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Mechanical Simulation

Advanced Vehicle Dynamics Solutions
Introduction History
Mechanical Simulation Corporation Mechanical Simulation Corporation was founded in 1996 to
develops and distributes vehicle continue development of analysis and simulation technology
dynamics software tools for originally started over 30 years ago. The company has
simulating the way cars and trucks significantly advanced the state-of-the-art in simulation of
respond to driver controls under vehicle dynamics and has extended the capabilities of the
different environmental conditions. models into many more vehicle types.
The company markets many variants
of the following:
Vehicle Dynamics
CarSim® is a software tool for Starting in the late 1960's, the University of Michigan
simulating and analyzing the way Transportation Research Institute (UMTRI) was a pioneer in
cars, light trucks and SUVs (with or developing knowledge about vehicle dynamic behavior and
without trailers) respond to steering, modeling. Knowledge about vehicle dynamics came from
braking and acceleration inputs. three activities:

TruckSim® extends the concept to

cover heavy-duty vehicles with dual Experimental testing and analysis of results.
wheels, asymmetric steering
systems, multiple axles and single or Development of models and algorithms which
multiple trailers. duplicate the observed behavior.

BikeSim® is a software tool for Special laboratory tests and measurements to obtain
simulating and analyzing the way the vehicle and tire properties needed to complete
motorcycles and scooters repond to simulation and analysis models.
steering, braking and acceleration
inputs. The early research projects included many experimental
tests, where modeling assumptions were validated by direct
CarSim,TruckSim and BikeSim comparison with test data.
provide the most accurate and realistic
predictions that are possible, in a form The modeling concepts and assumptions developed at
that can be easily used by most UMTRI form the basis for the CarSim, TruckSim and BikeSim
engineers and technical staff. Each models. In addition to emphasizing the correctness of the
package includes our Simulation math, we apply the research results to include vehicle
Graphical User Interface (SGUI), properties that are both significant and measurable.
graphical database manager, plotter,
animator, on-line help and solver
programs with and without a built-in AutoSim and our Math Models
Simulink ® interface.
In the late 1980's, one of the UMTRI scientists (Dr. Michael
Sayers, a founder of Mechanical Simulation) developed the
Mechanical Simulation supplies the
world's most advanced automated code generation capability
same vehicle math models for
for vehicles and other multibody systems. The code
real-time (RT) solutions used in many
generator – AutoSim – was used at UMTRI to create new
applications including, hardware-in-
vehicle models and is now used by Mechanical Simulation for
the-loop (HIL) and high-fidelity driving
all multibody modeling. The error-free code generated by
AutoSim can support highly detailed math models with
unparalleled computational efficiency.
We also provide related services
such as custom vehicle models and
AutoSim technology supports several unique characteristics
shapes, training, user conferences,
of our software development:
web seminars and engineering
consulting services.
We can create new models and extend existing
models quickly.

Our models run fast, as required to support real-time

and optimization applications.

We can support new interface and operating-system

requirements rapidly by updating AutoSim to generate
new code.

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Reduce time and cost using accurate, repeatable and correlated
simulations of Cars, Trucks and Motorcycles

Mechanical Simulation produces and distributes software tools for simulating and analyzing the dynamic behavior of
motor vehicles in response to steering, braking, and acceleration inputs. These software tools are extensively
validated and correlated to real world results as measured and observed by many automotive OEMs around the world.


CarSim 6 is a software tool used globally by OEMs, suppliers, racing teams, universities and
students to simulate the dynamic behavior of four-and three-wheeled vehicles including cars, race
cars, light trucks, light utility vehicles and SUVs.

CarSim 6 Trailer is an extension used for simulating the dynamic behavior of vehicles including
cars, light trucks, light utility vehicles and SUVs towing one-and two-axle trailers.

CarSim 6 and CarSim 6 Trailer are extensible and compatible with a wide range of software
products and most real-time (RT), hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) and software-in-the-loop (SIL) systems.

CarSim 6 is used in all types of vehicle simulators, from tabletop systems to sophisticated moving
base motion platforms. These applications allow researchers, engineers and developers to study a
very wide range of subjects from driver behavior and accident avoidance, to vehicle calibration and
tuning using simulators equipped with real world vehicle dynamics in a controlled, repeatable
laboratory environment.


