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2.1 ANALYSING LINEAR MOTION

Distance and displacement

1. Types of physical quantity:

has only a magnitude

(i) Scalar quantity: ………………………………………………………………….

has both magnitude and direction

(ii) Vector quantity: …………………………………………………………………

2. The difference between distance and displacement:

length of the path taken

(i) Distance: …………………………………………………………………………

distance of an object from a point in a certain direction

(ii) Displacement: ……………………………………………………………………

3. Distance always longer than displacement.

4. Example: The following diagram shows the location of Johor Bahru and Desaru.

You can travel by car using existing road via Kota Tinggi, or travel by a

small plane along straight path.

Calculate how far it is from Johor Bahru to Desaru if you traveled by:

a. The car

b. The plane

Kota Tinggi

41 km 53 km

60 km Desaru

a. by car = 41 + 53 The path traveled by the plane is shorter than travelled by the

= 94 km car.

So, Distance = 94 km

b. by plane = 60 km Displacement = 60 km

Hands-on Activity 2.2 pg 10 of the practical book.

Idea of distance and displacement, speed and velocity.

Speed and velocity

1. Speed is ..…………………………………………………………………………………

the speed in a given direction or rate of change of displacement

2. Velocity is: ..……………………………………………………………………………...

total distance traveled, s (m) , v = s m s-1

3. Average of speed: ………………………………………………………………………

time taken, t (s) t

displacement, s (m) , v = s ms-1

4. Average of velocity: ……………………………………………………………………...

Time taken, t (s) t

1

JPN Pahang Physics Module Form 4

Chapter 2 : Force and Motion

5. Example:

An aeroplane flies from A to B, which is located 300 km east of A. Upon reaching B, the

aeroplane then flies to C, which is located 400 km north. The total time of flight is 4

hours. Calculate

i. The speed of the aeroplane

ii. The velocity of the aeroplane

C Time

= 300 + 400

400 km 4

= 175 km h-1

A 300 km B

ii. velocity = displacement

C time

(Determine the displacement denoted by

AC and its direction)

400 km

= . 500 .

A B 4

= 125 km h-1 (in the direction of 0530)

300 km

1. Study the phenomenon below;

The velocity of the car increases.

Observation: ………………………………………………………………………………

the rate of change of velocity

2. Acceleration is, ……………………………………………………………………….

Final velocity – initial velocity Or, a = v – u

Then, a = Time of change t

3. Example of acceleration;

t=2s t=2s

A B C

2

20 – 0

2

= 10 m s-2

JPN Pahang Physics Module Form 4

Chapter 2 : Force and Motion

i) from A to B aAB = 20 – 0 = 10 m s-2

2

2

when the velocity of an object decreases, In calculations, a will

4. Deceleration happens ...…………………………………………………………………

be negative

………………………………………………………………………………………………

5. Example of deceleration;

A lorry is moving at 30 m s-1, when suddenly the driver steps on the brakes and it stop 5

seconds later. Calculate the deceleration of lorry.

Answer : v = 0 m s-1, u = 30 m s-1, t = 5 s

Then , a = 0 – 30 = -6 m s-2

5

Analysing of motion

1. Linear motion can be studied in the laboratory using a ticker timer and a ticker tape.

Refer text book photo picture 2.4 page 26.

(i) Determination of time:

. . . . . . . .

the frequency of the ticker timer = 50 Hz ( 50 ticks in 1 second)

so, 1 tick = 1 second = 0.02 seconds

50

(ii) Determination of displacement as the length of ticker tape over a period of time.

.

x

. . . . . . .

xy = displacement over time t

y t = 7 ticks

= 0.14 s

. . . . . . . .

Uniform velocity

………………………………………………………………………………………..

. . . . . . . .

Acceleration

...……….……………………………………………………………………………..

. . . . . . . .

Acceleration, then deceleration

3

JPN Pahang Physics Module Form 4

Chapter 2 : Force and Motion

.……………………………………………………………………………………..

(iv) Determination of velocity

. . . . . . . .

12.6 cm 10 x 0.02 = 0.2 s

displacement = ……………………… time = ………………………………..

-1

Velocity, v = 12.6 = 63.0 cm s

0.2

Length/cm

v a= v–u

8

t

7 = 40.0 – 15.0 ..

5(0.2)

25.0

6 = 1.0

5 -2

= 25.0 m s

4 u

3

2

1

ticks

The equation of 0motion

s : displacement, v : final velocity

1. The important symbols : ………………………………………………………………..

u : initial velocity, t : time, a : acceleration

………………………………………………………………………………………………

2. The list of important formula;

1 v −u

1. s= (u + v )t 2. a=

2 t

1 2

3. v = u + at 4. s = ut + at

2

5. v 2 = u 2 + 2as

m s-2 for 20 s. Calculate the displacement of the car while it is accelerating.

given : u = 10 m s-1 , a = 3 m s-2 , t = 20 s. s=?

s = ut + ½ at2

s = (10)(20) + ½ (3)(20)2

s = 800 m

4

JPN Pahang Physics Module Form 4

Chapter 2 : Force and Motion

Example 2 : A van that is traveling with velocity 16 m s-1 decelerates until it comes to rest.

If the distance traveled is 8 m, calculate the deceleration of the van.

given : u = 16 m s-1 , v = 0(rest) , s = 8 m a=?

v2 = u2 + 2 as

02 = 162 + 2 a(8)

a = -16 ms-2

Execise 2.1

Length / cm

1. Figure 2.1 shows a tape chart

consisting of 5-tick strip. Describe 16

the motion represented by AB and BC.

In each case, determine the ; 12

(a) displacement 8

s = 4 + 8 + 12 + 16 + 16 + 16

= 72.0 cm 4

(b) average velocity

0 A Figure 2.1

72 .0

vaverage = B C Time/s

6(0.1)

= 120.0 cm s-1

16 .0

(c) acceleration Note : v = = 1.6 cm s-1

0.1

v −u 1.6 −0.4 4.0

a= = u= = 0.4 cm s-1

t 0 .5 0.1

= 2.4 cm s-2 t = 5 (0.1) = 0.5 s

2. A car moving with constant velocity of 40 ms-1 . The driver saw and obtacle in front and

he immediately stepped on the brake pedal and managed to stop the car in 8 s. The

distance of the obstacle from the car when the driver spotted it was 180 m. How far is the

obstacles from the car has sttoped.

u = 40 ms-1 v=0 t=8s

s initial = 180 m (from car to obstacle when the driver start to step on the brake)

sfinal = ? ( from car to abstacle when the stopped)

obstacle

sinitial

s sfinal

1

s= ( u + v )t = 1 ( 40 + 0)8 = 160 m

2 2

sfinal = sinitial – s

= 180 – 160

= 20 m

5

JPN Pahang Physics Module Form 4

Chapter 2 : Force and Motion

0s 10s 20s The object

30s moves with

40s uniform velocity

50s for time

t seconds.

After t seconds,

in thethe object

form returns

of graph to origin

called (reverse)

a motion graphswith

The data of the motion of the car can beuniform

presented………………………………….

velocity

The displacement-time Graph Total displacement is zero

Uniform

Graph isdisplacement all the time

quadratic form

………………………………………………………………

.

Graph gradientincreases

Displacement = velocity

……………………………………………………………… = 0time.

with

Graph is stationary

gradient or is

increases

……………...……………………………………………… not moving

uniformly

b) displacement (m) Graph analysis:

acceleration.

