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V. Christofilakis1, A. A. Alexandridis1, P. Kostarakis2, K. Dangakis1

1

National Centre of Scientific Research “DEMOKRITOS”

Institute of Informatics and Telecommunications

15310, Ag.Paraskevi, Athens, Greece

2

Electronics-Telecommunications and Applications Lab., Physics Department

University of Ioannina, 45110, Ioannina, Greece

silicon integrated circuits (Si ICs) ADCs has reached

With the dawn of a new millennium we find ourselves such levels of sampling rates that can handle band

one step before the emergence of the third generation limited signals having no frequency components above

(3G) mobile communications systems in the world 750 MHz. It is noted that there are modules, III-V ICs

market. The implementation of the 3G and furthermore (semiconductors are synthesized using elements from

4G mobile communications systems is included within third and fifth group of periodic table) and SuperC

the intentions of the so-called software defined radio (superconductors) ADCs [6] which can handle band

(SDR) systems [1]. The design, development and the limited signals with frequency components above 750

implementation of SDR systems are based on a MHz, but even if the sampling frequency satisfies the

combination and evolution of technologies and Nyquist criterion, there are other parameters affecting

techniques including mainly: smart antennas, radio the performance of an ADC. Some of these parameters

frequency (RF) down/up converters, analog to digital are bit resolution, aperture jitter, differential

converters (ADCs) and digital to analog converters nonlinearity error (DNL), integral nonlinearity error

(DACs), digital signal processors (DSPs), modelling (INL), full-power analog input bandwidth (FPBW),

and system description languages. In this paper a spurious free dynamic range (SFDR), effective number

quantitative analysis of the basic parameters of one of of bits (ENOB). The parameters just mentioned can play

the most important segments of an SDR receiver, the a significant role in real situations and can affect the

Analog to Digital Converter, is presented. ADC's of the performance of an ADC and thereby the implementation

latest technology and their basic specifications are also of an ideal SDR receiver.

indicated. In this paper, we consider the ADC as a physically

realizable system with a performance depending on

I. INTRODUCTION various parameters. More specifically, in section II there

is a theoretical analysis considering three of the basic

The ADC constitutes an essential component for the parameters of an ADC, which are: the sampling rate, the

implementation of an SDR receiver. In figure 1 we can bit resolution and the aperture jitter. In section III,

see the block diagram of an ideal SDR receiver, in through appropriate simulation programs, a quantitive

which the ADC is placed as close to the antenna as relation among these three basic parameters of the ADC

possible. As we can see, the ideal case is the one in is derived. Besides, it becomes clear that these

which the digitization of the incoming high frequency parameters affect the performance of the ADC, and as a

signal (RF) occurs just after the antenna [2,3]. measure we use the Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR) at the

The question evidently arisen is whether the established ADC's output. Finally, in section IV, the sampling rate

technology can succeed the right sampling and of ADCs (Si ICs) of the latest technology is given

quantization of RF signals that come from 3G mobile versus bit resolution and a comparison with older ADCs

communication systems, also known as Universal (Si ICs) is presented.

Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS). Taking

into account that the frequency band of 3G mobile Antenna

communication systems lies around 2.5 GHz, we

conclude that we need ADCs with sampling rate at least ADC DSP

USER

INTERFACE

practical SDR solutions, ADCs are placed after the first

Figure 1: Block diagram of an ideal SDR receiver.

down-conversion stage thus significantly reducing the

II. THEORETICAL ANALYSIS OF THE BASIC

CHARACTERISTICS OF AN ADC

A. Sampling Rate

signal of finite energy, having no spectral components

above a frequency of fc, may be reproduced from its

samples taken at a rate exceeding twice the highest

frequency in the band [4]. The sampling rate fs=2fc is

called the Nyquist rate (fNyquist). The sampled signal xs(t)

is given by the relation:

n=∞

xs (t ) = x(t ) ∑ δ (t − nTs ) (1)

n = −∞

where x(t) is the analog signal, δ(t) stands for Dirac Figure 2: (a) Spectrum of the analog signal x(t), (b)

delta function, Ts is the sampling period and is equal to Spectrum of the sampling signal xs(t), with sampling

1/fs. The Fourier transform Xs(f) of the sampled signal rate fs= fNyquist.

xs(t) is given by the relation:

+∞

X s ( f ) = fs ∑ X ( f − nf )

n = −∞

s (2)

x(t). For sampling rate fs = fNyquist, if the Fourier

transform X(f) of the analog signal x(t) is the one shown

in figure 2(a), then the Fourier transform Xs(f) of the

sampled signal is as shown in figure 2(b). It is obvious

that with the help of a Low Pass Filter (LPF), the

retrieval of the initial signal is possible. In practice it is

rather preferred not to use sampling rates fs=fNyquist, but

fs=kfNyquist with k>1, for the following reasons:

• to avoid aliasing of the sampled signal

• easier implementation of the appropriate filter

• decrease of quantization noise.

We will work out these parameters in the following

paragraphs.

Aliasing of the sampled signal: Let's consider the

Fourier transform X(f) in figure 2(a). If in that spectrum

there was an interfering (spectral) frequency

component, for example, fc0=1.1fc as shown in figure

3(a) and if the sampling was performed at the Nyquist

rate then the spectrum of the sampled signal would be Figure 3: (a) Spectrum of the analog signal with

the one in figure 3(b). It would therefore be impossible undesirable component, (b) Distortion in the spectrum

to retrieve the initial signal, without the disturbance of sampled signal (fs=fNyquist), (c) Spectrum of the

caused by the specific spectral component. But if the sampled signal (fs=1.5fNyquist).

sampling was performed with frequency 1.5fNyquist, then

the spectrum of the sampled signal would be as shown

in figure 3(c). Then, using the appropriate filter, we

could retrieve the initial signal.

Easier filter implementation: An ideal low pass filter has

an orthogonal response, while the response of a real

LPF of the same cut off frequency is different (figure 4).

If the spectrum of the analog signal was as the one

shown in figure 5(a) with frequency fc=100 KHz, then

with sampling frequency equal to 1.5fNiquist (300 KHz),

the spectrum of the sampled signal is shown in

figure 5(b). Using the LPF which has cut-off frequency

128 KHz [7], we cannot take the initial signal, because,

as shown in figure 4, there is a transition area of high

gain in the filter from 128 KHz – 1000 KHz, which

disables the reproduction of the initial signal. That Figure 4: Response of width of an ideal and a real

problem could easily be solved if we had the ability to transit filter of low frequencies.

perform a sampling with frequency 6fNyquist.

output. For a sinusoidal signal which does not exceed

the FSR of the ADC, the SNR due to the quantization

error is:

f

SNRq = 6.02b + 1.76 + 10 log10 s (dB) (5)

2 fc

where b stands for the bit resolution of the ADC, fs is

the sampling rate, fc is the maximum frequency of the

analog signal at the ADC’s input [10].

In relation (5), if fs is replaced by kfNyquist (k≥1), we

take:

Figure 5: Spectrum of the analog signal x(t) with fc = For a sampling rate equal to the Nyquist rate (k=1), the

100 KHz, (b) Spectrum of the sampled signal xs(t) (fs= relation (6) becomes:

300 KHz).

SNR q = 6.02b + 1.76 (7)

B. Bit Resolution

An ADC, except for taking samples of the analog Decrease of quantization noise: the term 10log10(k) in

signal, quantizes them as well. Quantization, in an (6) indicates that it is preferable to use sampling rates as

ADC, is the procedure of transforming the samples of greater than the Nyquist rate as possible (oversampling)

continuous amplitude range into samples of discrete because the SNRq is increased. In figure 6 we can see

amplitude levels [8]. According to the uniform the SNRq versus k for 4 different bit resolutions 6, 8, 10,

quantization method the area of continuous amplitude 12 bits. From that figure it becomes obvious that an

range is divided in Q=2b parts of width increase of 2 bits in the bit resolution implies an

∆=x(t)max-x(t)min/Q, where x(t)min, x(t)max is the increase of the SNRq of approximately 12 dB. The same

minimum and the maximum values of the analog signal improvement in the SNRq maybe obtained when

respectively and b stands for the number of the bit fs=16fNyquist.

resolution of the ADC.