TruckSim 6 is a software tool for simulating and analyzing the dynamic behavior of trucks, buses and
articulated vehicles in response to steering, braking and acceleration inputs.

TruckSim 6 uses the same technology as CarSim 6, but involves models with dual tires, asymmetric steering
and arbitrary combinations of trailers and axles.


BikeSim 1 is a software tool for simulating and

analyzing the dynamic behavior of motorcycles and

BikeSim uses the same technology as CarSim 6 with

the modifications necessary to model motorcycles and
scooters. Driver/Rider behavior during cornering,
acceleration and braking is also modeled in BikeSim.

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CarSim 6 is a software tool specifically designed and

developed to simulate the dynamic vehicle behavior of
cars, light trucks and utility vehicles. CarSim animates
simulated tests and generates over 500 output
variables that can be plotted and analyzed with other
software such as MATLAB ®, Excel®, design-of-
experiments (DOE) and optimization tools. The
software has extensive features, a few are
illustrated below:

Analysis of “What If?” Scenarios

CarSim 6 is used by engineers in design, development,
testing and planning. If you make decisions that involve
vehicle dynamics, then CarSim helps make better
decisions quicker. CarSim is used for applications
ranging from initial proof-of-concept, through product
development, to advanced analysis of existing vehicles.

Easy to Use
A modern graphical user interface controls all aspects
of the software. Users run a simulated test by clicking
the “Run Math Model” button. Results of the simulated
test are observed by clicking the “Animate” button.
Engineering plots are viewed by clicking the “Plot”
button. You will be making new runs and viewing
results within an hour of installing CarSim 6.

All properties that you set or adjust are represented in

the graphical interface. Over 140 graphic screens are
organized to allow easy access to all properties of the
vehicle, control inputs, road geometry, plot settings and
animation settings. The CarSim 6 database minimizes
the time needed to build a vehicle description and set
up run conditions. The database comes with an
extensive array of examples and allows you to set up
libraries of components, vehicles and test results. This Force arrows indicate direction and relative magnitude.
feature allows users to rapidly go back and forth
between different runs to compare results and make
changes. Overlay plots and animations quickly to
identify the results of your changes.

The vehicle and its properties are defined by

parameters and tables that are measurable and
available from a variety of sources, including tests or
suspension design software. CarSim 6 sets a new
standard for minimizing the time needed to assemble a
complete vehicle description.

Reporting and Presentations

CarSim 6 output plots and data are exportable and
easily inserted into reports, Excel worksheets and
PowerPoint ® presentations. Animations can also be
exported to a wide variety of report software. Example CarSim 6 Simulation Graphical User Interface (SGUI).

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Tires, suspensions, brakes and steering systems all use
intuitive input screens.
More than 500 different variables can be automatically plotted.
Cost Effective, Stable, Reliable
CarSim 6 includes everything needed to simulate
vehicle tests and view the results.
Fast Mechanical Simulation uses advanced automated
CarSim 6 combines a complete vehicle math model code generation to produce stable and reliable
with high computational speed. Vehicle models run up simulation programs much faster than is possible with
to ten times faster than real time on a 3 GHz PC. traditional “hand-coded” software development.
Speed enables CarSim 6 to easily support real-time
(RT) testing with hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) or
software-in-the-loop (SIL). CarSim 6 supports real-time
Software Packages
CarSim 6 features the database and graphical
systems from Applied Dynamics International (ADI),
interface, motor-vehicle models, plotter, animator,
A&D, dSPACE, ETAS, Opal-RT and many other RT
spectrum analyzer and supporting utility programs.
suppliers. This speed also helps with software that
requires many repetitions (optimization,
CarSim 6 Trailer is an extension that features extra
models and programs for the CarSim 6 motor vehicles
towing single or tandem axle trailers.
Accurate and Validated
CarSim 6 is built on decades of research spent CarSim 6 Source Code is available for most of the
characterizing vehicles and reproducing their behavior math model equations, for advanced projects such as
with mathematical models. Validation testing continues driving simulators.
as new features are added. Users from OEMs and
suppliers consistently report close agreement between CarSim 6 RT (Real-Time) and CarSim 6 Trailer RT
CarSim 6 predictions and actual test results. are available for a wide range of HIL system providers.

