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CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION

Rationale of the Study

Mangroves are valuable ecological and economic marine resources. They are
important nursery grounds and breeding sites for birds, fish, crustaceans, shellfish,
reptiles and mammals; a renewable source of wood; accumulation sites for sediment,
contaminants, carbon and nutrients; and offer protection against coastal erosion. The
destruction of mangroves is usually positively related to human population density. Major
reasons for destruction are urban development, aquaculture, mining and overexploitation
for timber, fish, crustaceans and shellfish (Kathiresan & Bingham et al., 2001).
Mangrove rehabilitation has become an issue worldwide because of mangrove
degradation and extensive losses. Positive reasons for rehabilitation noted in the
reviewed literature include conservation, landscaping, and multiple uses for high yields,
coastal protection, sediment stabilisation, habitats and water treatment.
In the review of Dwyer (2002), he concluded that even small rehabilitation
projects can provide benefits such as nutrient cycling and habitat for other plants and
animals as well as providing carbon capture and storage.
Recent research shows that replanting mangrove increases productivity and that
mud crabs and some of the species that fisheries use as stock enhancement can be
used as indicator species for the health of the mangroves and the effectiveness of
reforestation efforts (Dwyer, 2002).
As more people seek to live in the coastal zone, the risk on mangrove also
increases. But along the coastline of Brgy.Tamisan, City of Mati, Davao Oriental.
Mangrove degradation its daily monitoring are being conducted by Tamisan Marine
Protected Area Fisherfolks Association (TAMPAFAS). An authority characterized as
People’s Organization (PO) assisted by the Department of Environment and Natural
Resources (DENR).

However, no study has been done on the status of mangrove rehabilitation


program in Brgy. Tamisan. Hence, the present study could enhance the baseline in
function on the status of mangrove rehabilitation program in the said area. This study will
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also help in the formulation of policies for maintain, protection and sustainably of
mangrove resources in Brgy. Tamisan, City of Mati, Davao Oriental.

Objective of the Study

General Objective

The study aims to assess the mangrove rehabilitation program of Department of


Environment and Natural Resources (DENR) and Local Government Unit (LGU) in Brgy.
Tamisan, City of Mati, Davao Oriental.

Specific Objectives

1. To determine the species composition and number of live mangroves within the
rehabilitation site.
2. To determine the percentage survival rate and growth status of mangroves within
the rehabilitation site.
3. To determine the number of mangrove recruits per species.
4. To determine the environmental factors that affects the survival of the
mangroves.
5. To document the management intervention within the rehabilitation site.

Significance of the Study

Due to the widespread occurrence of mangrove, degradation changing is rapidly


declining in many parts of the world. This has resulted in the loss of important
environment and economic products and services including forest products, flood
mitigation and nursery grounds for fish. A lot of researchers are made to evaluate and
investigate the different kind of threats and degradation of mangrove forest, as a source
of data from common issue as of now.

Through this study, it will provide information to the locals of Barangay Tamisan
within the City of Mati,as well as to the future researchers, make this as their basis on
their study, and support their future researches. Hence, the present study could enhance
the baseline in function on the status of mangrove rehabilitation program in the said
area.
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Scope and Limitation of the Study

These studies were conducted in Sitio Dalampasigan and Sitio Panguig, Brgy.
Tamisan, City of Mati, Davao Oriental particularly in the area where the monitoring team
of the People’s Organization (PO), Department of Environment and Natural Resources
(DENR) and the Local Government Units (LGU) was implemented. The sampling area is
located almost at the buffer zone, boundary of Marine Protected Area of Barangay
Tamisan, City of Mati, Davao Oriental.

In this research, the environmental parameter that was collected was the
following: substrate type, temperature, salinity and pH. In assessing the mangrove
rehabilitation, counting the number of internodes within the rehabilitation site were
determined. Furthermore, the study was conducted during low tide for easy data
collection. Samplings were conducted in the month of February 2018 to April 2018.
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Conceptual Framework

The study focuses in the assessment of mangrove rehabilitation program of


DENR and LGU in Sitio Dalampasigan and Sitio Paguig, Brgy. Tmisan, City of Mati,
Davao Oriental. (Figure 1) Environmental and Anthropogenic factors may also affect the
rehabilitation program as well as the management intervention.

Independent Variables Dependent Variables

Mangrove
Rehabilitation
Program of DENR and
LGU

Environmental Factors
Status of Mangroves
1. Temperature
2. Substrate 1. Mangrove Composition
3. Salinity 2. Percentage Survival
4. pH 3. Number of Mangrove

Anthropogenic Factors Management intervention


1. Urbanization 1. Reforestation
2. Agriculture 2. Monitoring of rehabilitated
3. Aquaculture Practices mangrove under the
4. Cutting for timber, fuel and supervision of People’s
charcoal Organization of Tamisan
5. Prevention of freshwater Marine Protected Area
flow and tidal flow Fisherfolks Association
6. Pollution (TAMPAFAS) mandated by the
8. Mining Operations DENR

Figure 1 A Conceptual framework shows the assessment of mangrove rehabilitation


Program of DENR situated in SitioDalampasigan and LGU situated in
SitioPanguig along the Barangay of Tamisan, City of Mati, Davao Oriental.
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Definition of Terms

Assessment On-going process aimed at understanding of data


collection in determining mangrove rehabilitation.
Composition Is defined as the proportions (%) of various plant
species in relation to the total on a given area.

Conservation The protection of valued resources through the


protection, management and care of natural and cultural
resources.

Growth Rate Complete and relative growth increase of various


mangrove species expressed in units of time.

Habitat The natural location and environment which plants and


animals exist.

Integrated Coastal Zone A term used to describe a continuous and dynamic


Management (ICZM) process that unites government and the community,
science and management, sectoral and public interests
in preparing and implementing an integrated plan for the
protection and development of coastal systems and
resources.
Mangrove Are a group of trees and shrubs that live in the coastal
intertidal zone that is commonly found throughout 75
percent of the world’ s tropical coastline between
latitudes 32º and 38º.
Management The act or practice of handling, administering,
supervising or controlling, entities, resources and
activities for any kinds of program.

Marine Protected Areas IUCNdefines MPA as “any area of intertidal,


(MPA) subtidalterrain, together with its overlying water and
associated flora and fauna, historical and cultural
features, which has been reserved by law or other
effective means to protect part or the entire enclosed
environment. Similar to Marine Protected Area of
Mangrove Rehabilitation Is the refuge and remedial analysis in an area where
Barangay Tamisan, City of Mati, Davo Oriental.
Program mangrove forest are degraded and decline.

Is the effort to reduce loss of life and properly by


Mitigation lessening the impact of disasters in order for mitigation
to be effective we need to take action now before and
next disaster to reduce human and financial
consequences later.
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Restoration
Rehabilitation The course of action or method concerned with
replacing ecosystem structure or function that maybe
diminished or lost.

Restoration Sorts of research have been implemented on how to


manage the degradation of mangrove ecosystem
worldwide.
Recruitment Rate
Natural dispersal and establishment of propagule were
variable in space and time. Increase in natural
population as progeny new grow and new members
arrive in its suitable area.
Survival The act or fact of living or continuing longer than
another person or thing.To continue to function and
prosper.
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CHAPTER II

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

Mangrove Ecosystem

Mangroves are woody plants that grow at the interface between land and sea
intropical and sub-tropical latitudes where they exist in conditions of high salinity,
extreme tides, strong winds, high temperatures and muddy, anaerobic soils. Mangroves
plants prefer to settle in river deltas, estuarine and lagoons, they rarely settle in stagnant
water. Mangrove trees were often found in combination with coral reefs and seagrass
beds. There may be no other group of plants with such highly developed morphological
and physiological adaptations to extreme conditions specific rates of seedling
recruitment and mortality (Kathiresan &Bingham et al., 2001).
Kathiresan and Bingham et al. (2001)stated that mangroves are necessarily
tolerant of high salt levels and have mechanisms to take up water despite strong osmotic
potentials. Morphological specializations include profuse lateral roots that anchor the
trees in the loose sediments, exposed aerial roots for gas exchange and viviparous
water-dispersed propagules. Mangroves create unique ecological environments that
host rich groups of species. The muddy or sandy sediments of the mangal are home to a
variety of epibenthic, infaunal, and meiofaunal invertebrates. Channels within the mangal
support communities of phytoplankton, zooplankton and fish (Kathiresan& Bingham et
al. 2001).
Variety of researchers discover the distinct features of mangroves, fortunately
(Laulikitnont, 2014) study that mangrove ecosystems are made up of approximately 16
families and 40 to 50 species, including trees, palms, shrubs, vines, and ferns.
Mangroves are highly specialized plants that have adapted to waterlogged saline soils
subjected to regular flooding of the tides.
Mangrove forest may function as nursery and productive habitats for
(commercially important) crab, prawn and fish species and support offshore fish
populations. Mangroves are also important to humans for a variety of reasons, including
aquaculture, agriculture, forestry, protection against shoreline erosion, as a source of
fire-wood and building material, and other local subsistence use (Nagelkerken et al.,
2008).
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Mangrove forests are indicators of healthy coastal ecosystems in tropical and


subtropical climates worldwide. They are dynamic habitats linking land and sea.
Important ecosystem services of mangroves include filtering pollutants to protect sea
grasses and corals; protecting coastal ecosystem against storms and tsunamis;
providing a critical food source for local communities; and sequestration of carbon. In
addition, mangroves also serve as breeding grounds and nursery habitats for marine
organisms, an important ecological support function for many coastal and offshore
fisheries. Moreover, local communities can use mangrove resources for their own
benefits such as food medicine, and fuel wood. However, overexploitation of these
resources can result in the loss of mangrove ecosystem function and degradation
(Laulikitnont et al. 2014).