Displacement increases uniformly

……..…………………………………………………………

…………………………………………………………………

……….…………………………………………………………

…….……………………………………………………………

…………………………………………………………………

…………………………….………………………………………

……………………………………………..………………………

…………………………………………………………………

6

JPN Pahang Physics Module Form 4

Chapter 2 : Force and Motion

Graph is quadratic form.

…………………………………………………………..

Displacement increases with time.

…………………………………………………………..

Graph gradient decreases uniformly

…………………………………………………………..

time (s)

The object moves with decreasing velocity, with uniform

…………………………………………………………..

deceleration.

f) displacement (m) Graph analysis:

…………………………………………………………..

AB = velocity is zero (rest)

…………………………………………………………..

BC = uniform velocity (negative – reverse)

……………………………………………………………

O C time (s)

The velocity-time Graph

a) v/ m s-1 Graph analysis:

No change in velocity

…………………………………………………………..

Zero gradient the object moves with a constant velocity or

…………………………………………………………..

the acceleration is zero.

……………………………………………………………

t t /s The area under the graph is equal to the displacement of the

moving object :

s=vxt

b) v/ m s-1 Graph analysis:

Its velocity increases uniformly

………………………………………..………………..

The graph has a constant gradient

…………………………………………………………

The object moves with a uniform acceleration

…………………………………………………………

t t /s The area under the graph is equal to the displacement,

…………………………………………………………

s of the moving object :

s = ½ ( v x t)

The object moves with a uniform acceleration for t1 s

…………………………………..………………….

After t1 s, the object decelerates uniformly (negative gradient )

………………………………………………………

until it comes to rest.

………………………………………………………

The area under the graph is equal to the displacement of the

t1 t2 t (s)

moving object : s = ½ vt2

7

JPN Pahang Physics Module Form 4

Chapter 2 : Force and Motion

The shape of the graph is a curve

...…………………………………..………………..

Its velocity increases with time.

……………………………………………………..

The gradient of the graph increases.

………………………………………………………

The object moves with increasing acceleration.

t (s) ………………………………………………………

The area under the graph is equal to the total displacement of

.……………………………………………………...

the moving object.

The shape of graph is a curve

………..…………………………..………………..

Its velocity increases with time.

……….

The gradient of the graph decreases uniformly.

……………………………………………..

The object moves with a decreasing acceleration.

………………………………………………………

The area under the graph is the total displacement of the

t (s) ………………………………………………………

moving object.

Examples ………………………………………………………

1. s/m Calculate:-

(i) Velocity over OP, QR and RS

(ii) Displacement

Given : SOP = 20 m SOQ = 20 m SOR = 0 m

P

Q SOS = - 10 m

Solution : tOP = 2 s tPQ = 3 s tQR = 2 s

tRS = 1 s

20 0 − 20

(i) VOP = =10ms−1 VQR = = −10ms−1

O R 2 2

0 2 4 6 8 t/s -10 − 0

VRS = = −10ms−1

1

S (ii) S = 20 – 10 = 10 m

2. v/m s-1

Calculate:-

(i) acceleration,a over OP, PQ and QR

10

(ii) Displacement

P Given : VO = 0 m s-1, VP = 10 m s-1 ,

5 Q

Solution : VQ = 10 m s-1 VR = 0 m s-1

tOP = 4 s tPQ = 4 s tQR = 2 s

10 − 0 10 −10

(i) aOP = = 2.5ms−2 aPQ= = 0 ms −2

O 4 4

R

0 − 10 −2

0 2 4 6 8 10 t/s aQR = = −5.0 ms

2

1

(ii) S = (4 +10)(10) = 70.0m

2

8

JPN Pahang Physics Module Form 4

Chapter 2 : Force and Motion

Excercise 2.2

1. (a) s/m (b) s/m (c) s/m

10

-5 -10

Figure 2.21

Describe and interpret the motion of a body which is represented by the displacement

time graphs in Figure 2.21

a) The body remains in rest 5 m at the back of initial point

b) The body start move at 10 m infront of the initial point, then back to initial point

in 2 s. The body continue it motion backward 10 m..

The body move with uniform velocity.

2. Describe and interpret the motion of body which is represented by the velocity-time

graphs shown in figure 2.22. In each case, find the distance covered by the body and its

displacement

10

t/s 0 2 4 t/s

-5 -10

Figure 2.22

(a) The body move with uniform velocity , 5 m s-1 backward.

(b) The body start it motion with 10 m s-1 backward and stop at initial point

in 2 s, then continue it motion forward with increasing the velocity until

10 m s-1 in 2 s.

9

JPN Pahang Physics Module Form 4

Chapter 2 : Force and Motion

Idea of inertia

A pillion rider is hurled backwards when the motorcycle starts to move.

1. ………………………………………………………………………………………………

Bus passengers are thrust forward when the bus stop immediately.

2. ………………………………………………………………………………………………

Large vehicle are made to move or stopped with greater difficulty.

3. ………………………………………………………………………………………………

Hand-on activity 2.5 in page 18 of the practical book to gain an idea of inertia

4. Meaning of inertia :

The inertia of an object is the tendency of the object to remain at rest or, if moving, to

…………..………………………………………………………………………………….

continue its uniform motion in a straight line

………………………………………………………………………………………………

Mass and inertia

1. Refer to figure 2.14 of the text book, the child and an adult are given a push to swing.

An adult

(i) which one of them will be more difficult to be moved ……………………...

An adult

(ii) which one of them will be more difficult to stop? …………………………….

2. The relationship between mass and inertia : ……………………………….

The larger the mass, the larger its inertia.

……………………………………………………………..

have the tendency to remain its situation either at rest or in

3. The larger mass ………………………………………………………………………….

moving.

………………………………………………………………………………………………

Effects of inertia

Application of inertia

1. Positive effect : …………………………………………………………………………

Drying off an umbrella by moving and stopping it quickly.

(i) ………………………………………………………………………………………

Building a floating drilling rig that has a big mass in order to be stable and safe.

(ii) ………………………………………………………………………………………

To tight the loose hammer

(iii) ………………………………………………………………………………………

We should take a precaution to ovoid the effect.

2. Negative effect : ………………………………………………………………………….

During a road accident, passengers are thrust forward when their

(i) ……………………………………………………………………………………...

car is suddenly stopped.

Passengers are hurled backwards when the vehicle starts to move and are hurled forward

……………………………………………………………………………………..

(ii) when it stops immediately.

………………………………………………………………………………………

A person with a heavier/larger body will find it move difficult to stop his movement.

………………………………………………………………………………………

10

JPN Pahang Physics Module Form 4

Chapter 2 : Force and Motion

(iii) ………………………………………………………………………………………

………………………………………………………………………………………

(iv) ………………………………………………………………………………………

Execise 2.3

1. What is inertia? Does 2 kg rock have twice the inertia of 1 kg rock?

Inetia is the tendency of the object to remain at rest or, if moving, to continue its uniform

………………………………………………………………………………………………

motion in a straight line.

………………………………………………………………………………………………

Yes, the inertia increase with the mass increased.

………………………………………………………………………………………………

2.

Figure 2,3

A wooden dowel is fitted in a hole through a wooden block as shown in figure 2.31.

Explain what happen when we

A wooden block move up of a wooden dowel.

………………………………………………………………………………………

A wooden block has inertia to remains at rest.

