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SOUTH INDIAN GRID ANALYSIS USING

PSS®E

PROJECT REPORT SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF


THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE AWARD OF THE DEGREE OF
BACHELOR IN TECHNOLOGY

Submitted By
Abhrajit Nath
(DE/11/EE/23)

Rohit Kumar Singh


(DE/11/EE/27)

Under Guidance Of

Dr. Saibal Chatterjee


Professor

Department of Electrical Engineering


North Eastern Regional Institute of Science and Technology
DEEMED UNIVERSITY UNDER MHRD, GOVT. OF INDIA
Nirjuli–791109, ARUNACHAL PRADESH
MAY 2017
ABSTRACT

The project work describes the simulation studies of South Indian Grid(SR) of Indian
Power System using PSS®E(Power System Simulator for Engineers), well-accepted and
commercial software from SIEMENS. SR Grid model has been prepared for voltage level of
765kV,400kV, 220kV. The region contains major nuclear power plants at Kaiga in Karnataka,
Kudankulam and Kalpakkam in Tamil Nadu. The major Thermal Power Stations are at Udupi and
Bellary in Karnataka, Salem in Tamil Nadu, Vishakapatnam in Andhra Pradesh. The major Hydro
Power Plants are at Sileru and Kurnool in Andhra Pradesh, Idukki in Kerala, Tungabhadra in
Karnataka. Though having a large number of power plants the region is in deficit of power and
import power from other regions. The region is connected with transmission lines by 765kV lines,
765 kV lines operating at 400kV, 400kv Quad lines,400kV lines, 220 kV lines, 220kV S/C on D/C
line, 220kV UG cables and HVDC Bipoles.

For the purpose of modelling and simulation of the southern grid we have neglected the tie
lines from other grids which included 765kV lines coming from Sholapur and Kolhapur, HVDC
lines from other regions and 220kV lines from other region also. After this we have simulated the
case and performed various analysis.

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LIST OF CONTENTS

CONTENTS Page No.

Certificate of Approval i
Candidate Declaration ii
Acknowledgement iii
Abstract iv
Table of Contents v
Acronyms vi

1. INTRODUCTION

1.1 INTRODUCTION TO POWER SYSTEM ....................................... 1

1.2 INTRODUCTION TO SR GRID ...................................................... 2

1.3 INTRODUCTION TO PSS®E… .................................................... 10

2. MODELING OF SR GRID

2.1 PSS®E INTERFACE ......................................................................11


2.1.1 Bus Data ............................................................................... 11
2.1.2 Branch Data ..........................................................................13
2.1.3 Load Data .............................................................................. 13
2.1.4 Plant and Machine Data ........................................................ 14
2.1.5 Transformer Data .................................................................. 16
2.1.6 Area Data ............................................................................... 18
2.1.7 Zone Data ............................................................................... 18

3. ANALYSIS AND RESULT

3.1 Load Flow Analysis ................................................................... 19

3.2 Fault Analysis ............................................................................24


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3.3 Contingency Analysis ................................................................ 26

3.4 PV Analysis .............................................................................. 29

3.5 QV Analysis ............................................................................... 31

4. CONCLUSION ............................................................................................ 32

5. REFERENCES .............................................................................................33

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ACRONYMS

LG Line to ground fault

LL Line to line fault

LLG Line to line to ground fault

LLL Line to line to line fault

PSS®E Power System Simulator for Engineers

SR Grid South Indian Regional Grid

HVDC High Voltage Direct Current

AC Alternating Current

MW Mega Watt

MVAR Mega Volt Ampere Reactive

PU Per unit

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CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION

1.1 INTRODUCTION TO POWER SYSTEM:


Generating stations, transmission lines and the distribution systems are the main
components of an electric power system. Generating stations and a distribution system are
connected through transmission lines, which also connect one power system (grid, area) to
another. A distribution system connects all the loads of a particular area to the transmission
lines. For an economical and technological reason individual power system are organized in
form of electrically connected areas or regional grids. Each area or regional grid operates
technically and economically independently, but these are eventually interconnected to
form a national grid so that each area is contractually tied to other areas in respect to certain
generation and scheduling features.