Mangrove Morphology

Mangroves are well adapted to the coastal. They mostly exhibit respiratory roots,
extensive support roots, buttress roots, knee roots, salt- excreting leaves, and viviparous
water-dispersed propagules. These characters may different in different taxa as follows:
Support roots- Rhizophora Pneumatophores- Avicennia, Sonneratia Knee roots-
Bruguiera, Ceriops Buttress (Rodriguez et al., 2012).

Family of Mangroves Existence along the Rehabilitated Area

According to the (Cremades, 2014), out of35-40 mangrove species in 16


families, including 20-30 species of shrubs and vines in the mangrove ecosystem are
present in the Philippines. Along the mangrove rehabilitation site of Sitio Dalampasigan
and Sitio Panguig, Brgy.Tamisan there are several types of family of mangroves
occurred. In my study the Family Rhizophoraceae and Family Sonneratiaceae are
included. In the Family of Rhizoporecae it composed three kinds of mangrove tree.
Namely, Rhizophora apiculatalocally named as “Bakhawlalaki”, Rhizophora mucronata
commonly named as “Bakhaw babae” and Bruguiera sexangula locally named as
“Pototan”. While in the Family of Sonneratiaceae this included Sonneratia alba locally
named as “Pagatpat”.
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Mangrove Taxonomy

Rhizophora apiculata

The Rhizophora apiculata belong to the family of Rhizophoreceae (Figure 2), this
species also known as corky stilt mangroves or tall-stilt mangrove.The Rhizo-phora
means root bearing referring to the stilt root characteristics and the term apiculata
means, “to end abruptly”. Rhizophora apiculata are rambling to columnar trees with
distinct aboveground prop roots. Trees tend to be of shorter stature and more spreading
in shape on the seaward edge of stands or in areas of higher salinity. Taller, single-
stemmed trees are found most often just behind the water’s edge of stands midstream in
major riverine estuaries. Multi-stemmed trees are common in more arid or marginal
habitats (West & Duke et al. 2006).

a. c.

b. e. d.
H Taxonomy
Figure 2 Various characteristics of mangrove Rhizophoraapiculata (a)
Rhizophoraapiculata tree and bark (b) stilt-roots (c) flowers (d) leaves
(e) fruits (https://www.zsl.org/Field/to/Phil./Mangroves.pdf).
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Taxonomy

Kingdom: Plantae

Phylum:Tracheophyta

Class: Magnoliopsida

Order: Rhizophorales

Family: Rhizophoraceae

Genus: Rhizophora

Species: apiculata

Common Name:Bakhaw lalaki

Source:(https://www.zsl.org/Field/to/Phil./Mangroves.pdf
Habitat

Rhizophora apiculata found in between estuarine zone in the mid-intertidal


region. This species allows a maximum salinity of 65 ppt and a salinity of optimal growth
of 8-15 ppt Duke and Kathiresan et al., (2015). It is a strong species, and fast-growing.
This species can grow to 30 m. In addition, sediment layer increases the mortality rate of
seedlings. This species will not be a capable colonizer of coastal areas exposed to quick
releases of sediments such as those of highly eroding watersheds.

Rhizophora mucronata

The Rhizophora mocrunata belong to the family of Rhizophoreceae (Figure


3),this species is widespread and common within its range, and is the preferred species
for mangrove restoration Duke and Kathiresan et al. (2015).
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a. c.

b.
e. d.

Figure 3 Various characteristics of mangrove Rhizophoramucronata (a)


Rhizophoramucronata tree and bark (b) stilt-roots (c) flowers (d) leaves
(e) fruits, (https://www.zsl.org/Field/to/Phil./Mangroves.pdf).

Taxonomy
Kingdom: Plantae

Phylum: Tracheophyta

Class: Magnoliopsida

Order: Rhizophorales

Family: Rhizophoraceae

Genus: Rhizophora

Species: mucronata

Common Name: Bakhaw babae

Source: (https://www.zsl.org/Field/to/Phil./Mangroves.pdf).
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Habitat

Rhizophora mocrunata found in the intermediate to upstream estuarine zone in


the lower to mid-intertidal region, and more to the seaward side. This species tolerates a
maximum salinity of 40 ppt and a salinity of optimal growth of 8-33 ppt Duke and
Kathiresan et al., (2015). This is a hardy species that is easily propagated and is fast-
growing. It can grow up to 35 m, and can grow to 6 m high within seven years on
plantations.

In the eastern portion of its range, this species tends to grow closer to freshwater
influences while in the western portion of its range it tends to grow closer to the seaward
side. More genetic work is needed to determine if this may represent different species.

Sonneratia alba

The Sonneratia alba (Figure 4) has low-seed viability, it is a pioneering species,


is fast-growing, and can be dominant along the seaward edge (Kathiresan, 2015).

a. c.

b. e. d.

Figure 4 Various characteristics of mangrove Sonneratiaalba, (a)


Sonneratiaalbatree and bark (b) pneumatophores roots (c) leaves (d)
flowers (e) fruits, (https://www.zsl.org/Field/to/Phil./Mangroves.pdf).
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Taxonomy

Kingdom: Plantae

Phylum: Tracheophyta

Class: Magnoliopsida

Order: Myrtales

Family: Lythraceae

Genus: Sonneratia

Species: alba

Common Name: pagatpat

Source: (https://www.zsl.org/Field/to/Phil./Mangroves.pdf).

Habitat

This species found in the low-intertidal zone. It is intolerant of long periods of


freshwater, and prefers high salinity. It is a pioneering species, which is fast growing, but
has low seed-viability. In the low intertidal zone, it can be the dominant species along
with A. marina, forming a tree line along the seaward margin of its range. It prefers soils
of consolidated mud and sand. This species can grow to 30 m in height.

Importance of Mangrove Ecosystem

Mangrove forests are indicators of healthy coastal ecosystems in tropical and


subtropical climates worldwide. They are dynamic habitats linking land and sea. Yet
mangroves not only adapt, they create sanctuary. Some stay here full time others come
to span. Beautiful and delicate organisms seek refuge. Countless reptiles and birds
called this forest home. Other ecosystems nearby like coral reefs also depend on
mangroves. The important ecosystem services of mangroves include filtering pollutants
to protect sea grasses and corals; protecting coastal ecosystem against storms and
tsunamis; providing a critical food source for local communities; and sequestration of
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carbon. In addition, mangrove also serves as breeding grounds and nursery habitats for
marine organisms, sustain large fish population, an important ecological support function
for many coastal and offshore fisheries. Moreover, these forests benefit local
communities in many ways such as food, medicine, and fuel wood. However,
overexploitation of these resources can result in the loss of mangrove ecosystem
function and degradation (Laulikitnont et al., 2004).

Distribution of Mangrove Ecosystem

Mangroves are commonly found throughout 75% of the world’s tropical coastline
between latitudes 32˚ N and 38˚ S (Laulikitnont et al. 2014). This species is common in
most of its array in the Southwest Pacific and Australia, but is considered uncommon in
India. The total mangrove area spans about 6,000 km from east to west and 3,500 km
from north to south in the region of Southeast Asia. Indonesia has the largest mangrove
area in Southeast Asia (60%), followed by Malaysia (11.7%), Myanmar (8.8), and
Thailand (5%). Moreover, the mangroves of Southeast Asia are considered one of the
most species-diverse in the world. Fifty two (52) mangrove species can be found in
Southeast Asia. Its current population trend is decreasing. West and Duke et al., (2006)
says that the distributions appear continuous, but separate species have different
preferred locations where they dominate. Example the Rhizophora mucronata occurs
mostly in areas subject to regular freshwater flows (at least in the eastern part of its
range). While Rhizophora stylosa occurs in marine situations often preferring more
exposed offshore sites. Whereas, Rhizophora apiculata is often found mid–lower estuary
in larger riverine estuaries and embayment.

Along low-relief coasts in tropical regions, mangroves occupy the


biogeographically landscape usually occupied by salt marsh or cypress ecosystems in
more temperate regions. Mangroves, with their trees and shrubberies, have a higher
above-ground biomass than salt marshes with their grasses. Mangroves prefer fine-
grained, soft organic muds but can grow in many ranges of soil types including coral
sand. Mangroves generally found in the intertidal zone where they can out competing
other less salt-tolerant flora (Ostling & Butler et al., 2009).

The major families of mangroves that occur solely in the intertidal zone are
Avienniaceae, Combretaceae, Palmae, Rhizophoraceae, and Sonneratiaceae. These
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families contain the ten tree species found in the Western Hemisphere and the
approximately 60 species found in the Eastern Hemisphere (Ostling & Butler et al.,
2009).

