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C.H.I.M.E.R.A.

Creativity Index of Enterprises


(basic instruments, analysis, data and some cases)
TABLE OF CONTENTS

1 GOALS AND OBJECTIVES .......................................................................................................... 4


2 APPROACH................................................................................................................................ 4
3 TARGET GROUPS ...................................................................................................................... 4
4 INTRODUCTION: THEORIES AND POLICIES............................................................................... 4
5 CONCEPT OF CREATIVITY: DEFINITION AND SHARING ............................................................ 7
6 CREATIVE ORGANIZATION: DEFINITION AND SHARING ........................................................ 10
7 COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS: DEFINITION AND DEVELOPMENT OF TOOLS FOR MEASURING
CREATIVITY IN ORGANIZATIONS ........................................................................................................ 11
7.1 Instruments and tools ............................................................................................................ 12
8 TESTING OF THE INDEX – PROPOSED CRITERIA FOR ASSESING VITALITY OF THE
ENTERPRISES ...................................................................................................................................... 12
8.1 Management support ............................................................................................................ 12
8.2 Motivation .............................................................................................................................. 13
8.3 Resources ............................................................................................................................... 14
8.4 Outcomes ............................................................................................................................... 15
9 CHIMERA CREATIVITY INDEX - QUESTIONNAIRE FORM ........................................................ 17
10 A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS .................................................................................................... 20
10.1 Italy ......................................................................................................................................... 20
10.1.1 Case histories ......................................................................................................................... 20
10.2 Greece .................................................................................................................................... 21
10.3 Poland..................................................................................................................................... 22
10.3.1 Practices and experiences: science and innovative mind ........................... 23
10.4 SPAIN ...................................................................................................................................... 25
10.4.1 RESULTS .................................................................................................................... 25
10.5 ROMANIA ............................................................................................................................... 26
11 MAIN FINDINGS ...................................................................................................................... 28
11.1 INSTRUMENTS FOR A CREATIVITY TOOL-BOX........................................................................ 28
11.1.1 FIRST STEP .............................................................................................................................. 28
11.1.2 FIRST STEP - BASIC FACTS ......................................................................................... 28
11.1.3 SECOND STEP: SET UP A MULTIDISCIPLINARY DYNAMIC INSTRUMENT................................ 30
11.2 INDEXING SYSTEMS: THE CHIMERA PROPOSAL ..................................................................... 31
11.3 INDEXING SYSTEMS: THE CHIMERA PROPOSAL - SOME REMARKS AND WARNINGS ........... 33
11.4 . THIRD STEP: AN OPERATIONAL APPROACH THROUGH TRAINING ...................................... 35
11.5 INDEXING SYSTEMS: THE CHIMERA MATRIX PROPOSAL ....................................................... 36
11.6 THIRD STEP: CREATIVITY EDUCATIONAL MODEL ................................................................... 68
12 12. SHARING OF THE RESULTS: AN ON GOING ACTION......................................................... 69
13 FOLLOW UP AND SUSTAINABILITY .............................................................................. 69
14 ESSENTIAL BIBLIOGRAPHY...................................................................................................... 71
14.1 Italy ......................................................................................................................................... 71
14.2 . Greece .................................................................................................................................. 71
14.3 Poland..................................................................................................................................... 71
14.4 Spain ....................................................................................................................................... 73
14.5 Romania ................................................................................................................................. 73
1 GOALS AND OBJECTIVES 4. in a next phase, to share the test results with
the sample enterprises in order to validate and
The CHIMERA Creativity Index of Enterprises can enhance models and instruments
be considered one of the on-going efforts to
define instruments and approaches, while 3 TARGET GROUPS
experimenting indexing systems, that would
contribute to the researches about: In the elaboration, testing and evaluation of the
 criteria for assessing the creative vitality of CHIMERA Creativity Index and of its results
enterprises; Partners have involved, at different level:
 integrated innovative indicators for measuring  Stakeholders at regional level
growth and innovation interconnected with  Public institutions at local and regional level
creativity within enterprises systems;  Learning organizations and VET providers at
 policy-making and decision-making processes for regional level
smart development, resilient entrepreneurship,  Enterprises in particular SMEs
creative innovation;  Entrepreneurs and managers of SMEs working
 basis for an international comparison1 in at regional and national level
creativity's measurement.  Employees of SMEs operating at
2 APPROACH regional/national level
 Representatives of professional organizations
The challenge of measuring enterprises' and enterprises associations at regional level.
creativity2 obviously cannot be won only with one The design and the drafting of the Index have
project, CHIMERA, in this sense, is a laboratory involved mainly Partners and stakeholders and
where some hypothesis has been tested and representatives of professional organizations and
verified and some work has begun. enterprise associations.
In order to carry out the activities Partners have The testing activity has involved primarily SMEs,
started: entrepreneurs, managers and employees of SMEs
1. to develop a pilot comparative analysis of the working at regional/national level.
characteristics of some enterprises operating The evaluation and testing phase of the Index and
within reference areas, considering the different of its results is going to been involve wider
values (economic, financial, cultural, social) typologies of subjects. The follow up activities
addressed by the project. Interviews and has opened, through the Focus Groups actions, a
questionnaires have been used as main phase of discussion and revision of instruments
instruments for reaching and involving and approach with public institutions, learning
entrepreneurs, managers and staff of enterprises, organizations and VET providers, SMEs,
(the activities has been supported also by the representatives of professional organizations and
analysis of available documents and data related enterprise associations.
to the enterprise performances); 4 INTRODUCTION: THEORIES AND POLICIES
2. to outline an operational pilot index also with
the contribution of experts in economics, in order “According to Darwin’s The Origin of Species, it is
to define and measure the creativity of not the most intellectual of the species that
enterprises; survives; it is not the strongest that survives; but
3. to plan a testing phase in enterprises; the species that survives is the one that is able
best to adapt and adjust to the changing
environment3 in which it finds itself”.
1
This statement taken from Megginson (1963)
The New Economy, Creativity and Consumption, in
could deeply concern also the survival of
International Journal of Cultural Studies March 2004 7:
5-7,
2
"Can creativity be measured?" conference organised
by the Directorate - General for Education and Culture
(Education and Culture DG) together with the Centre 3
Adaptation and creativity in cultural context, Leonora
for Research on Lifelong Learning (CRELL) of the Joint M. Cohen1 Oregon State University, USA, Revista de
Research Centre (JRC). Psicología Vol. 30 (1), 2012 (ISSN 0254-9247)
enterprises4: the means is the same, to adapt or Tushman & O’Reilly, 1997; Utterback, 1994;
adjust to change by innovation. Woodman, Sawyer, & Griffin, 1993).
The impulse for innovation can be found within a Creativity and innovation5 have a greater and
single creative idea (Amabile and others, 1996). greater role in the economic and social
Therefore, improvement of the creative process, development and growth of Europe.

from a creative idea to a practice innovation, has The Lisbon Strategy has stated that knowledge
been suggested as being a vital organizational and innovation are the most fruitful assets for the
competence for remaining competitive and for Union, especially considering the growing global
improving the overall innovation of an enterprise competition.
(Amabile, 1988; Cummings, Hinton, & Gobdel, Creativity and innovation are stated to be decisive
1975; DiLiello & Houghton, 2006; Kanter, 1988; factors for competitiveness and economical
Shalley, 1991; Shalley, Gilson, & Blum, 2000; growth.
Despite this stated and declared importance for
Europe of creativity and innovation, there’s a
need to increase operationally awareness about
4
"…major challenges are brought about by globalisation the relevance of these aspects among European
and the digital shift but the necessary adaptations are enterprises.
yet to be promoted to allow these sectors to realise Since 2008 European policies encourage the
their full potential and Europe's long-standing reinforcement of innovative competences and the
excellence to be better valorised as a comparative
growth of a creative and knowledge-based
advantage on the world scene. This Communication
economy and society. In the manifesto of the
proposes a strategy to exploit further the potential of
these sectors in the EU to contribute to growth and European Year for Creativity (2009), seven lines
jobs", COMMUNICATION FROM THE COMMISSION TO
THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT, THE COUNCIL, THE
EUROPEAN ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL COMMITTEE
5
AND THE COMMITTEE OF THE REGIONS, Promoting Design, Creativity and Innovation: A Scoreboard
cultural and creative sectors for growth and jobs in the Approach, February 2009 Hugo Hollanders & Adriana
EU / COM/2012/0537 final. van Cruysen, PRO INNO EUROPE - INNO METRICS
of action were identified; among these the key entrepreneurs, managers and the staff of
actions aimed at: enterprises.
- realizing a closer connection between artistic The collected information have been revised and
models, business models, schools and interpreted using also other available documents
universities, and data related to enterprises performance. This
- increasing entrepreneurial spirit in young process is still going on as CHIMERA follow up
people by a fruitful cooperation with business, study.
- developing innovative capacities in public and In this way the different Partners experiences
private organizations. have been examined in order to find and share a
Several initiatives and policies are now being common concept of creativity and, in particular,
realized aiming at encouraging innovation and of creativity in economic organizations.
creativity in economy and organizations. The following step has been to set up a Creativity
CHIMERA project offers some methodological and Index framework usable to investigate and
operational hints to stimulate innovation and collect quantitative and qualitative data about the
creativity in their respective countries and in level of creativity in enterprises and the presence
Europe, addressing in particular the vocational of stimulating or discouraging factors in the
education and training systems in order to reach organizations.
also the economic systems at a local, regional Then Partners has started a testing phase
and national level transforming the enterprises addressing principally in small and medium
(some of the at least) in creativity-triggers6. enterprises: the sample group is composed by ten
To this purpose, CHIMERA project has developed SMEs for each involved Country, which were
a series of activities in order to outline: selected by size and sector.
- usable criteria for self-assessing the creative Test results has been shared both among partners
vitality in an enterprise; and with the involved enterprises in a subsequent
- a set of indicators for customized evaluation revision and validation phase.
and assessment of growth and innovation within The aim of the research is to investigate in
enterprises; enterprises contextual factors that inhibit or
- contributions for overall policy-making and support individuals in the creative ideas
decision-making programmes in the field of an generation, growth, development and impact.
holistic entrepreneurship7 development and Understanding causes and effects that enhance or
innovation; restrict the link between identified creative
- basis for an international comparison. potential8 and practiced creativity9 (processes,
In order to set up the index parameters, first, a
comparative analysis of the characteristics
(economic, financial, cultural, social) of the 8
The concept is basic and politically relevant. The
enterprises operating within the reference areas challenge in to move from the simple idea of the
of the project, has been carried out using creative potential of creative industries to the creative
interviews and questionnaires to contact potential of and for non-creative industries. "Also, the
increasing mobility between occupations in specialized
creative industries (e.g., design, photography and visual
arts) and creative functions in non-creative industries
6
Design And SMEs: The Trigger Of Creative poses new challenges for the task of measuring the
Ecosystems, Marzia Mortati, Leon Cruickshank; The actual scale of creative employment using only
Value Of Creativity And Innovation In Entrepreneurship occupational classification systems". Methodological
Dr. Friday O. Okpara, University Of Gondar, Ethiopia approaches for measuring the creative employment: a
7
Creativity, Innovation and Entrepreneurialism: the critical appraisal with an application to Portugal, Sara
Santos Cruz, CEF.UP, FEP-UP, School of Economics
New Public Management Tools to Combat Inequality
and Management, University of Porto; Aurora A. C.
and Exclusion in the 21st Century, R.D. Pathak
Teixeira, INESC TEC and OBEGEF; FEP Working Papers,
Professor & Head Department of Management & Public
Administration, The University of the South Pacific, n. 455 April 2012. See also, Designing a National
International Association af Schools and Institutes Of Innovation System to allow the Creative Industries to
Administration, 2003; CENTRES – Creative add value, Lelia Green Edith Cowan University,
Entrepreneurship In Schools, Progress Report, 518238 abstract,www.cci.edu.au/sites/default/files/alawrence/g
-LLP-1-2011-1-UK-COMENIUS-CNW. reen_Designing_National_Innovation.pdf
results) is important as they may be useful for retrieve values in the short or long term
identifying untapped creative resources and can (Cummings & Oldham, 1997).
give guidance on how to maximize the overall The literature on organizational change is
practiced creativity throughout the organization. immense, as is the literature focused on individual
An increase in practiced creativity leads to creativity, but the literature on combined
enhanced organizational innovation, increased job organizational creativity is much smaller.
satisfaction and increased retention, that can The difference between creativity research in the
allow companies to differentiate themselves and field of psychology and organizational creativity is
better relocate in market segments, with the that the latter has an exclusive focus on the
ultimate goal of enhancing resilience values and variables that have direct implications for the
improving organisation performances and well workplace, and creativity in a work or
being at work. organizational context.
5 CONCEPT OF CREATIVITY: DEFINITION AND Creativity within the domain of organizational
creativity can be viewed as the incubation or the
SHARING idea generation stage (an accelerator too?), and
innovation as the implementation of these
Definition of creativity (and of innovation too) is a creative ideas, often called creative output.
a dynamic concept10 and conceptually a The term “creativity” is often confused with the
continuous challenge. term “innovation”, and vice versa. But between
For some researchers it is indefinable, intangible the two there are fundamental differences.
and impossible to be taught or debated; it simply Most define “creativity” as a “generation of
happens. For others creativity is the ability of ideas”, whereas innovation is defined as the
conducting our knowledge in a different way and transformation of these ideas into actions by
of looking for new solutions or new ways of selection, improvement and implementation:
realizing them. according to this definition creativity is the input
Definitions of creativity have received broad and innovation is the output.
attention in previous literature. Most of the But creativity is not the source of innovative
definitions include the terms “novel” and “useful” processes, as a sort of input for innovation; it is
(Amabile, 1983; Barron & Harrington, 1981; the environment where innovative processes can
Guilford, 1950; Martindale, 1989; Sternberg & more easily be realized. So creativity is the
Lubart, 1999); little agreement is found in today’s context where innovation can develop.
literature that defines creativity beyond these two In a system with a high level of creativity there
terms (Hennessey & Amabile, 2010; Klausen, are several innovative processes in which
2010). innovation can bloom. So innovation is the result,
Following Amabile et al. (1996), Cummings & organizational creativity is the condition: a high
Oldham, (1997), DiLiello & Houghton (2006), level of creativity inevitably produces innovation.
Shalley, Zhou, & Oldham (2004), Woodman et
al., (1993) and Zhou & Shalley (2008), we can But how can we measure creativity? And how
define creativity as the production of novel and can we measure it in enterprises?
useful ideas in any domain. Contributions are Measuring creativity is most certainly as
novel when they offer something original or challenging as measuring innovation: Innovation
unique relative to what is already available. The can rely on data that is already captured by
contribution also needs to be useful. It must be Eurostat, the European statistical body: this
relevant to the strategy of the organization. It includes a number of science and engineering
must be something from which the enterprise can graduates, R&D expenditure, venture capital
expenditure in ICT, patent application etc.
However, European and national statistical
9
Creative Potential and Practised Creativity: Identifying agencies collect far less detailed data concerning
Untapped Creativity in Organizations, Trudy C. Di Liello the role of creativity, such as number of art
and Jeffery D. Houghton. students, expenditure in film, games development
10
Creative Approaches to Problem Solving: A or A&R.
Framework for Innovation and Change, care of Scott G.
Isaksen,K. Brian Dorval,Donald J. Treffinger, 2011 p.6
In order to reach a shared definition of They have different objectives and scopes with
creativity11, CHIMERA approach is structured in: different geographical areas of study and
1. analysis of documents and research materials implementation.
related to key concepts (creativity, innovation, Some of them are mainly focus on scientific and
enterpreneurship, development, resilience) carried technology innovation others take also account of
out in each participating Countries and also all the rt and culture values as indicators of
over the world, basically with reference to creativity.
english-language sourxes; In the reviewing process CHIMERA Partners have
2. set up of a survey tool to be submitted to sa examined and chosen some of these creativity
basic sample enterprises, in order to investigate and innovation related indexes, drafting a second-
which aspects of the enterprise’s life could be step instrument (see chapter) where is proposed
considered, lived and perceived as “creativity identified a wider set of possible indicators,
indexes” by entrepreneurs, managers and under testing, which can contribute to the further
employees; benchmarked research phase on the creative
3. elaboration of a shared (even if open) definition potential and attitude of EU enterprises that the
of creativity and in particular of creativity within project has boosted.
organizations and enterprises, on the basis of the
research activity results and on the field test
results.

CHIMERA approach refers also to different


theories and methodologies for measuring
creativity at macro level (territories, complex
organisation like cities or regions) and at more
focused scale, the enterprise level.
The idea is to valorize the existing creativity
indexes methods, that are basically focused on
and addressing social and economic contexts.
Then, according an experimental methodology,
some factors that are used these national and
international indexes to assess creativity and
reviewing are singled out and translated and
adapted to innovation, creativity and cultural
values in enterprise-oriented context .
The existing indexes (see table 1) are based on
slightly different definitions of creativity and
innovation.

11
The study is CCI-oriented but the assumption is
general and sharable in non-CCI contexts giving an idea
of the width of the discussion. Business literature and
economic policy are increasingly calling for enhanced
‘creativity’ in the workplace. Whilst no definitive
definition is in current usage, ‘creativity’ embodies
generic attributes including communication, team-work,
problem solving, cultural understanding, and decision-
making skills. Educating for the Creative Workforce:
Rethinking Arts and Education - ARC Centre of
Excellence for Creative Industries and Innovation in
partnership with the Australia Council for the Arts
March 2007
Index Main characteristics
It includes 88 indicators aimed at illustrating the interplay of various
factors that contribute to the growth of creativity; it encompasses four
domains (human, social, cultural and institutional) that contribute to such
growth.
The index captures the characteristics of the socio-cultural parameters
Hong Kong Index

“Hong Kong Creativity Index”, and illustrates the interplay of various factors that contribute to
Home Affairs Bureau of the creativity.
Hong Kong Special It presents the following areas:
Administrative Region - human capital
Government, November 2004
- social capital conducive to creativity
- cultural participation and cultural offering as factors to stimulate
creativity
- institutional parameters conducive to creativity
- outcomes of creativity.

This is a follow-up European version of Richard Florida’s work in the US.


Euro-Creativity Index

It includes elements that would attract the “creative class” to a location.


“Euro-Creativity Index”, in the
report “Europe in the creative It is founded on the “3Ts”: Technology, Tolerance and Talent.
age” by Florida and Tinagli in It includes a large number of indicators assessing science-based factors
2004 on the of creativity (patents, R&D expenditure, number of scientists etc.).
basis of “The Rise of the In also includes openness and diversity indicators, both factors
Creative Class”, published in contributing to the establishment of an environment that is conducive to
2002
creativity and innovation.