Standard and Extensible CarSim 6 for Simulators is available for complex

CarSim 6 runs on ordinary Windows ® desktop and motion base simulators.
laptop PCs. CarSim also runs on computers used in
real-time systems. The equations of motion in the math Custom Versions of CarSim 6 and unique vehicle
models are “well-behaved” and can be extended to shapes can be created to match your requirements.
work with custom models of controllers, instrumentation
and subsystems. These models can be provided in
three forms listed below:

Built-in modules that come

with CarSim

MATLAB/Simulink S-function
plug-in Modules

Library files with extendible C

code for stand-alone EXE files

CarSim accurately predicts NHTSA “Fish-hook” results.

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TruckSim 6 is a software tool for simulating and

analyzing the dynamic behavior of medium to heavy
trucks, buses and articulated vehicles. It operates just
like CarSim with a few important differences.

Truck Models
Trucks and buses use a different steering system than
cars. They can also have dual tires, multiple axle
configurations and a wide range of tractor-trailer
combinations. TruckSim 6 includes 24 example trucks
and buses with all of their key chassis components to
cover most of the vehicles found around the world.
Examples come from North America, Europe and
Japan. Users can even request custom models at a
reasonable price if needed.

TruckSim is built on decades of research in
characterizing vehicles and reproducing their behavior Driver view and steering input can be visually monitored.
with mathematical models.

Worldwide truck and trailer Graphical Database

examples Data screens are intuitive and serve as your primary
interface to TruckSim. These contain all of the vehicle
model parameters, driver and controls inputs and road
Complete truck simulation surfaces. The data screens are part of an extensive
software database that maintains libraries of linked data sets.

TruckSim RT and Source versions

TruckSim 6 RT (Real-Time) extends TruckSim to work
with HIL, SIL and Driving Simulator applications. This
provides an extensible common modeling environment,
making it easy to move component designs between
Simulink early concept SIL simulations and later HIL
testing. TruckSim 6 Source version includes the
TruckSim software plus source code describing the
equations in C (for the stand-alone EXE programs)
and CMEX (for the DLL plug-in modules).

Effects of stability control systems can be animated and plotted.

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BikeSim is a new software tool specifically designed to

simulate the dynamic behavior of motorcycles and
scooters. It analyzes the response to the rider's
inputs – steering torque, brake, shift and throttle.
Environmental inputs are included – aerodynamics,
road geometry and friction. The motorcycle dynamics
model is made using the same technology as CarSim
and TruckSim.

Traditionally, motorcycle dynamics have been studied

by universities and laboratories using pen and paper
analysis and simple kinematics programs. BikeSim
was created to meet the strong demand among
motorcycle and scooter manufacturers and their
suppliers for an easy to use, accurate simulation

Easy, Turn-Key Solutions Any road course or skid pad event can be run in BikeSim.

BikeSim includes the software configurations and

SGUI found in CarSim and TruckSim. It allows users
to easily setup the bike properties, roads and control
inputs and quickly see the animations and graphical
results. The bike and its properties are defined by
parameters and tables that are measurable by tests or
available from design software. Users run any Complete Bike Model
simulated road test by just clicking a button. Our fast BikeSim is delivered with a complete bike model, which
computational speed is completed in about 1/10 of has 20 degrees-of-freedom (DOF). The suspension
real time. Many design variations could be tested and model (front fork and rear swing arm) and non-linear
automatically optimized using DOE software. tire model calculate accurate bike dynamics. The model
includes a brake system and powertrain that can be
easily modified. The user can select either open loop
turns or a closed loop path follower. Road generation
tools allow users to create 3D roads such as banked
curves, hills and race tracks with a range of simulated
friction coefficients. Aerodynamic data inputs are also
available. All of these capabilities are demonstrated in
a series of test examples.

BikeSim runs on Windows desktop or laptop PCs.
BikeSim can run with MATLAB/Simulink by providing
an S-Function model for importing/exporting all key
variables. Users can easily include controller and
actuator blocks for ABS, TCS or any new type of
sub-system. BikeSim is available in real-time systems
to test HIL or SIL for ECU development.

