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Global Marketing Management

Strategies Memasuki
Pasar global dan ekspansi
Tujuan pembelajaran:
aMengidentifikasi kriteria sleksi pasaran luar negeri
aMemahami alternatif pasar yang dapat dimasuki
perusahaan.
aMengenal aktivitas ekspor sebagai sebuah proses
pengembangan dari waktu ke waktu
aMemahami strategi memasuki pasar yang berbeda:
sourcing, lisensi,investasi & kepemilikan

Keegan: Global Marketing Management Chapter 8 / 2


Decision Criteria for IB

aPolitical risk
aMarket access
aFactor cost & conditions
aShipping consideration
aCountry infrastructure
aForeign Exchange

Keegan: Global Marketing Management Chapter 8 / 3


Selesi Pasar Asing

a... Harus didasarkan pada beberapa kriteria:


`Karkteristik pasar
`Aspek biaya
`Rancangan undang-undang
`tarif, kewajiban & batasan non-tarif
dalamperdagangan
aTingkat kepentingan kriteria seleksi
tergantung pada berbagai industri dan pasar
Keegan: Global Marketing Management Chapter 8 / 4
Kritria Selesi Pasar

a1. Potensi pasar


a2. Akses memasuki pasar
a3. Biaya pengiriman dan waktu
a4. Tingkatan penilaian & Qualitas
kompetisi
a5. Pelayanan
a6. Kesesuaian produk
Keegan: Global Marketing Management Chapter 8 / 5
Prtanyaan kritis untuk profil pasar
produk: The 9 W´s
1. Siapa pembeli produk kita?
2. Siapa yang tidak membeli produk kita?
3. Kebutuhan apa atau fungsi apa yang dipenuhi dengan produk kita?
4. masalah apa yang dipecahkan oleh produk kita?
5. Apa yang dibeli konsumen saat ini untuk memuaskan kebutuhan atau
memecahkan masalah dimana produk kita ditargetkan
6. Berapa harga yang mempu dibayar untuk produk yang dibeli saat ini?
7. Kapan rpoduk kita dibeli?
8. Dimana produk kita dibeli?
9. Mengapa produk kita dibeli?

Keegan: Global Marketing Management Chapter 8 / 6


A Multi-Stage Selection Process
Approx. 150
countries
Source: adapted from D.J.G. Schneider,
and R.U. Müller, Datenbankgestützte
Markets which drop out Marktselektion: Eine methodische Basis für
due to restrictions („must“ Internationalisierungs-strategien, Stuttgart,
1989
criteria)

Markets which are filtered out


based on a first set of
selection criteria

Markets which are filtered out


based on a second set of
selection criteria
Potential foreign
target markets

Keegan: Global Marketing Management Chapter 8 / 7


Visiting the Potential Market

a... is essential after assessment & selection of


potential market(s)
agoals:
`to confirm (or contradict) assumptions regarding
market potential
`to gather additional (primary) data
`to develop a marketing plan in co-operation with the
local agent or distributor

Keegan: Global Marketing Management Chapter 8 / 8


Production Abroad
100 %
Ownership and Ownership &
Strategic Alliances
Control

Ownership
Equity Joint Ventures

Management
Licensing Franchising
Contracts
0
0 Control 100 %

Keegan: Global Marketing Management Chapter 8 / 9


Direct Exporting

aDirect market representation


`via wholesalers or retailers or directly to the consumers
aIndependent representation
`independent distributor
aPiggyback marketing
`distribution through another distributor´s channel

Keegan: Global Marketing Management Chapter 8 / 10


Exporting: A Developmental Process
Stages of the firm
1. ... is unwilling to export.
2. ... fills unsolicited export orders (export seller).
3. ... explores the feasibility of exporting (may bypass stage 2).
4. ... exports to one or more markets on a trial basis.
5. ... is an experienced exporter to one or more markets.
6. ... pursues country or region focused marketing.
7. ... evaluates the global market potential. All markets, domestic &
international, are regarded as equally worthy of consideration.

Keegan: Global Marketing Management Chapter 8 / 11


Export-Related Problems

aLogistics
aLegal procedure
aServicing exports
aSales promotion
aForeign market intelligence

Keegan: Global Marketing Management Chapter 8 / 12


Sourcing Decision Factors

1. Factor costs & conditions


2. Logistics
3. Country infrastructure
4. Political risk
5. Market access
6. Exchange rate, availability &
convertibility of local money
Keegan: Global Marketing Management Chapter 8 / 13
Licensing

a“contractual arrangement whereby one


company (licensor) makes an asset
available to another company (licensee)
in exchange for royalties, license fees or
other form of compensation”

Keegan: Global Marketing Management Chapter 8 / 14


Franchising

aA form of licensing

a“a company permits its name, logo,


cultural design and operations to be
used in establishing a new firm or
store.”

Keegan: Global Marketing Management Chapter 8 / 15


Joint Ventures
aCompany run by two or more partner firms
aRisk is shared and different value chain strengths are
combined
aInfluence depends on degree of ownership
aGood opportunity to build on local know-how
aJV finds greater acceptance by local authorities

Keegan: Global Marketing Management Chapter 8 / 16


Wholly-owned
Subsidiaries/Acquisition
aRepresents the most extensive engagement abroad
aSubsidiary is either established through the creation of a
new facility or the acquisition of an existing firm
aCompany has complete decision power & control
aInvestor achieves greater flexibility
aIn many countries majority or 100% ownership by
foreign companies is forbidden

Keegan: Global Marketing Management Chapter 8 / 17


Strategi Perluasan Pasar

aNarrow focus: concentrated


markets/concentrated countries
aCountry focus: diverse
markets/concentrated countries
aCountry diversification: concentrated
markets/diverse countries
aGlobal diversification: diverse
markets/diverse countries
Keegan: Global Marketing Management Chapter 8 / 18
Ringkasan
aPemilihan pasar luar yang potensial harus
didasarkan pada evaluasi kriteria yang
mempengaruhi potensi keberhasilan di luar negeri
disecra teliti; seperti potensi pasar, kemudahan
memasuki pasar, atau kesesuaian product .
aSekali pasar luarnegri yang potensial dipilih,
perusahaan harus memutuskan untuk memasuki
paar tersebut company has to decide how to enter
this market.

Keegan: Global Marketing Management Chapter 8 / 19