The power system engineer of the second decade of the twenty-first century has to face
variety of challenging task, which they can meet only by keeping abreast of the recent
scientific advances and the latest techniques. On the planning side, they have to make
decisions on how much electricity to generate-where, when, and by using what fuel. He has
to be involved in construction tasks of great magnitude both in generation and transmission.
He has to solve the problems of planning and coordinated operation of a vast and complex
power network, so as to achieve a high degree of economy and reliability. In a country like
India, he has to additionally face the perennial problem of power shortages and to evolve
strategies for energy conservation and load management.

For planning the operation, improvement and expansion of a power system, a power
system engineer needs load flow studies, short circuit studies, and stability studies. He has
to know the principles of economic load dispatch and load frequency control.

1.1.1 Power system stability:

The stability of an interconnected power system is its ability to return to normal or stable
operation after having been subjected to some form of disturbance.
Conversely, instability means a condition denoting loss of synchronism or falling out of
step. Stability considerations have been recognized as an essential part of power system
planning for a long time. With interconnected systems continually growing in size and
extending over vast geographical regions, it is becoming increasingly more difficult to
maintain synchronism between various parts of a power system.

Power system stability problems are classified into two basic types:

• Steady state analysis.


• Transient state analysis.

The steady state stability is the stability of the system under considerations of gradual or
relatively slow change of load. The load is assumed to be applied at a rate which is slow
when compared either with the natural frequency of oscillation of the major parts of the
system or with the rate of change of field flux in rotating machine in response to the change
in loading.

The transient state stability refers to the maximum flow of power possible through a
point without losing the stability with sudden and large changes in the network conditions
such as brought about by faults, by sudden large increments of loads.

1.1.2 Load flow or Power Flow Study

It is the computational procedure (numerical algorithms) required to determine the


steady state operating characteristics of a power system network from the given line data
and bus data.

Features of load flow study:

• Load flow study is the steady state analysis of power system network.

• Load flow study determines the operating state of the system for a given loading.

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• Load flow solves a set of simultaneous nonlinear algebraic power equations for the
two unknown variables (|V| and ∠δ) at each node in a system.

• To solve nonlinear algebraic equations, it is important to have fast, efficient and


accurate numerical algorithms.

• The output of the load flow analysis is the voltage and phase angle, real and reactive
power (both sides in each line), line losses and slack bus power.

The information obtained from load flow study is used for the continuous monitoring of
the current state of the system and for analyzing the effectiveness of alternative plans for
future system expansion to meet increased load demand.

1.1.3 Fault Analysis:

Faults can be defined as the flow of a massive current through an improper path which
could cause enormous equipment damage which will lead to interruption of power,
personal injury, or death. In addition, the voltage level will alternate which can affect the
equipment insulation in case of an increase or could cause a failure of equipment start-up if
the voltage is below a minimum level. As a result, the electrical potential difference of the
system neutral will increase. Hence, People and equipment will be exposed to the danger of
electricity which is not accepted.

There are two types of faults which can occur on any transmission lines; balanced faults
& unbalanced faults. In addition, unbalanced faults can be classified into single line-to-
ground faults, double line faults and double line-to-ground faults. The most common types
taking place in reality are as follow: Line-to-ground fault: this type of fault exists when one
phase of any transmission lines establishes a connection with the ground either by ice,
wind, falling tree or any other incident. 70% of all transmission lines faults are classified
under this category.

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Line-to-line fault: as a result of high winds, one phase could touch anther phase & line-
to-line fault takes place. 15% of all transmission lines faults are considered line-to-line
faults.

Double line-to-ground: two phases will be involved instead of one at the line-to-ground
faults scenarios. 10% of all transmission lines faults are under this type of faults.

Three phase fault: in this case, falling tower, failure of equipment or even a line
breaking and touching the remaining phases can cause three phase faults. In reality, this
type of fault not often exists which can be seen from its share of 5% of all transmission
lines faults.

In order to protect the system from fault, power system fault analysis was introduced.
The process of evaluating the system voltages and currents under various types of short
circuits is called fault analysis which can determine the necessary safety measures & the
required protection system.

1.1.4 Contingency Analysis

What is contingency?