“A Composite Index of the The Flanders Approach links creativity to notions of scientific and
Creative Economy”, Bowen, technological innovation and entrepreneurship. It does not, however, put
Flemish

H.P., and Sleuwaegen, L. from


Index

any remarkable emphasis on the role of culture in stimulating creativity.


Vlerick Leuven Gent,
Management School and
The Flemish Index gives great importance to the notion of openness.
W.Moesen from the Catholic
University of Leuven, 2006
“Means for Overall Assessment It is a compilation of 62 indicators of cultural life, broken into three sub-
Finnish Report

of Cultural Life and Measuring indices: cultural avaliability, cultural participation and cultural production.
the Involvement of the Cultural
Sector in the Information
The cultural sector includes: music, dance, theatre, fine arts, cultural
Society”, Picard, R.G., Grölund, heritage, libraries, cinema and video, magazines and newspapers.
M. and Toivonen, T. for the
Finnish Ministry of Education and
Culture, 2003
The assessment is based on a wide range of indicators covering
structural conditions, knowledge creation, innovative efforts by firms and
output in terms of new products, services and intellectual property.
“European Innovation Innovation Scoreboard has successfully contributed to putting innovation
Scoreboard 2007” prepared by on the policy agendas of national and regional policy makers throughout
the Directorate-General for Europe.
EIS

Enterprises and Industry of the The most recent publication of the 2008 Scoreboard (Jan. 2009)
European Commission under the recognizes and highlights the importance of no-R&D innovation, including
Lisbon Strategy creativity and design. It also adopts indicators concerning the relevance
of ICT infrastructures as a tool to enable the development of creativity
and ways to measure human capital formation in society.
Index Main characteristics
The Manual is the basis for most innovation surveys in the EU and
around the world. It does not focus exclusively on technological
Oslo Manual

“Oslo Manual: the Measurement innovation (product and process innovations) but also includes
of Scientific and Technological organisational and marketing innovations.
Activities, Guidelines for
collecting and interpreting It investigates the field of non-technological innovation and the linkages
innovation data”, 2005 between different innovation types. The Manual does little to consider
the role of culture and creativity in fostering innovation.

The European Creativity Index (ECI) is a new statistical framework for


illustrating and measuring the interplay of various factors that contribute
to the growth of creativity in the European Union. As other indicators it
measures the performance of a phenomenon using a set of indicators
European Creativity Index

which highlight some of the key features of that phenomenon. It is


inspired by existing indexes concerning creativity, innovation and
European Creativity Index in economic performance but introduces elements that are more specifically
“The impact of culture on related to art and culture in order to ensure that a cultural dimension is
creativity. A Study prepared for taken into account when measuring the creative and innovative potential
the European Commission,
of Europe.
Directorate-General for Education
and Culture, June 2009 It highlights concepts that are relevant to assess creativity:
- human capital (education)
- technology infrastructure and usage
- social environment (including attitude towards diversity)
- industrial property
- institutional and regulatory environment.
-

6 CREATIVE ORGANIZATION: DEFINITION - the identifiable elements of creativity,


elements that make possible its stable
AND SHARING
reproducibility;
- the control on creativity development
Enhancing the creative process is physiological to
processes;
growth and competitiveness and to improve the
- the capacity to produce economic values in
overall innovation of an enterprises.
the future (non only in terms of sales).
Therefore, it is important that the creative
potential at individual level of every employee is
Analyzing creativity in organizations means
valorised and enhanced.
focusing and then interlacing three different
When employees perceive themselves as having
aspects of a real sustainable economy:
creative potential but not exploited, then there it
- innovation
can cause a contrary entropic process in the
- creativity
organizational factors (there is a cost of non-
- human capital.
creativity).
The concept of organizational creativity identifies
Creativity often is seen as a spontaneous
a relatively unexplored area in organizational
character or attitude of an individual; creativity
change and innovation.
and innovation have seen as the outcomes of
Organizational creativity can be defined as the
innate talent, not concrete, recognizable,
creation of a valuable, useful new outcomes,
identifiable and thus not tangible (all features
service, idea, procedure or process by individuals
that would allow to promote and valorize
working together in a complex social system.
creativity in an organization as a good practice: a
Personality factors, creativity relevant kills and
mind-set connoted by a method).
domain-specific knowledge are all components
First step is to move from an individual vision of
within the individuals, while motivation is
creativity to a vision of creativity and innovation
influenced by contextual factors (environment)
as strategic productive factors. It entails the need
outside the individual.
to identify:
Thus organizations can select individuals who task motivation is the motivation to undertake a
have high creative potential (and train them) and task or solve a problem because it is interesting,
can then structure their environment (and improve involving, personally challenging, or satisfying
it)in order to impact the level of motivation at rather than undertaking it out of the extrinsic
work over time, making motivation a key factor motivation arising from contracted-for rewards,
that can influence organizations. surveillance, competition, evaluation, or
Contextual factors influence practiced creativity requirements to do something in a certain way.
by their effects on intrinsic motivation.
The contextual factors that affect motivation can The outside component is the work environment
be broadly defined as “dimensions of the work or the social environment:
environment that potentially influence employees’ - the encouragement of the organization,
creativity but that are not part of the individual” - the encouragement of the hierarchy,
(Shalley et al.). - the support of the group,
If the contextual factor is perceived as controlling, - sufficient resources,
the impact of the contextual factor is expected to - the challenge,
decrease an employee’s intrinsic motivation, while - the autonomy with work,
if the contextual factor is perceived as - the pressure,
informational it will increase an employee’s - the organizational obstacles.
intrinsic motivation.
Furthermore, contextual factors that are more 7 COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS: DEFINITION
proximal to employees’ work life are suggested to
have a stronger effect day to day than those that AND DEVELOPMENT OF TOOLS FOR
are more distant. MEASURING CREATIVITY IN
Amabile’s research (1998) identified eight general
ORGANIZATIONS
categories of contextual factors that have an
effect on creativity. These are 1) supervisory
The CHIMERA Creativity Index is an instrument to
encouragement, 2) organizational support, 3)
investigate the climate and attitude for creativity
challenge, 4) freedom, 5) resources, 6) work-
and innovation that exists in a work group,
group support, 7) workload pressure 8)
division or organization.
organizational impediments.
It suggests some pathways to assess and
Creativity is a function (and a context) of the
measure the work environment creativity,
employee’s personal characteristics and the
specifically the management practices, resources,
characteristics of the context in which he or she
motivations and interactions.
works.
It can be used
Creativity includes three components within the
- to trigger processes in order to jump start
individual domain-relevant skills, creativity-
creativity, to communicate the importance of
relevant process, and intrinsic task motivation and
creativity and innovation within an organization;
one component outside the individual, that is the
- as an assessment tool for testing phases
work environment12.
preceding any type of innovation or change
Domain-relevant skills include knowledge,
intervention.
expertise, technical skills, intelligence13, and
It identifies some factors that can support or
talent14 in the particular domain in which the
inhibit innovation and creativity providing
individual is working. Creativity-relevant
suggestions opening to customizable methods15
processes include a cognitive style and
for improving the organisation climate and
personality characteristics that are conducive to
individual growth as to creativity and innovation.
independence, risk-taking, and taking new
perspectives on problems, as well as a disciplined
work style and skills in generating ideas. Intrinsic 15
These methods are "educational" and "training /
learning - based". This is in the nature of the project
12 and of the LLP Programme, obviously. In any case
Operate on the work environment, also at logistical education and training is a fundamental element of an
and lay out level can contribute to enhance individual organisation development process.
and organisation creativity. The process is circular, an CHIMERA explores basically two settings approachea
example, a good practice and model can be the Elica and pertinent areas: one related to creativity as a value
SpA - Casoli Foundation experience. (individual level) and and second one related to
13
See the 3T Florida model creativity as an enviroment (organisation / context
14
ibidem level).
7.1 Instruments and tools  environment (this is about aspects in the
organization that do or do not encourage
Amabile et al. (1996) suggests eight general creativity).
categories of contextual factors affecting
creativity: 8 TESTING OF THE INDEX – PROPOSED
 organizational support,
 supervisory encouragement, CRITERIA FOR ASSESING VITALITY OF THE
 freedom, ENTERPRISES
 resources,
 work-group support, The settings of the CHIMERA Creativity Index
 workload pressure, survey indicators is composed of 10 items, that
 challenge and organizational impediments. can be re-organized in 4 categories, as follows
(for the definitions see “Developing Organizational
The CHIMERA Creativity Index has based the Creativity - Researching contextual factors that
procedures to set up its items and indicators on enhance or restrict the output of creative
these categories. potential” by B. Chini).
These items and indicators have been tested on a
sample of enterprises (around 10 enterprises for
each involved Country), both on entrepreneurs 8.1 Management support
and on employees, in order to verify the coherent Management support, including Amabile’s
/ divergent perception and harmony in the supervisory encouragement, freedom and work-
company socio-economical system and to collect group support:
some hints about the situation in each country.  Supervisory encouragement
With respect to the Amabile's scheme some of Lot of studies provide substantial references
the items are not used, others have been added for the expected relation between supportive
and integrated. leadership styles and practised creativity
(e.g., Amabile & Conti, 1999; Amabile et al.,
The final version of the CHIMERA Creativity Index 1996, 2004; Madjar et al., 2002; Oldham &
is composed of j 10 items, organized in 4 Cummings, 1996; Shalley & Gilson, 2004;
categories: 1) Management support, 2) Tierney & Farmer, 2002, 2004; Zhou &
Motivation, 3) Resources and 4) Outcomes. George, 2003).
The CHIMERA Creativity Index has been designed In these studies supervisor encouragement
to provide a basic, customizable assessment enhances practiced creativity by goal clarity,
method of aspects in an organizational work support for open interactions and non-
environment, analyzing data and examining destructive criticism of work and ideas.
elements and situations that are likely to influence Reversely, non-supportive managers might be
the generation and development of creative ideas. detrimental for practised creativity, because
Each item tries to address the positive and their actions can be perceived as a form of
negative aspects of the work environment. control.
The Index is intended also as a customizable tool Supervisor encouragement will enhance
(to disassemble and reassemble) for other employees’ motivation and this will consent
researches and theoretical development, to employees to express their creative
particularly for scholars interested in potential; controlling managers will decrease
understanding contextual influences on creative motivation and the development of creative
behavior in work organizations. potential into practised creativity.
The CHIMERA Creativity Index overlooks aspects Supportive managers provide constructive
connected to individual and personal creativity feedback and ensure that everyone’s ideas
(attitude, behavior, skills – criteria related to are heard and respected. On the other hand,
employees and useful to find out what employees controlling managers will impede the flow of
think of their own creativity), focusing on an idea ideas, insist on severe rules and guidelines
of organizational creativity as a condition in which which hinders thinking in an inventive and
personal creativity could be valued and actualized. innovative way.
It focuses in particular on: Therefore, the output of creative potential will
 structures (this is about idea management be enhanced by supervisor encouragement
structures and the organizational processes that
stimulate creativity)
and controlling managers will restrict the intrinsic motivation; particularly work group
productivity of creative potential. members diversity and openness to ideas16
So high supervisor encouragement have a positive effect.
strengthens and low supervisor Constructive challenging of ideas and shared
encouragement weakens the relationship commitment also increase intrinsic
between creative potential and practised motivation: two of the primary features of
creativity. intrinsic motivation are a positive sense of
challenge in the work and a focus on the
 Freedom work itself. Supportive, encouraging co-
Freedom in an organizational context can be workers will strengthen the link; on the other
defined as being in control of someone’s own hand, controlling and non-supportive
work, in control of what to do and how to do. coworkers are expected to restrict someone’s
Several researchers show that freedom is a creative potential.
key aspect that may be important for putting So high work group support strengthens and
in practice creativity in the enterprise: low work group support weakens the
practiced creativity may be enhanced when relationship between creative potential and
employees have a sense of ownership on their practised creativity with an entropic effect.
own work. This empowers employees to give
innovative ideas. In these types of
organizations employees have time and 8.2 Motivation
support to explore alternative approaches. Motivation, including Amabile’s organizational
The opposite climate would empower support and organizational impediments:
employees to stay within their functional  Organizational support
limits and customs. Actually, practicing potential creativity can be
Studies on organizational creativity have very engaging and risky (time consuming and
revealed the importance of freedom at work also challenging as to the results) and can
as a ground for creativity. Investigating if and claim a lot of time and effort of employees.
to what degree freedom impacts an Organizational support is expected to
employee’s creative potential will provide minimize these threats (costs/benefits result):
organizations with information about it entails the encouragement of risk taking and
arranging one’s work environment in order to idea generation, supportive evaluation of new
maximize creativity. Individuals who receive ideas, cross-functional work group initiatives
high levels of freedom in daily work will be to stimulate the active idea flow and reward
more probable to practise their creative and recognition of creative efforts.
potential because they will be more motivated Studies show that when an employee is only
and encouraged to try new approaches and to work on a certain task because of the
ideas, even if they involve risk of failure. reward then the employee is extrinsically
On the other hand, low levels of freedom will motivated; employees who perceive the
restrict someone’s creative potential and reward as a bonus will be intrinsically
motivation because employees might feel that motivated, they will feel valued and capable
their actions are forced on them from the and more able to express their creative
outside. potential.
So high levels of freedom strengthens and Organizational support for creativity can
low levels of freedom weakens the minimize the risks for an employees’ creative
relationship between creative potential and activities and increases employees’ motivation
practised creativity. to practise their creative potential. Probably
employees will feel more motivated to
 Work group support practise their creative potential when the
Supportive co-workers will have similar organization encourages risk-taking and idea
effects as encouraging supervisors on generation17.
creativity. Previous research show that
practised creativity is enhanced when co-
workers are nurturing and supportive, while 16
It is an extension of the "tollerance" parameter of the
non-supportive or controlling coworkers Florida model.
restrict putting in practice creativity. 17
Different approaches are possible through training
Supportive work group members impacts on activities both to show organisational support and to
If an organization doesn’t encourage or Individuals recognizing sufficient resources
discourages risk-taking and idea generation, will be more likely to practise creative
individuals are expected to be less likely to potential.
practise their potential creativity. If an individual with creative potential receives
So high organizational support strengthens sufficient resources, he will be more likely to
and low organizational support weakens the output creativity, but when they receive
relationship between creative potential and inadequate resources he will be less likely to
practised creativity. engage in creative behavior.
So high levels of resources strengthens and
 Organizational impediments low levels of resources weakens the
Organizational impediments did not receive relationship between creative potential and
much attention in previous researches; these practised creativity.
studies suggests that internal conflict,
conservatism and formal management  Workload pressure
structures within organizations will inhibit Research has found varied results for the
putting in practice creativity. influence of pressure on creativity: some of
Individuals are likely to perceive restraining them reveal that the effect of pressure
factors of organizational impediments as depends on how the stress-inducing pressure
controlling: individuals with creative potential actually is (evaluative or high stress inducing
will be less likely to practise creativity when pressure will restrict practised creativity,
they perceive higher amounts of while pressure perceived as arising from the
organizational impediments and will be more urgent, intellectually challenging nature of the
likely to practise creativity when they problem itself will increase practised
perceive lower amounts of organizational creativity).
impediments. This has led to two distinct forms of pressure:
So high organizational impediments weakens challenge and excessive workload pressure.
and low organizational impediments When an activity is perceived as a challenge
strengthens the relationship between creative by the employees, this activity increases their
potential and practised creativity. motivation.
People will practise more creative ideas when
8.3 Resources they are primarily intrinsically motivated by
Resources, including Amabile’s resources and the challenge of the work itself. When
workload pressure: employees perceive their work as challenging
 Resources they feel valued and capable. These feelings
Organizational resources represent the may give them the motivation to succeed in
allocation of funds, materials, facilities, an organization that sends them positive
knowledge and money that can enhance messages of belief in their abilities by giving
motivation. them challenging tasks. So high challenge
Studies show that the allocation of resources strengthens and low challenge weakens the
is directly related to the level of practised relationship between creative potential and
creativity. practised creativity.
Job resources offer employees more Instead excessive workload pressure does not
opportunities and the possibility to learn about allow time for exploration or the identification
the task and gain task-related knowledge, of alternative possibilities, while employees
which promotes an individual’s motivation to need time to engage in creative cognitive
generate creative ideas. processes. Employees who perceive high
It is an equilibrium's problem: too much or too levels of workload pressure will solve
little resources will discourage practicing problems less creatively and employ simple
creativity, because it will not support the strategies in response to situations. Excessive
individual in developing the motivation to be workload pressure undermines the creative
creative. The exact rate / level is difficult to potential, especially if workload pressure is
define in advance. perceived as imposed externally as a means
of control.
So high workload pressure weakens and low
stimulate the challenge of practicing potential workload pressure strengthens the
creativity.
relationship between creative potential and
practised creativity.

8.4 Outcomes
Outcomes, including the perception of employees
about the level of creativity in the organization or
unit they work in and about the productivity18 of
the organization or unit they work in, in terms of
efficiency, effectiveness and performance /
outputs.

8.5. General information


The number of items has been reduced with
comparison to KEYS questionnaire (Amabile et al.,
1996).
Each item was selected compared to a particular
aspect to observe within the organization, as
described above.
The research includes different options, making
the instrument customizable: this research has
used a six-point scale for its calculus (never,
rarely, sometimes, often, very often and always).
All items on Creativity Index are written as simple
descriptive statements of the work environment.
The instructions define “current work
environment” as “the usual social and physical
environment in which you currently do most or all
of your work”.
The Creativity Index has been submitted to
around 90 enterprises.
Results has been collected first at a National level
and then in a transnational report, collecting all
the data and information.