The process of transforming the sample amplitude of

continuous amplitude range x(nTs) of an analog signal

x(t) into a discrete amplitude qi follows the rule:

si −1 + si

where, qi = , si = x (t ) min + i∆ and

2

s0 = x(t ) min , i =1,2,….,Q

The variation between the quantized value and that of

the analog signal is called quantization error. Therefore, Figure 6: SNRq versus k, for b=6, 8, 10, 12 bits.

during the analog signal conversion into digital, the

quantization error or quantization noise, being the

C. Aperture jitter

difference between the input and the output signal

should be taken into account.

In the analysis till now we have considered that there is

It can be proved [9] that if the analog signal amplitude

not sampling instant uncertainty and the duration of

does not exceed the Full Scale Range (FSR) of the ADC

samples is infinitesimal. For the case of simplicity we

and quantization error is a uniformly random variable,

still consider that the duration of samples tends to 0.

the variance of the quantization error (σ2q) is given by

Thus, there is only uncertainty concerning the sampling

the relation:

instant. The uncertainty in sampling instant is denoted

∆2 by a random amount of time τ, which maybe considered

σ 2q = (4)

as a random variable with zero mean value, following

12

normal distribution. The root mean square (RMS) value

From equation (4), we can conclude that when b tends of τ is what we specified as aperture jitter or aperture

to infinity, then σ2q tends to zero. time uncertainty taj. Assuming that the analog signal is

Usually, as a measure for the performance of an ADC, x(t) = sin(2πfct), we will try to find out how the aperture

we use the signal to noise ratio (SNR) in the ADC’s

jitter affects the sampled signal. The uncertainty in 2

RMS[ y ]

sample time nTs (ut) implies an uncertainty ux in the SNR = (11)

amplitude of the signal (figure 7). The relation between RMS[ x − y ]

ut and ux is:

The equation (11) in dB becomes:

dx

ux = u t = 2πf c cos(2πf c t )u t (8) RMS[ y ]

dt SNR = 20 log (dB) (12)

RMS[ x − y ]

Therefore, we conclude that the uncertainty ux is

proportional to the frequency of the input analog signal We can, furthermore, assume that the ADC consists of 2

and to the uncertainty ut expressed by the aperture jitter subsystems: the sampling subsystem and the

[11]. It can be proved that the SNR of an ADC is also quantization subsystem, as shown in figure 8(b) where

affected by the aperture jitter. xs is the output of the sampling subsystem.

It can be proved [10] that the SNR due to the aperture The SNR has been estimated at the output of the whole

jitter error is: ADC system using a simulation program.

Simulations were made for the following three cases:

1 • Jitter error and no quantization error.

SNRaj = 20 log10 (9) • Quantization error and no jitter error.

2πf t

c aj • Quantization error and jitter error.

For the simulation it is assumed that the analog signal at

where taj is the aperture jitter and fc is the maximum the input of the ADC system is x=cos(2πfct) and the

frequency of the analog signal at the input of the ADC. number of samples is 104.

uncertainty ux in the amplitude of the sampled signal.

Figure 8: Block diagram of an ADC.

In order to survey how the sampling rate, the Keeping the analog input signal frequency fixed at

quantization error and the aperture jitter error affect the fc=100 MHz and assuming that the aperture jitter is

performance of the ADC, we consider it as a physically constant and equal to 2 ps, we let the sampling rate fs

realizable system, having an analog signal, x, as input vary from 200 MHz to 300 MHz in steps of 1 MHz.

and a signal y as output (figure 8(a)). A measure of the Only the aperture jitter error is present in this case, so

ADC performance is the SNR at the system’s output, the SNR ratio is denoted by SNRaj. We estimate the

given by: SNRaj at the system’s output as a function of fs. From

the diagram of figure 9, it is obvious that the SNRaj is

E{ y 2 } independent of the sampling rate, thus complying with

SNR = (10)

E{( x − y ) 2 } the theory (equation (9)).

Keeping the sampling rate fixed at fs=200 MHz and the

where E{y2} is the mean square value of y. aperture jitter error also fixed at taj=2 ps, we let the

2 2 frequency of the analog signal fc vary from 1 to 100

By definition E{y2}= RMS [ y ] , where RMS [ y ] is MHz in steps of 1 MHz. The estimated SNRaj at the

the root mean square value of y. system’s output is shown in figure 10 as a function of fc.

Therefore, the relation (10) can be written as: It is clear that increasing the frequency fc, the SNRaj is

decreasing. In the same figure the plot of

equation (9) is also given where taj equals to 2 ps. The

coincidence of the two curves, representing theory B. Quantization error and no jitter error

(ideal) and simulation, is obvious.