A contingency is the loss or failure of a small part of the power system (e.g. a
transmission line), or the loss/failure of individual equipment such as a generator or
transformer. This is also called an unplanned "outage".

Contingency Analysis is one of the "security analysis" applications in a power utility


control center that differentiates an Energy Management System (EMS) from a less
complex SCADA system. Its purpose is to analyze the power system in order to identify the
overloads and problems that can occur due to a "contingency". Contingency analysis is
abnormal condition in electrical network. It put whole system or a part of the system under
stress. It occurs due to sudden opening of a transmission line, Generator tripping, sudden
change in generation, sudden change in load value. Contingency analysis provides tools for

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managing, creating, analyzing, and reporting lists of contingencies and associated
violations.

Contingency Analysis is used as a study tool for the off-line analysis of contingency
events, and as an on-line tool to show operators what would be the effects of future outages.
Benefits of contingency analysis are as follows:

• Security is determined by the ability of the system to withstand equipment failure.


• Weak elements are detected and they are those that present overloads in the
contingency conditions (congestion).
• A ranking method will be demonstrated to prioritize transmission planning.
• Contingency Analysis is therefore a primary tool used for preparation of the annual
maintenance plan and the corresponding outage schedule for the power system.

Line contingency and generator contingency are generally most common type of
contingencies. These contingencies mainly cause two types of violations.

• Low Voltage Violations


• Line MVA Limits Violations

1.1.5 Power System Voltage Stability

Voltage stability (also called as load stability) in the power system is defined as the
ability of a power system to maintain acceptable voltages at all bus in the system under
normal condition and after being subjected to a disturbance. In the normal operating
condition, the voltage of a power system is stable, but when the fault or disturbance occurs
in the system, the voltage becomes unstable this result in a progressive and uncontrollable
decline in voltage.

At any point of time, a power system operating condition should be stable, meeting
various operational criteria, and it should also be secure in the event of any credible

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contingency. Present day power systems are being operated closer to their stability limits
due to economic and environmental constraints. Maintaining a stable and secure operation
of a power system is therefore a very important and challenging issue. So it is important to
analyze the voltage stability of power system.

Tools for Voltage Stability Analysis

Different methods exist in the literature for carrying out a steady state voltage stability
analysis. The conventional methods can be broadly classified into the following types.

1.1.5A PV Analysis:

This is one of the widely used methods of voltage stability analysis. This gives the
available amount of active power margin before the point of voltage instability. For radial
systems, the voltage of the critical bus is monitored against the changes in real power
consumption. In simple words for this analysis P i.e. power at a particular area is increased
in steps and voltage (V) is observed at some critical load buses and then curves for those
particular buses will be plotted to determine the voltage stability of a system by static
analysis approach.

Fig 1.1 PV Curve

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1.1.5B QV Analysis

The QV curve method is one of the most popular ways to investigate voltage instability
problems in power systems during the post transient period. Q-V curve is the relationship
between the reactive power support (Q) and receiving end voltage (V2) for different values
of active power. Unlike the PV curve method, it doesn’t require the system to be
represented as two-bus equivalent. Voltage at a test bus or critical bus is plotted against
reactive power at that bus. Voltage security of a bus is closely related to the available
reactive power reserve, which can be easily found from the QV curve of the bus under
consideration. The greater the slope is, the less stiff is the bus, and therefore the more
vulnerable to voltage collapse it is. Weak busses in the system can be determined from the
slope of QV curve. The critical point or nose point of the characteristics corresponds to the
7 voltage where dQ/dV becomes zero. If the minimum point of the QV curve is above the
horizontal axis, then the system is reactive power deficient. Additional reactive power
sources are needed to prevent a voltage collapse.

Fig1.2 QV curve

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1.2 INTRODUCTION TO SR GRID

The South Indian Grid covers the states of Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu
and Kerala. The region has about 485 transmission bus as per July 2016. The transmission
bus carries voltages of 765kV, 400kV, 220kV and HVDC voltages. The HVDC line from
Talchar to Kolar has voltage of 500kV and Barsur to Lower Sileru has voltage of 200kV.
The 220kV lines are carried overhead and underground too. The region contains major
nuclear power plants at Kaiga in Karnataka, Kudankulam and Kalpakkam in Tamil Nadu.
The major Thermal Power Stations are at Udupi and Bellary in Karnataka, Salem in Tamil
Nadu, Vishakapatnam in Andhra Pradesh. The major Hydro Power Plants are at Sileru and
Kurnool in Andhra Pradesh, Idukki in Kerala, Tungabhadra in Karnataka. The region also
has Solar, Wind, Biomass, Cogeneration, Waste Based PP.