………………………………………………………………………………………

(b) hit the end of the dowel on the floor.

The wooden block move downward of a wooden dowel.

………………………………………………………………………………………

A wooden block has inertia to continue it motion.

……………………………………………………………………………………

Idea of momentum

it has momentum.

1. When an object ic moving, …...…………………………………………………………

defends on its mass and velocity.

2. The amount of momentum ...……………………………………………………………

as the product of its mass and its velocity, that is

3. Momentum is defined…………………………………………………………………….

Momentum, p = m x v Unit= kg m s-1

11

JPN Pahang Physics Module Form 4

Chapter 2 : Force and Motion

………………………………………………………………………………………………

Conservation of momentum

mg

mb vb vg = 0

Momentum = mbvb

(mb + mg)

Starting position before vb&g

she catches the ball

(mb+mg)vb&g

vb vg

mb

Momentum = mbvb mg

Starting position

before she throws Momentum = -

the ball mgvg

Throwing a massive ball

In the absence of an external force, the total momentum of a system remains

………………………………………………………………………………………………………

unchanged.

………………………………………………………………………………………………………

The colliding objects move separately after collision.

1. Elastic collision .…………………………………………………………………………..

u1

m1 u2 v2

m2 m1

m2

12

Momentum : m1u1 + m2u2 = m1v1 + m2v2

JPN Pahang Physics Module Form 4

Chapter 2 : Force and Motion

2. Inelastic collision :………………………………………………………………………...

u1

v

m1 u2 = 0

m2

m1 + m2

Momentum : m1u1 + m2u2 = (m1 + m2) v

The objects involved are in contact with each other before explosion and are

3. explosion : …….....…………………………………………………………………...

separated after the explosion.

(m1 + m2), u = 0 v1 v2

m2

Before

Momentum : (mexplosion after explosion

1 + m2)u = m1 vv - m2 v2

Example 1 :

Car A Car B

Car A of mass 100 kg traveling at 30 m s-1 collides with Car B of mass 90 kg traveling at

20 m s-1 in front of it. Car A and B move separately after collision. If Car A is still moving at

25 m s-1 after

Givencollision,

: m = 100determine

kg the, velocity

u = 30 m ofsCar

-1

, v B=after

25 mcollision.

s-1, m = 90 kg,

A A A B

-1

uB = 20 m s , vB = ?

Solution :

mAuA + mBuB = mAvA + mBvB

(100)(30) + (90)(20) = (100)(25) + (90)(vB)

vB = 25.56 m s-1

Example 2 :

Car A of mass 100 kg traveling at 30 m s-1 collides with Car B of mass 90 kg traveling at

20 m s-1 in front of it. Car A is pulled by Car B after collision. Determine the common velocity of

Car A and B after collision.

Given : mA = 100 kg , uA = 30 m s-1, mB = 90 kg, uB = 20 m s-1 , v(A+B) = ?

(100)(30) + (90)(20) = (100 + 90) v (B+A)

v(A + B) = 25.26 m s-1

JPN Pahang Physics Module Form 4

Chapter 2 : Force and Motion

Solution :

Example 3 :

A bullet of mass 2 g is shot from a gun of mass 1 kg with a velocity of 150 m s-1 . Calculate the

velocity of the recoil of the gun after firing.

Solution : Given ; mb = 2 g = 0.002 kg, mg = 1 kg, u(g+b) = 0 , vb = 150 m s-1

vg = ?

0 = mgvg – mb vb,

0 = (1)(vg) – (0.002)(150), vg = 0.3 m s-1

Exercise 2.4

1. An arrow of mass 150 g is shot into a wooden block of mass 450 g lying at rest on a

smooth surface. At the moment of impact, the arrow is travelling horizontally at 15 ms-1.

Calculate the common velocity after the impact.

ma = 150 g mwb = 450 g m (a+wb) = 600 g

va = 15 m s-1 vwb = 0 v(a+ wb) = ?

Force can make an object;

1. Move 2. Stop the moving

mava + mwbvwb = m(a+wb)v(a+wb) , (0.15 x 15) + (0.450 x 0) = 0.6 v(a+ wb)

3. Change the shape of the object v4. =Hold

3.75the

m sobject

-1 at rest

(a+ wb)

2. A riffle of mass 5.0 kg fires a bullet of mass 50 g with a velocity of 80 m s-1 .Calculate the

recoil velocity. Explain why the recoil velocity of a riflle is much less than the velocity of

the bullet.

mr = 5.0 kg mb = 50 g

vr = ? vb = 80 m s-1

mr vr = mb vb , ( 5.0 ) vr = ( 0.05)(80)

vr = 0.8 m s-1

Idea of force

1. What will happen when force act to an object?

14

JPN Pahang Physics Module Form 4

Chapter 2 : Force and Motion

………………………………………………………………………………………………

………………………………………………………………………………………………

………………………………………………………………………………………………

Idea of balanced forces

1. An object is said to be in balance when it is:

1. In a stationary state

………………………………………………………………………………………………

2. Moving at uniform velocity

………………………………………………………………………………………………

2. Stationary object

Normal reaction, N

……………………………… explanation :

Magnitude R = W but R acts in an opposite

Stationary object ………………………………………………

direction to the weight.

………………………………………………

( object is in equilibrium )

……….……………………………………..

weight, w = mg

…………………………………………

3. An object moving with uniform velocity

Normal reaction, N

…………………………….. explanation :

Frictional force Force, F Force , F = Friction

…..……………. …………… ……………………………………………..

Resultant = F – Friction

…………………………………………….. = 0 (object is in equilibrium)

weight, w = mg Examples :

……………………………………………..

……………………………… 1.A car move at constant velocity.

………..…………………………………….

2.A plane flying at constant velocity.

……………………………………………..

……………………………………………..

when it is moving in acceleration.

Idea of unbalancedResultant

forces force

1. A body is said to be in unbalanced..……………………………………………………

The ball move in acceleration

2. ……………………….. Explanation;

because the forces act are not balanced.

F > F’

………………………………………………

F F’ So, the ball move in F direction

………………………………………………

………………………………………………

……… …….. ………………………………………………

Relationship between forces, mass and acceleration (F = ma)

15

JPN Pahang Physics Module Form 4

Chapter 2 : Force and Motion

Aim : To investigate the relationship between acceleration and force applied on a constant

mass.

Experiment 2.3 page 31

Aim: To investigate the relationship between mass and acceleration of an object under

constant force.

it is found that; a ∝ F when m is constant and a ∝ 1/m when F is constant.

……………………………………………………………………………………………

Therefore, a ∝ F/m

……………………………………………………………………………………………

From a ∝ F/m,

……

F ∝ ma

……………………………………………………………………………………………

Therefore, F = kma … k =constant

……………………………………………………………………………………………

……

………………………………………………………………………………………………

2. 1 newton (F = 1 N) is defined as the force required to produce an acceleration of 1 m s-2

(a=1 m s-2) when its acting on an object of mass 1 kg ( m = 1 kg)

F = ma

So, …………………………………………………………………………………………

3. Example 1 : Calculate F, when a = 3 m s-2 dan m = 1000 kg

F = ma

F = (1000)(3)

F = 3000 N

Example 2 :

m = 25 kg

F = 200 N

F = ma

200 = 25 a

a = 8.0 ms-2

m = 30 kg , F = 50 N , Ff = 20 N , a = ?