The Sonneratia genus trends toward places where its pneumatophores will
normally have at least partial coverage of seawater, even during neap tides. Prop root or
aerial root systems are the iconic root system of mangroves, providing the stilt-like
appearance and access to oxygen in an anaerobic, edaphic environment. The red
mangrove of the Rhizophora genus is the most well-known of the prop root mangroves.
Buttress root systems utilized by the Bruguiera genus where the roots bend like knees to
maintain the mangrove’s access to oxygen during high tides (Hill, 2004). All three root
systems influence coastal processes by adding friction and roughness to decrease the
tidal flow velocity and altering sediment deposition and accretion (Davis and Fitzgerald,
2004) those are all cited from the authenticated study article of Ostling, Butler, and
Dixon et al. (2009).

(Laulikitnont, 2014) conducted a study entitled “Evaluation of Mangrove


Ecosystem Restoration Success in Southeast Asia”. He said that every mangrove
species has its own level of salinity tolerance. Therefore, mangrove zonation varies from
place to place. Mangrove zonation is a result of environmental tolerance and
physiological preferences of individual mangrove species. Moreover, mangrove zonation
is classified into three zones according to where they occur in relation to tidal position
consisting of seaward, mid, and landward zone.

The Seaward zone is the edge of the mangrove ecosystem next to the open
water (tidal channel, slough, estuary or ocean) which fully exposed to all tides and
frequent inundation (inundation class 1-3). The soil conditions in the seaward zone are
generally soft mud and sedimentary in origin. One of the distinctive characteristics of
mangrove species in this zone is having aerial roots that anchor and supports the plant.

The second zone, mid zone is subject to less regular tidal influences where the
mangrove inhabitants are exposed to inundation only during the spring high tides
(inundation class 4). The soil condition in this zone is similar to the seaward zone.
However, the soil in the mid zone is more compact than those of the seaward zone.
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The third zone, landward zone faces inundation only during the highest of spring
tides (inundation class 4- 5) and receives freshwater from groundwater or land surface
runoff. The landward zone is usually a narrow strip of vegetation that may transition to a
terrestrial forest.

Threats of Mangrove Ecosystem

According to (Kathiresan, 2007) all mangrove ecosystems occur within mean sea
level and high tidal elevations, and have different species zonation that is controlled by
the rise of the substrate relative to mean sea level. This is because of related difference
in frequency of tidal rise, salinity and wave action. With rise in sea-level, the habitat
requirements of each species will be disturbed and species zones will suffer mortality at
their present locations and reproduce at higher elevations in areas that were previously
landward zones (Ellison, 2005).

In addition, mangrove area is declining globally due to a number of localized


threats. The main threat is habitat destruction and removal of mangrove areas. Reasons
for removal include cleared for shrimp farms, agriculture, fish ponds, rice production and
salt pans, and for the development of urban and industrial areas, road construction,
coconut plantations, ports, airports, and tourist resorts. Other threats include pollution
from sewage overflows, solid wastes, siltation, oil, and agricultural and urban runoff.
Climate change is also thought to be a threat, particularly at the edges of a species
range. Natural threats include cyclones, hurricane and tsunamis.

Globally mangroves are destroyed by man‐made activities, which pose


significant threats and they are detailed briefly with the study of (Kathiresan, 2007) as
follows:

1. Urbanization - Coastal mangroves have been cleared for human inhabitation


in many areas like Singapore, Jakarta, Bangkok, Rangoon, Kolkata (Calcutta),
Mumbai (Bombay), Lagos, Maracaibo, Recife, Free town, Douala etc. In India,
Mumbai is one of the best examples for the mangrove destruction due to
urbanization. All the seven islands of Mumbai were reclaimed and linked to a
continuous landmass after destroying mangroves in the process.
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2. Agriculture - The history of restriction of Sundarbans is nothing but the history


of conversion of mangrove forests for agricultural purposes. This reclamation
process was initiated in 1770 and it continued till recent past. In the largest delta
region of the world, existing between India and Bangladesh, 1,50,000 ha of
mangroves were destroyed during the past 100 years, and these were mainly
reclaimed for agriculture. The mangrove areas are deforested and reclaimed with
rainwater to drain the salt content of the soil and these areas are protected from
seawater intrusion by constructing embankments. Once the salt is leached to a
sufficient level, the land is cultivated either with paddy or coconut. Another major
issue associated with the farms located in mangrove habitats is acidification of
pond waters that kills aquatic organisms. In Ecuador, the decline in mangrove
areas was largely due to the construction of 21,587 ha of shrimp ponds,
compared to only 1,157 ha for urban expansion in 1969‐84. In Thailand, around
50% of the total denuded mangrove area of 1,71,472 ha was converted into
aquaculture ponds during the period 1961‐87.

3. Cutting for timber, fuel and charcoal - Mangroves are cleared for timber,
charcoal and firewood. Because of higher calorific value, the mangrove twigs are
used as firewood. The mangrove wood is rich in phenols, and hence is highly
resistant to deterioration, and it is widely used as timber for construction purpose.
The mangrove wood is highly suitable for chipboard industry and quality paper.
As a result, several companies have been established for paper mills and
chipboard factories in Indonesia. Within two years, the timber companies
obtained timber by clearing 1,37,000 ha of mangroves.

4. Construction of Infrastructure - Mangroves are best developed in areas that


receive freshwater run‐off and tidal water flushing. Embankment construction or
siltation at the river mouths restricts the inflow of tidal water in mangrove
swamps. Dam and barricade constructions in upstream areas for diverting water
for irrigation purposes have resulted in poor flow of freshwater into mangrove
swamps. The poor flows of tidal and freshwater result in high salinity of
mangrove swamps and thus reduce the growth of mangroves. To cite an
example, in Colombia, large parts of mangrove forests along the lagoon of
Cienaga Grande de Santa Marra, have died within 3‐ decades. Another good
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example is at Pichavaram, south India, where the mangroves are largely dying
due to hypersalinity and other associated factors like increasing of temperature,
poor precipitation, poor flushing of mangrove soil by tidal waters etc.

5. Pollution issues - Mangrove habitats serve as a dumping ground for solid


wastes and for discharging the effluents from various sources. The best
examples of this are from Brazil and Singapore. In India as well, the mangroves
that existed in major coastal cities like Kolkata and Mumbai are adversely
affected by pollution.

6. War problems - The best example for this kind of mangrove destruction
occurred in the Vietnam War. During the war period (1962‐ 71), about 71 million
liters of defoliant chemicals were sprayed over the coast, that resulted in the
destruction of 1,04,000 ha of mangrove forest.

7. Mining operations - This was a serious problem in countries like Thailand.


Until the late 1980ʹs, 4, 27,000 hectares along the Thailand coasts in the vicinity
of mangrove belts were mined for tin.

Based on the compilation data of Laulikitnont et al.(2014) it has been reported


that more than 50% of mangrove ecosystems have been significantlyaltered or
destroyed in the last century due to human development. Laulikitnont et al.(2014)
identified six major causes of mangrove degradation in Asia: conversion to shrimp or
aquaculture farms; conversion to sea salt farms; conversion to other agricultural
practices; development of infrastructure; development of hydrological diversions; and
alteration from natural disturbances.

The major causes of mangrove degradation by various Asian countries.


Laulikitnont et al.(2014)showed that conversion for agriculture was the most common
cause of degradation of mangrove forests and aquaculture was the second most
common throughout Southeast Asia.

Mangrove Conservation and Management

The ecological, environmental and socio-economic importance of mangrove


ecosystems isnow widely appreciated among the scientific community, international
19

agencies, governments, NGOs and coastal communities. The functional relationships


between different ecosystems making up the coastal regions where mangroves are
found underlie the need for a management approach that is much more integrated than
has been achieved in the past. For this reason, the concept of Integrated Coastal Zone
Management (ICZM) is defined below. While completely integrated management is
rarely, if ever, achievable in practice, ICZM is a valuable developmental goal to set when
considering the management of mangroves and other coastal resources Macintosh et
al., (2002).
Accordingly, the approaches and interventions available to manage and conserve
mangroves can be analyzed conveniently by considering the various levels of
administration involved, namely: International, National, State or Province, District or
County, and Local Community (represented by e.g. villages or communes). Within each
of these geographical/ administrative units, there are three main stages that can occur:
 Policy, planning and development
 Operation and management
 Restoration/rehabilitation

Reasons for Mangrove Conservation and Management


According to the study of Macintosh and Ashton (2002) there are distinct reasons for
conservation and management of Mangrove Ecosystem including:

 To protect the unique biodiversity of mangroves


 The unique and valuable range of services and functions provided by mangrove
forest ecosystems make them far more valuable than the sum of the products
they generate
 Intact mangrove ecosystems can provide services that are significantly higher in
value relative to alternative man made uses of land
 There are still many aspects of mangrove biodiversity that are not known and
may provide further benefits to man
 To contribute to increased scientific knowledge through research on functional
linkages
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 Degradation of the mangrove ecosystem had important environmental impacts


on Physico-chemical, biological and ecological properties that are sometimes not
reversible
 There are complex linkages and interactions between the mangroves and other
ecosystems and processes both upstream and downstream of the mangrove
forest zone
 Protection of mangroves in their natural state provides an attractive habitat and
species for sustainable, nature-based tourism, which is becoming a world
industry and provides major benefits to local communities
 A refuge for intensely exploited or threatened species
 Protection of cultural diversity and livelihoods

Mangrove Rehabilitation

Mangrove Rehabilitation concerned with replacing ecosystem structure or


function that maybe diminished or lost. Interest in mangrove rehabilitation has increased
rapidly since 2003 due to its threatened destructions by both natural and anthropogenic
processes worldwide that pose a risk for their long- term survival that contribute to
mangrove loss, which is estimated at 1–2 % per annuallylocated primarily in tropical and
sub-tropical coastal locations. According to Dwyer et al. (2014) mangrove rehabilitation
is usually done to offset damage caused by stress arising from natural and
anthropogenic changes in the environment that threaten the systems and result in
degradation or loss.