Keeping the sampling rate fixed at fs=200 MHz and the It is assumed that the error is due only to quantization

input analog signal also fixed at fc=100 MHz, we let the and not to aperture jitter. We estimate the SNR at the

aperture jitter taj vary from 1 ps to 100 ps with in steps ADC’s output for an input frequency fc and a sampling

of 1ps. The estimated SNRaj at the system’s output is frequency fs=2fc, while varying the bit resolution. The

shown in figure 11 as a function of taj. From the diagram of the SNRq (SNR due to quantization) as a

diagram, we conclude that an increase in aperture jitter function of bit resolution is shown in figure 12. As we

leads to a decrease of SNRaj. In the same figure the plot can see, the values approach the theoretical (ideal) ones

of the equation (9) is also given where fc equals to obtained from equation (7).

100 MHz. As we can see, the theoretical curve and the For frequencies above the Nyquist rate, the equation (5)

one of the simulation coincide. is valid. An increase in the sampling rate leads to an

increase in the SNRq. That happens because the power

of the quantization noise, which is fixed and

independent of the sampling rate, is spread over a wider

bandwidth when the sampling rate is increased.

(SNRt) at the ADC system’s output considering that

both the aperture jitter error and the quantization error

are not negligible. It is assumed that the frequency of

the analog signal at the ADC’s input is equal to 100

MHz and the sampling rate is equal to Nyquist rate,

fs=200 MHz. The SNRt at the output of the ADC is

Figure 10: SNRaj versus frequency fc of the analog estimated as a function of the bit resolution for aperture

signal at the input of ADC. jitter values taj=0.25, 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 ps. The

corresponding diagram is shown in figure 13. From this

we conclude that for all 4 curves there are 3 zones.

Specifically, for the lower curve (taj=2.0 ps) the first

zone reaches 9 bits and the SNRt increases linearly with

b (linear zone). The second zone is from 9 to 11 bits,

where SNRt continues to increase but not linearly with b

(transition zone). In the third zone from 11-16 bits

SNRt remains constant and independent of b (constant

zone). In the linear zone SNRq is less than SNRaj, hence

SNRt depends mainly on SNRq (figure 14). In the

transition zone, the SNRt values depend on both SNRaj

and SNRq since in that area the SNRaj values are

comparable with the SNRq values (figure 14). Finally, in

the constant zone SNRt depends exclusively on SNRaj

Figure 11: SNRaj versus aperture jitter taj of ADC. which is independent of the bit resolution (figure 14).

From these 4 curves it is concluded that as taj increases,

the linear zone becomes narrower and SNRt in the

constant zone decreases. This is expected since, as we

saw earlier, SNRaj is inversely proportional to taj. By

repeating the procedure for frequencies of the analog

signal fc=200, 300, 400 and 500 MHz (figure 15(a), (b),

(c) and (d) respectively) it is concluded that as fc

increases the linear zone become narrower and the SNRt

in the constant zone decreases since the SNRaj is

inversely proportional to fc.

From the above diagrams it is obvious that, for a fixed

frequency fc and sampling at the Nyquist rate, there is a

specific value of bit resolution (b0) above which the

performance of ADC depends only on the aperture jitter

error, which becomes greater than the quantization

error. In this case, an increment in aperture jitter implies

a degradation of the ADC performance. As shown in

figure 14 for this specific value b0 of bit resolution we (a)

have the SNR due to aperture jitter (SNRaj) equal to

SNR due quantization (SNRq). Therefore, from

equations (7) and (9) it is derived that:

1

b0 = −2.94 + 3.32 log (13)

ft

c aj

(b)

aperture jitter values and for frequency fc=100 MHz

(c)

resolution for fc=100 MHz.

(d)

aperture jitter values and for frequencies fc (a)200 MHz,

(b)300 MHz, (c)400 MHz, (d)500 MHz.