Exercise 2.5

F – Ff = ma , 50 – 20 = 30 a

1. A trolley of mass 30 kg is pulled along the ground by horizontal force of 50 N. The

a = 1.0 m s2

opposing frictional force is 20 N. Calculate the acceleration of the trolley.

F = ma, v2 = u2 + 2as

= 1000 x 5.0 16 0 = 202 + 2a(40)

= 5000.0 N a = 5.0 m s2

JPN Pahang Physics Module Form 4

Chapter 2 : Force and Motion

2. A 1000 kg car is travelling at 72 km h-1 when the brakes are applied. It comes to a stop in

a distance of 40 m. What is the average braking force of the car?

Impulse and impulsive force

The change of momentum

1. Impulse is ……………………………………………………………………………….

The large force that acts over a short period of time during collision

2. Impulsive force is ………………………………………………………………………

and explosion.

………………………………………………………………………………………………

3. Formula of impulse and impulsive force:

Refer, F = ma It is known that a= (v–u)/t

Therefore, F = m( v – u)

t

So, Ft = mv – mu , Unit = N s

Ft is defined as impulse, which is the change in momentum.

F = mv – mu ,

t

Ft = mv – mu Unit : newton (N)

F is defined as impulsive force which is the rate of change of momentum over the

short period of time

Example 1; v u

5(10) - (- 5(10))

wall 100 = 100 N

If ; u = 10=m s-1100

, vNs

= - 10 m s-1 , m = 5 kg and t = 1 s 1

Example 2; v u

5(10) - (- 5(10))

Wall with a soft surface 100 = 50 N

= 100 Ns 2

Impulsive force , F ∝ 1 / t 17

JPN Pahang Physics Module Form 4

Chapter 2 : Force and Motion

Impulse, Ft = and impulsive force, F =

………………………………………………………………………………………………

………………………………………………………………………………………………

Exercise 2.6

1. A force of 20 N is applied for 0.8 s when a football player throws a ball from the sideline.

What is the impulse given to the ball?

Fimpulse = Ft

= 20 x 0.8

= 16.0 Ns

2. A stuntman in a movie jumps from a tall building an falls toward the ground. A large

canvas bag filled with air used to break his fall. How is the impulsive force reduced?

2. The impulsive force will decrease.

18

JPN Pahang Physics Module Form 4

Chapter 2 : Force and Motion

pillars

Windscreen

Crumple zones

Anti-lock brake

system (ABS)

Air bags

Padded dashboard

produced during an impact is thereby reduced

Rubber bumper Absorb impact in minor accidents, thus prevents damage to the car.

Acts as a cushion for the head and body in an accident and thus

Air bag

prevents injuries to the driver and passengers.

Prevents the passengers from being thrown out of the car. Slows

Safety seat belt down the forward movement of the passengers when the car stops

abruptly.

- The absorber made by the elastic material

Prevents the collapse

: To absorb the effectofofthe front (hentaman)

impact and back ofduring

the caritinto the

moving

Side bar- in doors

Made passenger

by the soft material compartment. Also gives good protection from a side-on

of bumper

collision.

: To increase the time during collision, then the impulsive

force will be decreased.

- The passenger’s space made by the strength materials.

Exercise 2.7 : To decrease the risk trap to the passenger during accident.

1. - Keep

By anphysics

using air bagconcepts,

at the in front

explainof dash board and infront

the midifications to the of

buspassengers

that help to improve that

: Acts as a cushion for

safety of passengers and will be more comfortable. the head and body in an accident and

thus prevents injuries to the driver and passengers.

- Shatter-proof windscreen

: Prevents the windscreen from shattering.

19

JPN Pahang Physics Module Form 4

Chapter 2 : Force and Motion

the object is said to be free

falling

is known as acceleration due to gravity.

.

the gravitational field of the earth.

is on the force of gravity.

as the gravitational force acting on a 1 kg mass.

m m : mass of an object

g = 9.8 N kg-1

that an object of mass 1 kg will experience a gravitational force of 9.8 N.

Carry out hands-on activity 2.8 on page 35 of the practical book.

Acceleration due to gravity.

It pulled by the force of gravity.

1. An object will fall to the surface of the earth because………………………………...

Solution : F = mg = (60) as (9.8)

earth’s gravitational force.

2. The force of gravity also known ………………………………………………………...

= 588.0 N

3. When an object falls under the force of gravity only, ………………………………...

………………………………………………………………………………………………

4. The acceleration of objects falling freely ………………………………………………

5. The magnitude of the acceleration due to gravity depends ………………………...

Given : m = 600 kg. F = 4800 N, g = ?

………………………………………………………………………………………………

g = F = 4800 . = 8 N kg-1

Gravitational field

m 600

1. The region around the earth is ………………………………………………………….

2. The object in gravitational field …………………………………………………………

3. The gravitational field strength is defined ……………………………………………..

4. The gravitational field strength, g can be calculate as;

………………………………………………………………………………..

20

JPN Pahang Physics Module Form 4

Chapter 2 : Force and Motion

6. This means

……………………………………………………………………………………………..

7. Example 1. Can you estimate the gravitational force act to your body?

mass = 60 kg, g = 9.8 N kg-1, F = ?

Example 2,

A satellite of mass 600 kg in orbit experiences a gravitational force of 4800 N. Calculate

the gravitational field strength.

Example 3,

A stone is released from rest and falls into a well. After 1.2 s, it hits the bottom of the

well.

(a) What is the velocity of the stone when it hits the bottom?

(b) Calculate the depth of the well.

Given : u = 0 ms-1, t = 1.2 s, a = g = 9.8 ms-2

(a) v = ? v = u + at

= 0 + (9.8)(1.2)

= 11.76 ms-1

(b) Depth = s = ? s = ut + ½ at2

= (0)(1.2) + ½ (9.8)(1.2)2

= 7.1 m

Weight

as the gravitational force acting on the object.

1. The weight of an object is defined ……………………………………………………..

2. For an object of mass m, the weight can be calculate as :

weight, W = mg

where, g = acceleration due to gravity.

Example : The mass of a helicopter is 600 kg. What is the weight of the helicopter

when it land on the peak of a mountain where the gravitational field is

9.78 N kg-1? W = mg

= 6000 x 9.78

= 58 680 N

21

JPN Pahang Physics Module Form 4

Chapter 2 : Force and Motion

Exercise 2.8

1. Sketch the following graphs for an object that falling freely.

(a) Displacement-time graph,

(b) Velocity-time graph

(c) Acceleration-time graph

(a) s / m (b) v / m s-1 (c) a / m s2

2. The following data was obtained from an experiment to measure the acceleration due to

gravity.

Mass of steel bob = 200 g, distance covered = 3.0 m, time of fall = 0.79 s.

Calculate the acceleration due to gravity of steel bob.

Give the explanation why your answer different with the constant of gravitational

acceleration, g = 9.8 m s-2.

mIt is= in a stationary

200 g s=state

3.0 m t = 0.79 s u=0 g=?

= 0.2 kg

It is moving with uniform velocity

Normal

s = ut + ½ greaction,

t2 R Normal reaction, R

3.0 = 0 (0.7) + ½ g (0.792)

g = 9.6 m s-2

less thanW=mg

the constant because of theweight,

air frictional

W=mgforce.

Magnitude of R = W Magnitude of R = mg cos θ

An object

R andisWinacts

equilibrium

in oppositewhen :

direction. And acts in opposite direction.