Table 1.1: Detailed State Wise breakup of Installed Capacity (as of 31.7.2016)

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1.2.1 NETWORK DIAGRAM OF SOUTH INDIAN GRID

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1.3 INTRODUCTION TO PSS®E

Power System Simulation for Engineering (PSS®E) is composed of a comprehensive set


of programs for studies of power system transmission network and generation performance
in both steady-state and dynamic conditions. Currently two primary simulations are used,
one for steady-state analysis and one for dynamic simulations. PSS®E uses a graphical user
interface that is comprised of all the functionality of state analysis; including load flow,
fault analysis, optimal power flow, equivalency, and switching studies. In addition, to the
steady-state and dynamic analyses, PSS®E also provides the user with a wide range of
auxiliary programs for installation, data input, output, manipulation and preparation.
Furthermore, one of the most basic premises of PSS®E is that the engineer can derive the
greatest benefit from computational tools by retaining intimate control over their
application.

A power flow study (also known as load-flow study) is an important tool involving
numerical analysis applied to a power system. Unlike traditional circuit analysis, a power
flow study usually uses simplified notation such as a one-line diagram and per-unit system,
and focuses on various forms of AC power (i.e.: reactive, real, and apparent). Power flow
studies are important because they allow for planning and future expansion of existing as
well as non-existing power systems. A power flow study also can be used to determine the
best and most effective design of power systems. PSS®E is a system of programs and
structured data files designed to handle the basic functions of power system performance
simulation work, namely,
• Data handling, updating, and manipulation.
• Power Flow.
• Fault Analysis.
• Dynamic Simulation and Extended Term Simulation.
• Equivalent Construction.

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CHAPTER 2
MODELLING OF SR GRID
The South Indian Grid comprises of 482 Bus of which 6 are 765kV Bus, 2 are 765kV
Bus operating at 400kV bus, 114 are 400kV Bus and 360 are 220 kV Bus. The HVDC Bipole
line from Talchar to Kolar has dc voltage of 500kV and Barsur to Lower Sileru has dc voltage
of 200kV. In this chapter an attempt has been made to model the SR grid by PSS ®E for
voltage level of 765kV, 400kV and 220Kv. We have isolated SR Grid from other regional
grids and hence modelled the system for 475 bus.

2.1 PSS®E INTERFACE

The Spreadsheet interface in PSS®E has 23 tabs. Among these few of the important
tabs are:
• Buses.
• Branches.
• Loads.
• Plant.
• Machine.
• Transformer.
2.1.1 Bus Data
Base kV of the Bus needs to be entered in PSS®E spreadsheet interface tab. The bus
type code depending on whether it is Load Bus, Generator Bus or Swing Bus is to be entered.
Bus Number (Number specified to a bus between 1 and 999997) is to be entered. Bus Name
(Alphanumeric up to 12 characters) is to be entered as given in Fig 2.1, 2.2 and 2.3.

Fig 2.1: 765 kV bus data

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Fig 2.2: 400 kV bus data

Fig 2.3: 220kV bus data

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2.1.2 Branch Data

Base kV of the Bus needs to be entered in PSS®E spreadsheet interface tab. The bus
from which the line is connected and bus to which it is connected needs to be specified. These
data are being filled from the power map of South Indian Grid. Bus Number (Number
specified to a bus between 1 and 999997) is to be entered. Bus Name (Alphanumeric up to
12 characters) is to be entered. The Resistance(R), Reactance (X) and Line Charging Values
(B) in p.u need to be specified depending on the length of the line used as given in Fig 2.4.

These values are procured from data provided by transmission line companies[5].