According to Dwyer et al., (2014) supported on his study about mangrove


rehabilitation should be implement due to the conversion and/or degradation through the
development of fishponds and shrimp ponds, wood harvesting for fuel wood and
charcoal, and other unsustainable forms of coastal development generally from human
destructive activities.

However, he specified that mitigation actions through restoration or rehabilitation


can stem the losses and protect the services and values mangroves provide with the
help of private agencies, government and the local communities. Furthermore, when
communities understand the importance and value of mangrove services they are more
21

likely to support rehabilitationsince the community involvement is necessary to achieve


success. This is because human impacts are one of the drivers of mangrove
degradation and loss and so necessitate human presence in rehabilitation refer to a
community mangrove conservation ethic and practical involvement is crucial to
rehabilitation success.

Additionally, if communities are not included then resources can be


wasted.Although mangrove loss may be the result of pressures, stresses and threats
another reason can be failures in policy, management and, in particular, in enforcement,
reflecting a gap between policy and practice. Gaps include a lack of information, for
example from surveys results about human views on mangrove value, education about
mangroves and how this can be integrated into rehabilitation projects especially in
Philippines (Dwyer et al., 2014).

Accordingly, the common problem of the Philippines about the issue of mangrove
rehabilitation is that, they have conflicting policies within the same agencies as well as
enforcement failure. No longer reported the policy problems identified and that possibly
reflected an improvement. Positive reasons for rehabilitation noted in the reviewed
literature include conservation, landscaping, multiple use for high yields, coastal protect,
sediment stabilization, habitats and water treatment. Accordingly small rehabilitation
projects can help to provide the benefits such as nutrient cycling and habitat for other
plants and animals as well as providing carbon capture and storage (Dwyer et al. 2014).

Along the coastline of Barangay Tamisan, numerous rehabilitation projects are


being conducted to help restore areas where loss of mangrove habitat has occurred.
Although often a slow process, the majority of these rehabilitation projects are proving to
be successful. The degree of success depends on a number of environmental factors;
including tidal range, soil type, and the intensity of wave energy at the rehabilitation site.
It is vital that these circumstances be assessed prior to any regeneration attempt. As
mangrove, habitats are very fragile, and mangroves protected in Barangay Tamisan
waters, any mangrove rehabilitation projects and programs should be assess by local
monitoring body of DENR, which is the TAMPAFAS will monitor the mangrove
rehabilitation daily.
22

Mangrove Restoration

Sorts of research have been implemented on how to manage the degradation of


mangrove ecosystem worldwide, especially in Southeast Asia where the largest area of
mangrove ecosystem can be found. A lot of restorationefforts, programs, projects,
approaches are initiated done by the government and private agencies to conquer the
success (Laulikitnont et al. 2014). Two primary approaches used for mangrove
ecosystem restoration include the plantation approach and the Ecological Mangrove
Restoration (EMR) approach. Monoculture plantation is the most common technique
used in plantation approach, which usually results in low species diversity. The EMR
approach on the other hand, focuses on correcting the hydrology of restoration sites first.

It has been noted that the lack of site understanding in project planning, the lack
of project documentation, and the lack of monitoring data are the three main reasons for
the failure of many mangrove ecosystem restoration projects as well as the inability to
compare restoration approaches. Therefore, careful planning has to be implemented
before restoration occurs.

Laulikitnont et al., (2014)developed a monitoring protocol for Southeast Asia to


be incorporate into the final stages of every mangrove in ecosystem restoration project.
The protocol consists of overall site documentation and three levels of monitoring that
include Level 1 – a transect based survey, Level 2 – monitoring of permanent plots, and
Level 3 – sedimentation monitoring.

The goal of developing this monitoring protocol was to use this to evaluate the
success of each mangrove restoration project after restoration. The study suggest that
restoration project is better to use adaptive management techniques when projects are
not on the correct restoration passage, andin the long run this will evaluate various
mangrove ecosystem restoration approaches used in Southeast Asia.

Efforts of DENR and LGU

Based on the article of (Leadership, 2013) in the Philippines, the importance of


mangroves is increasingly being recognized and efforts are proceeding to restore
mangroves as coastal greenbelts and rehabilitate abandoned fishponds and shrimp
ponds. Funding for mangrove rehabilitation is included under the government’s six-year
23

National Greening Program (NGP). Peoples’ Organizations (POs) affiliated with


members of the Rain Forest Restoration Initiative (RFRI) can participate under a special
Memorandum Agreement between the Department of Environment and Natural
Resources (DENR) and members of RFRI. ELTI, in collaboration with other members of
RFRI, ZSL, and SEAFDEC/AQD, developed this field- based training on mangrove
rehabilitation in order to provide technical assistance and prepare the POs to actively
engage in mangrove rehabilitation in their own areas.

According to the employee of DENR-CENROMati (personal interview), along the


rehabilitated program of Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR)
and Local Government Unit (LGU) the mangrove rehabilitation was under the
management of DENR and LGU, it has a 1 year contract to the People’s Organization of
Tamisan Marine Protected Area Fisherfolks Association (TAMPAFAS). Moreover, DENR
engage a technical assistance that is given to the PO or TAMPAFAS so that they will
oversee the maintenance, protection, reforestation, development and preservation of
mangrove rehabilitation along the coastal resources. According to the employee of
DENR-CENRO Mati, by year 2018 the contract will end up. However the technical
assistance of DENR to the People’s Organization of TAMPAFAS will continue.
Furthermore, People’s Organization (PO) will continue the maintenance, protection,
reforestation, development and preservation and the legacy of mangrove rehabilitation.

Local Management Intervention

According to DENR-CENRO Mati to prevent program failure of mangrove


rehabilitation, management intervention should under the supervision of Tamisan Marine
Protected Area Fisherfolk Association (TAMPAFAS) mandated by Department of
Environment and Natural Resources (DENR). TAMPAFAS league conducted a daily
monitoring of mangrove in the rehabilitation site. If ever the mangrove seedlings are
trample, cut and pull out by the children the monitoring body will conduct a reforestation
to meet progress.
24

Environmental Parameters

Soil and Substrates

Mangroves grow in different combinations of sand, silt, and clay which often
contain a highconcentration of organic matter. The different soil types can influence the
distribution of mangrove species. However, mangrove ecosystems grow best on low
energy muddy shorelines where there is an extensive suitable intertidal zone with
abundant supply of fine grain sediment (Field, 2007). Soils that are stable, non-eroding,
and have a sufficient depth are ideal to support plant growth.

Another typical feature of soil in mangrove ecosystems is the development of iron


pyrite (FeS2). Iron pyrite developed from the presence of iron, sulfate, organic matter,
and the lack of oxygen in freshwater before mixing with seawater. Chemical reactions
under these conditions lead to the formation of potential acid sulfate soils. Potential acid
sulfate soils are highly acidic and may be problematic for some mangrove species to
grow. Moreover, the rate of sedimentation is another important factor, because some
amount of sedimentation is needed on site to help stabilize the seedlings. However, too
much sedimentation may stifle all plant growth in the ecosystem. On the other hand,
sediment erosion is not good for the restoration site because it weakens the root
structures and increase the duration of inundation(Laulikitnont et al, 2014).

Salinity

Mangrove ecosystems are composed of halophytic plants (vegetation) that grow


in high salinity water. Mangrove species have adaptations that allow them to tolerant
high levels of salinity. Salinity is an important factor in reducing competition between
mangrove species and other vascular plants. However, mangrove species also need
freshwater for their germination, growth and survivorship. Due to the fact that mangroves
are halophytes, it might seem strange that these species required freshwater, but some
mangrove species even grow well in only slightly brackish conditions. On the other hand,
hypersaline conditions can threaten all mangroves species, as it creates the same
problem that terrestrial plants face during drought. Although some species will survive
under the conditions of hypersalinity, none of the mangrove species can grow optimally
under these conditions.
25

Therefore, the right salinity level can be advantageous for mangrove species, but
it can also have adverse effects on mangrove species under the conditions of
hypersalinity. Restoration planners need to take into consideration of the dominant
mangrove species in the restoration site and determine the optimum salinity levels or
thresholds for those plants(Laulikitnont et al, 2014).