18
Knowledge and awareness about the creativity
policies impact and results. Imagining a cycle of
Planning, Implementation, Monitoring and Review, this
last phase is crucial in an effective and reliable strategy
for the development of the organisation creativity.
9 CHIMERA CREATIVITY INDEX - QUESTIONNAIRE FORM

1. GENERAL INFORMATION ABOUT THE ENTERPRISE

Name ____________________________________________________

Type of enterprise ____________________________________________________

Sector ____________________________________________________

N. employees______ N. managers_____

2. MANAGEMENT PRACTICES

1. Freedom
 People can manage autonomously their assigned tasks
1 2 3 4 5
Not at all Slightly Average Very Very much

 People have a sense of control over their work


1 2 3 4 5
Not at all Slightly Average Very Very much

 People are encouraged to solve problems creatively


1 2 3 4 5
Not at all Slightly Average Very Very much

2. Challenging work

 People feel they work hard on challenging tasks and important project
1 2 3 4 5
Not at all Slightly Average Very Very much

 People feel their work is productive


1 2 3 4 5
Not at all Slightly Average Very Very much

3. Managerial encouragement

 Management is a positive model for employees


1 2 3 4 5
Not at all Slightly Average Very Very much

 Management sets goals appropriately


1 2 3 4 5
Not at all Slightly Average Very Very much

 Management supports work groups


1 2 3 4 5
Not at all Slightly Average Very Very much
 Management values individual contributions from employees
1 2 3 4 5
Not at all Slightly Average Very Very much

 Management shows confidence in the work group


1 2 3 4 5
Not at all Slightly Average Very Very much

4. Work groups support

 There is free and open communication within the work group


1 2 3 4 5
Not at all Slightly Average Very Very much

 Work group is open to new ideas


1 2 3 4 5
Not at all Slightly Average Very Very much

 Work group constructively challenges each other’s work


1 2 3 4 5
Not at all Slightly Average Very Very much

 In the work group there are help and trust between members
1 2 3 4 5
Not at all Slightly Average Very Very much

 People feel committed to the work they are doing


1 2 3 4 5
Not at all Slightly Average Very Very much

3. ORGANIZATIONAL MOTIVATION

1. Organizational encouragement

 The organizational culture encourages creativity


1 2 3 4 5
Not at all Slightly Average Very Very much

 Ideas are fairly and constructively judged


1 2 3 4 5
Not at all Slightly Average Very Very much

 Creative work is rewarded and recognized


1 2 3 4 5
Not at all Slightly Average Very Very much
2. Lack of organizational impediments

 There are no internal political problems that impede creativity


1 2 3 4 5
Not at all Slightly Average Very Very much

 New idea are not harshly criticize


1 2 3 4 5
Not at all Slightly Average Very Very much

 There’s no destructive internal competition


1 2 3 4 5
Not at all Slightly Average Very Very much

 There’s no avoidance of risk and of exploration of new possibilities and opportunities


1 2 3 4 5
Not at all Slightly Average Very Very much

4. RESOURCES
1. Sufficient resources

 People can get the resources they need for their job (funds, materials, facilities, information)
1 2 3 4 5
Not at all Slightly Average Very Very much

2. Realistic workload pressures

 Work deadlines don’t compromise creative work


1 2 3 4 5
Not at all Slightly Average Very Very much

 People have enough time to do their work


1 2 3 4 5
Not at all Slightly Average Very Very much

5. OUTCOMES
1. Creativity
 People feel that the organization or unit they work in is creative
1 2 3 4 5
Not at all Slightly Average Very Very much