Fig 2.4: Branch data

2.1.3 Load Data


The Bus to which the load is connected needs to be specified. The Active power and
the reactive power of the connected load is specified. 80% loading is assumed in the bus. The
Bus Number is to be entered along with Bus Name. The load data has been entered from the

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datasheets [4].Also in the Bus data tab, the bus having loads needs to be given code 1. The
status of the load if it is in service or not is to be specified as given in Fig 2.5:

Fig 2.5: Load data

2.1.4 Plant and Machine Data

The Bus Number having the generator has to be entered in Machine data first. The
number of units of generation of a particular bus has also to be entered. The plant real power,
maximum and the minimum reactive power is to be entered. The Plant data gets automatically
updated after entering data in Machine Data tab. For the generation type bus code 2 has to be
updated in Bus data tab. These data are filled using the datasheets from the regional load
despatch centre[4] and further verified from online sources. The Plant and Machine data tab
is being shown in Fig 2.6 and Fig 2.7.

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Fig 2.6: Plant data

Fig 2.7: Plant data

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2.1.5 Transformer Data
The bus from which the transformer connected and the bus to which it is connected
needs to be specified in the 2 winding tab. ID for the transformer is to be specified. If it is
one (1) it specifies one transformer is connected. If it is two (2) it signifies two transformers
are connected. The Control Bus which is being mainly controlled by the transformer is to be
specified. The Control mode i.e. whether it is voltage controlled or MVar controlled also to
be specified as given in Fig 2.8:

Fig 2.8: 2 Winding data

Type of connections are also need to be specified as shown in Fig 2.9. We have taken primary
as Star connection and neutral grounded and the secondary as delta connected. This data
needs to be specified in every transformer connections.

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Fig 2.9: Transformer connections

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2.1.6 Area Data

In this tab the area name has to be entered. As we are simulating the South Indian
Grid we have used the name “SOUTH GRID” in the tab with the area code four (4). The
Area data tab with the area name and code are shown in Fig 2.10.

2.1.7 Zone Data

In this tab all the subparts of the grid can be entered. It is easy to study partwise reports
of whole system. So we have divided the grid into five parts. These parts are based on the
states of the grid. There are five states namely Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerela, Tamil
Nadu and Goa. Therefore these states, rather saying subsystem, are entered in the Zone data
tab. They are numbered from 31 to 35 which are shown in the Fig 2.11.

Fig 2.10: Area Data

Fig 2.11: Area Data

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CHAPTER 3

ANALYSIS AND RESULT

After the system has been modelled, now we have to perform various analysis to check
the validity and stability of the system. Modern power system envisages the need of a
stable system as well as its ability to continue whenever fault occurs. PSSE offers a
variety of analysis to be carried out. The analysis that we are performing are

• Power Flow or Load Flow Analysis


• Fault Analysis
• Contingency Analysis
• PV Analysis
• QV Analysis

We will be taking each case separately and we will analyse the data.

3.1 LOAD FLOW ANALYSIS


The load flow analysis that was carried out in the last semester, it was done using
765kV and 400kV bus data only. A dummy swing bus along with arbitrary load, machine,
transformer data was used. It was basically done to check the integrity of the system. No
topological error was found. Also it was solved with various iterative methods. Among
them Newton-Raphson method was found to be better in terms of the number of iterations
and time taken to converge within tolerance limits. Table 3.1 shows the number of
iteration used by different methods.
Table 3.1 Load flow solution methods and iterations

Sl. No. Method used for solving Power Flow No. of Iterations

1 Fixed slope Decoupled Newton Raphson 4

2 Full Newton Raphson 3

3 Decoupled Newton Raphson 5

4 Gauss Seidel 3

5 Modified Gauss Seidel 4

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The full Newton Raphson method has been mainly used because it takes less iteration
and solutions are able to converge to within reasonably small tolerances (such as 0.1 MW
and MVar). The Newton Raphson method is also greatly helpful in solving very difficult
cases.
In this semester after modelling completely the South Indian grid we have solved the
case and performed the load flow analysis. We have taken swing bus (code 3) at
RAMAGUNDAM as it is the highest generating bus in the region. It was solved using
Newton-Raphson method and it took only three iterations to reach the result at minimum
tolerance.