Temperature

Mangroves plants do not adequately develop when annual average temperatures


are below 19°C, which corresponds with the seawater isotherm of 20°C during the
coldest period of the year. While mangrove plants are intolerant to freezing temperatures
both air and water temperatures may never decrease below 0°C. Optimal temperatures
for mangroves are not only limited by cold temperatures, but also by high temperatures
because they hinder the tree settling. Photosynthesis of most mangrove species sharply
declines when the air temperatures exceeds 35, it seems that the temperature of both
water and air are important regulators of the presence or absence of mangroves. Some
adaptations of mangrove species to avoid too much water loss due to transpiration are
thick leaves with wax deposition, the presence of small hairs on the leaves, good
regulation of stomata and the storage of water within the leaves (Batool, Mazhar, & Ilyas,
2015).
26

CHAPTER III

MATERIALS AND METHODS

Study Area

The study area is located in Sitio Dalampasigan (area 1) approximately

6˚59’39.67’’N and 126˚17’57.84’’E and in Sitio Panguig (area 2) is approximately

6º84’43.54’’ N and 126º9’94’’ E, Brgy. Tamisan, City of Mati (Figure 6). Tamisan has a

wide plantation of different types of mangroves. Within the rehabilitated area specifically

within the two study area there are four (4) mangrove species it includes; Rhizophora

mucronata (Bakhaw babae), Rhizophora apiculata (Bakhaw lalake) and Sonneratia alba

(Pagatpat).

Figure 6
The Map shows the location of the study site of mangrove rehabilitation
program of DENR and LGU along the coastal of Brgy. Tamisan, Mati City,
Davao Oriental. The description of the study site will illustrate in Figure 7 and
Figure 8.
27

These are mangrove forest types (natural and reforested) across different
locations in Sitio Dalampasigan of station 1. These were the example of proof that the
rehabilitation mangrove initiatives of DENR and LGU in barangay Tamisan, City of Mati
were successful (Figure 7).

Figure 7 The existence of Rhizophora mucronata, Rhizophora apiculata and Sonneratia


alba surviving in the coarse, rocky, low intertidal zone.
28

Three-year-old plantation of Rhizophora mucronata in the 10 ha in Sitio


Dalampasigan of barangay Tamisan, City of Mati.

Figure 8 Some examples of Rhizophora mocrunata seedlings facing the seaward zone of
station 2.
29

Entry Protocol

Entry protocol letter were distributed to the two leading government agencies

which is the Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR) through

Community Environment and Natural Resources Office (CENRO) Mati and the Local

Government Unit (LGU) through City Environment and Natural Resources Office

(CiENRO). The second entry protocol was distributed to the Barangay and Purok

chairman who manage and handle the rehabilitated area for the final approval to conduct

the study in Sitio Dalampasigan and Sitio Panguig, Brgy. Tamisan, City of Mati, Davao

Oriental.

Sampling Duration and Frequency

Sampling was conducted last February 2018 up to April 2018. Collection of data

along the rehabilitated area was done during low tide.

Respondents and Beneficiaries

The respondents and beneficiaries of the mangrove rehabilitated program of

DENR and LGU are the locals and People’s Organization (PO) of Brgy. Tamisan, City of

Mati. Specifically the Tamisan Marine Protected Area Fisherfolks Association

(TAMPAFAS) that is under Mangrove Beach Forest Development Project (MBFDP) CY

2015.

Mangrove Species Composition

The species of mangroves within the rehabilitated area of Sitio Dalampasigan

and Sitio Panguig of Barangay Tamisan were assessed.

Percentage Survival of Mangroves


30

The percentage survival rate was determined by counting the mangroves that

survive inside the rehabilitation site of Department of Environment and Natural

Resources (DENR), along the bay of Sitio Dalampasigan which were planted last

December 2015 and LGU along the bay of Sitio Panguig. It was computed by dividing

the number of surviving mangroves over the number of total mangrove planted. The total

percentage of survival of mangroves in the area was computed by summing up all

surviving mangroves in the two area divided by the mangrove planted in rehabilitated

area.

Percentage of Survival

Survival rate

Growth Status of Mangroves

Height of the Mangroves (cm)

The growth status of mangroves within the rehabilitation site located in Sitio

Dalampasigan and Sitio Panguig was determined by measuring the whole body height of

mangrove per individual by using the steel tape tool.

Number of Internodes

The number of internodes of each mangrove was counted also in every plot or

station within the rehabilitation site of DENR situated in Sitio Dalampasiganand LGU

situated in Sitio Panguig, Brgy. Tamisan. To calculate the average number of internode

per station, the total counts of internodes for the two stations was added and divided by

two stations.
31

Growth rate = mean number of internodes added after planted

Recruitment Rate

New seedlings in every species of mangroves were determined in every plot.

New seedlings with three (3) internodes below were categorized on the main stem and

were counted as new seedlings recruited in the plot. While recruits with more than (4)

four internodes were categorized and included as rehab mangrove seedlings. For

computation of recruitment rate, the total number of new seedlings was divided into total

number of original seedlings Padilla and Fortes et al., (n.d.).

The formulas below were used to get the recruitment rate of the mangrove.

Recruitment rate (mean)

% Recruitment rate

Environmental Parameters

The environmental parameters such as substrate type, temperature and salinity

were determined during the field sampling. In order, to obtain the different factors that

affect the growth status and abundance of, Rhizophora mucronata, Rhizophora

apiculata, Sonneratia alba and Bruguiera sexangula along the rehabilitation site of Sitio

Dalampasigan and Sitio Panguig, Brgy. Tamisan, City of Mati, the following parameters

will be taken, including the following:

1. Substrate Type - was recorded through ocular inspection.


32

2. Temperature – temperature was measured by thermometer through dipping it

into the water, and then recorded it by Celsius scale calibration. In every

sampling, the temperature was recorded in two stations with three replicate

during low tide. Twenty minutes was the duration in each replicate.

3. Salinity (ppt) - water sample from the area was collected and examines using

the hand refractometer for the analysis of water salinity.

4. pH - were measured using the pH meter.

Local Management Intervention

Interview survey for the beneficiaries and respondents of mangrove rehabilitation

program along the area of Sitio Dalampasigan and Sitio Panguig of Barangay Tamisan

were done.
33

CHAPTER lV

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

SPECIES COMPOSITION

Mangroves under Family Rhizophoraceae were planted to rehabilitate two sites


in Barangay Tamisan. Only species of Rhizophora mucronata was planted. Because
Rhizophora mucronata is a species that can grow on a variation of the substrate (sand,
clay, and silt) where the condition of the organic material also varies following the
substrate composition. Mangrove generally grows in the mud clay mixed with organic
matter, but also found growing in areas with peat or substrate type with high sand
content (Marcello, 2012). After three years, two species of Rhizophora apiculata and
Sonneratia alba were recorded as recruits in the two sampling sites (Table 1).

Table 1 Species composition of Mangrove in Sitio Dalampasigan (Station 1) and


Sitio Panguig (Station 2) Barangay Tamisan
Species Station 1 Station 2

1. Rhizophora mucronata √ √

2. Rhizophora apiculata √ √

3. Sonneratia alba √ √
34

Total 3 3

DOCUMENTATION OF PER SPECIES

Mangrove is one of the coastal ecosystems that have ecological and economical
role. In general, mangrove forests grow in coastal areas that are always flooded with a
sea of mud and sand substrate; sometimes mangroves can grow on sheltered beach.
Windusari et al (2014) stated that mangrove describe a variety of tropical coastal
communities dominated by a few species of trees or shrubs characteristic that has the
ability to grow in salty waters. These three species were documented could serve as
confirmations that they can survive in salty water and can grow on sheltered beach
(Figure 10).

Figure 9 The documented mangrove species along station 1 and station 2 such as
Rhizophora mucronata, Rhizophora apiculata, Sonneratia alba.

SURVIVAL RATE AND MORTALITY RATE OF MANGROVE REHAB IN STATION 1


AND STATION 2

All planting sites were located in seaward zone, using almost exclusively
Rhizophora mucronata species. Planting distance between seedlings in station 1 was
usually at 2 x 2 m whereas in station 2 was 1 x 1 m planted last December 2015.
Rhizophora mucronata propagules were planted in both sampling stations since it was
preferred to plant as rehab because it was easier to collect and a lot cheaper to
purchase.
35

A total of 200 seedlings were planted by beneficiaries of mangrove rehab of


DENR and LGU in station 1. In station 2, about 15,000 mangrove seedlings were also
planted (Table 2). After three years, the rehabilitation sites were assessed by this study.
About 180 mangroves were recorded alive with a percentage survival rate of 91% and
with a mortality rate of 9% in station 1 (Table 2). While in station 2, about 14,250
mangroves were recorded alive with an average percentage survival rate of 95% and its
mortality rate was 5% (Table 2).

Table 2 Accounted Alive Mangroves and Percentage of Survival Rate and


Mortality Rate within the Rehabilitated Area in station 1 and station 2
SPECIES

Rhizophora mucronata

STATION 1
Original Planted Survival Survival rate Mortality rate
200 180 91% 9%
STATION 2
Original Planted Survival Survival rate Mortality rate
15,000 14,250 95% 5%

GROWTH RATE OF MANGROVE REHAB IN STATION 1 AND STATION 2

Plant Height

Table 3 showed the result of growth rate in terms of height (cm) of Mangrove
Rehabilitation along station 1 and station 2. Table 3 illustrate the result of the tallest
growth rate of height (cm) was in the range of 101-150 while the shortest growth rate of
height (cm) is in the range of 351-400 both stations, those species were grown in the
intertidal zone. The original species planted along the plantation are all Rhizophora
mucronata. This was attributed to the fact that Rhizophora mucronata was adaptable to
high salinity and minimal temperature of water and substrate where they can survive and
grow from that location.