 People feel they actually produce creative work


1 2 3 4 5
Not at all Slightly Average Very Very much

2. Productivity
 People feel that the organization or unit they work in is efficient, effective and productive
1 2 3 4 5
Not at all Slightly Average Very Very much
10 A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS
 managerial support of work groups
 managerial appreciation of individual
10.1 Italy contributions from employees
The sample of the survey doesn’t allow to  recognition of creative work
have answers with a scientific quantitative  presence of sufficient resources (funds,
statistical value, but the aim of the activity is materials, facilities, information).
testing an instrument and beginning an
experimentation in entrepreneurial contexts19. 6. According this first data analysis an
Survey activities have involved 17 enterprises enterprise could increase and strengthen
(1 agriculture enterprise, 8 industry creative values and attitude by:
enterprises, 7 service enterprises and 1  letting employees free to organize their
research & development enterprises): service work and to decide how to reach their goals,
and R&D enterprises gave more positive giving them a good level of autonomy
answers about creativity in management and  encouraging employees to solve problems
in organization. creatively
 involving employees in challenging and
1. 12 of the 17 enterprises involved are small stimulating work
(6-25 employees), 4 are medium (26-100  supporting work groups and exchange
employees), one is big (more than 100 between employees
employees); small and medium enterprises  appreciating and publicly recognizing new
seem to be more creative and more creativity ideas from employees and creative work
oriented than the big ones.  guaranteeing the presence of adequate
2. 88% of the involved enterprises employs resources (material and immaterial resources).
managers or directors; these enterprises are
often bigger and more structured. The data It appears that the organisational factors and
shows that bigger and more structured context's elements are more relevant than
enterprises are less creative than small and individual issues.
medium ones (generally and understandably
less structured).
10.1.1 Case histories
3. In general, positive answers prevail among
managers. In this paragraph two practices are reported.
4. There are often greater differences in the The aim is to define operational contexts of
answers from employees. Some of them are creativity where creativty-oriented
negative: it is evident especially about experimental training practices have been
managerial practices and work organization, realised. They can be used as reflection cases
but also in topics about encouragement and to better understand the sense of a
the recognition of creative work. "creativity index" o the usefulness of
measuring creativity.
5. From the survey the most important
elements for enterprises to be creative and to  Title: E-Straordinario, Field: Education and
develop creativity seem to be: Training, Performin arts Country: Italy
 freedom to manage the assigned tasks Practice - The Ermanno Casoli Foundation
autonomously (http://fondazionecasoli.org/it/171/info.php)
 encouragement to solve problems was set up in 2007, an homage to Elica SpA
creatively (http://corporation.elica.com/it/about/profilo)
 assignment of challenging tasks and founder, with the aim of fostering the
important projects relationship between the worlds of art and
industry by promoting initiatives in which
19
One idea is to use the instrument in companies' contemporary art becomes an educational
contexts where the creativity is effectively and methodological tool that contributes to
promoted and programmed through training improving working environments by favoring
practices (see par. 10.1.1) and in other companies innovative processes.
where there are no explicit indication of practised
creativity or creative skills training programmes.
The Foundation has designed, implemented  Title: Odyssey, Field: Education and
and delivered a vocational educational Training, Business Theatre Country: Italy
training method involving artists of every Business theatre is a worldwide training
disciplines as educational catalyst. The artist practice. Its usefulness and positive impact is
is invited to develop a project proposal with attested by its diffusion and use. It can be
great creative freedom with the only considered at the same time standardized
"constraint" of involving actively workers. (basic rules are well know) and experimental
Then the artistic event/project becomes the (it can be continuously re-designed according
core content of a finalised training activity the chosen theatrical models)
(management, organisation, human resources It is useful to report an Italian case history
motivation, team building, etc.). Coop Centro Italia that has actualized its own
The method can be applied in different mission and values through substantial forms
approaches according the art disciplines of business democracy, setting up the
(visual arts, music, sculpture, performances). Council of 90, consisting of 90 workers,
From daily workshop to more articulated precisely, representatives of the areas and
project (as for example: The Game has the interests of all.
involved three enterprises in a football match The procedure to implement this participatory
played simultaneously by the three company organism was launched through
companies' football teams). business theater experience, as a key
The model has been tested (the experience is moment of entertainment, communication
still going on) in Elica SpA, a corporate and training to become more actively involved
groups with more the 1500 employees only and responsible in the organisation. A
in Italy, but it is requested by and delivered in company theater troupe was organized, with
other enterprises of various sectors. non-professional actors, but with a common
The Fondazione Ermanno Casoli assumes the shared goal: to realize a pleasant and quality
role of mediator, guaranteeing the artists full show.
autonomy and freedom of expression and the The preparation of the show and the
company coherence and compatibility of the rehearsals took place on weekly afternoon
initiatives with its own needs and objectives. meetings during working hours, over a period
Impact and results - A study of the impact of of 5-6 months on the basis of script related
the practice on companies performances is to the journey myth, and specifically the
under way. It's not simple to quantify the Odyssey, Ulysses, as a metaphor to better
direct causal connection between the practice understand the complex reality of change.
and the recorded performances improvement. Impact and results - The business theater
Actually, as to Elica SpA / Casoli Foundation, realized in Coop Centro Italia has been
the following first data can be basis of integrated into the business strategy, and
reflection. In the last five years of E- thanks to the metaphor is able to speak in a
Straordinario practice the design patents have simple way about complex contents. It has
increased of 80% and the technical patens of been an unconventional way of participation,
50%, Elica has been awarded as best accompanying organisational processes
working place in Europe, the training model through the improvement of individual
has been validated as company benefit (E is voluntariness and motivated participation to
for Elica and Straordinario is for extra-working company's life.
time that is paid to the worker participating in
the training activity). The model has been 10.2 Greece
awarded in 2014 for Italian Impresa - Cultura
In a largely competitive and increasingly
Award.
changing environment there is a growing
It is enough clear the impact and the
need for innovation in education and
relevance for the company climate and image
particularly vocational education and training.
and well-being at work, the presumable
Creating conditions for innovative practice in
impact on productivity and market
VET is imperative in such times of change
performances deserves a more attentive
and uncertainty, while providing employees
research.
and staff throughout enterprises with more
opportunities for development is also a
necessity to improve the performance and As provided in more detail below, the sample
competitiveness of these enterprises. enterprises involved included 16 enterprises
The conduct of the research and comparative in total, 9 managers/entrepreneurs and 16
analysis on the particular target groups, both employees.
employees and entrepreneurs, has provided a The primary sector of the involved enterprises
series of results and conclusions with respect is that of the services sector, followed by
to the above issues. ICT.
The CHIMERA index, which has been In addition, the size of the enterprises were
developed in the context of the project and primarily small, with few employees
tested in the participating countries, is (generally 0-5 employees).
designed to provide an analysis of the Results from the analysis generally showed
characteristics of enterprises in Greece in that the service sector and enterprises active
terms of their organizational cultures and in this sector tend to be more creative in their
operations and the use of human resources, means of operation and work.
as well as their promotion of creativity and Employees in such enterprises are given more
innovation. freedom to come up with more creative ideas
The initial comparative analysis was first and means of operation, while small
carried out, as explained above, to examine enterprises tend to be slightly less creative
the different characteristics of the and flexible than larger ones.
participating enterprises (economic, financial, Furthermore, employees seem to be more
cultural and social) through the conduct of confident in their own work than
interview and questionnaires with entrepreneurs.
entrepreneurs, managers and employees of It seems as though employees are also more
these organizations. positive in terms of the level of output and
The CHIMERA index was then designed and performance and their overall levels of
developed open to the contribution of experts productivity.
in multidisciplinary fields. The index provided Entrepreneurs, on the hand, tend to have a
a definition and means of measurement of the more “average” than positive view.
creativity of enterprises. The index was then
tested on the same enterprises that made up 10.3 Poland
the initial sample. The Polish partner – Krakowskie Centrum
It is highly important to be able to measure Zarządzania i Administracji sp. z o.o. –
the level of creativity of enterprises and to carried out the research on the basis of the
assess the presence of motivating and Creativity Index questionnaire, which included
encouraging factors within the enterprise, the pre-implementation survey and the
while also revealing any hindering factors or implementation two-phase-survey.
factors that create setbacks in terms of Both the pre-implementation and
creativity and innovation. implementation stages were carried out via
Doing business all over the world is definitely the Internet platform for surveys. All the
challenging. The performance of the business respondents remained anonymous.
and the growth of revenues are also a The pre-implementation stage was conducted
challenge. Therefore, the factors that affect in March and April 2013 with the aim to
motivation should be assessed and revealed, identify the indicators of creativity in SMEs.
while employers, managers and entrepreneurs At this stage, there took part five people
should take them into account in order to representing small or medium sized
increase the level of motivation of their staff, enterprises. The results were reported to the
which will, in turn, increase their levels of CHIMERA partnership – similarly every
performance and outputs and thus increase partner did so – and on this basis the
the performance and competitiveness of the partnership elaborated the final version of the
enterprise. Creativity Index questionnaire.
Taking a genuine interest in the future path of The mentioned questionnaire was used for
an employee’s career and involving the implementation stage of the survey. It
employees in the development and was a two-phase-survey. The first phase took
structuring of the enterprise are often thought place in June 2013 and the second in May
of as highly motivating factors. 2014.
In the first stage ten respondents took part – attitude to group work by both employees
three entrepreneurs and seven employees of and employers.
SMEs. Most of them represented companies
from the services branch, but there were also 10.3.1 Practices and experiences: science
representatives of the agricultural, industry and innovative mind
and trade branches. Centrum Badań DNA in Poznań (eng. DNA
Respondents from companies with less than Tests Centre) — a team of 10, mostly young
fifteen employees prevailed. All of the scientists. They still do exactly the same
companies had managerial staff. From the thing they did during their studies and
firms partaking in the survey, the most immediately after graduation, except that
creative appeared to be companies from the now they use their scientific activity in
services and trade branches. However, none business.
of the respondents assessed the creativity of The Centre received an award for innovation
its company with the highest note from the during the first edition of the competition “i-
scale. The survey also revealed that the Wielkopolska —Innovative People for the
smallest companies are more creative than Wielkopolska Region.”
the bigger ones. Lyme disease does not strike only foresters,
One can say on the basis of the first stage of although this professional group is the one
the survey that important and decisive most exposed to this tick-carried disease.
elements for an enterprise to be creative are: Already more than every third tick carries the
suitable resources (among them time), Lyme spirochete, along with many other
internal policy problems, perception of risk in diseases dangerous for man. It is these and
the operation of the company, attitude to other diseases that the Centrum Badań DNA
creative work and the extent of freedom of Sp. z o.o. diagnoses. According to the
employees’ work. Centre’s data, Lyme disease is detected in
Some recommendations could be proposed. 20-30% of all examined persons.
To increase and strengthen those elements, Recently, the company has created and
enterprises can: introduced to the market diagnostic tests that
 periodically monitor resources allocation, are exceptional, at least on the country level.
re-arrange timetables and the allocation of These tests include the only genetic tests
tasks (managers with employees), available in Poland for quantitative marking of
 define internal policy problems and find bacteria causing Lyme, as well as tests for
the possible ways to overcome them, detecting mutations causing inborn diabetes
 take part in workshops/trainings and thyroid cancer. “That was the effect of
concerning those issues (e.g. about risk our own work. We prepared and implemented
management, creativity, motivation, human diagnostic tests using the Real Time PCR
resources management, group work). technology based on the modern discoveries
Nine respondents took part in the second in molecular genetics”—says Michał Kaszuba,
stage – two entrepreneurs and seven the President of the company. “We have an
employees of SMEs. All the respondents in R&D department responsible for preparing
this stage of the survey came from the new, better and cheaper diagnostic tests to
services branch. Again, respondents from meet the demand of the medical market.
companies with less than fifteen employees Apart from genetic tests, the company
prevailed, all the surveyed companies had performs tests for the purposes of the food
managerial staff. market.
The summary of facts from the phases of the It co-operates with several big food
survey is presented below. Still, the most manufacturers whom it helps detect and
creative companies are perceived as those remove fungal or bacterial contamination of
from the services and trade branches. food that sometimes occurs during the
Again, the respondents did not assess the production process. The centre, however,
creativity of their companies with the highest focuses on medical diagnostics. “We have
note from the scale. Also the assessment of not rested on laurels and are currently
smaller companies being more creative than introducing new DNA test technologies that
the bigger ones remains in force. To the list will be highly innovative in Poland and even
of the decisive elements influencing the Europe”—says Michał Kaszuba. “There are
company’s creativity could be added the
two aims to our research. On the one hand, facilitates shopping using a mobile phone.
we want to create or find faster, better and Listonic, developed largely thanks to venture
cheaper methods of diagnosing different capital funds, has earned the status of one of
diseases, on the other hand, we want to use the best start-ups of recent years.
the possibilities of the latest Real Time PCR Filip Miłoszewski, Kamil Janiszewski, Piotr
technology in treating people. In 2007, we Wójcicki, Wojtek Plesiak and Łukasz Leśniak
began a research programme that looks very were still students at the time the idea came
promising. We are checking whether Real to being. It originated out of the necessity to
Time PCR technology can be used to monitor prepare a joint project required to get credits
the progress of treatment of people with for one of their university classes.
Lyme. This technology allows to evaluate Unexpectedly, the project that resulted
whether a treatment is efficient and how long became an inspiration for a business. A
it should last, whether Lyme bacteria in a mobile shopping list system—as the project is
patient’s body reacts to a given drug. called — allows to create a virtual list which
The mix between science and business is can be displayed simultaneously on several
still a rare thing in Poland, with the exception mobile phones and updated as required.
of pharmaceutical companies. According to It allows its users to tick items already
President Kaszuba, until recently, freshly bought and add new ones to the list. A
graduated biotechnologists have had two special internet website called Listonic was
possibilities: develop their scientific career at also created to enable registered users to
a university or at the Polish Academy of create shopping lists. The application is very
Sciences, or go abroad to try and find work in easy to use. A person who wants to create a
labs there. list on the Internet can very easily make its
The founders of the DNA Tests Centre have content available to selected persons (family
found a third way: they have proven that a members or friends) on their computers and
scientist can work in a lab of his own. “By mobile phones. All a phone user has to do is
establishing a dynamically developing download the application and pay for
biotechnology company, we contribute to the connecting with the Internet—the application
creation of a new market for itself is free. This software will certainly
biotechnologists. We are still full of ideas and make the life of every family easier—we will
try to use our knowledge of DNA testing to no longer have to make reminder calls or send
prepare a new offer for medical diagnostics". reminder SMSes—a list update made by one
The company is located in the Poznań person will be enough. This innovative idea
Science and Technology Park, but its lab is will also protect us from unplanned expenses
located in the city centre. The DNA Tests and impulse buying.
Centre is currently carrying out several Ok., but where’s the money? The
research projects that may bring profits in the entrepreneurs from Listonic have thought
future. But for the time being, all this is basic about that and are planning to develop their
work that looks exactly the same as at product using revenues from advertising. It
universities or the Polish Academy of looks like their innovative solution may be
Sciences. “I encourage young people to try perfect for context advertising. As they say,
doing business. Working in labs, they have it is when we purchase a product that we
lots of ideas and may even be convinced they decide on a given brand. A mobile phone list
can achieve a lot businesswise. But they may suggest or even encourage one to buy a
won’t and will rather end up doing scientific concrete product.
work only”—says Michał Kaszuba. “The According to them, their product is a perfect
biotechnology market in Poland is still poorly alternative for outdoor or press adds which
developed and needs people with ideas— bombard consumers with their offers nearly
biotechnologists, biologists, geneticists. everywhere. Not only is this form of
There is really a lot to do in this area". promotion expensive, but in the opinion of
10.3.1 Practices and experiences: ICT for many experts, it is also becoming increasingly
daily life use inefficient. In order to increase the efficiency
An innovative business may be inspired by of context advertising that the originators of
everyday life—as shows the case of the the invention want to use, they plan to place
company Listonic from Lodz. Its creators a producer button on advertisements
came up with an innovative application that appearing on the Internet, allowing a
consumer to quickly add a given advertised Phase 1
product to their shopping list. 14 enterprises were involved (1 Agricultural,
Still a year ago, experts on Internet-operated 8 Industry, 3 Services, 2 Trading).
start-ups had doubts about the project: “I 10 managers (2 of them belonging to the
spoke with Filip (one of the creators of same enterprise) and 9 employees (2 of them
Listonic) for a few minutes and must admit belonging to the same enterprise) were
that the guys do have a lot of enthusiasm interviewed.
and energy that a start-up needs (if the Of the enterprises questioned, 4 of them
shopping list proves a failure they will have 0-5 employees, 1 has 6-15 employees,1
probably create something else on its basis). I has 16-25 employees, 4 have 26-50
find the idea quite risky. To start with, a employees, 1 has 51-100 employees and 3
shopping list is quite an old idea (I remember have more than 101 employees.
this type of applications from the times when
the palmtop was a very popular PDA), the
target groups are mostly young people who 10.4.1 RESULTS
will soon start doing shopping via the Internet Both managers and employees feel that the
and not in the classic way, having to wait in organization or unit they work in is creative.
a line at the check-out. And on top of There are slight differences between the two
everything, there is the issue of mobility and groups in valuing the role of management,
the number of users that will be interested in the lack of organizational impediments, the
this type of tool” – wrote Grzegorz Marczak organizational motivations and the available
in 2009 on his blog Antyweb. resources, the employees being a bit more
It is always good to listen to critical critical in their evaluations.
opinions. The creators of Listonic are Questioned about the elements that are more
constantly working on improving their important and decisive for an enterprise to be
product. Their biggest success is the growing creative, both managers and employees
popularity of their solution. The seven-person stressed the importance of:
team has been working toward perfecting  freedom to manage the assigned
their product, which is already used by 33 tasks autonomously
thousand people. The team says they plan  assignment of challenging tasks and
intensive advertising on the Internet. important projects
The same groups point out that the
10.4 SPAIN enterprises could increase and strengthen
those elements by:
Spanish partner has carried out a comparative  encouraging their staff to solve
analysis about the characteristics of the problems creatively,
enterprises operating within Spanish  giving them a greater level of
reference areas of the project (economic, autonomy in their assigned tasks
financial, cultural, social), through the  involving them in challenging work
administration of questionnaires to more frequently
entrepreneurs, managers and staff of
enterprises, and the consultation documents Some considerations.
relating to enterprise performance, in order to 1) Relationship between the sector of the
find and share a common idea/concept of involved enterprises and the observed
creativity and of creativity in economical creativity level.
organizations. Services and trading enterprises gave more
It has followed the development of a positive answers than industry enterprises
Creativity Index, in order to explore and (see annex1), but given their small number (3
measure the level of creativity in enterprises services enterprises, 2 trading enterprises, 5
and the presence of stimulating or industry enterprises), we cannot give these
discouraging factors in the organizations. results statistical value.
The objective of the research is to investigate 2) The relationship between the size of the
the contextual factors that inhibit or support involved enterprises and the observed
individuals in the creative idea generation creativity level
stage in enterprises.
The size of the enterprises has been 10.5 ROMANIA
considered in the following way:
- small enterprises (1-15 employees) Also in Romania creativity and innovation are
- medium enterprises (16-50 employees) decisive factors for competitiveness20 and
- big enterprises (more than 51) economical growth and have a greater and
The data collected show that big enterprises greater role in the economical and social
are less creative than small and medium development and growth of Europe.
enterprises. Once again, due to their small The particular aim is to stimulate innovation
number, it’s not possible to give these results and creativity in Romania, enhancing and
statistical value. stimulating the educational systems and our
3) The relationship between the hierarchical economical systems at a local, a regional and
organization of the involved enterprises and a national level.
the observed creativity level The CHIMERA Creativity Index has been
Given that it’s not possible to know the designed as an instrument for the assessment
actual hierarchical organization of the of aspects of organizational work
involved enterprises from the data collected, environment perceptions that are likely to
it is hard to give a comment about the influence the generation and development of
relationship between the hierarchical creative ideas. Each item tries to address the
organization and the observed creativity level. positive and negative aspects of the work
If we consider the size of the enterprises as environment.
directly connected to hierarchical organization The Index can be used as a tool for practical
(bigger enterprises -> more structured research, particularly for understanding
enterprises), we can use the previous contextual influences on creative behaviors in
conclusion about the size of enterprises: the work organizations.
data collected show that big enterprises A comparative analysis has been carried out
(more structured enterprises) are less creative about the characteristics of the enterprises
than small and medium ones (less structured operating within the Romanian reference
enterprises). areas of the project (economic, financial,
4) the differences between entrepreneurs’ cultural, social), through the administration of
answers and employees’ answers interviews, questionnaires to entrepreneurs,
In general, positive answers prevail for managers and staff of enterprises, and the
managers. There are greater differences in consultation documents relating to enterprise
the answers given by employees; some of performance, in order to find and share a
them are negative. common idea/concept of creativity and of
creativity in economical organizations.
Phase 2 The development of a Creativity Index, in
The second phase involved 8 order to define and measure the level of
entrepreneurs/manager and 5 employees who creativity in enterprises and the presence of
were occupied in the experimental training stimulating or discouraging factors in the
courses and laboratories in Creativity carried organizations has been the main work-driver.
out by our Chamber. The objective of the research is to investigate
6 of the enterprises belong to the services the contextual factors that inhibit or support
sector (6 companies), 4 to the treading individuals in the creative idea generation
branch and 3 to industry. stage in enterprises.
About the enterprise’s size, 1 has less than 5 The contextual factors that affect motivation
employees, 3 have between 6 and 15 can be broadly defined as “dimensions of the
employees, 6 have between 26-50 work environment that potentially influence
employees, 1 has between 51-100 employee’s creativity but that are not part of
employees and 2 have more than 100 the individual”. Now we know better that if
employees. the contextual factor is perceived as
Employees’ answers have an higher degree of controlling, the impact of the contextual
differentiation than the managers’, being the factor is expected to decrease an employee’s
majority of the answers positive in both intrinsic motivation, while if the contextual
cases.
The same considerations pointed out in the 20
Managerial Methods Stimulating New Ideas or
first phase can be given in this second phase. Creativity in Romania wihin the European Context
factor is perceived as informational it will  recognition of creative work
increase an employee’s intrinsic motivation.  presence of sufficient resources (funds,
Furthermore, contextual factors that are more materials, facilities, information).
proximal to employees’ work life are
suggested to have a stronger effect day to The enterprise could increase and strengthen
day than those that are more distant. those elements by:
Understanding what are the elements that  letting employees free to organize their
enhance or restrict the link between creative work and to decide how to reach their
potential and practiced creativity is important goals, giving them a good level of
as they may be useful for identifying autonomy and examples of good creative
untapped creative resources and can give practices
guidance on how to maximize the overall  encouraging employees to solve problems
practiced creativity throughout the creatively; this encouragement could start
organization. from the lowest level of creativity which
An increase in practiced creativity leads to is imitation
enhanced organizational innovation, increased  involving the employees in work that is
job satisfaction and increased retention, that challenging and stimulating
can help companies differentiate themselves,  supporting work groups and exchange
with the ultimate goal of securing survival between employees
and improving performance.  appreciating and publicly recognizing new
PHASE 1 ideas that are effective
The sampled enterprises are focused on local  guaranteeing the presence of adequate
and regional markets. resources (material and immaterial
We have involved 10 enterprises (1 resources).
Agricultural,1 Industry, 3 Services, 2 ITC, 1 PHASE 2
Research & Development, 2 Trading). In this second phase we have involved 3
All the enterprises (managers and employees) entrepreneurs/manager and 9 employees that
felt for the most part positive about creativity are involved in the training courses. This
in management and in organization. helped us to customize courses and solve
The main problem for managers with their creative professional issues of students.
enterprises is the source of financing, while We have developed an innovative concept
employees underline the organizational that has generated a new product/process
problems. called "Sustainable Human Development
Of the enterprises questioned; 30% have 0-5 Capital Park (especially professional
employees, 10% have 6-15 employees, 40% component development)".
have 26-50, 20% have more than 100 We used the EXPRESS-START creative
employees. Method. The short name of the
The smaller enterprises feel the need to be product/process is PaDeDuCU. This
more creative due to the fact that they have product/process has two aspects: "START-
less economical power and that they face EXPRESS - Home Camp for professional
more challenges. development" and "START-EXPRESS, The
The majority of the managers feel that the town inside the Park".
organization or unit they work in is creative. In experimental educational activities
Employees share this feeling. "CHIMERA Romania Team" provided the
The elements that are more important and design, implementation and delivery of
decisive for an enterprise to be creative: activities which are organized in the form of
 freedom to manage the assigned tasks learning by doing. This product/process called
autonomously "Sustainable Human Development Capital
 encouragement to solve problems Park" has been tested and improved by the
creatively pilot courses and CreaLab attendees from all
 assignment of challenging tasks and participating enterprises.
important projects The customizing applications are related to
 managerial support of work groups each firm / specific area. We intend to submit
 managerial appreciation of individual trademark and realize two books.
contributions from employees
We used a Simulator for the development of creativity in enterprises and for detecting the
capital / human potential. We used our presence of stimulating or discouraging
original creative START-EXPRESS Method factors in the organizations.
and the theory developed by Elinor Ostrom21. The objective of the research was to
investigate the contextual factors that inhibit
11 MAIN FINDINGS or support individuals in the creative idea
generation stage in enterprises.
11.1 INSTRUMENTS FOR A The questionnaire has been administered to
managers and employees. The sample for
CREATIVITY TOOL-BOX
survey has been composed by at least ten
As underlined, on the background of shared SMEs for each country involved, which have
approach for the CHIMERA Creativity Index been selected by size and sector; 80
there is a fundamental common interest in enterprises have been involved in the survey.
developing methods and instruments Test results have been shared both among
(basically education-oriented) to stimulate partners and with the involved enterprises.
innovation and creativity, fostering the The research has included a pre-
related values in the educational systems and implementation survey and a implementation
in economic systems through specific two-phase survey.
initiatives at a local, regional and national All the respondents remained anonymous.
level. The pre-implementation stage was conducted
A first result is the design of a set of in March and April 2013 with the aim to
instruments that are just now under further verify the indicators of creativity in SMEs.
revision. The set includes: The results of national surveys were reported
1) Creativity Index of Enterprises (first stage) to CHIMERA partnership and on this basis the
2) CHIMERA Indicators Framework (second partnership elaborated and shared a final
stage) version of the Creativity Index questionnaire.
3) Curriculum Study Plan The questionnaire was used for the
4) A best practices template and a list of implementation stage of the survey.
success stories. It was a two-phase survey. The first phase
This set of materials can be differently used took place in June 2013 and the second in
and implemented in relation to the above May 2014.
mentioned CHIMERA strategic goals:
11.1.2 FIRST STEP - BASIC FACTS
 set up of a framework of criteria
(descriptors) for assessing the creative vitality a) INVOLVED ENTERPRISES
of enterprises [1,2]; 80 enterprises (37 service enterprises – 46%,
 identification of integrated indicators for 20 industry enterprises – 25%, 9 trading
measuring growth and innovation within enterprises – 11%, 6 ICT enterprises – 8%, 4
enterprises [1,2]; agricultural enterprises – 5%, 2 research &
 reference practices for overall policy- development enterprise – 2,5%; 2 enterprise
making and decision-making for development, didn’t answer about sector).
entrepreneurship, innovation [3,4]; b) PERSONNEL AND INDIVIDUALS
 development of an international The survey has involved 62 managers and 73
comparison of models and approaches for employees.
creativity in non-CC industries [4,1,2]. c) DIMENSIONAL CRITERIA
11.1.1 FIRST STEP Small enterprises, number of employees
between 0 and 15, medium enterprises the
The CHIMERA Creativity Index of Enterprises ones with a number of employees included
(first stage) is structured as questionnaire and between 16 and 50, big enterprises, with a
provides for measuring the perceived level of number of employees greater than 51.
Involvement: 44 small enterprises (55%), 21
21
Ostrom received the 2009 Nobel Prize in medium enterprises (26%) and 13 large
Economic Sciences for her groundbreaking enterprises (16%); 2 enterprise didn’t answer
research demonstrating that ordinary people are about size.
capable of creating rules and institutions that allow d) ORGANISATIONS
for the sustainable and equitable management of
shared resources.
65% of the involved enterprises (n. 52) resources, the employees being a bit more
employ managers or directors; these critical in their evaluations.
enterprises are often larger and more On the whole, positive answers prevail for
structured. managers.
The sample of the survey it's not statistically There are often greater differences in the
relevant. But regarding the relationship answers given by employees; some of them
between the perceived level of creativity, the are negative It is evident especially in
enterprises’ climate and the entrepreneurs’ answers about managerial practices and work
and employees’ attitudes, the results offer organization, but also in answers about
some interesting indications. encouragement and recognition of creative
1. Service and R&D enterprises gave more work.
positive answers about creativity in g) MAIN INDICATIONS
management and in organization, so showing Referring to the survey results, the most
an higher level of creativity. important elements for enterprises in order to
e) RELATION BETWEEN DIMENSION AN be creative are (in order of relevance):
CREATIVITY  freedom to manage the assigned tasks
The size of the enterprises has been autonomously
considered in the following way: small  encouragement to solve problems
enterprises (1-15 employees), medium (16-50 creatively
employees), big (more than 51).  assignment of challenging tasks and
On the whole (Italy, Poland, Romania), small important projects
and medium enterprises (up to 50 employees)  managerial support of work groups
seem to be more creative and more creativity  managerial appreciation of individual
stimulating than the big ones (with more than contributions from employees
51 employees).  recognition of creative work
In Greece small enterprises seems to be less  presence of sufficient resources (funds,
creative. Causes seem related to the limited materials, facilities, information and,
number of employees and departments and above all, time).
thus limitations in activities and generation of h) CREATIVITY DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY
ideas and innovation. IN ENTERPRISES: PROCESSES AND VALUES
At the same time the smaller enterprises To enhance and strengthen those elements
express a stronger need to be creative due to (that can be seen at the same time as
the fact that they have less economical enterprises values and action's areas) the
power and that they have to face more following processes have to be activated:
challenges. In this case there is an interesting - letting employees free to organize their
contradiction between potential creativity and work and to decide how to reach their goals,
practised creativity. giving them a good level of autonomy22;
2. The effective hierarchical organization of
the involved enterprises is not revealed by the
data collected, but it is possible to consider 22
the size of the enterprises as directly Entrepreneurs and managers need to allow
connected to hierarchical organization (bigger employees to take more initiatives and undertake
activities that will enhance their creative
enterprises -> more structured enterprises).
performance and group work attitude.
On the whole the data collected show that The Concept of Creativity and Innovativeness
big enterprises (more structured enterprises) Assessment in Business Organizations, Irena
are less creative than small and medium ones Mačerinskienė, Aleksandra Bulygina Mykolas
(often less structured). Romeris University; The Effects Of Employee
f) PERSONNEL AND STAFF OPINIONS Empowerment Applications On Organizational
Both managers and employees express the Creativity And Innovativeness In Enterprises: The
opinion that the organization or unit they Case Of Oiz; Adnan Celik, PhD Rıfat Iraz, PhD
work in is creative. Selcuk University, Faculty of Economics &
Administrative Science, Turkey Ahmet Burhan
There is a slight divergence between the two
Cakıci, PhD Gumushane University, School of
groups about the role of management, the Health, Turkey Neriman Celik, PhD Selcuk
lack of organizational impediments, the University, Faculty of Tourism, Turkey; Creativity
organizational motivations and the available and Innovation for Competitive Excellence in
Organizations; Job PA Sanghamitra Bhattacharyya
- encouraging employees to solve problems positive and dynamic organizational culture26
creatively; where employees are involved and feel
- involving employees in challenging and responsible for their outputs.
stimulating work; This can increase their individual levels of
- supporting work groups and exchange productivity and the overall performance of
between employees; the employees and organization as a whole.
- appreciating and publicly recognizing new Introducing a positive organizational culture
ideas from employees and creative work; and a more human working place
- guaranteeing the presence of adequate environment provides more incentives for
resources (material and immaterial resources), innovation and efficient work triggering a
periodically monitoring resources allocation, multiplier effects on creativity.
- re-arranging timetables and allocation of
11.1.3 SECOND STEP: SET UP A
tasks, with the collaboration of employees;
MULTIDISCIPLINARY DYNAMIC INSTRUMENT
- periodically organising or taking part in
workshops / training courses / events The CCIE CHIMERA Creativity Index of
concerning risk management, creativity, Enterprises (first stage) is a picklock to get in
motivation, group work. touch operationally with organisations'
This last process can be considered a "driver" creativity (mainly the enterprises but also
and creativity is at the same time its content cultural associations, institutional
and its goal. stakeholders), starting survey and
i) ARISING INDICATIONS: SENSE OF observation activities that, while assessing
BELONGING the climate and innovation experiences that
Moreover the survey, creatively, shows is exists in a work environment, have
important that employees feel a sense of intercepted information for designing and
belonging23 to the business/organisation they customizing the pilot courses and CREALabs.
work for as this makes employees happier The instrument has been used, in an
and more confident in their work environment exploratory approach, to jumpstart creativity,
leading to higher and most effective to communicate the importance of creativity
performance. and innovation within an organization and as
j) ARISING INDICATIONS: SATISFACTION24 preliminary assessment preceding any type of
(for creativity) planned innovation or change intervention.
Even if it could seems tautological creativity In order to tune the index and its elements,
tends to and is boosted by satisfaction. When the testing phase has been crucial.
employees are satisfied25 they tend to The activities consisted in interviews and
perform better and fulfil their tasks with a questionnaires to entrepreneurs, managers
plus of attitude that is "creative". and staff of enterprises, supported, if needed,
Therefore, entrepreneurs and managers need with the consultation of documents relating
to take all of this into account to create a to enterprises performance.
Feed-backs from the interviews have been
crucial in order to refine the common idea of
in "Conference on Global Competition & creativity and its dynamics in organizations.
Competitiveness of Indian Corporate". This has been a first phase leading to test
23
Research on the innovative talent management and verify the shared concept of creativity.
based on risk management theory Yi Li and On the basis of the results, in a sort of
Xiangqian Zhang - Business Administration College review and revision phase, partners have:
Hua Qiao University, No. 269, Chenghua North 1. studied further documents and research
Road, Quanzhou, P. R. China, pp.413, 418
24 materials specifically related to other Creative
A referential study, Satisfaction with creativity:
Indexes and in particular the European
a study of organisational characteristics and
individual motivations, Silvia Sacchetti, Ermanno
Creativity Index;
C. Tortia, University of Trento - Department of 2. developed an experimental integrated
Economics, 5/2011 survey tool in order to widen the analysis of
25
Focusing in this case exactly on " the extent to the organisation, individual and environment
which the organization supports human aspiration
to creativity, rather than the extent to which
26
individual creativity can support organizational Enhancing Organisational Creativity - A
goals", see Satisfaction with creativity, p. 1 Literature Review, Wayne Morris,
aspects that could be considered, lived and Adding all the obtained scores, every
perceived as “creativity indexes” by enterprise could have a final quantitative
entrepreneurs, managers and employees; evaluation, indicating its level of creativity:
3. designed a shared a common framework - enterprises with a final score included
for curricula on creativity and organizations' between 480 and 960 are supposed to be
and enterprises creativity, on the basis of the lowly creative;
research activity results and of the first test - enterprises with a final score included
results. between 970 and 1440 are supposed to
The CHIMERA Creativity Index of Enterprises be sufficiently creative;
has been revised considering other - enterprises with a final score included
parameters leading to a new pilot instrument, between 1450 and 1920 are supposed to
the CHIMERA Indicators Framework. be very creative.
The goal is to refine the approach for The 8 categories of indicators used in the
monitoring, measuring and assessing the Chimera Creativity Index are:
work environment, management practices, 1. Human capital - The potential of culture
resources, motivations and interactions with and arts to help foster creative talents in
external contexts in an enhanced creativity- enterprises
oriented approach. 2. Human capital - The level of creative
The framework can be used, in a flexible managers and employees coming out of
way, to analyze further different factors that tertiary education and thanks to cultural
support or inhibit innovation and creativity and training activities
providing more articulated indications and 3. Openness and Diversity - Attitude in
directions for improving the creativity and managers and employees
innovation climate. 4. Openness and Diversity - Interests of
The integrated CHIMERA Creativity Index managers and employees
provides a set of indicators for examining 5. Cultural environment - Cultural
aspects of organizational work, environment participation
perceptions, contextual and individual issues, 6. Technology
activities and practices that are likely to 7. Incentives to create - Financial support to
influence the generation and development of cultural activities
creative ideas. 8. Outputs.
The proposed items widen the positive and
negative valuable aspects of the organisation 1. Human capital - The potential of culture
according a scoreboard-oriented structure and arts to help foster creative talents in
that can be further implemented and is enterprises
customizable. This category is aimed at measuring the level
This experimental Index system is the starting of involvement of managers and employees in
point for a research and theoretical cultural activities in their free time.
development of econometric criteria, useful in It includes two indicators related to:
understanding contextual influences on - the number of hours dedicated to arts and
creative behavior in work organizations. culture by managers in a month
- the number of hours dedicated to arts and
11.2 INDEXING SYSTEMS: THE culture by employees in a month.
CHIMERA PROPOSAL This indicator supposes that a greater interest
An improved version (better: a next step) of and attendance in cultural activities by
the integrated CHIMERA Creativity Index is managers and employees could favor a
composed of 8 categories of indicators, in the creative organizational environment; so we
aggregate 48 indicators. expect that a high participation in cultural
Every indicator presents several indexes activities strengthens and low participation in
aimed at measuring the level of presence of cultural activities weakens the relationship
the indicator itself in the enterprise; every between creative potential and the practiced
index entails a score going from 10 to 40 creativity of managers and employees.
points (the scoring is merely instrumental).
2. Human capital - The level of creative
managers and employees coming out of
tertiary education and thanks to cultural and - the level of management's
training activities encouragement to group work
This category is aimed at measuring the - the level of management's
relationship between creativity and type and encouragement to brainstorming and
level of education and training of managers exchange of ideas and the presence/no-
and employees. It includes eleven indicators presence of opportunities to express new
that intend to examine: ideas and projects
- the level and the type of managers’ and - the enterprise's capacity to attract and
employees’ educations, trying to know select creative people: the presence of
how many managers and employees have selection criteria related to the creativity
a culture and art-based education ; attitudes of candidates
- the number of training activities organized - the level of open access for employees to
within the enterprise for managers and information they need to work with.
employees in a year; This indicator supposes that a greater attitude
- the number of training activities in enterprises, managers and employees to
organized within the enterprise using arts- openness and diversity could favor a creative
oriented methods and approaches organizational environment. It is expected
processes a year; that a high attitude to openness and diversity
- the level of managers' and employees’ strengthens and a low attitude to openness
participation in lifelong learning activities and diversity weakens the relationship
organized by the enterprise in a year between creative potential and practiced
- the level of managers' and employees’ creativity of managers and employees.
participation in lifelong learning activities
organized outside the enterprise in a year. 4. Openness and Diversity - Interests of
This indicator supposes that a high managers and employees
educational level and a culture and arts-based This category is aimed at measuring the
education in managers and employees could attitude of managers and employees to
favor a creative organizational environment. openness and diversity. It includes four
In the same way, it supposes that greater indicators that intend to examine:
attendance in training activities by managers - the level of interest of managers and
and employees could favor a creative employees in non-national European or
organizational environment. extra-European cinema (other sectors can
It is expeceted that a high educational level, be choosen)
an arts-based education and a high - the presence in the enterprise of different
participation in training activities strengthens people with different cultural backgrounds
and a low educational level and a low among management and employees.
participation in training activities weakens the This indicator supposes that a greater interest
relationship between creative potential and in enterprises, managers and employees in
practiced creativity of managers and openness and diversity could favor a creative
employees. organizational environment. It is expected
that a high interest in openness and diversity
3. Openness and Diversity - Attitude in strengthens and low interest in openness and
managers and employees diversity weakens the relationship between
This category is aimed at measuring the creative potential and the practiced creativity
attitude in managers and employees towards of managers and employees.
openness and diversity. It includes nine
indicators that intend to examine: 5. Cultural environment - Cultural
- tolerance towards minorities in managers participation
and employees This category is aimed at measuring the
- the level of openness to diversity in the participation and involvement of enterprises,
workers' selection procedures of the managers and employees in cultural events
enterprise and activities (theatres, cinemas, art
- the level of interest of managers and exhibitions, concerts etc.). It includes
employees in arts and culture in other fourteen indicators that intend to examine:
European Countries - the average annual cultural expenditure of
the enterprise
- the level of attendance at cultural events participation in foundations/associations
and participation in cultural activities by active in culture
managers and employees - the presence of the enterprise's
- the organization of cultural events and incentives to new ideas/project proposed
activities by the enterprise by employees, by the distribution of
- the level of interest of managers and bonus/rewards for employees who
employees in theatre, art, music, cinema. propose new ideas/project .
This indicator supposes that a greater This indicator supposes that a greater
participation by enterprises, managers and financial support to cultural activities by
employees in cultural events and activities enterprises could favor a creative
could favor a creative organizational organizational environment
environmen. It is expected that a high financial support to
It is expected that a high participation in cultural activities strengthens and low
cultural events and activities strengthens and financial support to cultural activities
low participation in cultural events and weakens the relationship between creative
activities weakens the relationship between potential and the practiced creativity of
creative potential and the practiced creativity managers and employees.
of managers and employees.
8. Outputs
6. Technology This category is aimed at measuring the
This category is aimed at measuring the level quantity and the type of output of creativity
of infrastructure and use within enterprises, in enterprises. It includes two indicators that
by managers and employees, of information intend to examine:
and communication technologies. It includes - the number of design patents registered
three indicators that intends to examine: in a year;
- the presence and use of open content or - the number of technical patents
open source products registered in a year.
- the level of introduction of new business This indicator supposes that a greater number
models related to open-innovation, open of patents and other outputs of creativity
content and open source products could be the cause and effect of a creative
- the level of involvement of employees in organizational environment
using ICT (also social media). It is expected that a number of patents and
This indicator supposes that a greater use by other outputs of creativity strengthens and a
enterprises, managers and employees of ICT low number of patents and other outputs of
could favorite a creative organizational creativity weakens the relationship between
environment. creative potential and practiced creativity of
It is expected that a high use of ICT managers and employees.
strengthens and low use of ICT weakens the
relationship between creative potential and 11.3 INDEXING SYSTEMS: THE
practiced creativity of managers and CHIMERA PROPOSAL - SOME REMARKS
employees. AND WARNINGS
The Integrated CHIMERA Creativity Index
7. Incentives to create - Financial support to
proposes a methodology and mixed
cultural activities
instruments (the preliminary questionnaire
This category is aimed at measuring the level
and the Creativity Index) that an enterprise
of financial support given by enterprises to
can use in order to measure its level of
cultural events and activities. It includes three
creativity, to identify its strong areas and its
indicators that intend to examine:
weak areas, to develop strategies and actions
- the amount of donations and sponsoring
to maintain the former and to improve the
of cultural events/activities by the
latter.
enterprise
- the amount of indirect and direct
CHIMERA indicators and indexes measuring
investments into culture and cultural
the enterprise’s creativity level and creativity
activities by the enterprise, by the
behavior have as referential mark specific
organization of cultural events or by the
company areas: we suppose that, acting in
improving creativity within the organizational the enterprise’s competitiveness and
environment, these areas could be improved productivity.
in the same way, promoting and increasing
Results from developing a more creative
organizational environment could be seen in
particular measuring the following aspects:
- quantity of patents and innovations
developed by the enterprise
- level of reduction of internal conflicts
- level of growth of networks and
internationalization activities
- level of feedback relating to corporate
image and commercial activities.
These aspects are proposed as a context in
which to evaluate and prove the growth of
competitiveness and productivity in relation
with the increase of creativity level in the
enterprise: the improvement of the areas that
(filling in the questionnaire and the index)
prove to be weak should impact at least on
these aspects.
The improvement should be measured in a
time space of at least 24 months.
CHIMERA Creativity indicators and indexes
could be very useful tools:
- for enterprises and entrepreneurs, in order
to measure and evaluate their level of
creativity and their own creative behavior,
to identify their weak areas and to act
with procedures focused on improving
them, monitoring in the course of time
the effects of these procedures on
competitiveness and productivity
- for policy-makers and decision-makers, in
order to promote strategies and actions
aimed at supporting development,
entrepreneurship, innovation
- for CHIMERA partners and for all the
stakeholders at a European level, as a
basis for a transnational comparison.
11.4 . THIRD STEP: AN
OPERATIONAL APPROACH THROUGH
TRAINING
The CHIMERA Creativity Integrated Index
potentially overlooks all the aspects
connected to individual and personal
creativity (attitude, behavior, skills – criteria
related to employees and useful to find out
what employees think of their own
creativity), focusing on organizational
creativity as a condition in which personal
creativity could be valued and actualized.
It valorizes the elements of:
- organisation (this is about idea
management structures and the
organizational processes that stimulate
creativity)
- environment (this is about aspects in the
organization that do or do not encourage
creativity)
- individual quality and attitude.
Starting from these elements a set of
curricula has been drafted designing
different educational and training pathways,
customized also on the basis of national
needs.
11.5 INDEXING SYSTEMS: THE CHIMERA MATRIX PROPOSAL
Item proposals, revision, NOTE: at this stage the
integration. In this part quantification and the figures are
Enterprise's Staff researcher / compiler indicative. The purpose is to start
CREATIVE INDEXES Applicability/ Notes for Notes for
Source area, typologies specifies if the a bottom up experimentation
DESCRIPTORS Changes customisation customisation
departments (to specify) descriptors are customized also as to score
applicable, with or weighting.
without modifications
AGGREGATE SCORE - The aggregate score does not assess the performances but only gives a quantitative information useful for assessment and TOTAL
evaluation of the activities. The data and results have to be analysed in the corporate context defying a period (for example one year) and performance SCORE SCORE
indicators, for example: a) productivity, b) company's image, c) level of company infighting / level of well being at work, d) nn. of accidents on job 0
SECTION
1 SCORE
1 MANAGEMENT PRACTICES
0