The active power of swing bus was found to be 7452.9 MW and the reactive power
was 2027MVar. But at the time of data entry only 2600MW was registered for the bus.
The main inference from this is that the region has power deficit. The swing bus has to
supply the additional power of 4852MW. In practical scenario, the additional power has
been drawn from other RLDCs.

3.1.1 Steady State Analysis:


A detailed load flow report was generated. The highest steady power flowing in
765kV, 220 kV and 400kV branches of few selected bus are as given in Table 3.2. The
220 kV bus are represented by Green colour, 400kV bus are represented by Red colour
and 765kV bus are represented by Black colour.

Table 3.2 Steady State Branch Power

LINE DETAILS STEADY STATE


BRANCH POWER
From Bus To Bus FLOW
(MW)

KURNOOL(NEW) RAICHUR(NEW) 233.8


NELLORE KURNOOL(NEW) 941.2
CUDDAPAH NEW THIRUVALAM U 486.4
KURNOOL NEW CUDDAPAH NEW 872
RAMAGUNDAM N’SAGAR 2245.4
N’SAGAR CUDDAPAH 2247.4

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VIJAYWADA(VT) NELLORE 2387.2
RAMAGUNDAM GHANPUR(PG) 1712.2
VELLUR TPS MELAKOTTANUR 1537.6
HIRYUR NELAMANOLA 1657.8
KUDGI NARENDRA NEW 1600
KRISHNAPATNAM CHITTOOR 1523.8
KOTHAGUDEM KHAMMAM 1470
KURNOOL/NAMO GOOTY 1441.6
LANCO KONDAPALLY 1097.2
TUTICORIN EX TUTICORIN(10) 1000
KONDAPALLY VIJAYWADA(VT) 679.8
KOTHAGUDEM BHONGIR 555.5
SRISAILAM SOMYAJAPALLI 629.8
SHIMOGA SHARAVATI 705.6
NAGJHARI HUBLI 580
SOMNAHALLI KANAKAPURA 594.4
MADURAI TUTICORIN(10) 532.2
TUTICORIN(10) KAYATHAR 514

From the above figure we see that the power flow in 765kV branch has lower
power flow in comparison with other branches. As we know that high voltage of
transmission line is used to transfer bulk power. Thus we can say that the reason of low
power flow in 765kV branch are due to less loading of the buses.

The Optimal Power Flow module solves power system load flow, optimizes system
operating conditions, and adjusts control variable settings, while ensuring system
constraints are not violated. An optimized system will reduce the installation and/or
operating cost, improve overall system performance, and increase its reliability and
security. Table 3.3 shows the actual load flow and the optimized load flow data of few
generating bus.

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Table 3.3 Optimal Power Flow of Generators
Optimal Power
Ratings
Flow
GENERATOR Active Reactive Active Reactive
Power Power Power Power
(MW) (MVar) (MW) (MVar)
VIZAG 1040 152.7 1040 145.9

SIMHADRI TPS 1000 405.7 1000 398.7

SIMHADRI-II 1000 354.1 1000 347.1

KONASEEMA CC 445 125.2 445 114.1

GAUTAMI CCPS 464 123.5 464 113.7

JEGRAUPADU 216 335.9 216 322.2

KOTHAGUDEM40 1470 153.6 1470 128.8

BHOPALAPALLY 1100 573.8 1100 566.7

RAMAGUNDAM 7452.9 2027.9 7554.7 2003.4

N'SAGAR 875.6 2581.9 875.6 2546.8

VIJAYWADA(VT 1760 2786 1760 2761.2

SLBPH 900 1371.4 900 1350.3

YERAMARAS 800 -75.2 800 71.7

RAICHUR TPS 1720 2573.7 1720 2545.3

BELLARY 1700 912.9 1700 902.2

KAIGA 880 1422 880 1407.8

TORANGALU 860 549.8 860 535.9

SIMHAPURI 600 477.8 600 463.9

MEENAKSHI 300 505.8 300 498.7

VELLUR TPS 1500 1621.3 1500 1610.7

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After solving the case there is provision to visualise the simulation virtually in the
form of diagram. Diagram can be generated in PSSE using all the modelling and solved
information. Each bus can be seen there. The only problem is that, for a very large system
it is very difficult to see the image on a small screen. Therefore, the diagram of the swing
bus and other buses connected to it are shown in Fig 3.1.

