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# JPN Pahang Physics Module Form 4

## 2. FORCE AND MOTION

2.1 ANALYSING LINEAR MOTION
Distance and displacement
1. Types of physical quantity:
has only a magnitude
(i) Scalar quantity: ………………………………………………………………….
has both magnitude and direction
(ii) Vector quantity: …………………………………………………………………
2. The difference between distance and displacement:
length of the path taken
(i) Distance: …………………………………………………………………………
distance of an object from a point in a certain direction
(ii) Displacement: ……………………………………………………………………
3. Distance always longer than displacement.
4. Example: The following diagram shows the location of Johor Bahru and Desaru.
You can travel by car using existing road via Kota Tinggi, or travel by a
small plane along straight path.
Calculate how far it is from Johor Bahru to Desaru if you traveled by:
a. The car
b. The plane
Kota Tinggi

41 km 53 km

## Solution: Johor Bahru

60 km Desaru
a. by car = 41 + 53 The path traveled by the plane is shorter than travelled by the
= 94 km car.
So, Distance = 94 km
b. by plane = 60 km Displacement = 60 km
Hands-on Activity 2.2 pg 10 of the practical book.
Idea of distance and displacement, speed and velocity.
Speed and velocity

## the distance traveled per unit time or rate of change of distance

1. Speed is ..…………………………………………………………………………………
the speed in a given direction or rate of change of displacement
2. Velocity is: ..……………………………………………………………………………...
total distance traveled, s (m) , v = s m s-1
3. Average of speed: ………………………………………………………………………
time taken, t (s) t
displacement, s (m) , v = s ms-1
4. Average of velocity: ……………………………………………………………………...
Time taken, t (s) t

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JPN Pahang Physics Module Form 4
Chapter 2 : Force and Motion

5. Example:
An aeroplane flies from A to B, which is located 300 km east of A. Upon reaching B, the
aeroplane then flies to C, which is located 400 km north. The total time of flight is 4
hours. Calculate
i. The speed of the aeroplane
ii. The velocity of the aeroplane

## Solution: i. Speed = Distance

C Time
= 300 + 400
400 km 4
= 175 km h-1

A 300 km B
ii. velocity = displacement
C time
(Determine the displacement denoted by
AC and its direction)
400 km
= . 500 .

A B 4
= 125 km h-1 (in the direction of 0530)
300 km

## Acceleration and deceleration

1. Study the phenomenon below;

## 0 m s-1 20 m s-1 40 m s-1

The velocity of the car increases.
Observation: ………………………………………………………………………………
the rate of change of velocity
2. Acceleration is, ……………………………………………………………………….
Final velocity – initial velocity Or, a = v – u
Then, a = Time of change t
3. Example of acceleration;
t=2s t=2s
A B C

## 0 m s-1 20 m s-1 40 m s-1

2
20 – 0
2
= 10 m s-2
JPN Pahang Physics Module Form 4
Chapter 2 : Force and Motion

## Calculate the acceleration of car;

i) from A to B aAB = 20 – 0 = 10 m s-2
2

## ii) From B to C aBC = 40 – 20 = 10 m s-2

2
when the velocity of an object decreases, In calculations, a will
4. Deceleration happens ...…………………………………………………………………
be negative
………………………………………………………………………………………………
5. Example of deceleration;
A lorry is moving at 30 m s-1, when suddenly the driver steps on the brakes and it stop 5
seconds later. Calculate the deceleration of lorry.
Answer : v = 0 m s-1, u = 30 m s-1, t = 5 s

Then , a = 0 – 30 = -6 m s-2
5
Analysing of motion
1. Linear motion can be studied in the laboratory using a ticker timer and a ticker tape.
Refer text book photo picture 2.4 page 26.
(i) Determination of time:
. . . . . . . .
the frequency of the ticker timer = 50 Hz ( 50 ticks in 1 second)
so, 1 tick = 1 second = 0.02 seconds
50

(ii) Determination of displacement as the length of ticker tape over a period of time.