Freedom - People Not at all = 0: score 0;


item in Slightly = 1 : score 10;
can manage CHIMERA Managers
1 testing Average = 2: score 20;
autonomously their CREATIVIY INDEX Employees Very = 3: score 30; Very
phase
assigned tasks much = 4: score 40

Freedom - People Not at all = 0: score 0;


item in Slightly = 1 : score 10;
have a sense of CHIMERA Managers
2 testing Average = 2: score 20;
control over their CREATIVIY INDEX Employees Very = 3: score 30; Very
phase
work much = 4: score 40

Freedom - People Not at all = 0: score 0;


item in Slightly = 1 : score 10;
are encouraged to CHIMERA Managers
3 testing Average = 2: score 20;
solve problems CREATIVIY INDEX Employees Very = 3: score 30; Very
phase
creatively much = 4: score 40

Challenging work - Not at all = 0: score 0;


item in Slightly = 1 : score 10;
People feel they CHIMERA Managers
4 work hard on testing Average = 2: score 20;
CREATIVIY INDEX Employees Very = 3: score 30; Very
challenging tasks phase
much = 4: score 40
and important
11.5 INDEXING SYSTEMS: THE CHIMERA MATRIX PROPOSAL
Item proposals, revision, NOTE: at this stage the
integration. In this part quantification and the figures are
Enterprise's Staff researcher / compiler indicative. The purpose is to start
CREATIVE INDEXES Applicability/ Notes for Notes for
Source area, typologies specifies if the a bottom up experimentation
DESCRIPTORS Changes customisation customisation
departments (to specify) descriptors are customized also as to score
applicable, with or weighting.
without modifications
AGGREGATE SCORE - The aggregate score does not assess the performances but only gives a quantitative information useful for assessment and TOTAL
evaluation of the activities. The data and results have to be analysed in the corporate context defying a period (for example one year) and performance SCORE SCORE
indicators, for example: a) productivity, b) company's image, c) level of company infighting / level of well being at work, d) nn. of accidents on job 0
project

Not at all = 0: score 0;


Challenging work - item in Slightly = 1 : score 10;
CHIMERA Managers
5 People feel their testing Average = 2: score 20;
CREATIVIY INDEX Employees Very = 3: score 30; Very
work is productive phase
much = 4: score 40

Managerial Not at all = 0: score 0;


encouragment - item in Slightly = 1 : score 10;
CHIMERA Managers
6 Management is a testing Average = 2: score 20;
CREATIVIY INDEX Employees Very = 3: score 30; Very
positive model for phase
much = 4: score 40
employees

Managerial Not at all = 0: score 0;


item in Slightly = 1 : score 10;
encouragment - CHIMERA Managers
7 testing Average = 2: score 20;
Management sets CREATIVIY INDEX Employees Very = 3: score 30; Very
phase
goals appropriately much = 4: score 40

Not at all = 0: score 0;


Managerial item in Slightly = 1 : score 10;
CHIMERA Managers
8 encouragment - testing Average = 2: score 20;
Management CREATIVIY INDEX Employees Very = 3: score 30; Very
phase
much = 4: score 40
supports work
11.5 INDEXING SYSTEMS: THE CHIMERA MATRIX PROPOSAL
Item proposals, revision, NOTE: at this stage the
integration. In this part quantification and the figures are
Enterprise's Staff researcher / compiler indicative. The purpose is to start
CREATIVE INDEXES Applicability/ Notes for Notes for
Source area, typologies specifies if the a bottom up experimentation
DESCRIPTORS Changes customisation customisation
departments (to specify) descriptors are customized also as to score
applicable, with or weighting.
without modifications
AGGREGATE SCORE - The aggregate score does not assess the performances but only gives a quantitative information useful for assessment and TOTAL
evaluation of the activities. The data and results have to be analysed in the corporate context defying a period (for example one year) and performance SCORE SCORE
indicators, for example: a) productivity, b) company's image, c) level of company infighting / level of well being at work, d) nn. of accidents on job 0
groups

Managerial
encouragment - Not at all = 0: score 0;
item in Slightly = 1 : score 10;
Management CHIMERA Managers
9 testing Average = 2: score 20;
values individual CREATIVIY INDEX Employees Very = 3: score 30; Very
phase
contributions from much = 4: score 40
employees

Managerial Not at all = 0: score 0;


encouragment - item in Slightly = 1 : score 10;
1 CHIMERA Managers
Management testing Average = 2: score 20;
0 CREATIVIY INDEX Employees Very = 3: score 30; Very
shows confidence phase
much = 4: score 40
in the work group

Work groups
support - There is Not at all = 0: score 0;
item in Slightly = 1 : score 10;
1 free and open CHIMERA Managers
testing Average = 2: score 20;
1 communication CREATIVIY INDEX Employees Very = 3: score 30; Very
phase
within the work much = 4: score 40
group
11.5 INDEXING SYSTEMS: THE CHIMERA MATRIX PROPOSAL
Item proposals, revision, NOTE: at this stage the
integration. In this part quantification and the figures are
Enterprise's Staff researcher / compiler indicative. The purpose is to start
CREATIVE INDEXES Applicability/ Notes for Notes for
Source area, typologies specifies if the a bottom up experimentation
DESCRIPTORS Changes customisation customisation
departments (to specify) descriptors are customized also as to score
applicable, with or weighting.
without modifications
AGGREGATE SCORE - The aggregate score does not assess the performances but only gives a quantitative information useful for assessment and TOTAL
evaluation of the activities. The data and results have to be analysed in the corporate context defying a period (for example one year) and performance SCORE SCORE
indicators, for example: a) productivity, b) company's image, c) level of company infighting / level of well being at work, d) nn. of accidents on job 0
Work groups Not at all = 0: score 0;
item in Slightly = 1 : score 10;
1 support - Work CHIMERA Managers
testing Average = 2: score 20;
2 group is open to CREATIVIY INDEX Employees Very = 3: score 30; Very
phase
new ideas much = 4: score 40

Work groups
support - Work Not at all = 0: score 0;
item in Slightly = 1 : score 10;
1 group CHIMERA Managers
testing Average = 2: score 20;
3 constructively CREATIVIY INDEX Employees Very = 3: score 30; Very
phase
challenges each much = 4: score 40
other’s work

Work groups Not at all = 0: score 0;


support - In the item in Slightly = 1 : score 10;
1 CHIMERA Managers
work group there testing Average = 2: score 20;
4 CREATIVIY INDEX Employees Very = 3: score 30; Very
are help and trust phase
much = 4: score 40
between members