BikeSim includes easy to understand data input screens.

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Ideal for Motorsports Develop Your Insight
CarSim 6 software includes everything needed to Hundreds of outputs are calculated at each time step,
develop open wheel or closed wheel cars for racing so you can study trade-offs and develop deep insight
on road circuits and oval tracks. CarSim even includes into a vehicle’s performance. Racing teams can easily
example race tracks, vehicles, chassis components identify the contributions of suspension settings to
and development tests. Results are easy to aerodynamic gains, optimize gear ratio and brake
understand. settings, select springs, dampers and sway bar
settings. Other uses include studying wedge and
Users can select from independent or solid axle stagger, locking differentials and weight distribution
suspensions, and may add any required amount of effects. Make the improvements you need to get to the
detail, including full aerodynamic maps, symmetric or front and stay there.
asymmetric suspensions and any drivetrain. Race
teams can easily create road courses or test surfaces
and evaluate limitless combinations of chassis
settings. Testing in CarSim eliminates the driver and
weather variables, and the cost of travel, tires,
engines, crew and all other track testing expenses.
CarSim results have correlated with OEM proving
ground tests for over 10 years.

Ideal at Any Level

Whether you need a low cost, self-contained analysis
package to learn and understand the fundamentals; or
a high-end, sophisticated tool to support your unique
methods and real-time testing, CarSim is the best tool
to help win races.

Extreme handling maneuvers can be safely tested in CarSim.

Extend to Meet Any Challenge

CarSim models cover a vast range of vehicles and
components “as is,” but you don’t need to stop there.
You can easily extend the models for features like
monoshock and third spring suspensions, or advanced
electronic control systems. You can even simulate the
performance of a 7-post rig, or use CarSim Real-Time
to control dynamometers and other test systems.

Your vehicle can be tested with actual racetrack data.

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Classroom Use
CarSim, TruckSim and BikeSim are being used at
universities around the world to teach the fundamentals
of vehicle dynamics. Since our software is easy to
learn and use, students can solve real-life automotive
chassis problems after a single class. CarSim is
available as "CarSim in the Classroom." This is a
program where any college or university can lease
CarSim for classroom usage. Free training, online
help, example homework problems and example
vehicle data are included. This program is designed to
support professors teaching vehicle dynamics, chassis
development or electronic controls classes.

Academic Race Teams

CarSim is now available in a special, low-cost
program that gives student teams an edge in SAE
competitions like "Formula" and "Mini Baja." Teams
can use CarSim to design and develop their vehicles. CarSim includes off-road testing examples.
CarSim can help in many competition areas to
develop lap-time simulations, chassis development,
tuning and the required presentations. Academic Research
CarSim, TruckSim and BikeSim are offered at a
CarSim in the Classroom substantial discount for college and university
researchers involved in academic projects. Over 50
universities in 10 countries are using our software for a
University research projects wide variety of research programs.

Commercial University Research

CarSim and TruckSim have also been used for
government or commercially funded projects at
colleges and universities around the world.

CarSim for SAE student


Over 50 universities in 10
countries currently use our
software tools

Mini-Baja and Formula SAE events can be easily simulated

using CarSim.

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CarSim, TruckSim and BikeSim allow users to apply
external model vehicle dynamic control systems
(i.e. ABS, TCS, ESC, 4WS, Yaw Control Differential)
through MATLAB/Simulink. Additionally, the
sub-components of any vehicle model (e.g. Driver,
Powertrain, Spring/Damper) can be replaced with
Simulink blocks, which can represent very
sophisticated, complex external models. Multiple
vehicle simulations can be shown using duplicate
vehicle blocks running simultaneously.