1. So,………………………………………………………………………………………………

Resultant force = W – R = 0 So,Resultant force = mg cos θ – R = 0

( object in equilibrium ) ( object in equilibrium )

2. ………………………………………………………………………………………………

normal reaction, R

Weight, W

Resultant force = F – Frictional force

=0 22 in equilibrium)

(object

JPN Pahang Physics Module Form 4

Chapter 2 : Force and Motion

stationary object

Addition of Force

a resultant force is a single force the

1. Addition of force is defined as ...……………………………………………………..

represents in magnitude and direction two or more forces acting on an object

………………………………………………………………………………………………

F resultant = the total of forces (including the directions of the forces)

………………………………………………………………………………………………

Examples : the forces are acting in one direction

F1 = 10 N

F2 = 5 N

Resultant force, F = F1 + F2 = 10 + 5 = 15 N

F1 = 10 N

F2 = 5 N

Resultant force, F = F1 - F2 = 10 - 5 = 5 N

F2 = 5 N

23

JPN Pahang Physics Module Form 4

Chapter 2 : Force and Motion

500 F

F1 = 10 N

Parallelogram method:

1. Draw to scale.

2. Draw the line parallel with F1 to the edge of F2, and the line parallel with F2 to the

edge of F1

3. Connect the diagonal of the parallelogram starting from the initial point.

4. Measure the length of the diagonal from the initial point as the value of the

resultant force.

F2

F

F1

Triangle method

Solution : Resultant force, F = 6000 – 5300

1. Draw to scale. =700 N

2. Displace one of the forces to theequilibrium

They mere not in edge of another force.

3. Complete the triangle and measure the resultant force from the initial

point.

Example 1: During Sport Day two teams in tug of war competition pull with forces of

6000 N and 5300 N respectively. What is the value of the resultant force?

Are the two team in equilibrium?

= 525 N

24

JPN Pahang Physics Module Form 4

Chapter 2 : Force and Motion

pulls with a force of 200 N while workmen while workmen B pulls with a

force of 300 N. The ropes usedFmake

x an angle 250 with each other. Draw a

Cos θ = F , therefore Fx = F cos θ

parallelogram and label the resultant force using scale of 1 cm : 50 N.

Fy

Sin θ of

Determine the magnitude = resultant force. Fy = F sin θ

, therefore

F

250

10.5 cm Fx = F cos θ = 50 cos 60

Fx = 50 (0.5)

= 25 N

Fy = 50 (0.8660)

= 43.3 N

Resolution of a force

reverse process of finding the resultant force

1. Resolution of a force is …………………………………………………………………

Fy F is the resultant force of Fx and Fy

Therefore, F can be resolved

F = mg sin 400 + 200

into Fx and Fy

= 800(0.6427) + 200

F

= 514.2 + 200

Vertical

= 714.2 N

Component

θ

Fx horizontal component

mg = 800 N

Example : The figure below shows Ali mopping the floor with a force 50 N

at an angle of 600 to the floor.

F = 50 N

600

25

JPN Pahang Physics Module Form 4

Chapter 2 : Force and Motion

F=?

200 N

400

400

Problem solving

the resultant force is equal to zero.

1. When a system is in equilibrium, ……………………………………………………….

2. If all forces acting at one point are resolved into horizontal and vertical

the sum of each component is equal to zero.

components, ……………………………………………………………………………

3. Example 1; Show on a figure;

a) the direction of tension force, T of string

b) the resultant force act to lamp

700 700 c) in

calculate the magnitude of tension force, T

Fmaximum when both of forces act same direction;

a)T b) T’ T (c ) T’ = 2T sin 700

Fmaximum = 18 + 6 18 N 24 N

Therefore, mlampg = 2T sin 700

= 24 N 6N

mlamp g

mlamp = 1.5 T =

Fminimum when the forces actkgin opposite direction ; 2sin70 0

Fminimum = 18 – 6Wlamp = 14.7 N 18 N 12 N

= 12 N 6 N= 1.5(9.8) = 7.82 N

2sin70 0

Exercise 2.9

1. Two force with magnitude 18 N and 6 N act along a straight line. With the aid of

diagrams, determine the maximun possible value and the minimum possible value of the

resultant force.

F = Resultant of Force

F2 = 2202 + 2002

F = 297.32 N

F

26

JPN Pahang Physics Module Form 4

Chapter 2 : Force and Motion

2. A football is kicked simultaneously by two players with force 220 N and 200 N

respectively, as shown in Figure 2.9. Calculate the magnitude of the resultant force.

220 N

900

200 N

Work

When a force that acts on an object moves the object through a

1. Work is done, ……………………………………………………………………………..

distance in the direction of the force.

………………………………………………………………………………………………

of a force and the distance traveled in the direction of

2. WORK is the product.…………………………………………………………………….

the force.

………………………………………………………………………………………………

WORK = FORCE X DISPLACEMENT

3. The formulae of work;

W =Fxs

W : work in Joule/J

F : force in Newton/N

s : displacement in meter/m

4. Example 1;

Force, F

W = Fs s

If, F = 40 N and s = 2 m

Hence, W = 40 x 2

= 80 J

Example 2;

27

JPN Pahang Physics Module Form 4

Chapter 2 : Force and Motion

80 N

600

W = Fs s= 5m

= 80 (0.5) (5)

= 200 J

Example 3;

T T

F = 30 N

h = 1.5 m

W=Fs=Fh

= 30 (1.5)

= 45.0 J

Example 4;

W=Fs

= 600 x 0.8

F = 600 N = 480 J

S = 0.8 m

Energy

It is the potential to do work.

1. Energy is .................................................................................................................

created nor be destroyed.

potential energy, kinetic energy, electrical

28

energy, sound energy, nuclear energy and chemical energy.

JPN Pahang Physics Module Form 4

Chapter 2 : Force and Motion

3. Exist in various forms such as …………………...……………………………………

………………………………………………………………………………………………

4. Example of the energy transformation;

When we are running up a staircase the work done consists of energy change from

………………………………………………………………………………………………

Chemical Energy à Kinetic Energy à Potential Energy

………………………………………………………………………………………………

The energy quantity consumed is equal to the work done.

5. ………………………………………………………………………………………………

Example

If 100 J of: work is done, it means 100 J of energy is consumed.

………………………………………………………………………………………………

Force, F

1. Kinetic energy is …………………………………………………………………………

2. Refer to the figure above,

Work = Fs

Through, v2 = u2 +2as

= mas u=0

and, as = ½ v2

= m ( ½ v2)

The formulae of Kinetic energy, Ek = ½ mv2

3. Example 1; A small car of mass 100 kg is moving along a flat road. The

resultant force on the car is 200 N.

a) What is its kinetic energy of the car after moving through 10 m?

b) What is its velocity after moving through 10 m?

a. Kinetic energy, Ek = Fs

= 200 x 10= 2000 J

b. Velocity, v à ½ mv2 = 2000

v = 6.32 m s-1

29

JPN Pahang Physics Module Form 4

Chapter 2 : Force and Motion

h = 1.5 m

created or destroyed but can be changed from one form to

another form. energy of an object due to its position.