Table 3 Mangrove Rehab of Rhizophora mucronata in Station 1 and Station 2


(Height cm)
36

GROWTH RATE (Height


cm) Station 1 Station 2 Total Mean
70-100 7 635 642 321
101-150 171 13100 13271 6635.5
151-200 2 405 407 203.5
201-250 0 40 40 20
251-300 0 21 21 10.5
301-350 0 22 22 11
351-400 0 2 2 1
401-450 0 4 4 2
451-500 0 0 0 0

Number of Internodes

Table 4 exhibited the results of growth rate giving its internodes along the two
stations of mangrove rehabilitation. Table 4 explain that the high range of internodes
was 21-30 while the lowest range was 1-10. The mangrove species planted are all
Rhizophora mucronata. However, internodes are reliable to the height (cm) of
mangroves, but not often. The tallest the plant height (cm) the more internodes have.
The shortest the plant height (cm) the lesser internodes have.

Table 4 Mangrove Rehab of Rhizophora mucronata in Station 1 and Station 2


(Internodes)

GROWTH RATE (Internodes)


Station 1 Station 2 Total Mean

1 to 10 1 19 20 10

11 to 20 14 1464 1478 739

21 to 30 144 9530 9674 4837

31 to 40 22 3998 4020 2010


37

41 to 50 0 18 18 9

GROWTH RATE OF MANGROVE RECRUITS IN STATION 1 AND STATION 2

Plant Height

Table 5 illustrate the results of growth rate in terms of height (cm) in mangrove
recruitment along station 1 and station 2. Three species are all naturally planted namely:
Rhizophora mucronata, Rhizophora apiculata and Sonneratia alba.

Table 5 explain that Rhizophora mucronata along two stations has the highest
result of plant height with a range of 101-150. While the shortest plant height is in the
range of 70-100. Whereas in Rhizophora apiculata highest result of plant height with a
range of 101-150. While the shortest plant height is in the range of 70-100. Sonneratia
alba highest result of plant height with a range of 101-150. While the shortest plant
height is in the range of 70-100. The results of three species are all the same. Using
these similar data of mangroves only they vary in morphological comparisons of sites
with similar tidal regimes is usable and the particular environmental setting of each
mangrove location strongly influences its growth.

Table 5 Mangrove Recruits of Rhizophora mucronata, Rhizophora apiculata and


Sonnerartia alba in Station 1 and Station 2 (Height cm)
GROWTH RATE (Height cm) Station 1 Station 2 Total Mean

Rhizophora mucronata
70-100 377 101 478 239
101-150 753 7 760 380
151-200 0 0 0 0
201-250 0 0 0 0
251-300 0 0 0 0
301-350 0 0 0 0
351-400 0 0 0 0
401-450 0 0 0 0
451-500 0 0 0 0
38

Rhizophora apiculata
70-100 20 20 40 20
101-150 43 0 43 215
151-200 0 0 0 0
201-250 0 0 0 0
251-300 0 0 0 0
301-350 0 0 0 0
351-400 0 0 0 0
401-450 0 0 0 0
451-500 0 0 0 0
Sonneratia alba
70-100 26 0 26 13
101-150 28 0 28 14
151-200 0 0 0 0
201-250 0 0 0 0
251-300 0 0 0 0
301-350 0 0 0 0
351-400 0 0 0 0
401-450 0 0 0 0
451-500 0 0 0 0

Number of Internodes

Table 6 illustrate the results of growth rate in terms of internodes in mangrove


recruitment along station 1 and station 2. Three species are all naturally planted namely:
Rhizophora mucronata, Rhizophora apiculata and Sonneratia alba.

Table 6 give details about Rhizophora mucronata along two stations it has the
highest result of internodes with a range of 21-30. While the shortest plant height is in
the range of 31-40. Rhizophora apiculata high range of internodes was of 21-30. The
lowest internodes are in the range of 1-10. Whereas in Sonneratia alba highest result of
internodes with a range of 1-10. The lowest internodes are in the range of 21-30.
However, consistent growth of internodes is affected by the type of substrate, salinity
and temperature. Their growth status will depend in environmental parameters.

Table 6 Mangrove Recruits in Station 1 and Station 2 (Internodes)


39

GROWTH RATE (Internodes) Station 1 Station 2 Total Mean

Rhizophora mucronata
1 to 10 100 63 163 81.5
11 to 20 138 24 162 81
21 to 30 409 2 411 205.5
31 to 40 60 0 60 30
41 to 50 0 0 0 0
Rhizophora apiculata
1 to 10 13 13 26 13
11 to 20 18 6 24 12
21 to 30 29 2 31 15.5
31 to 40 0 0 0 0
41 to 50 0 0 0 0
Sonneratia alba
1 to 10 28 0 28 14
11 to 20 20 0 20 10
21 to 30 6 0 6 3
31 to 40 0 0 0 0
41 to 50 0 0 0 0

THE GROWTH STATUS OF MANGROVE REHAB AND RECRUITS IN STATION 1


AND STATION 2

Table 7 The Result of Mean Height of Mangrove Rehab and Recruits of Rhizophora
mucronata, Rhizophora apiculata and Sonneratia alba in Station 1 and Station 2
SPECIES NUMBER OF ALIVE MANGROVES TOTAL HEIGHT MEAN HEIGHT

Rhizophora mucronata 17,676 1,958,552 110.803


Rhizophora apiculata 480 4,766 9.292
Sonneratia alba 54 5,851 108.352
40

Table 8 The Result of Mean Internodes of Mangrove Rehab and Recruits of Rhizophora
mucronata, Rhizophora apiculata and Sonneratia alba in Station 1 and Station 2
SPECIES NUMBER OF ALIVE MANGROVES TOTAL INTERNODES MEAN INTERNODES

Rhizophora mucronata 17676 373,680 21.141


Rhizophora apiculata 480 2,068 4.308
Sonneratia alba 54 657 12.167

ENVIRONMENTAL PARAMETERS

Substrate Type

Mangroves prefer fine-grained, soft organic muds but can grow in many ranges

of soil types including coral sand. Mangroves generally found in the intertidal zone where

they can out competing other less salt-tolerant flora (Ostling & Butler et al., 2009). The

characteristic of the substrate determines the life of the mangrove community. However,

the soil or substrate type o station 1 was rocky while in station 2 were sandy and muddy.

Station 1 Station 2 Station 2

Figure 11 Dried soil sample in station 1 and station 2


41

Temperature (˚C)

Mangrove plants do not tolerably develop when annual average temperatures


are below 19°C (Batool et al, 2015). Based on (Fig. 11) water temperature result in
station 1 was 3.3 ˚C while in station 2 were 3.1 ˚C. In substrate temperature along
station 1 its result was 3.4 ˚C while in station 2 were 3.1 ˚C. The results prove that both
water and substrate temperature really had a positive effect on the growth of mangroves
it seems that it is important regulators of the presence or absence of mangroves.

3.4

3.4 3.3
3.35
3.3
Temperature (˚C)

3.25
3.2 3.1 Water
3.1
3.15
Substrate
3.1
3.05
3
2.95
Station 1 Station 2
SAMPLING STATIONS

Figure 12 The Results of Water and Substrate Temperature (˚C) along Station 1
and Station 2.

Salinity (%)

This species tolerates a maximum salinity of 40 ppt and a salinity of optimal


growth of 8-33 ppt Duke and Kathiresan et al., (2015). The salinity between sampled
stations were nearest to its average which is 40 ppt by using hand refractometer,
typically the total results of salinity is ranging similarly between 35 and 35 ppt. The
results prove that the Rhizophora mucronata could survived even in the high
42

concentration of salt water because salinity is one of the requirements to have a


satisfactory growth of mangroves.

Sample of Salinity
40 35 35
Salinity (%O)

30

20
Sample of Salinity Results
10

Stations 1
Stations 2
SAMPLING STATIONS

Figure 13 Results of water salinity sample along the two study stations

pH
43

To determine the pH result, pH meter was use with the presence of saline water
sample of both sampling stations. The result sample of station 1 was 8.53 while in
station 2 was 8.54. However, the results prove that mangroves species can survived and
strive with that range of

Sample of pH
8.54

8.54
Mean pH

8.535
8.53
Sample of ph Result
8.53

8.525
Station 1 Station 2

SAMPLING STATIONS

Figure 13 Results of pH sample along the two study stations

MANAGEMENT INTERVENTION

MANAGEMENT INTERVENTION

Anthropogenic Factors

The diversity of marine fauna supported by mangroves both promotes and


condemns mangroves in their relationship with humans. Mangroves are being clear cut
for agricultural, forestry, and urban uses at a non-sustainable rate (Ostling & Butler et al.,
2009).
Out of 30 respondents interviewed 30% of interviewee answered that they
observed and oversee the plastic bags, wrapper of junk foods and glass bottles along
the mangrove plantation. 28% saw sacks, 14% saw can goods, 10% saw diaper, 7%
saw palwa, 5% saw motor wheel, 2% saw bag and 2% have saw shoes. This means the
mangrove plantation are surrounded by anthropogenic waste but this does not mean
that there are less successful and less productive.
44

Table 9 Anthropogenic Wastes Observed by Respondents along the Two Stations.