In Table 1 we give a comparison of aperture jitter values V. CONCLUSIONS

(taj) requirements for an ideal SDR receiver for systems

operating in UHF, GSM-900, GSM-1800 and UMTS In this paper we present a quantitative analysis of some

frequency bands. It is assumed that the desired SNRt is basic parameters of an ADC, which is one of the most

60 dB and sampling is done at the Nyquist rate. important parts of a SDR receiver. Summarizing the

Therefore it is derived (equation 7) that the minimum simulation results it is concluded that: An increase in

required bit resolution is 10 bits. It is can be seen that the sampling rate upgrades the performance of the ADC

for 3G systems as well as for some 2G systems (e.g. and also increases the maximum frequency value of the

GSM1800) the required performance is far away from analog signal that can be handled. An increase in bit

that of current state-of-the-art ADCs [6]. resolution, which means a decrease in quantization

error, does not always improves the performance of the

Table 1 ADC. For a specific frequency of input signal and

SNR=60dB, f s = 2fc, b=10bits sampling at Nyquist rate, an increase in bit resolution

Frequency band fc (MHz) taj (ps) upgrades the performance of the ADC only when the

UHF 500 0.32 error due to aperture jitter is less than the quantization

GSM900 900 0.18 error. Furthermore, there is a bit resolution value above

GSM1800 1800 0.088 which the performance of ADC improves only by

UMTS 2500 0.064 decreasing the aperture jitter.

REFERENCES

IV. NEW GENERATION ADCs

[1] R. Meyer, "Software-Defined-Radio Technology

As previously mentioned, the new technology ADCs (Si Targets 3G Designs ", Wireless Systems Design,

ICs) cannot handle yet RF signals in the band of 3G vol. 5, no. 2, 2000, pp. 16-20.

mobile communication systems. The highest possible [2] J. Mitola III. Author, Software Radio Architecture,

sampling rates that can be accomplished by the state of Object-Oriented Approaches to Wireless Systems

the art ADCs (Si ICs) for bit resolution 8, 10, 12, 14 and Engineering, John Wiley & Sons Inc, ch. 1,

16 bits are shown in figure 16. It can be seen that the pp. 2-4.

maximum sampling rate is 1.5 GHz at a bit resolution of [3] T. Hentschel, M. Henker, G. Fettweis, "The digital

8. Based on the Nyquist criterion, the sampling rate front-end of software radio terminal", IEEE

fs=1.5 GHz limits the input analog signal frequency to Personal Communications Magazine, vol. 6, no .4,

750 MHz. According to equation (7), for bit resolution 1999, pp. 40-46.

b=12 bits the SNRq of the ADC will be approximately [4] C.E. Shannon, "Communication in the Presence of

24 dB higher than the SNRq of the ADC for b=8. On the Noise", in Proceedings of IRE, 1949, vol. 37

other hand, as it is noticed from figure 16, for higher bit pp. 10 -21.

resolution the accomplished sampling rate decreases.

[5] D. Efstathiou, "Re-configurable Basestation

For the specific bit resolution (b=12) the sampling rate

Transceiver for 3G and beyond Wireless Systems",

is only 200 MHz limiting the maximum frequency of

in Proceedings of IST Mobile Communication

the analog signal to 100 MHz.

Figure 16 depicts also the highest sampling rates usable Summit, 2001.

by ADCs of 1997 for the same bit resolutions as above. [6] R.H. Walden, "Analog-to-Digital Converter

From the diagram, the increase in the sampling rate of Survey and Analysis ", IEEE journal on selected

the ADCs accomplished during the last 4 years becomes areas in communications, vol. 17, no. 4, 1999,

obvious. At this point it is noted that the data given in pp. 539-550.

this figure concern exclusively ADCs ICs of Si [7] Linear Technology, LTC1569-7.

technology. [8] S. Haykin, Communication Systems, John Wiley &

Sons Inc, ch. 6, pp. 374-378.

[9] R.M. Gray, D.L. Neuhoff, "Quantization", IEEE

transactions on information theory, vol. 44, no. 6

1998, pp. 2325-2388.

[10] J.A. Wepman, "Analog-to-Digital Converters and

their Applications in Radio Receivers ", Journal,

vol. 33, no. 5, 1995, pp. 39-45.

[11] R. Rosing, H. Kerkhoff, R. Tangelder, M.

Sachden, "Off-Chip diagnosis of aperture jitter in

full-flash analog-to digital converters ", Journal of

electronic testing: Theory and Applications 14,

1999, pp. 67-94.

Figure 16: State of the Art ADCs (Si ICs) for the years

1997, 2001.

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