1. Gravitational potential energy is………………………………………………………...

(possessed by an object due to its position in a gravitational field)

W = Fs Maximum

= mg h Potential

………………………………………………………………………………………………2. where,energy

F = mg

Refer to the figure above; So, Gravitational energy, Ep = mgh

and potential energy W = 10 (10) 1.5 and kinetic energy

3.Increase

Example; If m = 10 kg increase

= 1500 J

Therefore Work done = 1500J

Principle of conservation of energy And, Ep = 1500 J

Maximum kinetic energy

Carry out hands-on activity 2.10 on page 38 of the practical book.

To show the principle

Given : hof= conservation

20 m, u = 0 ,ofg energy.

= 9.8 ms-2 , v = ?

1. Energy cannot be ………………………………………………………………………

Ep = Ek

……………………………………………………………………………………………

mgh = ½ mv2

2. Example : a thrown ball upwards

m(9.8)(20) will

= ½mv 2 achieve a maximum height before changing its

v2 = 392, v = 19.8 m s-1

workdone W

Therefore, power, P = , so, P=

timetaken t

Where, P : power in watt/W

W : work in joule/J

t : time to do work in seconds/s

3. Example in calculation : A coconut falls from a tree from a height of 20 m. What is the

velocity of coconut just before hitting the earth?

30

JPN Pahang Physics Module Form 4

Chapter 2 : Force and Motion

Power

1. Power is …………………………………………………………………………………

2. A weightlifter lifts 180 kg of weights from the floor to a height of 2 m above his head in a

time of 0.8 s. What is the power generated by the weightlifter during this time?-2

g = 9.8 ms-2) Solution : Given : m = 180 kg, h = 2 m, t = 0.8 s and g = 9.8 ms . P = ?

W mgh

P= =

t t

180 × 9.8 × 2

= = 4 410 W

Efficiency 0.8

as the percentage of the energy input that is transformed into useful energy.

1. Defined……..…………………………………………………………………………….

2. Formulae of efficiency :

Useful energy output

Efficiency = ×100 %

Energy input

Energy transformation

Solution : Given : m = 0.12 kg, s= 0.4 m, t = 5 s, Einput = 0.8 J

4. Example;(a)

AnEelectric

output = ?motor in a toy crane can lift a 0.12 kg weight through a height of

0.4 m in 5 s. During this time, the batteries supply 0.8 J of energy to the motor. Calculate

(a) The usefulEoutput = F xofs the motor.

of output

(b) The efficiency of=the(0.12 x 10) x 0.4

motor

= 0.48 J

(b) Efficiency = ?

E

output

Efficiency = E x 100 %

input

0.48

= x 100% = 60%

0.80

31

JPN Pahang Physics Module Form 4

Chapter 2 : Force and Motion

Carry out hands-on activity 2.11 on page 39 of the practical book to measure the power.

Exercise 2.10

1. What is the work done by a man when he pushes a box with a force of 90 N through a

distance of 10 m? State the amount of energy transferred from the man to the force.

W=Fs The energy transferred to the force = 900 J

= 90 x 10

= 900 J

2. A sales assistant at a shop transfers 50 tins of milk powder from the floor to the top shelf.

Each tin has a mass of 3.0 kg and the height of thee top shelf is 1.5 m.

m = 3.0 x 50 = 150 kg h = 1.5 m

= 2205 J

(b) What is his power if he completes this work in 250 s?

W

P=

t

2205

= = 8.82 w

250

32

JPN Pahang Physics Module Form 4

Chapter 2 : Force and Motion

OF DEVICES

1. During the process of transformation the input energy to the useful output energy,

some of energy transformed into unwanted forms of energy.

……………………………………………………………………………………..

The efficiency of energy converters is always less than 100%.

2. .……………………………………………………………………………………………..

The unwanted energy produced in the device goes to waste.

3. ………………………………………………………………………………………………

Example of wasting the energy;

Kinetic energy

………..…………………

Input enegy output

from the petrol energy

Energy loss due to Energy loss Energy loss Energy loss due to friction at

…………………… ……………. ……………… …………………….

friction in as heat as sound other parts in the

..………………….. …………….. ………………….. …………………….

moving parts engine

..………………….. ……………. …………………. …………………….

4. The world we are living in face acute shortage of energy.

5. It is very important that a device makes

the best possible use of the input energy.

…………………………………………………………………

Ways of increasing the efficiency of devices

Engine must be designed with the capability to produce greater amount of

1. Heat engines ……………………..………………………………………………………

mechanical work.

………………………………………………………………………………………………

2. Electrical devices. ...……………………………………………………………………...

Light Fittings

……………………………………………………………………………………………

- replace filament light bulb with fluorescent lamps which have higher efficiency.

……………………………………………………………………………………………

- use a lamp with a reflector so that the illumination can be directed to specific areas

……

of the user.

………………………………………………………………………………………………

Air-conditioners.

………………………………………………………………………………………………

- choose a model with a high efficiency.

………………………………………………………………………………………………

- accommodate the power of air-conditioner and the size of the room

………………………………………………………………………………………………

- Ensure that the room totally close so that the temperature in the room can be

………………………………………………………………………………………………

maintained.

………………………………………………………………………………………………

………………………………………………………………………………………………

33

JPN Pahang Physics Module Form 4

Chapter 2 : Force and Motion

Refrigerators

………………………………………………………………………………………………

- choose the capacity according to the size of the family.

………………………………………………………………………………………………

- installed away from source of heat and direct sunlight.

………………………………………………………………………………………………

- the door must always be shut tight.

………………………………………………………………………………………………

- more economical use a large capacity refrigerator.

………………………………………………………………………………………………

- use manual defrost consumption.

………………………………………………………………………………………………

Washing machines

………………………………………………………………………………………………

- use a front loading as such more economical on water and electricity

………………………………………………………………………………………………

- front loading use less detergent as compared to a top loading machine.

………………………………………………………………………………………………

when they are in good operating

1. The electrical devices increase the efficiency………………………………….……

condition.will increase the life span of device.

2. Proper management ….....………………………………………………………………

Example : -the filter in an air-conditioner and fins of the cooling coil of a refrigerator

3. …………..………………………………………………………………………………

must be periodically cleaned.

………………………………………………………………………………………………

2.12 UNDERSTANDING ELASTICITY

Carry out Hands-on activity 2.12 page 40 of the practical book.

the property of an object that enables it to return its original shape and

1. Elasticity is ……………………………………………………………………………...

dimensions after an applied external force is removed.

………………………………………………………………………………………………

The property of elasticity is caused by the existence of forces of

2. Forces between atoms …………………………………………………………………..

repulsion and attraction between molecules in the solid material.

………………………………………………………………………………………………

3. Forces between atoms in equilibrium condition

Force of attraction

Explanation :

1. The atoms are separated by a distance called the equilibrium distance and vibrate at

………………………………………………………………………………………………

it position.

………………………………………………………………………………………………

2. Force of repulsion = Force of attraction

………………………………………………………………………………………………

4. Forces between atoms in compression

compressive force

compressive force

34

JPN Pahang Physics Module Form 4

Chapter 2 : Force and Motion

Explanation ;

1. Force of repulsion takes effect.

………………………………………………………………………………………………

2. When the compressive force is removed, force of repulsion between the atoms

………………………………………………………………………………………………

pushes

………………………………………………………………………………………………

the atom back to their equilibrium positions.

5. Forces between atoms in tension

force of attraction

Explanation ;

1. Force of attraction takes effect.

………………………………………………………………………………………………

2. When the compressive force is removed, force of repulsion between the

………………………………………………………………………………………………

atoms pushes the atom back to their equilibrium positions.

