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Design of FRP Reinforced Concrete Structures:

The Canadian Approach

Ghani Razaqpur, Professor


McMaster University
Chair, CSA S806 Technical Committee
Hamilton, Ontario, Canada

Bath University Workshop-July 29-2016


Actions That Can Be Designed For:
1. Flexure
2. Beam Shear (B- and D-Regions)
3. Punching Shear
4. Torsion
5. Axial Load
6. Any Combination of Above Actions
General Standard Philosophy
• This is a limit states-based standard
• It follows the same basic procedures as other CSA
structural design standards
• It is intended primarily for design of concrete
structures reinforced internally with FRP bars and/or
grids or externally with sheets and laminates ( for
repair and retrofit)
• The standard covers areas for which adequate
theoretical and experimental evidence is available to
justify the relevant clauses
• The standard is intended to be self-contained
• The design provisions are intended to be on the
conservative side
Load Factors and Load
Combinations

• CSA S806 uses the same load factors as in CSA


A23.3-04 code

• Load combinations are also the same as in CSA


A23.3-04, which are based on the National Building
Code of Canada (Model Code)
Material Resistance Factors
• Concrete and steel resistance factors remain
the same as in CSA A23.3-04
• FRP resistance factor ΦF = 0.75 for all FRP
non-prestressed reinforcement. For
prestressed FRP reinforcement see Table 2
below.
Flexure Design
Assumptions
– Compressive strength of FRP shall be ignored
when calculating the resistance of a member
– Strain compatibility method shall be used to
calculate the factored resistance of a member
– Flexural members shall be designed such that
failure at ultimate is initiated by the failure of
concrete at the extreme compression fiber.
This condition is satisfied by the c/d
requirement shown below:

c 7

d 7  2000  Fu
Flexural Design
Minimum Flexural Reinforcement Requirement for
(a) Beams

Ig
M r  1.5M cr  1.5 f r
yt

(b) One-Way Slabs


• AFmin = 400EF/Ag≥ 0.0025Ag
• Spacing of AFmin≤ 300mm or 3 times slab thickness
Flexural Design
Strain Compatibility Analysis:
c  0.65
 F  0.75
1  0.85  0.0015 f ' c  0.67
1  0.97  0.0025 f ' c  0.67
a  1c

T f 1   F  f 1E f Af 1
T f 2   F  f 2 E f Af 2

di  c d c
 fi   cu  i 0.0035
c c
Shear Design
Shear design is similar to the simplified method of CSA
A23.3, and other international design standards, i.e.

Vr ≥ Vc + Vs,F
Vc accounts for
• Shear resistance of uncracked concrete
• Aggregate interlock
• Dowel action of the longitudinal reinforcement
• Arching action
Vs,F = Shear carried by the FRP shear reinforcement
Shear Design
• For Members with FRP Stirrups

Vr  Vc  Vs , F
• For Members with Steel Stirrups

Vr  Vc  Vs , F
• However, Vr shall not exceed
 M dcV f 
Vr ,max  0, 22 f b d  0,5Vp  
'
c c w v 
 M f 
Shear Design
If the member effective depth does not exceed 300 mm
and there is no axial load:
Vc  0.05c km kr  f c  bw d v
' 1/3 BUT
Vc  0.22c f 'c bw d v
where
Vc  0.11c f 'c bw d v
Vf d
km  1
Mf f c'  60 MPa

kr  1  ( EF  Fw )1/3

or if the member effective depth exceeds 300 mm and


transverse shear reinforcement is equal or greater than
Av,min (Clause 8.4.4.8)
Shear Design
To account for size effect, for sections with an
effective depth greater than 300mm and with less
transverse reinforcement than Av,min

Vc  0.05c km kr k s  f c
' 1/3
bw d v
where
750
ks  1
450  d
Shear Design
• Shear Carried by Transverse Reinforcement

– For Members with FRP Transverse Reinforcement


0.4 F AFv f Fu dv
Vs , F  cot 
s
– For Members with Steel Transverse Reinforcement

S Av f y dv
Vs , s  cot 
s

fFu shall not be greater than 0.005EF


Shear Design
Minimum Shear Reinforcement
– A minimum area of shear reinforcement
shall be provided in all regions of flexural
members where
Vf > 0.5Vc+ ΦFVp, or Tf > 0.5Tcr.