Over 500 variables are available for importing and

exporting with external software models and are easily
specified in the SGUI. The Simulink model is also fully
integrated into our software packages for animation
Optimizations using hundreds of test runs can be performed
and plotting. Mechanical engineers can use CarSim,
in hours with any DOE software.
TruckSim or BikeSim with Simulink running in the
background, or controls engineers can stay in the
Simulink design environment and see results on Design of Experiments
their screen. CarSim, TruckSim and BikeSim can interface with most
of the design, development and analysis software used
S-Functions can run in parallel by engineers. CarSim users have interfaced with
AMESim ® from Imagine Software to develop new
stability controllers. Design-of-experiments for
Compatible with most optimizing chassis systems and components may be
DOE/Optimization software done using HyperStudy ®, iSIGHT ®, OPTIMUS ® or any
other DOE package. Since our products run much
faster than real time, these optimization programs can
be completed in record time. OEMs and Suppliers can
greatly speed up their development process using other
software tools with CarSim, TruckSim or BikeSim.

All software is fully extensible

Mechanical Simulation has

demonstrated compatibility
with over 25 software partners
around the world

Animations and plots help Simulink designers “see”

their results.

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Reduce development time How It Works
CarSim, TruckSim and BikeSim models run on
computers much faster than real time, meaning a
simulation of a 30-second test is normally complete in
Test earlier in the product less than 5 seconds. Our models support the
development process with... MATLAB/Simulink block control interface. This not only
gives compatibility with Simulink, but also provides a
standard method for working with any real-time testing
software that uses the same interface.

Real-Time To run in real time, the model is given measurements

from the hardware. At the same time, the hardware is
given calculated vehicle and road variables from the
Physical testing and simulated testing join in real-time model. To obtain real-time operation, the software
when some of the system exists in hardware and some obtains calculations from the math model, waits for the
are simulated with math models. clock to catch up, exchanges information with the
hardware and then repeats at the next step.
From the simulation point of view, the ECU is A host computer with Windows runs the CarSim,
hardware-in-the-loop (HIL). Simulation results depend TruckSim or BikeSim graphical database, animator,
on real-time interactions between the math model and plotter and supporting software. A target computer with
the physical hardware. Hardware can also include a real-time operating system runs the math models
brake or steering systems, suspension corners, or a together with data acquisition software.
complete vehicle-in-the-loop. Software-in-the-loop
(SIL) is used to test simulated ECUs early in the
design process before they are burned.

Join the Real-Time Revolution

When hardware and software are combined, the
system can be tested earlier in the product
development cycle. Many iterations can be tested
rapidly and with greater control. Engineers can
proceed from component models to the real thing,
while using the advantages of a virtual vehicle to run
more tests. New configurations that might not exist yet
can be run under conditions that are dangerous or
expensive in real-life testing.

Buying a Complete HIL System

Our Real-Time models are shipped ready to run with
systems from our real-time partners Applied Dynamics
International, A&D, dSPACE, ETAS, National
Instruments, Opal-RT and many others. Real-Time
CarSim is used on the most advanced driving simulators.
tools are also used with custom systems involving
target machines with the QNX and RT-Linux
operating systems.

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Main Office Europe Asia

Mechanical Simulation add2 Limited Virtual Mechanics Corporation

912 North Main Suite 210 Hawkesyard Hall 1-40, Hagiyama-cho, Mizuho-ku
Ann Arbor, MI 48104 Armitage Nagoya-shi, Aichi-ken 467-0011
USA WS15 1PU Staffordshire Japan
Phone: 734-668-2930 United Kingdom Phone: 81-052-853-7309
Fax: 734-668-2877 Phone: 44-1-889-574400 Fax: 81-052-853-7261 Fax: 44-1-889 576779

AMET S.r.l. Shinho Systems Co., Ltd.

Via San Luigi, 20 B-702 Ssangyong IT Twin Tower
10043 Orbassano (TO) 442-5 Sangdaewon-dong, Jungwon-gu,
Italy Seongnam-si, Gyeonggi-do
Phone: 39-011-9007743 Korea 462-723
Fax: 39-011-9007740 Phone: 82-31-608-0434 Fax: 82-31- 608-0439

MAGNUM TeraSoft Inc.

BunsenstraBe 22 15-1 Fl, 161 Sungteh Road
D-64293 Darmstadt Taipei 110,
Germany Taiwan, R.O.C.
Phone: 49-6151-802-500 Phone: 886-2-2346-5598
Fax: 49-6151-802-600 Fax: 886-2-2346-5758

© 2005 Mechanical Simulation. All Rights Reserved.