………………………………………………………………………………………………

Carry out Experiment 2.4 on page 41 of the practical book

To investigate the relationship between force and extension of a spring

Hooke’s Law

that the extension of a spring is directly proportional to the applied force

1. Hooke’s Law states ………………………………………………………………………

provided that the elastic limit is not exceeded.

………………………………………………………………………………………………

as the maximum force that can be applied to

2. Elastic limit of a spring is defined……………………………………………………….

spring such that the spring will return to its original length when the force released.

………………………………………………………………………………………………

when the length of the

3. The spring is said to have a permanent extension,...…………………………………

spring longer than the original length even though the force acts was released and the

………………………………………………………………………………………………

elastic limit is exceeded.

……………………………………………………………………………………………… When the spring obey Hooke’s Law.

4. The

Theelastic limit is not

mathematical exceeded,…………………………………………….…………

expression for Hooke’s Law is :

………………………………………………………………………………………………

F ∝x

………………………………………………………………………………………………

F = kx, k = Force constant of the spring

Force constant, k = F with unit N m-1, N cm-1 or N mm-1

x

5. Graf F against x

F/ N

P

Q

E

35

0 R x (cm)

JPN Pahang Physics Module Form 4

Chapter 2 : Force and Motion

F = kx

Spring obeying

Hooke’s Law Spring not obeying Hooke’s law

(exceeded the elastic limit)

x

F/N F

k=

0.8 x

= 0 .8

8

= 0.01 N cm-1

0 8 x/cm

Example 1; A spring has an original length of 15 cm. With a load of mass 200 g

attached, the length of the spring is extend to 20 cm.

a. Calculate the spring constant.

b. What is the length of the spring when the load is in increased

by 150 g? [assume that g = 10 N kg-1]

Given : lo = 15 cm, m = 200 g , F = 2.0 N, l = 20 cm x = 5 cm

2.0

a. k = ?, k = Fx = = 0.4Ncm−1

5

b. l = ? , when m = 150 g, F = 1.5 N From a, k = 4.0 N cm-1

F 1.5

x= = = 3.75 cm

k 0.4

l = 15 + 3.75 = 18.75 cm

Example 2; The graph shows the relationship between the

Graph F against x of stretching force, F and the spring extension, x.

F (N) spring P and spring Q (a) Calculate the spring constant of P and Q.

(b) Using the graph, determine the

8

stretching force acts to spring P and

P

spring Q, when their extension are 0.5 cm

7

Solution

6 a. Spring constant, k = gradient of graph

5 Q 6

kP = =15.79 N cm −1

4 0.38

3

3 kQ = = 6.0 N cm−1

0.5

2

1

36b. When x = 0.5, FP = 8.0 N

( extrapolation of graph P)

FQ = 3.0 N

0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 x (cm)

JPN Pahang Physics Module Form 4

Chapter 2 : Force and Motion

the energy stored in a spring when it is extended or compressed

1. Elastic potential energy ………………………………………………………………..

spring with the original length

F compression

x spring compressed x

F x = compression x

x F spring extended

x = extension F, extension

Other situation where the spring extended

and compressed

Relationship between work and elastic potential energy

F/N

Graph F against x

Area under the graph = work done

= ½ Fx

So, Elastic potential energy = ½ Fx

F

x

x / cm

Example ;

5 kg x = 15 – 8

= 7 cm

= 0.07 m

Force act to the spring,

15 cm F = 5 x 10 = 50 N

8 cm

Elastic potential energy = ½ Fx

= ½ 50 (0.07) = 1.75 J

Hands-on activity 2.13 on page 42 the practical book to investigate the factors that affect

elasticity.

37

JPN Pahang Physics Module Form 4

Chapter 2 : Force and Motion

Diameter of spring wire same different same same

Diameter of spring same same different same

Length of spring same Same same different

Summarise the four factors that affect elasticity

Factor Change in factor Effect on elasticity

Shorter spring Less elastic

Length

Longer spring More elastic

Smaller diameter Less elastic

Diameter of spring

Larger diameter More elastic

Smaller diameter More elastic

Diameter of spring wire

Larger diameter Less elastic

Type of material the elasticity changes with the type of materials

Exercise 2.12

1. A 6 N force on a spring produces an extension of 2 cm. What is the extension when the

force is increased to 18 N? State any assumption you made in calculating your answer.

To solve the problem, determine the spring constant to use the formula F = k x

F = 6 N , x = 2 cm

F = kx When, F = 18 N, x = ?

6 = k (2) 18 = 3 x

-1

k = 3 N cm x = 6 cm

(a) what is the force constant of the spring?

F = 20 N, x = 9 – 5 = 4 cm, k = ? F = kx

20 = k (4)

k = 5 N cm-1

E = ½ Fx

= ½ (20)(4)

= 40 J

Reinforcement Chapter 2

ground, which of the following

38

JPN Pahang Physics Module Form 4

Chapter 2 : Force and Motion

A. Velocity

B. Momentum Velocity / ms-1

C. Acceleration

D. Kinetic energy 4

following quantities remains

constant before and after the 0 2 4 6 Time / s

collision? Calculate the momentum of the

trolley from t = 2s to t = 4s.

A. Total acceleration

B. Total velocity A. 1.5 kg m s-1 P = mv

C. Total momentum B. 3.0 kg m s-1 = 1.5 x 4

D. Total kinetic energy C. 4.0 kg m s-1 = 6.0 kg ms-1

-1

3. Calculate the weight of a stone with D. 6.0 kg m s

mass 60 g on the surface of the E. 7.5 kg m s-1

moon.

(The gravitational acceleration of the

7. This figure shows an aircraft flying

moon is 1/6 that of the Earth.) Lift

in the air.

A. 0.1 N 60 g = 0.06 kg

B. 0.2 N W = 0.06 (1/6)(10)

= 0.1 N Thrust Air friction

C. 0.4 N

D. 0.6 N

E. 0.8 N Weight

The aircraft above accelerates if

4. The momentum of a particle is

dependent on

A. Lift > Weight

B. Thrust > Lift

A. mass and acceleration

B. weight and force C. Lift > Air friction

C. mass and velocity D. Thrust > Air friction

5. Which of the following diagrams 8. m = 0.3 kg

shows a body moving at constant

velocity? 5m

A. 2N 2N

What is the momentum of the stone

B. 12 N 7N just before it hits the ground?

C. 12 N 14 N A. 0.15 kg m s-1

B. 0.3 kg m s-1

D. 20 N 17 N C. 1.5 kg m s-1

D. 3.0 kg m s-1

E. 15.0 kg m s-1

6. The graph below shows the motion

of a trolley with mass 1.5 kg.

Solution

P : v first to calculate the P)

= mv (find

Ep = Ek mgh = ½ mv2

(0.3)(10)(5) = ½ (0.3) v2

39 v = 10 m s-1

P = (0.3)(10)

= 3.0 kg m s-1

JPN Pahang Physics Module Form 4

Chapter 2 : Force and Motion

10 m from the surface of the moon.

Calculate the time needed for the

iron ball to land.

(Gravitational acceleration of the

moon is 1/6 that of the Earth and

9. A big ship will keep moving for some g = 9.8 N kg-2)

distance when its engine is turned off. 2

This situation happens because the ship A 0.6 s s = ut + ½ gt

= (0)t + ½ (9.8/6)t2

has B 1.4 s

C 1.7 s t = 3.5 s

A. great inertia D 3.5 s

B. great acceleration E 12.0 s

C. great momentum

D. great kinetic energy

1.