Anthropogenic Wastes Observed Number of Respondents Observed the
by Respondents Anthropogenic Wastes
Plastic bags 30
Wrapper of Junkfoods 30
Motor Wheel 2
Glass Bottles 30
Cans 14
Sacks 28
Tree Palm 7
Diaper 10
Bag 5
Shoes 2
Total 158
45

The illustration shows that anthropogenic wastes and activities are present in
station1. Because during my data gatherings answers are all matched to the questions
I’ve asked according to my survey questionnaire. Proofs are shown in Figure 15. The
perfect example on the illustration c will demonstrate that cutting of trees was present
along the study area but not often. Those trees bark make it as boat port bridge
foundation for recreational purposes. Luckily station 1 surrounded of Marine Protected
Area were rich in marine organisms.

a. b. c.

d. e. f.
46

Figure 14 Some anthropogenic examples that can make less productive to the rehabilitated
mangroves: a. can; b. junk food wrapper; c. cutting trees for recreational
activities; d. slipper and glass bottle; e plastic bottle; and f. sacks.

During my fourteen days sampling I’ve encountered different kinds of


anthropogenic materials along station 2. Some spotted anthropogenic resources that
may cause mortality and less productive to the rehabilitated mangrove. Some mangrove
species are surrounded by rope, marine debris, sea weeds and etc. Others are harmed
and eaten by bivalves which bring a yellowish disease to the seedlings and its seedling
stems serving as substrates for oyster colonization.
47

Animals were observed and recorded was goat and horse. Sometimes they
make it as grazing ground to feed their empty belly. The percentage result of goat was
30% while in horse was 10% (Fig. 17).

Table 10 Animals were Observed of Residents Inside the Rehabilitated Area


ANIMAL FOUND NUMBER OF RESPONDENTS
Goat 20
Horse 10
Total 30

Figure 19 showed that out of 30 respondents 18 % answer yes, 5% answer no and 7%


answer sometimes ( Figure 18) were answered sometime to monitor the rehabilitated
area.

Table 11 Willingness of Residents to Monitor the Rehabilitated Area


NUMBER OF RESPONDENTS
YES NO SOMETIMES TOTAL
18 5 7 30

Asking them through their observations about the present status of mangrove
rehabilitation program from its implementation, 0% answer no whereas 30% answer yes.
48

They said that because of mangrove the number of fish was increasing. Some says that
mangrove provide food and serve as habitat for other forms of wildlife including birds,
fish and crustaceans. Above all the mangrove rehabilitation brings more than positive
effect to the community as well as to the other marine organisms not just for
consumption also for recreational activities (Figure 19).

Table 12 Mangrove rehabilitation bring favourable effect to the community and


family
NUMBER OF RESPONDENTS
YES NO
30 0

Figure 20 showed the result that out of 30 respondents, 25% answered yes and
5% answered no about the participation of the residents and barangay officials in the
rehabilitated area.

Table 13 Participation of the Respondents and Barangay Officials in the


Rehabilitated Area.
NUMBER OF RESPONDENTS
YES NO
25 5

Based on data gatherings with the presence of respondents three different


agencies who help and support to monitor the mangrove rehabilitation program in Sitio
Dalampasigan (station 1) and Sitio Panguig (station 2). Headed by the Department of
Environment and Natural Resources (DENR) specifically the CENRO-MATI Followed by
the Local Government Units (LGU) specifically the CiENRO-MATI and the Bureau of
Fisheries and aquatic Resources (BFAR) (Figure 21).
49

Table 14 Agencies that Help to Monitor the Mangrove Rehabilitation Program


NUMBER OF RESPONDENTS
YES NO
LGU 30 0
BFAR 30 0
DENR 30 0
TOTAL 90 0

CHAPTER V

SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

SUMMARY

Assessment of Mangrove Rehabilitation Program was conducted in Sitio


Dalampasigan (station 1) and Sitio Panguig (station 2) Barangay Tamisan, City of Mati,
Davao Oriental. The study monitored the selected environmental parameters that could
affect the mangroves in the area. The study was done for three months.

Mangrove Rehabilitation determines the species composition and percentage


survival rate and growth rate of mangroves in a way by measuring the plant height (cm)
and counting the internodes within the two rehabilitation site. Base on the gather data

Height of planted mangroves was ranges in 101-150 cm were commonly


recorded in both station 1 and station 2. There were only 2-4 mangroves which reached
the height from 401-450 cm specifically recorded in station 2. The highest number of
internodes recorded was 21-30 in station 1 and station 2. The tallest number of
internodes was 41-50.

A total of 200 mangrove seedlings were planted by beneficiaries of mangrove


rehab of DENR and LGU in station 1. In station 2, about 1500 mangrove seedlings were
also planted. After three years, the rehabilitation sites were assessed by this study.
About 180 mangroves were recorded alive (91%) in station 1 and 14250 (95%) in station
2.
50

Mangrove Recruits specially Rhizophora mucronata along two stations has the
highest result of plant height with a range of 101-150 cm. While the shortest plant height
is in the range of 70-100. Whereas in Rhizophora apiculata highest result of plant height
with a range of 101-150. While the shortest plant height is in the range of 70-100.
Sonneratia alba highest result of plant height with a range of 101-150. While the shortest
plant height is in the range of 70-100.The results of three species are all the same.

The highest result number of internodes was a range of 21-30. While the shortest
plant height is in the range of 31-40. Rhizophora apiculata high range of internodes was
of 21-30. The lowest internodes are in the range of 1-10. Whereas in Sonneratia alba
highest result of internodes with a range of 1-10. The lowest internodes are in the range
of 21-30

CONCLUSION

The result of the study confirmed that the rehabilitation of mangrove specifically
the Rhizophora mucronata had a good growth in station 1 and station 2 along the
seaward zone. In addition temperature affects the growth of Rhizophora mucronatadue
to the over exposure of mangrove to sunlight. While in the substrate type also give a
suitable location which contributes positive impacts to its progression. Anthropogenic
threats such as waste disposal and cutting of trees were contribute a minimal effect to
the mangrove rehab in the area due to the daily monitoring buddies and residents was
all aware the importance of mangroves. Furthermore, there was a result for a
recruitment rate along the two sampling sites.

RECOMMENDATION

1. The future researchers should continue the monitoring of growth status of


mangroves rehab and recruits along rehabilitation sites.
2. A deeper approach of this study is suggested to conduct similar study in
the area considering the other environmental parameters such as carbon
sequestration and nutrient content.
51

3. Another study is suggested that would conduct a study for the species
composition that lives inside the mangrove especially the meiofauna
species.
4. Develop the participation of the residents such as conducting regular
information, education and communication campaign (IEC) about the
importance of mangroves.

LITERATURE CITED

Batool, N., Mazhar, R., & Ilyas, N. (2015). Effects of Siltation , Temperature and Salinity
on Mangrove Plants Introduction.

Bay, U., Duarte, C. M., & Bay, U. (2004). Recruitment , mortality and growth of
mangrove ( Rhizophora sp .) seedlings in Recruitment , mortality and growth of
mangrove ( Rhizophora sp .), (May 2014).

Canizares, L.P., Seronay, R.A. (2016). Diversity and Species Composition of Mangroves
in Barangay Imelda, Dinagat Island, Philippines, 9 (3), 518-526.

Cremades, J., (2004). Assessment of the Displacement of Mangrove Species Avicennia


sp. on Mud Clam Polymesoda erosa in Planted Rhizophora Mangroves, 1-17.

Duke, N., Kathiresan, K., Salmo III, S.G., Fernando, E.S., Peras, J.R., Sukardjo, S. &
Miyagi, T. (2010a). Bruguiera sexangula. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
2010
52

Duke, N., Kathiresan, K., Salmo III, S.G., Fernando, E.S., Peras, J.R., Sukardjo, S. &
Miyagi, T. (2010b). Rhizophora apiculata. The IUCN Red List of Threatened
Species 2010

Duke, N., Kathiresan, K., Salmo III, S.G., Fernando, E.S., Peras, J.R., Sukardjo, S. &
Miyagi, T. (2010c). Rhizophora mucronata. The IUCN Red List of Threatened
Species 2010

Dwyer, P. E. R. D. J. M. K. P. G. (2014). Mangrove rehabilitation : a review focusing on


ecological and institutional issues, 587–604.

Kathiresan, K. et al. 2010. Sonneratia alba. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species,
(2010).

Kathiresan, K. (2007). 5. Threats to Mangroves


5.1.http://dev.ourworld.unu.edu/international-network-on-water-environment-and-
health/unu-Inweh-course-1-mangroves/Degradation and destruction of
mangroves.pdf

Kathiresan, K., & Bingham, B. L. (2001). Biology of Mangroves and Mangrove


Ecosystems, 40, 1–145.

Laulikitnont, P. (2014). Evaluation of Mangrove Ecosystem Restoration Success in


Southeast Asia.

Leadership, E. (2013). Community-Based Mangrove Rehabilitation Training.


https://elti.yale.edu/sites/default/files/rsource_files/Course%20Report_Mangrove%2
0Rehab.pdf

Macintosh, D.J., Ashton, E.C. (2002). A review of Mangrove Biodiversity Conservation


and Mangement, (June).