Fig 3.1 Diagram of swing bus and connected system

From the figure we can see a particular bus and connected systems like generator, load
or other equipment if any. The direction of flow of power along with their values can be
seen. The generated value of generators as well as the values of load can also be seen.
The voltage level of the system can be seen by using suitable options in the diagram
interface.

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3.2 FAULT ANALYSIS

Fault analysis has been done using two standards namely IEC 60909 and ASCC. IEC
60909 has been a well-accepted standard till now. It establishes a general, practicable and
concise procedure leading to results which are generally of acceptable accuracy and deals
with the calculation of short-circuit currents in the case of balanced or unbalanced short
circuits. In PSSE, fault analysis is carried out under “Fault” tab. After choosing a
particular fault procedure, we need to specify the types of fault we want to carry out like
LG, LL, LLG,3-phase fault and the buses where we want to carry out. Fault currents of
some selected bus are shown in Table 3.4 and Table 3.5 respectively for IEC 60909 and
ASCC standard.

Table 3.4 IEC 60909 fault report

BUS 3-PASE LG LLG LL


FAULT FAULT FAULT FAULT

THIRUVALAM 888 301 177 769


D

HEBBAL 857 277 162 724

METTUR HPS 789 313 191 683

TRICHY 782 281 168 677

VEERANAM 562 190 113 487

KUNDAH 592 244 151 512

THALPARAM 438 162 99 379

RASIPALYAM 710 660 609 615

A.DAVU 753 738 713 652

NORTH 868 995 749 752


CHENNAI

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Table 3.5 ASCC fault report

BUS 3-PASE LG LLG LL


FAULT FAULT FAULT FAULT

THIRUVALAM 822 288 171 712


D

HEBBAL 790 263 155 684

METTUR HPS 729 301 186 631

TRICHY 721 268 162 624

VEERANAM 515 178 107 446

KUNDAH 544 232 145 471

THALPARAM 397 151 92 344

RASIPALYAM 651 602 553 564

A.DAVU 691 674 648 599

NORTH 803 915 683 695


CHENNAI

A comparative study has been shown between the two standards. The values of ASCC
fault are lower than IEC fault. Though different standards may give different values, IEC
values will be considered.

The Blue curve depicts the 3-phase fault current of IEC 60909 and the Orange curve
depicts the fault current of ASCC.

The curve is plotted with the bus name against the fault currents.

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Fig 3.2 IEC 60909 vs ASCC

3.3 CONTINGENCY ANALYSIS


The process of performing contingency analysis has many steps involved. To perform
contingency analysis several coding has to be done. These coding leads to creation of
three file types namely *.con, *.mon and *.sub file. Using these file another file is created
which has an extension *.dfx which contain information about possible combinations of
performing contingencies. The file type are described below.

1. Subsystem file(*.sub): The subsystem file informs the power flow analysis to only
look at a prescribed section, or zone, of the overall network.

2. Monitor file(*.mon): The monitor file tells the power flow simulator which branches
to be supervised during the (N-n) contingencies. (n=1,2…)

3. Contingency file(*.con): The contingency file is programmed to remove


equipment, from service; this is referred to as a contingency.

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4. DFAX (distribution factors file): With the above file types *.dfx file is created. It is
a measure of the impact of injections and network changes on the grid applied over the
initial or base case power flow.

The coding of different file types is shown in Fig 3.3, Fig 3.4 and Fig 3.5.

Fig 3.3 Subsystem File Code

Fig 3.4 Monitor File Code

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Fig 3.5 Contingency File Code

With the information of the coding *.dfx file will be created and we can go for
contingency analysis. The result of the analysis is shown in Table 3.6.