Work groups Not at all = 0: score 0;


support - People item in Slightly = 1 : score 10;
1 CHIMERA Managers
feel committed to testing Average = 2: score 20;
5 CREATIVIY INDEX Employees Very = 3: score 30; Very
the work they are phase
much = 4: score 40
doing
11.5 INDEXING SYSTEMS: THE CHIMERA MATRIX PROPOSAL
Item proposals, revision, NOTE: at this stage the
integration. In this part quantification and the figures are
Enterprise's Staff researcher / compiler indicative. The purpose is to start
CREATIVE INDEXES Applicability/ Notes for Notes for
Source area, typologies specifies if the a bottom up experimentation
DESCRIPTORS Changes customisation customisation
departments (to specify) descriptors are customized also as to score
applicable, with or weighting.
without modifications
AGGREGATE SCORE - The aggregate score does not assess the performances but only gives a quantitative information useful for assessment and TOTAL
evaluation of the activities. The data and results have to be analysed in the corporate context defying a period (for example one year) and performance SCORE SCORE
indicators, for example: a) productivity, b) company's image, c) level of company infighting / level of well being at work, d) nn. of accidents on job 0
SECTION
2 SCORE
2 ORGANIZATIONAL MOTIVATION

Organizational Not at all = 0: score 0;


encouragment - item in Slightly = 1 : score 10;
CHIMERA Managers
1 The organizational testing Average = 2: score 20;
CREATIVIY INDEX Employees Very = 3: score 30; Very
culture encourages phase
much = 4: score 40
creativity

Organizational Not at all = 0: score 0;


encouragment - item in Slightly = 1 : score 10;
CHIMERA Managers
2 Ideas are fairly and testing Average = 2: score 20;
CREATIVIY INDEX Employees Very = 3: score 30; Very
constructively phase
much = 4: score 40
judged

Organizational Not at all = 0: score 0;


encouragment - item in Slightly = 1 : score 10;
CHIMERA Managers
3 Creative work is testing Average = 2: score 20;
CREATIVIY INDEX Employees Very = 3: score 30; Very
rewarded and phase
much = 4: score 40
recognized
11.5 INDEXING SYSTEMS: THE CHIMERA MATRIX PROPOSAL
Item proposals, revision, NOTE: at this stage the
integration. In this part quantification and the figures are
Enterprise's Staff researcher / compiler indicative. The purpose is to start
CREATIVE INDEXES Applicability/ Notes for Notes for
Source area, typologies specifies if the a bottom up experimentation
DESCRIPTORS Changes customisation customisation
departments (to specify) descriptors are customized also as to score
applicable, with or weighting.
without modifications
AGGREGATE SCORE - The aggregate score does not assess the performances but only gives a quantitative information useful for assessment and TOTAL
evaluation of the activities. The data and results have to be analysed in the corporate context defying a period (for example one year) and performance SCORE SCORE
indicators, for example: a) productivity, b) company's image, c) level of company infighting / level of well being at work, d) nn. of accidents on job 0
Lack of
organizational Not at all = 0: score 0;
impediments - item in Slightly = 1 : score 10;
CHIMERA Managers
4 There are no testing Average = 2: score 20;
CREATIVIY INDEX Employees Very = 3: score 30; Very
internal political phase
much = 4: score 40
problems that
impede creativity

Lack of Not at all = 0: score 0;


organizational item in Slightly = 1 : score 10;
CHIMERA Managers
5 impediments - New testing Average = 2: score 20;
CREATIVIY INDEX Employees Very = 3: score 30; Very
idea are not harshly phase
much = 4: score 40
criticize

Lack of
organizational Not at all = 0: score 0;
item in Slightly = 1 : score 10;
impediments - CHIMERA Managers
6 testing Average = 2: score 20;
There's no CREATIVIY INDEX Employees Very = 3: score 30; Very
phase
destructive internal much = 4: score 40
competition
11.5 INDEXING SYSTEMS: THE CHIMERA MATRIX PROPOSAL
Item proposals, revision, NOTE: at this stage the
integration. In this part quantification and the figures are
Enterprise's Staff researcher / compiler indicative. The purpose is to start
CREATIVE INDEXES Applicability/ Notes for Notes for
Source area, typologies specifies if the a bottom up experimentation
DESCRIPTORS Changes customisation customisation
departments (to specify) descriptors are customized also as to score
applicable, with or weighting.
without modifications
AGGREGATE SCORE - The aggregate score does not assess the performances but only gives a quantitative information useful for assessment and TOTAL
evaluation of the activities. The data and results have to be analysed in the corporate context defying a period (for example one year) and performance SCORE SCORE
indicators, for example: a) productivity, b) company's image, c) level of company infighting / level of well being at work, d) nn. of accidents on job 0
Lack of
organizational
impediments - Not at all = 0: score 0;
item in Slightly = 1 : score 10;
There's no CHIMERA Managers
7 testing Average = 2: score 20;
avoidance of risk CREATIVIY INDEX Employees Very = 3: score 30; Very
phase
and of exploration much = 4: score 40
of new possibilities
and opportunities

SECTION
3 SCORE
3 RESOURCES

Sufficient
Resources -
People can get Not at all = 0: score 0;
the resources item in Slightly = 1 : score 10;
CHIMERA CREATIVIY Managers
1 they need for testing Average = 2: score 20;
INDEX Employees Very = 3: score 30; Very
their job (funds, phase
much = 4: score 40
materials,
facilities,
information)
11.5 INDEXING SYSTEMS: THE CHIMERA MATRIX PROPOSAL
Item proposals, revision, NOTE: at this stage the
integration. In this part quantification and the figures are
Enterprise's Staff researcher / compiler indicative. The purpose is to start
CREATIVE INDEXES Applicability/ Notes for Notes for
Source area, typologies specifies if the a bottom up experimentation
DESCRIPTORS Changes customisation customisation
departments (to specify) descriptors are customized also as to score
applicable, with or weighting.
without modifications
AGGREGATE SCORE - The aggregate score does not assess the performances but only gives a quantitative information useful for assessment and TOTAL
evaluation of the activities. The data and results have to be analysed in the corporate context defying a period (for example one year) and performance SCORE SCORE
indicators, for example: a) productivity, b) company's image, c) level of company infighting / level of well being at work, d) nn. of accidents on job 0
Realistic
workload Not at all = 0: score 0;
item in Slightly = 1 : score 10;
pressure - Work CHIMERA CREATIVIY Managers
2 testing Average = 2: score 20;
deadlines don't INDEX Employees Very = 3: score 30; Very
phase
compromise much = 4: score 40
creative work

Realistic
workload Not at all = 0: score 0;
item in Slightly = 1 : score 10;
pressure - CHIMERA CREATIVIY Managers
3 testing Average = 2: score 20;
People have INDEX Employees Very = 3: score 30; Very
phase
enough time to much = 4: score 40
do their work

SECTION
4 SCORE
4 OUTCOMES

Creativity - Not at all = 0: score 0;


item in Slightly = 1 : score 10;
People feel that CHIMERA CREATIVIY Managers
1 the organization testing Average = 2: score 20;
INDEX Employees Very = 3: score 30; Very
phase
or unit they much = 4: score 40
work in is
11.5 INDEXING SYSTEMS: THE CHIMERA MATRIX PROPOSAL
Item proposals, revision, NOTE: at this stage the
integration. In this part quantification and the figures are
Enterprise's Staff researcher / compiler indicative. The purpose is to start
CREATIVE INDEXES Applicability/ Notes for Notes for
Source area, typologies specifies if the a bottom up experimentation
DESCRIPTORS Changes customisation customisation
departments (to specify) descriptors are customized also as to score
applicable, with or weighting.
without modifications
AGGREGATE SCORE - The aggregate score does not assess the performances but only gives a quantitative information useful for assessment and TOTAL
evaluation of the activities. The data and results have to be analysed in the corporate context defying a period (for example one year) and performance SCORE SCORE
indicators, for example: a) productivity, b) company's image, c) level of company infighting / level of well being at work, d) nn. of accidents on job 0
creative

Creativity - Not at all = 0: score 0;


People feel they item in Slightly = 1 : score 10;
CHIMERA CREATIVIY Managers
2 actually testing Average = 2: score 20;
INDEX Employees Very = 3: score 30; Very
produce phase
much = 4: score 40
creative work

Productivity -
People feel thet
the organization
or unit they
work in is Not at all = 0: score 0;
item in Slightly = 1 : score 10;
CHIMERA CREATIVIY Managers
3 efficient, testing Average = 2: score 20;
effective and INDEX Employees Very = 3: score 30; Very
phase
productive much = 4: score 40
11.5 INDEXING SYSTEMS: THE CHIMERA MATRIX PROPOSAL
Item proposals, revision, NOTE: at this stage the
integration. In this part quantification and the figures are
Enterprise's Staff researcher / compiler indicative. The purpose is to start
CREATIVE INDEXES Applicability/ Notes for Notes for
Source area, typologies specifies if the a bottom up experimentation
DESCRIPTORS Changes customisation customisation
departments (to specify) descriptors are customized also as to score
applicable, with or weighting.
without modifications
AGGREGATE SCORE - The aggregate score does not assess the performances but only gives a quantitative information useful for assessment and TOTAL
evaluation of the activities. The data and results have to be analysed in the corporate context defying a period (for example one year) and performance SCORE SCORE
indicators, for example: a) productivity, b) company's image, c) level of company infighting / level of well being at work, d) nn. of accidents on job 0
SECTION
A
A
EUROPEAN CREATIVE INDEX - Human capital - the potential of culture-and arts-based to help foster creative SCORE
talents
0

Hours dedicated to arts 2: score 10; 3-5:


Number of and culture by score: 20; 6-10:
“Key data on education Changes Managers
hours dedicated managers (N. of hours in score 30; >10:
in Europe in 2005”, by score 40
to arts and a month)
DG EAC, Eurydice and
1 culture in
Eurostat, available on
primary and Hours dedicated to arts 2: score 10; 3-5:
Eurydice website:
secondary and culture by score: 20; 6-10:
www.eurydice.org/ Changes Employees score 30; >10:
education employees (N. of hours
score 40
in a month)

European Leagues of
Institutes of the Arts
Number of art 2: score 10; 3-5:
(Elia) website: http: / Number of art schools
schools per score: 20; 6-10:
2 /www.elia- Changes x located in enterprise score 30; >10:
million
artschools.org/ area score 40
population
11.5 INDEXING SYSTEMS: THE CHIMERA MATRIX PROPOSAL
Item proposals, revision, NOTE: at this stage the
integration. In this part quantification and the figures are
Enterprise's Staff researcher / compiler indicative. The purpose is to start
CREATIVE INDEXES Applicability/ Notes for Notes for
Source area, typologies specifies if the a bottom up experimentation
DESCRIPTORS Changes customisation customisation
departments (to specify) descriptors are customized also as to score
applicable, with or weighting.
without modifications
AGGREGATE SCORE - The aggregate score does not assess the performances but only gives a quantitative information useful for assessment and TOTAL
evaluation of the activities. The data and results have to be analysed in the corporate context defying a period (for example one year) and performance SCORE SCORE
indicators, for example: a) productivity, b) company's image, c) level of company infighting / level of well being at work, d) nn. of accidents on job 0

SECTION
B
SCORE
B Human capital - the level of creative talents coming out of tertiary education and in cultural employment
-

Level of managers' 25%: score 10; 26%-


50%: score: 20; 51%-
Managers education (% of 75%: score 30; 76%-
Tertiary graduate managers) 100%: score 40
Eurostat, “Cultural
students by field
statistics”, available on:
3 of education
http: / / epp.eurostat
related to
.ec.europa.eu/ Level of employees ' 25%: score 10; 26%-
culture 50%: score: 20; 51%-
education (% of 75%: score 30; 76%-
Employees
graduate 100%: score 40
employees)
11.5 INDEXING SYSTEMS: THE CHIMERA MATRIX PROPOSAL
Item proposals, revision, NOTE: at this stage the
integration. In this part quantification and the figures are
Enterprise's Staff researcher / compiler indicative. The purpose is to start
CREATIVE INDEXES Applicability/ Notes for Notes for
Source area, typologies specifies if the a bottom up experimentation
DESCRIPTORS Changes customisation customisation
departments (to specify) descriptors are customized also as to score
applicable, with or weighting.
without modifications
AGGREGATE SCORE - The aggregate score does not assess the performances but only gives a quantitative information useful for assessment and TOTAL
evaluation of the activities. The data and results have to be analysed in the corporate context defying a period (for example one year) and performance SCORE SCORE
indicators, for example: a) productivity, b) company's image, c) level of company infighting / level of well being at work, d) nn. of accidents on job 0
Organization of
lifelong learning
2: score 10; 3-5: score:
activities for 20; 6-10: score 30; >10:
managers (N. of score 40
activities realized in
the year)

Organization of
lifelong learning
2: score 10; 3-5: score:
activities for 20; 6-10: score 30; >10:
employees (N. of score 40
activities realized in
the year)

Organization of
lifelong learning
2: score 10; 3-5: score:
activities using 20; 6-10: score 30; >10:
artistic processes score 40
(N. of activities
realized in the year)
11.5 INDEXING SYSTEMS: THE CHIMERA MATRIX PROPOSAL
Item proposals, revision, NOTE: at this stage the
integration. In this part quantification and the figures are
Enterprise's Staff researcher / compiler indicative. The purpose is to start
CREATIVE INDEXES Applicability/ Notes for Notes for
Source area, typologies specifies if the a bottom up experimentation
DESCRIPTORS Changes customisation customisation
departments (to specify) descriptors are customized also as to score
applicable, with or weighting.
without modifications
AGGREGATE SCORE - The aggregate score does not assess the performances but only gives a quantitative information useful for assessment and TOTAL
evaluation of the activities. The data and results have to be analysed in the corporate context defying a period (for example one year) and performance SCORE SCORE
indicators, for example: a) productivity, b) company's image, c) level of company infighting / level of well being at work, d) nn. of accidents on job 0
Level of managers'
participation in
lifelong learning
activities organized
by the enterprise (% 25%: score 10; 26%-
of managers 50%: score: 20; 51%-
Managers 75%: score 30; 76%-
participating in one
100%: score 40
ore more lifelong
learning activities
organized by the
enterprise in the
year)

Level of employees'
participation in
lifelong learning
activities organized
by the enterprise (% 25%: score 10; 26%-
of employees 50%: score: 20; 51%-
Employees participating in one 75%: score 30; 76%-
100%: score 40
ore more lifelong
learning activities
organized by the
enterprise in the
year)
11.5 INDEXING SYSTEMS: THE CHIMERA MATRIX PROPOSAL
Item proposals, revision, NOTE: at this stage the
integration. In this part quantification and the figures are
Enterprise's Staff researcher / compiler indicative. The purpose is to start
CREATIVE INDEXES Applicability/ Notes for Notes for
Source area, typologies specifies if the a bottom up experimentation
DESCRIPTORS Changes customisation customisation
departments (to specify) descriptors are customized also as to score
applicable, with or weighting.
without modifications
AGGREGATE SCORE - The aggregate score does not assess the performances but only gives a quantitative information useful for assessment and TOTAL
evaluation of the activities. The data and results have to be analysed in the corporate context defying a period (for example one year) and performance SCORE SCORE
indicators, for example: a) productivity, b) company's image, c) level of company infighting / level of well being at work, d) nn. of accidents on job 0
Level of managers'
participation in
lifelong learning
activities (% of 25%: score 10; 26%-
50%: score: 20; 51%-
Managers managers 75%: score 30; 76%-
participating in one 100%: score 40
ore more lifelong
learning activities in
the year)

Level of employees'
participation in
lifelong learning
X activities (% of 25%: score 10; 26%-
50%: score: 20; 51%-
Changes Employees employees 75%: score 30; 76%-
X participating in one 100%: score 40
ore more lifelong
X learning activities in
the year)

Type of managers's
Cultural “Cultural statistics in 25%: score 10; 26%-
education (% of
employment in Europe”, Edition 2007, 50%: score: 20; 51%-
4 Managers managers with a 75%: score 30; 76%-
total published by Eurostat,
culture and art- 100%: score 40
employment p.54
based education)
11.5 INDEXING SYSTEMS: THE CHIMERA MATRIX PROPOSAL
Item proposals, revision, NOTE: at this stage the
integration. In this part quantification and the figures are
Enterprise's Staff researcher / compiler indicative. The purpose is to start
CREATIVE INDEXES Applicability/ Notes for Notes for
Source area, typologies specifies if the a bottom up experimentation
DESCRIPTORS Changes customisation customisation
departments (to specify) descriptors are customized also as to score
applicable, with or weighting.
without modifications
AGGREGATE SCORE - The aggregate score does not assess the performances but only gives a quantitative information useful for assessment and TOTAL
evaluation of the activities. The data and results have to be analysed in the corporate context defying a period (for example one year) and performance SCORE SCORE
indicators, for example: a) productivity, b) company's image, c) level of company infighting / level of well being at work, d) nn. of accidents on job 0

Type of employees's 25%: score 10; 26%-


education (% of 50%: score: 20; 51%-
Changes 75%: score 30; 76%-
Employees employees with a
100%: score 40
culture and art-
based education)

SECTION
C
SCORE
C Openness and Diversity - Attitude in population
-

Percentage of
managers that 25%: score 10; 26%-
50%: score: 20; 51%-
Managers express tolerant 75%: score 30; 76%-
% of population
attitudes towards 100%: score 40
that express
minorities (%)
5 tolerant EUMC and SORA
attitudes toward
minorities 25%: score 10; 26%-
Percentage of 50%: score: 20; 51%-
Employees employees that 75%: score 30; 76%-
express tolerant 100%: score 40
attitudes towards
11.5 INDEXING SYSTEMS: THE CHIMERA MATRIX PROPOSAL
Item proposals, revision, NOTE: at this stage the
integration. In this part quantification and the figures are
Enterprise's Staff researcher / compiler indicative. The purpose is to start
CREATIVE INDEXES Applicability/ Notes for Notes for
Source area, typologies specifies if the a bottom up experimentation
DESCRIPTORS Changes customisation customisation
departments (to specify) descriptors are customized also as to score
applicable, with or weighting.
without modifications
AGGREGATE SCORE - The aggregate score does not assess the performances but only gives a quantitative information useful for assessment and TOTAL
evaluation of the activities. The data and results have to be analysed in the corporate context defying a period (for example one year) and performance SCORE SCORE
indicators, for example: a) productivity, b) company's image, c) level of company infighting / level of well being at work, d) nn. of accidents on job 0
minorities (%)

Openess to diversity
in the workers'
selection procedures
2: score 10; 3-5: score:
of the enterprise
Changes 20; 6-10: score 30; >10:
(number of selection score 40
X
criteria aimed at
incentivize diversity
among candidates
and workers)