Nagelkerken, I., Blaber, S. J. M., Bouillon, S., Green, P., Haywood, M., Kirton, L. G., …
Somerfield, P. J. (2008). The habitat function of mangroves for terrestrial and
marine fauna: A review. Aquatic Botany, 89(2), 155–185.

Ostling, J. L., Butler, D. R., & Dixon, R. W. (2009). The Biogeomorphology of Mangroves
and Their Role in Natural Hazards Mitigation, 5, 1607–1624.
53

Padilla, C.N., Fortes, M.D., Duarte, C.M., Terrados, J. (n.d.). Recruitment, mortality and
growth of Mangrove (Rhizophora sp) seedlings in Ulugan Bay, Palawan,
Philippines, 1-27.

Primavera,J.H., Sadaba, R.S., Lebata, M.J.H.L., Altamirano, J.P. (2004). Handbook of


Mangroves in the Philippines - Panay.
https://www.zsl.org/Field/to/Phil./Mangroves.pdf.

Rodriguez, H. G., Mondal, B., Sarkar, N. C., Ramaswamy, A., Rajkumar, D., & Maiti, R.
K. (2012). Comparative Morphology and Anatomy of Few Mangrove Species in
Sundarbans , West Bengal , India and its Adaptation to Saline Habitat, 3(85), 1–17.

Salmo, S.G., Torio, D.O., Morvena, J., Esteban, A. (2007). Evaluation of Rehabilitation
Strategies and Management Programs in Lingayen Gulf, 24-34, (June).

West, I., & Duke, N. C. (2006). Species Profiles for Pacific Island Agroforestry, (April).
54

APPENDICES
55

Appendix 1 – Species Composition of Rhizophora mucronata, Rhizophora apiculata,


Sonneratia alba along two sampling stations.
Species Station 1 Station 2

1. Rhizophora mucronata √ √

2. Rhizophora apiculata √ √

3. Sonneratia alba √ √

Appendix 2 - Survival Rate of Rhizophora mucronata the Mangrove Rehabilitation in


Station 1 and Station 2

SPECIES STATION 2 STATION 1

Original Planted Survival Original Planted Survival


Rhizophora mucronata
200 180 15000 14250

Appendix 3 - Mangrove Rehab in Station 1 and Station 2 Plant Height (cm)


GROWTH RATE (Height
cm) Station 1 Station 2 Total Mean
70-100 7 635 642 321
101-150 171 13100 13271 6635.5
151-200 2 405 407 203.5
201-250 0 40 40 20
251-300 0 21 21 10.5
301-350 0 22 22 11
351-400 0 2 2 1
401-450 0 4 4 2
451-500 0 0 0 0
56

Appendix 4 - Mangrove Rehab in Station 1 and Station 2 (Internodes)

GROWTH RATE (Internodes) Station 1 Station 2 Total Mean


1 to 10 1 19 20 10
11 to 20 14 1464 1478 739
21 to 30 144 9530 9674 4837
31 to 40 22 3998 4020 2010
41 to 50 0 18 18 9

Appendix 5 - Mangrove Recruits in Station 1 and Station 2 (Height cm)

GROWTH RATE (Height cm) Station 1 Station 2 Total Mean

Rhizophora mucronata
70-100 377 101 478 239
101-150 753 7 760 380
Rhizophora apiculata
70-100 20 20 40 20
101-150 43 0 43 215
Sonneratia alba
70-100 26 0 26 13
101-150 28 0 28 14

Appendix 6 - Mangrove Recruits in Station 1 and Station 2 (Internodes)

GROWTH RATE (Internodes) Station 1 Station 2 Total Mean

Rhizophora mucronata
1 to 10 100 63 163 81.5
11 to 20 138 24 162 81
21 to 30 409 2 411 205.5
31 to 40 60 0 60 30
41 to 50 0 0 0 0
57

Rhizophora apiculata
1 to 10 13 13 26 13
11 to 20 18 6 24 12
21 to 30 29 2 31 15.5
Sonneratia alba
1 to 10 28 0 28 14
11 to 20 20 0 20 10
21 to 30 6 0 6 3

Appendix 7 – Results Sample of Water and Substrate Temperature together with its
replicates along station 1
Replicate1 Replicate 2 Replicate 3 Total Mean
Water 3.3 3.4 3.3 10 3.3
Substrate 3.3 3.4 3.6 10.3 3.4

Appendix 8 – Results Sample of Water and Substrate Temperature together with its
replicates along station 2
Replicate1 Replicate 2 Replicate 3 Total Mean
Water 3.2 3 3.1 9.3 3.1
Substrate 3.2 3.1 3 9.3 3.1

Appendix 9 – Final Result of Water and Substrate Temperature by getting its mean
average
Temperature Station 1 Station 2
Water 3.3 3.1
Substrate 3.4 3.1

Appendix 10 – Result of salinity sample along station 1 and station 2


Sample of Salinity
Stations Results
Stations 1 35
Stations 2 35
58

Appendix 11 – Result of pH sample along station 1 and station 2


Sample of pH
Stations Result
Station 1 8.53
Station 2 8.54

Appendix 12 – Result anthropogenic threats along station 1 and station 2

Plastic Wrapper of Motor Glass


Bags Junkfoods Wheel Bottles Cans Sacks Palwa Diaper Bag Shoes

30% 30% 5% 30% 14% 28% 7% 10% 2% 2%

Appendix 13 – Animals were observe and oversee of residents inside the rehabilitated
area along station 1 and station 2

Goat Horse

30 10

Appendix 14 – Designation of residents to monitor the rehabilitated area


Yes 18
No 5
Sometimes 7

Appendix 15 – Mangrove rehabilitation bring favorable effect to the community and


family

Yes 30

No 0
59

Appendix 16 – Participation of the residents and barangay officials in the rehabilitated


area

Yes 30

No 5

Appendix 17 – Agencies that help to monitor the mangrove rehabilitation program


DENR 30
LGU 30
BFAR 30
60

Appendix 18 – Survey Questtionnaire

Assessment of Mangrove Rehabilitation Program in Sitio Dalampasigan and Sitio


Panguig, Brgy. Tamisan, City of Mati, Davao Oriental

(Bisaya Version)

I. BACKGROUND IMPORMASYON SA MGA RESPONDENTS

A. PERSONAL NA IMPORMASYON

Pangalan sa Respondent: ___________________________________________

Edad: _______________________

Gender:

______Babae ______Lalake

Sibil Status:

______Dalaga/Ulitaw ______Menyo ______Bulag _____Byoda/Byodo

Ethno-linguistic Affiliation:

____Kagan

____Bisaya

____Mandaya

____Cebuano

____Ilokano

____Tausog

____Maguindanao

____Maranao

____Others (Specify):

SULOD BALAY NA IMPORMASYON:


61

Residence Status:

Permanente: _________ Pila Katuig: _________

Trabaho sa Respondent:

______Negosyante ______Mag-uuma

______Sa Opisina ______Ug Lain


62

Assessment of Mangrove Rehabilitation Program in Sitio Dalampasigan and Sitio


Panguig, Brgy. Tamisan, City of Mati, Davao Oriental

II. ACTIVITIES IN THE AREA THAT MAY THREATEN THE MANGROVE

A. ANTHROPOGENIC ACTIVITIES

1. Aduna kabay nakita na mga basura sulod sa maong area sama sa selopin, lata, botilya,
og uban pa?

____Naa ____Wala

Kung naa, unsa? _______________________

2. Aduna kabay namatikdan na mga binuhing hayop na naga-sulod sa maong area?

____Naa ____Wala

Kung naa, unsa? _______________________

3. Aduna kabay namatikdan na naga-sulod sa maong area arun sa pagpanguha og kahoy?

____Naa ____Wala

Kung naa permanente ba o deli ____________________

4. Aduna bay tao naa gi assign sa pag-monitor sa kalimpyo og stado sa maong bakawan?

____Naa ____Wala

5. Gina padayon ba gihapon ang pag-monitor sa lugar?


63

____Ou ____Wala

6. Aduna kabay partisipasyon sa pagbantay sa maong bakawan?

____Naa ____Wala

7. Aduna bay partisipasyon and inyong Barangay Opisyal sa pagpa-nindot og sa pag-atiman sa


maong bakawan?

____Naa ____Wala

8. Mga maayong butang namatikdan sa pag-pananom sa mga mangrove?

______________________________________________________________________

9. Unsa na mga ahensiya ang katabang sa pag-mintinar sa maong Marine Protected Area?

______________________________________________________________________

10. Mga maikatambag sa dugang pagpa-nindot sa maong protected area?

______________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________
64

PLATES
65

Plate 1 - Measuring the plant height in station 1 and station 2

Plate2 Counting the number of internodes along station 1 and station 2

Plate 3 Recording water and substrate temperature in station 1 and station 2


66

Station 1 Station 2 Station 2

Plate 4 Dried soil sample in station 1 and station 2

Plate 5 Calibrating the water sample by using hand refractometer between the two stations

Plate 6 Calibrating the water sample by using Ph meter between the two stations
67

Plate 7 Interviewing Respondents

Plate 7 Some marine species who live in the mangroves.