Table 3.6 Contingency report

LINE DETAILS
MAXIMUM BUS
MISATCH
From Bus To Bus (PU)

RAMAGUNDAM N’SAGAR 0.249


N’SAGAR CUDDAPAH 0.023
VIJAYWADA(VT) NELLORE 0.054
RAMAGUNDAM GHANPUR(PG) 0.063
VELLUR TPS MELAKOTTANUR 0.06778

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HIRYUR NELAMANOLA 0.12
KUDGI NARENDRA NEW 0.0152
KRISHNAPATNAM CHITTOOR 0.0784
KOTHAGUDEM KHAMMAM 0.045
KURNOOL/NAMO GOOTY 0.24
RAMAGUNDAM GAJWEL 0.324
SHIMOGA SHARAVATI 0.079
VIJAYWADA KONDAPALLY 0.096
RAMAGUNDAM WARANGAL 0.267

From the report, a few branches were selected for studying. Any mismatch value
indicated the p.u deviation of power from its original value after contingency has
occurred. Lower the values mean that system has good stability. Higher value depicts that
the bus is weak and need for monitoring. In our case we see that bus connected to
Ramagundam has higher values and hence needed for monitoring.

3.4 PV ANALYSIS
The PV analysis process involves using a series of power flow solutions for increasing
transfers of MW and monitoring what happens to system voltages as a result. It also
includes the creation of contingency, subsystem and monitor file system. A generating
bus is considered and its connected bus are being monitored. The basis of our selection is
from our contingency analysis. As we see that bus connected to Ramagundam (bus code:
-3216) has highest mismatch. So we perform analysis on that particular bus system. Hence
there is a need for coding in the *.con, *.mon and *.sub files. The coding is shown in Fig
3.6, Fig3.7 and Fig 3.8.
Fig 3.6 Subsystem file

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Fig 3.7 Monitor file

Fig 3.8 Contingency file

In the PV analysis tab, there is provision of increasing incremental active power in


some steps. We have increased the power up to 200MW in steps of 30MW. The following
graph was obtained which is shown in Fig 3.9. From the graph we see that as we are
increasing power the voltage in the bus drops. The Yellow line is for Warangal, Green
for Gajwel and Red for Nagarjunsagar

Fig 3.9 PV curve

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3.5 QV ANALYSIS
QV relationship shows the sensitivity and variation of bus voltages with respect to
reactive power injections or absorptions. We have performed the QV analysis on the same
bus i.e., Ramagundam (bus code: -3216). We are monitoring the same interconnected bus.
As we are increasing reactive power the voltage on the bus are also rising. This is shown
in the Fig 3.10.

Fig 3.10 QV curve

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CHAPTER 5

CONCLUSION

1. We have successfully modelled the South Indian Grid with the appropriate charts
and datasheets issued by CEA and SRLDC. We have simulated and performed
various analysis afterwards.
2. The installed capacity of the region is 77282 MW but only 57311MW is produced.
The peak power demand of SR is about 61765 MW (july 2016). To compensate
4454MW, the region draws power from other RLDCs.
3. From the power flow analysis, we have taken swing bus (code 3) at
RAMAGUNDAM as it is the highest generating bus. The swing bus had generation
of 2600MW. But on solving it was found to be 7452.9 MW. The main inference
from this is that the region has power deficit. The swing bus has to supply the
additional power . In practical scenario, the additional power has been drawn from
other RLDCs.
4. We have performed the fault analysis using two standards. From the result we can
say that IEC 60909 gives the result near to actual value.
5. From the contingency analysis we obtained that maximum mismatch is between bus
RAMAGUNDAM and N’SAGAR. So this branch is the most critical branch
(weakest link).
6. From the PV analysis it is found that with increase in active power at a particular
bus the voltage level remained constant upto a particular voltage level.
7. From the QV analysis it is found that with the increasing reactive power the bus
voltage increases. Thus showing that south Indian grid is stable

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REFERENCES

[1] PSS®E 33.3 Program Application Guide Volume 1.


[2] PSS®E Lab Manual of Colorado State University.
[3] Network Diagram Map of South Indian Grid from Central Electricity Authority(CEA)
[4] Grid Power Details of Southern Region from CEA and SRLDC.
[5] Transmission Line Parameter from different Transmission Design Industry in India.
[6] Modern Power System and Analysis by Nagrath and Kothari
[7] Modelling and Study of Indian Eastern Regional Grid Analysis Using PSS®E
by Toushik Maiti, Kamaljyoti Gogoi, Saibal Chatterjee.
[8] PSS®E Online Forum (https://psspy.org)

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