Method (a)

So, all the

(i) Car A forces given used to move the

(ii)car.

Car B

Diagram 1.1

Diagram 1.1(i) and (ii) show two methods used by the mechanic to move a breakdown

car. A constant force, F = 500 N is used to push and pull the car in method A and B.

(a) (i) FWhich

= Fgivenmethod

- Ffrictionis easier to move the car?

………………………………………………………………………………

= 500 – 200

(ii) State

= 300a reason

N for your answer in (a)(i).

………………………………………………………………………………

F = Fgiven Cos 500 – Ffriction

………………………………………………………………………………

= 500 cos 600 – 200

(b) The frictional force acting between the car and track surface in both methods is

= 50.0 Nthe

200 N. Calculate,

(i) horizontal resultant force in method A.

F=ma

50.0 = 1000 a

(ii) horizontal resultant force in method B.

a = 0.05 m s-2

To move Car B with the same acceleration

40 of Car A, increase the force given to

1000 N

JPN Pahang Physics Module Form 4

Chapter 2 : Force and Motion

(c) Suggest a method to move Car B so that the acceleration produced is equal to that

of method A.

……………………………………………………………………………..………..

………………………………………………………………………………………

2. ceiling

Tin

P

(i)

Q

water

Diagram 2.1

M N

(ii)

R

hand

a) Diagram 2.1(i) shows tin P that is empty and tin Q that is filled with water. A

student find difficult to pushed tin Q. Write the inference about the observation.

The difficulty to move the tin depends to its mass.

………………………………………………………………………………………

b) Diagram 2.1(ii) shows a tin being released from the different positions M and N.

The hand of a student at position R needs greater force to stop the motion of the

tin falling from position M. Explain this observation.

From position M the velocity of tin is more than the velocity compare when it is

………………………………………………………………………………………

from N. Ek increase then the force to stop it will be increased.

………………………………………………………………………………………

c) Based on the observation (i) and (ii), state two factors that affect the magnitude of

the momentum of the object.

mass and velocity

………………………………………………………………………………………

d) If water flows out from a hole at the bottom of the tin Q, how would the inertia of

Tin Q depends on time ?

inertia of tin Q will decrease because the mass of tin decreased.

……………………………………………………………………………………

3. 2 ms-1

41

JPN Pahang Physics Module Form 4

Chapter 2 : Force and Motion

P iron ball ( 2 kg )

S T

3.0 m smooth surface

1.0 m 2.0 m

Q R

Diagram 3 Rough surface

The figure shows a iron ball that is rolled through PQRST. The rough surface of QR has

frictional force of 4 N.

a) Calculate

(i) the kinetic energy of the iron ball at P.

Ek = ½ mv2

= ½ (2)(22) = 4.0 J

Ep = mgh

= (2) (10) (3.0)

= 60.0 J

(iii) the total of energy of the iron ball at P.

E = Ek + Ep

= 4.0 + 60.0

b) = 64.0 J

c) (i) Calculate the total of energy of the iron ball when it reaches at Q ?

64.0 J ( the conservation of energy )

(ii) Calculate the work done against friction along QR.

W = Ff x s

= 4 x 1.0

= 4.0 J

d) Calculate the total kinetic energy of the iron ball at S.

Es = E – Ef Ek at S = Es - Ep at s

= 64.0 – 4.0 = 60.0 – (2)(10)(2.0)

= 60.0 J = 20.0 J

e) Calculate the speed of the ball at position T.

Ek at T = 20.0 J v2 = 20

= ½ m v2 v = 4.5 m s-1

= ½ (2)(v2)

1.

42

JPN Pahang Physics Module Form 4

Chapter 2 : Force and Motion

(i) (ii)

Diagram 1.1

Diagram 1.1(i) shows the condition of a car moving at high velocity when it suddenly

crashes into a wall.

Diagram 1.1(ii) shows a tennis ball hit with racquet by a player.

a) (i) What is the meaning of momentum?

(ii) Based on the observations of Diagram (i) and (ii), compare the

characteristics of car when it crashes into the wall and the tennis ball when

it is hit with a racquet. Hence, relate these characteristics to clarify a

physics concept, and name this concept.

b) Explain why a tennis player uses a taut racquet when playing.

rocket can move upright to the sky. By using appropriate physics concepts,

describe the design of a rocket and the launch techniques that can launch the

rocket upright.

Answer

a) (i) momentum is product of mass and velocity

(ii) - The shape of car changed but the shape of wall remained.

- The shape of ball remained but the shape of the racquet string was

changed. (The racquet string is elastic but the wall is harder)

- The time taken of collision between the ball and racquet string more

than

the time taken when the car hit the wall.

- The impulsive force will decrease when the time of collision increased.

- The concept is the impulsive force.

b) - To decrease the time of collision between the ball and the racquet string.

- Impulsive force will be increased.

- The force act to the ball will be increased.

- The velocity of ball will be increased.

: To decrease air friction

- Made by the high strength and high rigidity of materials

: To decrease the probability to become dented (kemik).

- Made by the low density of material.

43

JPN Pahang Physics Module Form 4

Chapter 2 : Force and Motion

- The structure is fractional engine

: The mass will be decreased and the velocity will increase.

- Made by the high of heat capacity of materials

: It will be high heat resistance.

2.

Properties

Engine thrust Resistance

Brand Reaction time / s Mass / kg

force / N force / N

A 0.3 1.5 10.0 4.0

B 0.5 1.8 12.5 2.4

C 0.2 0.9 6.5 2.2

D 0.6 2.5 16.0 6.5

In a radio-controlled car racing competition, 4 mini-cars branded A, B, C and D took

part. The information of the 4 cars is given in the table above. Details of the above

information are given as below;

Reaction time - Duration between the moment the radio-controlled is switched on and

the moment the car starts moving.

Resistance - Average value of opposing forces includes the friction between

wheels and track, and air resistance.

(a) What is the meaning of acceleration?

(b) Draw a graph of velocity against time that shows a car moving initially with

constant acceleration, then moving with constant velocity and followed by

constant deceleration until it stops.

(c) Explain the suitability of the properties in the above table in constructing a radio-

controlled car racing purpose. Hence, determine which brand of car will win the

50-metre race.

(c) If Car B in the above table is moved up the plane at the angle of 30o to the

horizon,

(i) Show that the car is able to move up the plane.

(ii) Determine the acceleration of the car.

Answer :

44

JPN Pahang Physics Module Form 4

Chapter 2 : Force and Motion

(b) v / ms-1

displacement = area under the graph

t/s

(c) - time reaction mast be short : fast to detect the signal to start its move

- has a small of mass : to decrease the inertia, then easier to start move and to

stop its moving.

- thrust force is high : has more power during its moving / increase the

acceleration

- friction force is low : decrease the lost of force

- the best car is A : because it has short of time reaction, small of mass, high of

thrust force and low friction of force.

(d) (i) EB = (12.5 – 2.4 ) (50) = 505.0 J

0

50 m0 50Sin30 E (suitable to move up) = 1.8 (10)

(50Sin300) 30

= 450 .0 J

EB> E ( car B can move up the plane)

(ii) F = ma , 12.5 – 2.4 = 1.8 a, a = 5.61 ms-1

45

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