the movable experimental conditions in order to obtain reliable

bed is shown in Figure 5. data. Debris flow discharge and sediment

To generate the debris flow, the movable bed is concentration at each dam point were measured

saturated by seepage flow. After fully saturating the using sampler. Debris flow deposition upstream of

movable bed, the debris flow is generated through the Sabo dam was measured by video camera and

supplying clear water. The debris flow developed in the images were analyzed over time.

the experiments is fully stony type debris flow and

larger particles are accumulated at the forefront of 4. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

the debris flow. This debris flow, overtopping the The numerical simulations were conducted to

sand stopper, reaches the downstream part of the calculate debris flow discharge at the dam point

flume. After overtopping the two Sabo dams, debris and experiments were also performed to validate

flows are captured by the sampler. the numerical model.

The experimental conditions are shown in Table Figure 6 shows the simulated results and

2. Two closed-type Sabo dams 6 cm high, 10 cm experimental results of debris flow discharge and

sediment concentration. In this graph, time 0

means the start time to supply clear water. The

start time of blue line means the time the debris

flow reached the upper Sabo dam. Table 3 shows

the time the debris flows reached each position.

In Case A, the overflow time of debris flow at the

lower Sabo dam is earlier than in Case B and Case

C. The distance between two Sabo dams is not

sufficient capture debris flow. Sufficient distance

Fig. 5 Particle size distribution of sediment materials

Table 3 Debris flow time (unit : sec)

Table 2 Experimental conditions

自然災害科学 特別号（ ） 49

between two Sabo dams means that the length deposition height is equal to 0.

between two Sabo dams is longer than the Table 4 shows the debris flow peak discharge.

deposition length upstream of one Sabo dam. This In the experimental results, debris flow discharge

deposition starting from the Sabo dam to the is calculated at the downstream end of the flume

50 A STUDY ON DEBRIS FLOW OUTFLOW DISCHARGE AT A SERIES OF SABO DAMS

under the no Sabo dam case. Simulated results of the shape of the deposition between the simulated

debris flow discharge are consistent with the results and experimental results. The height of

experimental results. Through the series of Sabo deposition in the experimental results is higher

dams, the total discharge of debris flow and peak than that in the simulation results. The simulation

discharge is decreased. results are underestimated. Therefore, a more

The total average peak discharge rate is 48.4% in feasible coef ficient of erosion velocity and

the experimental results and 48.1% in the coefficient of deposition velocity are required.

simulation results. However, the longer the Through adjusting the discharge coefficient and

distance between two Sabo dams, the higher the erosion, deposition coefficient, the debris flow

rate of total discharge decrease. The situation is deposition pattern could be further improved.

different in the lower Sabo dam. The longer the In this study the debris flow overflow discharge

distance between two Sabo dams, the easier it is to at a series of Sabo dams was evaluated. The

form a fully developed debris flow. suggested simulation method for calculating debris

The average decrease rate of the upper Sabo flow discharge results in good agreement with the

dam is 29.8% in the experimental results and 31.9% experimental results.

in the simulation results. However, the average

decrease rate of the lower Sabo dam is 18.6% in the 5. CONCLUSIONS

experimental results and 16.2% in the simulation The numerical model was developed to simulate

results. The efficiency of the decrease rate of the debris flow discharge at the dam point.

debris flow peak discharge at the lower Sabo dam Laboratory experiments were conducted and good

is less than the upper Sabo dam. The reason for results of debris flow discharge as well as sediment

this is the sediment concentration. In the Figure concentration were obtained. Debris flow

6(b), as debris flows pass the Sabo dam, sediment deposition will be further improved through

concentration decreased. First, the sediment adjustment of the coefficient.

concentration is consistent at around 35%. As the Through considering the combination of Sabo

debris flows passed the upper Sabo dam, sediment dams, elucidation of technical criteria on the

concentration decreased to around 30% and when distance between Sabo dam is expected.

passing the lower Sabo dam, sediment

concentration fur ther decreased. However, ACKNOWLEDGMENT

overflowed debris flow at the lower Sabo dam does This research was supported by the JSPS AA

not have a consistent sediment concentration. The Science Platform Program (Coordinator: H.

initial sediment concentration is lower than 5%. Nakagawa) and support of the Wakate fund

This means that debris flow that is not fully program by the Kyoto University Global COE

developed reaches the lower Sabo dam. As debris Program (GCOE-ARS).

flows overflow the Sabo dam, sediment is captured

by the Sabo dam. Therefore, the forefront of the REFERENCES

Armanini A., Dellagiacoma F., and Ferrai L., 1991.

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Figure 7 shows the debris flow deposition

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means the start time of debris flow being captured Sciences, Vol. 37, Springer, Berlin, 331-344.

by the Sabo dam. Some discrepancies are found in Di Silvio, G., 1991. Soil erosion and conservation Part

自然災害科学 特別号（ ） 51

52 A STUDY ON DEBRIS FLOW OUTFLOW DISCHARGE AT A SERIES OF SABO DAMS

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Honda N., Egashira S., 1997. Prediction of debris flow

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（投稿受理：平成 26 年 4 月 18 日）

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