Percentage of
Share of “European cultural 25%: score 10; 26%-
population managers interested
values”, 2007, 50%: score: 20; 51%-
6 interested in Changes Managers in arts and culture in 75%: score 30; 76%-
Eurobarometer 278
other European 100%: score 40
arts and culture requested by DG EAC
in other Countries (%)
11.5 INDEXING SYSTEMS: THE CHIMERA MATRIX PROPOSAL
Item proposals, revision, NOTE: at this stage the
integration. In this part quantification and the figures are
Enterprise's Staff researcher / compiler indicative. The purpose is to start
CREATIVE INDEXES Applicability/ Notes for Notes for
Source area, typologies specifies if the a bottom up experimentation
DESCRIPTORS Changes customisation customisation
departments (to specify) descriptors are customized also as to score
applicable, with or weighting.
without modifications
AGGREGATE SCORE - The aggregate score does not assess the performances but only gives a quantitative information useful for assessment and TOTAL
evaluation of the activities. The data and results have to be analysed in the corporate context defying a period (for example one year) and performance SCORE SCORE
indicators, for example: a) productivity, b) company's image, c) level of company infighting / level of well being at work, d) nn. of accidents on job 0
European Percentage of
countries employees 25%: score 10; 26%-
interested in arts 50%: score: 20; 51%-
Changes Employees 75%: score 30; 76%-
and culture in other
100%: score 40
European Countries
(%)

Level of
management's
2: score 10; 3-5: score:
encouragement to
Changes Managers 20; 6-10: score 30; >10:
group work (N. of score 40
group work
opportunity in a
month)

Level of
management's
X encouragement to 2: score 10; 3-5: score:
New Managers brainstorming and 20; 6-10: score 30; >10:
X eschange of ideas; score 40
Presence of
opportunities to
express new ideas
and projects (N. of
11.5 INDEXING SYSTEMS: THE CHIMERA MATRIX PROPOSAL
Item proposals, revision, NOTE: at this stage the
integration. In this part quantification and the figures are
Enterprise's Staff researcher / compiler indicative. The purpose is to start
CREATIVE INDEXES Applicability/ Notes for Notes for
Source area, typologies specifies if the a bottom up experimentation
DESCRIPTORS Changes customisation customisation
departments (to specify) descriptors are customized also as to score
applicable, with or weighting.
without modifications
AGGREGATE SCORE - The aggregate score does not assess the performances but only gives a quantitative information useful for assessment and TOTAL
evaluation of the activities. The data and results have to be analysed in the corporate context defying a period (for example one year) and performance SCORE SCORE
indicators, for example: a) productivity, b) company's image, c) level of company infighting / level of well being at work, d) nn. of accidents on job 0
brainstorming
opportunity in a
month)

Enterprise's capacity
to attract and select
cretive people:
presence of
selection criteria
2: score 10; 3-5: score:
related to creativity
New X Managers 20; 6-10: score 30; >10:
attitudes of score 40
candidates (N. of
selection criteria
related to creativity
attitudes of
candidates)

Open access for


employees to 1-10: score 10; 11-20:
New X Managers information they
score: 20; 21-30: score
30; >30: score 40
need to work (N. of
employees who are
11.5 INDEXING SYSTEMS: THE CHIMERA MATRIX PROPOSAL
Item proposals, revision, NOTE: at this stage the
integration. In this part quantification and the figures are
Enterprise's Staff researcher / compiler indicative. The purpose is to start
CREATIVE INDEXES Applicability/ Notes for Notes for
Source area, typologies specifies if the a bottom up experimentation
DESCRIPTORS Changes customisation customisation
departments (to specify) descriptors are customized also as to score
applicable, with or weighting.
without modifications
AGGREGATE SCORE - The aggregate score does not assess the performances but only gives a quantitative information useful for assessment and TOTAL
evaluation of the activities. The data and results have to be analysed in the corporate context defying a period (for example one year) and performance SCORE SCORE
indicators, for example: a) productivity, b) company's image, c) level of company infighting / level of well being at work, d) nn. of accidents on job 0
allowed to access to
strategic
information)

SECTION
D
SCORE
D Openness and Diversity - Market data
-

Interest of managers
in non-national
The European
European or extra-
Market shares Audiovisual 2: score 10; 3-5: score:
European cinema
7 of non-national Observatory: Changes Managers 20; 6-10: score 30; >10:
(N. of non-national score 40
European film ht tp: / /www.obs.coe.int
European or extra-
/
European fimls seen
in a year)
11.5 INDEXING SYSTEMS: THE CHIMERA MATRIX PROPOSAL
Item proposals, revision, NOTE: at this stage the
integration. In this part quantification and the figures are
Enterprise's Staff researcher / compiler indicative. The purpose is to start
CREATIVE INDEXES Applicability/ Notes for Notes for
Source area, typologies specifies if the a bottom up experimentation
DESCRIPTORS Changes customisation customisation
departments (to specify) descriptors are customized also as to score
applicable, with or weighting.
without modifications
AGGREGATE SCORE - The aggregate score does not assess the performances but only gives a quantitative information useful for assessment and TOTAL
evaluation of the activities. The data and results have to be analysed in the corporate context defying a period (for example one year) and performance SCORE SCORE
indicators, for example: a) productivity, b) company's image, c) level of company infighting / level of well being at work, d) nn. of accidents on job 0
Interest of
employees in non-
national European
2: score 10; 3-5: score:
or extra-European
Changes Employees 20; 6-10: score 30; >10:
cinema (N. of non- score 40
national European
or extra-European
fimls seen in a year)

Level of Media Study on Media


Pluralism in Pluralism Indicators Under
8 --- --- ---
European carried out on behalf of analysis
Member States DG Infosoc

Presence of different
people with different
Share of non- 25%: score 10; 26%-
cultural background
nationals in 50%: score: 20; 51%-
9 Eurobarometer 278 Changes Managers among the 75%: score 30; 76%-
cultural
management (% of 100%: score 40
employment
non-national among
the management)
11.5 INDEXING SYSTEMS: THE CHIMERA MATRIX PROPOSAL
Item proposals, revision, NOTE: at this stage the
integration. In this part quantification and the figures are
Enterprise's Staff researcher / compiler indicative. The purpose is to start
CREATIVE INDEXES Applicability/ Notes for Notes for
Source area, typologies specifies if the a bottom up experimentation
DESCRIPTORS Changes customisation customisation
departments (to specify) descriptors are customized also as to score
applicable, with or weighting.
without modifications
AGGREGATE SCORE - The aggregate score does not assess the performances but only gives a quantitative information useful for assessment and TOTAL
evaluation of the activities. The data and results have to be analysed in the corporate context defying a period (for example one year) and performance SCORE SCORE
indicators, for example: a) productivity, b) company's image, c) level of company infighting / level of well being at work, d) nn. of accidents on job 0
Presence of different
people with different
cultural background 25%: score 10; 26%-
50%: score: 20; 51%-
Changes Employees among the 75%: score 30; 76%-
employees (% of 100%: score 40
non-national among
the employees)

SECTION
E
SCORE
E Cultural enviroment - Cultural participation
-

Eurostat, “Cultural
Average annual statistics”, available Average annual
1 Turnover percentage (to
cultural expenditure on: Changes X cultural expenditure define figures)
0
per household ht tp: / / epp.eurostat by the enterprise
.ec.europa.eu/

Percentage of Percentage of 25%: score 10; 26%-


Eurostat, “Cultural
1 persons managers 50%: score: 20; 51%-
statistics”, available Changes Managers
1 participating in on:
participating in 75%: score 30; 76%-
cultural activities at cultural activities at 100%: score 40
ht tp: / / epp.eurostat
least one time in lest on time in the 12
11.5 INDEXING SYSTEMS: THE CHIMERA MATRIX PROPOSAL
Item proposals, revision, NOTE: at this stage the
integration. In this part quantification and the figures are
Enterprise's Staff researcher / compiler indicative. The purpose is to start
CREATIVE INDEXES Applicability/ Notes for Notes for
Source area, typologies specifies if the a bottom up experimentation
DESCRIPTORS Changes customisation customisation
departments (to specify) descriptors are customized also as to score
applicable, with or weighting.
without modifications
AGGREGATE SCORE - The aggregate score does not assess the performances but only gives a quantitative information useful for assessment and TOTAL
evaluation of the activities. The data and results have to be analysed in the corporate context defying a period (for example one year) and performance SCORE SCORE
indicators, for example: a) productivity, b) company's image, c) level of company infighting / level of well being at work, d) nn. of accidents on job 0
the 12 months .ec.europa.eu/ months

Percentage of
employees 25%: score 10; 26%-
participating in 50%: score: 20; 51%-
Changes Employees 75%: score 30; 76%-
cultural activities at
100%: score 40
lest on time in the 12
months

Level of attendance
at cultural events
2: score 10; 3-5: score:
and participation in
Changes Managers 20; 6-10: score 30; >10:
cultural activities by score 40
managers (N. in the
year)

Level of attendance
at cultural events
2: score 10; 3-5: score:
and participation in
Changes Employees 20; 6-10: score 30; >10:
cultural activities by score 40
employees (N. in the
year)
11.5 INDEXING SYSTEMS: THE CHIMERA MATRIX PROPOSAL
Item proposals, revision, NOTE: at this stage the
integration. In this part quantification and the figures are
Enterprise's Staff researcher / compiler indicative. The purpose is to start
CREATIVE INDEXES Applicability/ Notes for Notes for
Source area, typologies specifies if the a bottom up experimentation
DESCRIPTORS Changes customisation customisation
departments (to specify) descriptors are customized also as to score
applicable, with or weighting.
without modifications
AGGREGATE SCORE - The aggregate score does not assess the performances but only gives a quantitative information useful for assessment and TOTAL
evaluation of the activities. The data and results have to be analysed in the corporate context defying a period (for example one year) and performance SCORE SCORE
indicators, for example: a) productivity, b) company's image, c) level of company infighting / level of well being at work, d) nn. of accidents on job 0
Organization of
cultural events and
activities by the 2: score 10; 3-5: score:
1 Cultural enviroment
Changes X enterpriese (N. of 20; 6-10: score 30; >10:
2 - Cultural offering score 40
cultural events and
activities organized
in the year)

Interest of managers
in theatre (N. of 2: score 10; 3-5: score:
Changes Managers theatrical 20; 6-10: score 30; >10:
performances score 40
attended in a year)
Data available from
1 Number of public
relevant national
3 theatres per capita Interest of
minister
employees in
2: score 10; 3-5: score:
theatre (N. of
Changes 20; 6-10: score 30; >10:
Employees theatrical score 40
performances
attended in a year)

Interest of managers
Number of public Data available from 2: score 10; 3-5: score:
1 in art (N. of
museums per relevant national Changes Managers 20; 6-10: score 30; >10:
4 museums visitated score 40
capita minister
in a year)
11.5 INDEXING SYSTEMS: THE CHIMERA MATRIX PROPOSAL
Item proposals, revision, NOTE: at this stage the
integration. In this part quantification and the figures are
Enterprise's Staff researcher / compiler indicative. The purpose is to start
CREATIVE INDEXES Applicability/ Notes for Notes for
Source area, typologies specifies if the a bottom up experimentation
DESCRIPTORS Changes customisation customisation
departments (to specify) descriptors are customized also as to score
applicable, with or weighting.
without modifications
AGGREGATE SCORE - The aggregate score does not assess the performances but only gives a quantitative information useful for assessment and TOTAL
evaluation of the activities. The data and results have to be analysed in the corporate context defying a period (for example one year) and performance SCORE SCORE
indicators, for example: a) productivity, b) company's image, c) level of company infighting / level of well being at work, d) nn. of accidents on job 0

Interest of 2: score 10; 3-5: score:


Changes employees in art (N. 20; 6-10: score 30; >10:
Employees score 40
of museums
visitated in a year)

Interest of managers
2: score 10; 3-5: score:
in music (N. of
Changes Managers 20; 6-10: score 30; >10:
comcerts attended score 40
Data available from in a year)
1 Number of public
relevant national
5 concert halls
minister Interest of
2: score 10; 3-5: score:
employees in music
Changes 20; 6-10: score 30; >10:
Employees (N. of comcerts score 40
attended in a year)

Interest of managers 2: score 10; 3-5: score:


Changes Managers in cinema (N. of 20; 6-10: score 30; >10:
films seen in a year) score 40
The European
Number of cinema
1 Audiovisual
screens by
6 Observatory:ht tp: /
countries Interest of 2: score 10; 3-5: score:
/www.obs.coe.int /
Changes employees in 20; 6-10: score 30; >10:
Employees score 40
cinema (N. of films
seen in a year)
11.5 INDEXING SYSTEMS: THE CHIMERA MATRIX PROPOSAL
Item proposals, revision, NOTE: at this stage the
integration. In this part quantification and the figures are
Enterprise's Staff researcher / compiler indicative. The purpose is to start
CREATIVE INDEXES Applicability/ Notes for Notes for
Source area, typologies specifies if the a bottom up experimentation
DESCRIPTORS Changes customisation customisation
departments (to specify) descriptors are customized also as to score
applicable, with or weighting.
without modifications
AGGREGATE SCORE - The aggregate score does not assess the performances but only gives a quantitative information useful for assessment and TOTAL
evaluation of the activities. The data and results have to be analysed in the corporate context defying a period (for example one year) and performance SCORE SCORE
indicators, for example: a) productivity, b) company's image, c) level of company infighting / level of well being at work, d) nn. of accidents on job 0
SECTION
F SCORE
F Technology
-

25%: score 10;


Presence and usign of 26%-50%: score:
Changes X open content or open 20; 51%-75%:
source procucts score 30; 76%-
Eurostat , « Sciences 100%: score 40
1 Broadband and technology »: http: /
7 penetration rate / epp.eurostat Introduction of new
.ec.europa.eu/ business models related 2: score 10; 3-5:
score: 20; 6-10:
Changes X to open-innovation, score 30; >10:
open content and open score 40
source products

Percentage of
households
who have “Cultural statistics in 25%: score 10;
26%-50%: score:
1 personal Europe”, Edition 2007, Percentage of
Changes Employees 20; 51%-75%:
8 computer and published by Eurostat, employees using ICT score 30; 76%-
video game p. 142 100%: score 40
console at
home
11.5 INDEXING SYSTEMS: THE CHIMERA MATRIX PROPOSAL
Item proposals, revision, NOTE: at this stage the
integration. In this part quantification and the figures are
Enterprise's Staff researcher / compiler indicative. The purpose is to start
CREATIVE INDEXES Applicability/ Notes for Notes for
Source area, typologies specifies if the a bottom up experimentation
DESCRIPTORS Changes customisation customisation
departments (to specify) descriptors are customized also as to score
applicable, with or weighting.
without modifications
AGGREGATE SCORE - The aggregate score does not assess the performances but only gives a quantitative information useful for assessment and TOTAL
evaluation of the activities. The data and results have to be analysed in the corporate context defying a period (for example one year) and performance SCORE SCORE
indicators, for example: a) productivity, b) company's image, c) level of company infighting / level of well being at work, d) nn. of accidents on job 0
SECTION
G
SCORE
G Regulatory incentives to create - Financial support
-

Tax break for “Etude sur les crédits


artists or people d’impôt culturels à
1 Under
who work in the l’étranger », mai 2008, --- --- ---
9 analysis
creative KEA European Affairs,
sector p. 37

VAT rates on
books, press, Creative Europe,
sound ERICarts Report
recordings, presented by the
2 Under
video, film Network of European --- --- ---
0 analysis
receipts, Foundations for
freelance Innovative Co-
authors, visual operation, 2002, p.100
artists
11.5 INDEXING SYSTEMS: THE CHIMERA MATRIX PROPOSAL
Item proposals, revision, NOTE: at this stage the
integration. In this part quantification and the figures are
Enterprise's Staff researcher / compiler indicative. The purpose is to start
CREATIVE INDEXES Applicability/ Notes for Notes for
Source area, typologies specifies if the a bottom up experimentation
DESCRIPTORS Changes customisation customisation
departments (to specify) descriptors are customized also as to score
applicable, with or weighting.
without modifications
AGGREGATE SCORE - The aggregate score does not assess the performances but only gives a quantitative information useful for assessment and TOTAL
evaluation of the activities. The data and results have to be analysed in the corporate context defying a period (for example one year) and performance SCORE SCORE
indicators, for example: a) productivity, b) company's image, c) level of company infighting / level of well being at work, d) nn. of accidents on job 0
Donations and
sponsoring of
“Etude sur les crédits
Tax incentives cultural
d’impôt culturels à 2: score 10; 3-5: score:
2 concerning events/activities by
l’étranger », mai 2008, Changes X 20; 6-10: score 30; >10:
1 donations and the enterprise (N. of score 40
KEA European Affairs,
sponsoring donations and
p. 28
sponsoring in the
year)

Indirect and direct


investments into
culture and cultural
activities by the 2: score 10; 3-5: score:
Changes X enterprise: 20; 6-10: score 30; >10:
- Organization of score 40
“The Economy of
cultural events (N. of
Direct public Culture”, 2006, KEA,
2 events organized in
expenditure on MKW, Turun
2 the year)
culture Kauppakorkeakoulu,
p.125 Indirect and direct
investments into
culture and cultural 2: score 10; 3-5: score:
Changes 20; 6-10: score 30; >10:
activities by the score 40
X enterprise:
- Participation in
foundations/associat
11.5 INDEXING SYSTEMS: THE CHIMERA MATRIX PROPOSAL
Item proposals, revision, NOTE: at this stage the
integration. In this part quantification and the figures are
Enterprise's Staff researcher / compiler indicative. The purpose is to start
CREATIVE INDEXES Applicability/ Notes for Notes for
Source area, typologies specifies if the a bottom up experimentation
DESCRIPTORS Changes customisation customisation
departments (to specify) descriptors are customized also as to score
applicable, with or weighting.
without modifications
AGGREGATE SCORE - The aggregate score does not assess the performances but only gives a quantitative information useful for assessment and TOTAL
evaluation of the activities. The data and results have to be analysed in the corporate context defying a period (for example one year) and performance SCORE SCORE
indicators, for example: a) productivity, b) company's image, c) level of company infighting / level of well being at work, d) nn. of accidents on job 0
ions active in culture
(N. of participations)

The European
Audiovisual
Level of state
2 Observatory, “KORDA”: Under
funding to --- --- ---
3 http: / / analysis
cinema
korda.obs.coe.int /web/
search_aide.php

“Cultural statistics in
Level of state
2 Europe”, Edition 2007, Under
funding to --- --- ---
4 published by Eurostat, analysis
public TV
p. 142