This requirement may be waived for:


•Slabs and footings
•Concrete joist construction
•Beams with total depth not greater than 250 mm
•Beams cast integrally with slabs where overall depth is not
greater than one-half the width of the web or 600 mm.
Shear Design
Minimum Shear Reinforcement
– The minimum are of FRP shear
reinforcement shall be such that
bw s
AvF  0.07 f c'
0.4 f Fu

fFu shall not be greater than 1200MPa or 0.005EF.


Shear and Axial Load
Punching Shear
Strut and Tie Model for D-Regions
Strut and Tie Model
Strut and Tie Model
Figure 3
Strut and Tie Model
Strut and Tie Model
Strut and Tie Model
Strut and Tie Model
Deflection Limits
Deflection Calculation

• Deflection shall be calculated based on


moment-curvature (M/EI) relationship

• Integrate M/EI relationship or use dummy


unit load method

L
mM
A   dx
0
EI
Deflection Calculation

P 1

L/2 L/2 L/2 L/2

PL/4

L/2 L/2

M1/EI
M = Mcr

Lg
Deflection
Moment-Curvature Relationship for FRP Reinforced Section

Mu

EIcr
Ms
1

EIg

u = .1% u 
Deflection
Example
P

L/2 L/2
Deflection

P 1

L/2 L/2 L/2 L/2

PL/4

L/2

Moment (M) Diagram Unit Load Moment (m) Diagram

M /EIcr
M = Mcr
M /EIg

Lg
Curvature (M/EI) Diagram
Deflection
Maximum Deflection
 max   cr   c
Correction for the
uncracked
Deflection of the fully cracked beam sections

From Regular Strength of Materials

PL3
 cr 
48Ec I cr
Deflection
Correction Term

3
3
 Lg 
Lg

 c  2  m1
M PL
EIcr
dx  c  8  
0 48Ec I cr  L 
Deflection
Maximum Deflection

PL  
3
3
 Lg 
 max  1  8   
48 Ec I cr   L  

Where

I cr
  (1  )
Ig
Deflection
Maximum Deflection for Other Load Cases
Deflection of Continuous Beams
q
P P

L/2 L/2 L/2 L/2 L L

q
P M(-) M(-)

L/2 L/2 L

PL 3  5 15  g  
L
3
5qL 4  3 36  g  
L
3

 max         max       
48 Ec I cr 16 8  L   384 Ec I cr  5 10  L  
   
Long Term Deflection
Long-term deflection under sustained load

The immediate plus long-term deflection of


flexural members due to any sustained load shall
be obtained by multiplying the immediate
deflection due to that load by the factor [1+S]

• S = 2.0 for 5 years or more


• S = 1.5 for 12 months
• S = 1.3 for 6 months
• S = 1.1 for 3 months
Crack Control
If the maximum strain in FRP tension reinforcement under full
service loads exceeds 0.0015, cross-sections of maximum
positive and negative moment shall be proportioned such that

ES 3
z  kb f F d c A  45000N / mm for interior exposure
EF
 38000N / mm for exterior exposure

Neutral axis
Coloured Area
A
Number of Bars
Tension steel
x centroid

x dc
Development Length

k1k2 k3k4 k5 fF
ld  1.15 Ab
dcs f 'c

k1 = bar location factor


k2 = concrete density factor
k3 = bar size factor
k4 = bar fibre factor
k5 = bar surface profile factor
dcs = smaller of :
1. distance from closest concrete surface to the center of
the bar
2. two-thirds of the center-to-center spacing of bars
dcs shall not be greater than 2.5 db
Development Length
Thank You…
Questions?