Enterprise's
incentives to new
ideas/project 2: score 10; 3-5: score:
integration proposed by 20; 6-10: score 30; >10:
employees: score 40
distribution of
bonus/rewards for
employees who
11.5 INDEXING SYSTEMS: THE CHIMERA MATRIX PROPOSAL
Item proposals, revision, NOTE: at this stage the
integration. In this part quantification and the figures are
Enterprise's Staff researcher / compiler indicative. The purpose is to start
CREATIVE INDEXES Applicability/ Notes for Notes for
Source area, typologies specifies if the a bottom up experimentation
DESCRIPTORS Changes customisation customisation
departments (to specify) descriptors are customized also as to score
applicable, with or weighting.
without modifications
AGGREGATE SCORE - The aggregate score does not assess the performances but only gives a quantitative information useful for assessment and TOTAL
evaluation of the activities. The data and results have to be analysed in the corporate context defying a period (for example one year) and performance SCORE SCORE
indicators, for example: a) productivity, b) company's image, c) level of company infighting / level of well being at work, d) nn. of accidents on job 0
propose new
ideas/project (N. of
bonus/rewards
distributed in a year)

SECTION
H
SCORE
H Regulatory incentives to create - Intellectual Property
-

Available from the


Amount of right
International
collected by
2 Confederation of Under
authors in --- --- ---
5 Societies of Authors and analysis
music per
Composers: ht tp: /
capita
/www.cisac.org
11.5 INDEXING SYSTEMS: THE CHIMERA MATRIX PROPOSAL
Item proposals, revision, NOTE: at this stage the
integration. In this part quantification and the figures are
Enterprise's Staff researcher / compiler indicative. The purpose is to start
CREATIVE INDEXES Applicability/ Notes for Notes for
Source area, typologies specifies if the a bottom up experimentation
DESCRIPTORS Changes customisation customisation
departments (to specify) descriptors are customized also as to score
applicable, with or weighting.
without modifications
AGGREGATE SCORE - The aggregate score does not assess the performances but only gives a quantitative information useful for assessment and TOTAL
evaluation of the activities. The data and results have to be analysed in the corporate context defying a period (for example one year) and performance SCORE SCORE
indicators, for example: a) productivity, b) company's image, c) level of company infighting / level of well being at work, d) nn. of accidents on job 0
SECTION
I SCORE
I Output cultural production - Economic contribution
-

“The Economy of
Values added of
Culture”, 2006, KEA,
2 creative Under
MKW, Turun --- --- ---
6 industries as % analysis
Kauppakorkeakoulu, p.
of GDP
66

Turnover in
2 IFPI website: ht tp: / Under
music industries --- --- ---
7 /www.ifpi.org/ analysis
per capita

Eurostat, “Cultural
Turnover in
2 statistics”, available on: Under
book industries --- --- ---
8 http: / / epp.eurostat analysis
per capita
.ec.europa.eu/
11.5 INDEXING SYSTEMS: THE CHIMERA MATRIX PROPOSAL
Item proposals, revision, NOTE: at this stage the
integration. In this part quantification and the figures are
Enterprise's Staff researcher / compiler indicative. The purpose is to start
CREATIVE INDEXES Applicability/ Notes for Notes for
Source area, typologies specifies if the a bottom up experimentation
DESCRIPTORS Changes customisation customisation
departments (to specify) descriptors are customized also as to score
applicable, with or weighting.
without modifications
AGGREGATE SCORE - The aggregate score does not assess the performances but only gives a quantitative information useful for assessment and TOTAL
evaluation of the activities. The data and results have to be analysed in the corporate context defying a period (for example one year) and performance SCORE SCORE
indicators, for example: a) productivity, b) company's image, c) level of company infighting / level of well being at work, d) nn. of accidents on job 0
The European
Turnover in
Audiovisual
2 cinema Under
Observatory: --- --- ---
9 industries per analysis
ht tp: / /www.obs.coe.int
capita
/

SECTION
J SCORE
J Output cultural production - Other outcomes of cultural activities
-

Number of design 2: score 10; 3-5: score:


Number of Changes patents registered in 20; 6-10: score 30; >10:
European Audiovisual a year score 40
feature films
3 Observatory, Yearbook
produced per
0 2007 on “Film and home
year and per Number of technical
video” 2: score 10; 3-5: score:
capita Changes patents registered in 20; 6-10: score 30; >10:
a year score 40

Number of
3 recordings IFPI website: ht tp: / Under
--- --- ---
1 released per /www.ifpi.org/ analysis
capita
11.5 INDEXING SYSTEMS: THE CHIMERA MATRIX PROPOSAL
Item proposals, revision, NOTE: at this stage the
integration. In this part quantification and the figures are
Enterprise's Staff researcher / compiler indicative. The purpose is to start
CREATIVE INDEXES Applicability/ Notes for Notes for
Source area, typologies specifies if the a bottom up experimentation
DESCRIPTORS Changes customisation customisation
departments (to specify) descriptors are customized also as to score
applicable, with or weighting.
without modifications
AGGREGATE SCORE - The aggregate score does not assess the performances but only gives a quantitative information useful for assessment and TOTAL
evaluation of the activities. The data and results have to be analysed in the corporate context defying a period (for example one year) and performance SCORE SCORE
indicators, for example: a) productivity, b) company's image, c) level of company infighting / level of well being at work, d) nn. of accidents on job 0
Number of UNESCO, Institute for
3 books Statistics, “Culture and Under
--- --- ---
2 published per Communication”: http: / analysis
year and capita /www.uis.unesco.org

Number of
design
3 Under
applications per OHIM/Eurostat --- --- ---
3 analysis
million
population
11.6 THIRD STEP: CREATIVITY
EDUCATIONAL MODEL

Educational activities are those processes to


"educere" individual attitudes and capacities,
enhancing and developing them in form of
skills (better: competences) through training.
These competences at the same time
constitutes characters and values of the
individuals and (part of them, at least)
operational abilities usable in an organisation.
In this sense creativity can be
a) an innate character of the individual (with
a different degree of development);
b) an element usable within and for the
educational process;
c) a method, approach or content of the
training methodologies and approach;
d) a goal, then to contextualise in the
organisation scenario, mission and strategy.
12 12. SHARING OF THE RESULTS: AN ON express their comments about the different
items composing the Index and about their
GOING ACTION effectiveness.
Enterprises have been invited also to participate
in an additional testing phase of the Index
One of the most important objectives of the itself, to be developed in coming months.
CHIMERA project is the dissemination and
sharing of the achieved results with In the immediate future partners are going to:
stakeholders and subjects in various ways
- realize (thanks to further funding) specific
interested in the project’s themes and contents.
actions aimed at sharing both the Creativity
This is even more true for the Creativity Index
Index and training models and contents
and the results it could achieve in measuring
developed within the CHIMERA project, in
enterprises’ creativity levels. In this case, the
order to evaluate their effectiveness and
sharing of objectives, contents, methodologies
coherency with the needs of the principal
and results could be an important means also
target groups and in order to modify,
for improving and perfecting the tools
complete and/or improve them;
developed within the project.
- elaborate and develop new projects that
The Partners agreed to involve the following
could start from the CHIMERA results and
subjects in the dissemination and sharing
outputs and could be their natural
activities related to the Creativity Index:
continuation and evolution;
- stakeholders,
- public institutions,
- elaborate and develop a transnational
- learning organizations and VET providers, mobility project designed for entrepreneurs
- SMEs, representatives of professional and managers, aimed at exchanging good
organizations and enterprise associations, practices on creativity in organizations;
with particular attention to SMEs, final direct
beneficiaries of the Index itself. - test the CHIMERA proposal and tools on a
greater number of enterprises
All the partners are organizing and realizing in (entrepreneurs, managers and employees),
their Countries (at a local, regional and national in order to obtain more significant and
level) focus groups and workshops aimed at scientifically considerable results;
presenting and sharing the objectives and
contents of the CHIMERA Creativity Index and
- through the dissemination and the sharing
at elaborating and developing new projects in
of the Memorandum of Interest, spread out
order to continue the work started with the
to institutional subjects the evaluation and
CHIMERA project.
the review of the CHIMERA tools.
In Italy, in particular, APMI Umbria is
developing an interesting process of sharing,
13 FOLLOW UP AND SUSTAINABILITY
evaluation and review of the Index with SMEs
at a regional level. This action was started on CHIMERA is opening new pathways to
12 December 2014, on the occasion of the creativity, entrepreneurship and educational
presentation and signature by enterprises of the experimentation.
CHIMERA Memorandum of Interest.
This meeting has been an important opportunity 1. ADULT EDUCATION - The training models
to describe and illustrate to around 90 are evolving on the basis of feed-backs arrived
enterprises the motivations, purposes, by stakeholders contacted during the
objectives, structure and contents of the dissemination and networking actions.
CHIMERA Creativity Index and to invite them to
In Spain the CHIMERA training model is going
to be re-design and tested with training
providers (i.e. Piccolo Moresco
www.piccolomoresco.com), interested in
applying approaches and using contents in
adult education and school contexts.

2. YOUTH - The CHIMERA practices and results


are going to be embedded in the Fantacity
Festival, becoming an experience for schools
and students from all over Italy.

3. VET - The promoted networks, that are


progressively widening, offer the possibility of
further and focused exploitation. One field that
is going to be explored is the relations between
creativity and gender. In this sense an research
and training designing activity is started about
women entrepreneurs about creativity and
resilience with the collaboration of R.O.S.A.
(Removing Obstacles to Social Awareness) and
Economy Rome.
Moreover Superficie 8 has submitted a proposal
for the Umbria Regional Training Offers
Catalogue, for Creativity and Innovation
Management.

4. KNOWLEDGE ALLIANCE - A partnership has


been set up in order to study and design further
and innovative training and educational
approach, involving Fondazione Casoli (IT),
Northumbria University (UK), Novi Sad
University (SB), ITALIAN Chamber Of
Commerce For Spain (ES), Chamber Of
Commerce Of Lisbona (PT), Editorial Círculo
Rojo Cb (ES) (ES) , BaG! (PT), Babes-Bolyai
University (RO), Laurea University (FL).

5. RESEARCH - A field of activities concerning


creativity measurement, connection with
innovation, models design is going to be
promoted with the Serbian University of Novi-
Sad.
14 ESSENTIAL BIBLIOGRAPHY

14.1 Italy
1. Economia della cultura e giovani. Dalle buone pratiche all’indice di creatività, a cura di
Annalisa Cicerchia, 2010
2. Libro Bianco sulla Creatività, Commissione sulla Creatività e Produzione di Cultura in Italia,
Italian Ministry of Culture. The “White Book on Creativity”417 aims at developing an Italian
model to foster creative industries in the country. Italian creativity is reflected in a model
which prioritises quality of life and community wellbeing. Italy has included “the industry of
taste” (industria del gusto) which is primarily based on individual aesthetic preferences in
relation to areas such as fashion, gastronomy and the agro-food industry.
3. Creatività e sviluppo locale, a cura di Maria Caterina Federici e Francesco Maria Battisti,
2006
4. Rubini V. (1980). La creatività: interpretazioni psicologiche, basi sperimentali e aspetti
educative. Firenze, Giunti
5. La creatività come leva per lo sviluppo dell’impresa, Nerea Filippelli, Liuc Papers, n. 215,
Serie Economia e Istituzioni, 2008
6. Creatività per l'innovazione. Come produrre idee vincenti per migliorare la competitività,
Gianni Clocchiatti, 2008
7. Developing organizational creativity. Researching contextual factors that enhance or restrict
the output of creative potential, B. Chini (Student: 850558544), Open University of the
Netherlands - Faculty of Management Sciences, 2011
8. Assessing the work environment for creativity, Amabile, Conti, Coon, Lazenby & Herron,
1996

14.2 . Greece
1. The Eommex, the Hellenic Organisation of Small-Medium Sized Enterprises & Handicraft,
carriedout a mapping of creative industries in January 2009 (“The Economy of Culture –
Cultural and Creative Enterprises in Greece”). Greece has included in its mapping of creative
industries those firms which producehandicraft and artistic products.
2. The Economy of Culture – Cultural and Creative Enterprises in Greece, Eommex, 2009
In its Strategic Plan for the Development of research, technology and Innovation 2007-
2013, the Greek government identified cultural heritage as one of its thematic areas. The
objectives pursued are to develop scientific knowledge in the field and preserve and use this
knowledge to ensure the integrity and authenticity of cultural heritage, and to develop
innovative tools, products and services with cultural content in order to link heritage to
tourism and the leisure economy.
3. Strategic Plan for the Development of research, technology and Innovation 2007-2013,
Ministry of Development, Hellenic Republic, 2007

14.3 Poland
1. The “National Strategy for the Development of Culture 2004-2013” is focused on balancing
thedevelopment of culture in regions. The effectiveness in cultural management, the
increase of participationregarding accessibility of artistic education and cultural goods and
services and the development of culturalinfrastructure have also been set as objectives of
the strategy.
2. Résumé of the National Strategy for the Development of Culture in 2004-2013, Polish
Ministry of Culture
3. National and regional policies for design, creativity and user-driven innovation: Thematic
Report- Executive Summary, Pro Inno Europe, Inno Policy Trendchart
4. Authors: B. Plawgo, J. Kornecki
Title: Wykształcenie pracowników a pozycja konkurencyjna przedsiębiorstw
Title translated into English: Education of employees and the competitive position of
enterprices - Year: 2010 - Place: Warszawa
5. Author(s): P. Kordel et al.
Title: Inteligentne organizacje – zarządzanie wiedzą i kompetencjami pracowników
Title translated into English: Intelligent organizations – management of knowledge and
competencies of employees - Year: 2010 - Place: Warszawa
6. Edited by: M. Mażewska, A. Milczarczyk
Title: Standardy działania i dobre praktyki w ośrodkach innowacji
Title translated into English: Operational Standards and Good Practices in Innovation
Centers - Year: 2013 - Place: Poznań/Warszawa
7. Author(s): J. Osiadacz
Title: Innowacje w sektorze usług – przewodnik po systematyce oraz przykłady dobrych
praktyk
Title translated into English: Innovations in the services sector – a guide on methods and
examples of good practices - Year: 2012 - Place: Warszawa
8. Author(s): J. Fazlagić
Title: Czy Twoja firma jest innowacyjna? Jak poszukiwać innowacji w sektorze usług?
Podpowiedzi dla MSP
Title translated into English: Is your company innovative? How to seek innovations in the
services branch? Tips for SMEs - Year: 2012 - Place: Warszawa
9. Author(s): not mentioned
Title: Bilans Kapitału Ludzkiego w Polsce
Title translated into English: Human Capital in Poland - Year: 2012 - Place: Warszawa
10. Author(s): M. Zawadka, U. Hoffmann
Title: Moja historia, moja firma. Portrety polskich przedsiębiorców rodzinnych
Title translated into English: My story, my company. Portraits of Polish family entrepreneurs
- Year: 2012 - Place: Warszawa
11. Author(s): M. Bukowski, A. Szpor, A. Śniegocki
Title: Potencjał i bariery polskiej innowacyjności
Title translated into English: Potential and barriers for Polish innovativeness - Year: 2012 -
Place: Warszawa
12. Author(s): A. Ujwary-Gil
Title: Inwentyka czyli kreatywność w biznesie
Title translated into English: Inventics that is creativity in business- Year: 2004 - Place:
Nowy Sącz
13. Author(s): E. Jerzyk, G. Leszczyński, H. Mruk
Title: Kreatywność w biznesie
Title translated into English: Creativity in business - Year: 2006 - Place: Poznań
14. Author(s): M. Kocór, A. Strzebońska
Title: Jakich pracowników potrzebują polscy pracodawcy?
Title translated into English: What employees do Polish employers need? - Year: 2011 -
Place: Warszawa
15. Author(s): M. Juchniewicz, B Grzybowska
Title: Innowacyjność mikroprzedsiębiorstw w Polsce
Title translated into English: Innovativeness of micro-enterprises in Poland - Year: 2010 -
Place: Warszawa
16. Author(s): R. Drozdowski et al.
Title: Wspieranie postaw proinnowacyjnych przez wzmacnianie kreatywności jednostki
Title translated into English: Supporting pro-innovative attitudes by strengthening creativity
of an individual - Year: 2010 - Place: Warszawa

14.4 Spain
1. The “Plan to Promote Creative Industries” was published in 2008. It seeks to implement
new financial mechanisms to support creative industries, in particular focusing on small and
medium-sized enterprises (SMEs)
Plan de Fomento de las Industrias Culturales, Spanish Ministry Of. Culture, 2008

2. The “Programme for Design Support” for the period 2007-2013 seeks to improve the
competitiveness of small enterprises. It has been developed by the Ministry of Industry,
Tourism and Commerce.
The programme InnoEmpresa (2007-2013) aims at fostering innovation in SMEs with
design as a focus area

14.5 Romania
1. A. Tripon, Să-ţi fii stăpân - ghid pentru mileniul trei, ed. Crist, Bucureşti, 1999 - ISBN
973-9811-9-X (text book)
2. Tripon, Introducere în managementul inovării, ed EFI-ROM, 2001- ISBN 973-85006-2-1
(text book)
3. Tripon - Introducere în comunicarea holistică, ed EFI-ROM, ISBN 973-85006-5-6 (text book)
4. TRIPON - Managementul inovării. Sinteze şi aplicaţii, ed. Universităţii "Petru Maior" Tg.
Mureş, ISBN 973-8084-63-6, 2002 (text book)
5. A.TRIPON - Comunicarea în organizaţii, ed. Universităţii "Petru Maior" Tg. Mureş, ISBN
973-8084-62-8, 2002 (text book)
6. Avram TRIPON, Angela ON, Adrian PETELEAN – Management operaţional. Performanţa în
echipă ed. Universităţii "Petru Maior" Tg. Mureş, ISBN 973- 2003 (text book)
7. Avram TRIPON, Valentina VASILE (coordonatori) – Proiecte innovative performante pentru
turism durabil, editura Universităţii “Petru Maior”, ISBN (10) 973-7794-48-6, (13) 978-973-
7794-48-2, 2006 (text book)
8. Avram TRIPON, Valentina VASILE (coordonatori) - Sustenabilitatea dezvoltării resurselor
umane. Provocări pentru România - selecţie de studii şi cercetări, Editura Universităţii Petru
Maior 2011, ISBN 978-606-581-005-1 (text book)
http://www.presidency.ro/static/ordine/Educatie_si_Cercetare_pentru_Societatea_Cunoasteri
i.pdf EDUCAŢIE ŞI CERCETARE PENTRU SOCIETATEA CUNOAŞTERII
9. http://www.ncsd.ro/national_sustainable_development_strategy_ro.html
10. Strategia Nationala pentru Dezvoltare Durabila
http://eit.europa.eu/collaborate/documents/analysis-synergies-fostered-eit-eu-innovation-
landscape
11. Analysis of Synergies fostered by the EIT in the EU Innovation Landscape
12. Indicatori statistici de dezvoltare durabila
http://www.insse.ro/cms/files/Web_IDD_BD_ro/index.htm
13. Prize Lecture by Elinor Ostrom - Nobelprize 2009
http://www.nobelprize.org/mediaplayer/index.php?id=1223