.
x
. . . . . . .
xy = displacement over time t
y t = 7 ticks
= 0.14 s

## (iii) Determine the type of motion;

. . . . . . . .
Uniform velocity
………………………………………………………………………………………..
. . . . . . . .
Acceleration
...……….……………………………………………………………………………..
. . . . . . . .
Acceleration, then deceleration

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JPN Pahang Physics Module Form 4
Chapter 2 : Force and Motion

.……………………………………………………………………………………..
(iv) Determination of velocity
. . . . . . . .
12.6 cm 10 x 0.02 = 0.2 s
displacement = ……………………… time = ………………………………..
-1
Velocity, v = 12.6 = 63.0 cm s
0.2

## (v) Determine the acceleration

Length/cm
v a= v–u
8
t
7 = 40.0 – 15.0 ..
5(0.2)
25.0
6 = 1.0
5 -2
= 25.0 m s
4 u
3
2
1
ticks
The equation of 0motion
s : displacement, v : final velocity
1. The important symbols : ………………………………………………………………..
u : initial velocity, t : time, a : acceleration
………………………………………………………………………………………………
2. The list of important formula;
1 v −u
1. s= (u + v )t 2. a=
2 t
1 2
3. v = u + at 4. s = ut + at
2
5. v 2 = u 2 + 2as

## 3. Example 1 : A car traveling with a velocity of 10 m s-1 accelerates uniformly at a rate of 3

m s-2 for 20 s. Calculate the displacement of the car while it is accelerating.
given : u = 10 m s-1 , a = 3 m s-2 , t = 20 s. s=?
s = ut + ½ at2
s = (10)(20) + ½ (3)(20)2
s = 800 m
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JPN Pahang Physics Module Form 4
Chapter 2 : Force and Motion

Example 2 : A van that is traveling with velocity 16 m s-1 decelerates until it comes to rest.
If the distance traveled is 8 m, calculate the deceleration of the van.
given : u = 16 m s-1 , v = 0(rest) , s = 8 m a=?
v2 = u2 + 2 as
02 = 162 + 2 a(8)
a = -16 ms-2
Execise 2.1
Length / cm
1. Figure 2.1 shows a tape chart
consisting of 5-tick strip. Describe 16
the motion represented by AB and BC.
In each case, determine the ; 12
(a) displacement 8
s = 4 + 8 + 12 + 16 + 16 + 16
= 72.0 cm 4
(b) average velocity
0 A Figure 2.1
72 .0
vaverage = B C Time/s
6(0.1)
= 120.0 cm s-1
16 .0
(c) acceleration Note : v = = 1.6 cm s-1
0.1
v −u 1.6 −0.4 4.0
a= = u= = 0.4 cm s-1
t 0 .5 0.1
= 2.4 cm s-2 t = 5 (0.1) = 0.5 s

2. A car moving with constant velocity of 40 ms-1 . The driver saw and obtacle in front and
he immediately stepped on the brake pedal and managed to stop the car in 8 s. The
distance of the obstacle from the car when the driver spotted it was 180 m. How far is the
obstacles from the car has sttoped.
u = 40 ms-1 v=0 t=8s
s initial = 180 m (from car to obstacle when the driver start to step on the brake)
sfinal = ? ( from car to abstacle when the stopped)
obstacle
sinitial
s sfinal
1
s= ( u + v )t = 1 ( 40 + 0)8 = 160 m
2 2
sfinal = sinitial – s
= 180 – 160
= 20 m

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JPN Pahang Physics Module Form 4
Chapter 2 : Force and Motion

## 0m 100m 200m 300m 400m 500m displacement

0s 10s 20s The object
30s moves with
40s uniform velocity
50s for time
t seconds.

After t seconds,
in thethe object
form returns
of graph to origin
called (reverse)
a motion graphswith
The data of the motion of the car can beuniform
presented………………………………….
velocity
The displacement-time Graph Total displacement is zero

## a) displacement (m) Graph analysis:

Uniform
Graph isdisplacement all the time
………………………………………………………………
.
Displacement = velocity
……………………………………………………………… = 0time.
with

## time (s) The object

Graph is stationary
increases
……………...……………………………………………… not moving
uniformly

## The object moves with increasing velocity with uniform

b) displacement (m) Graph analysis:
acceleration.
Displacement increases uniformly
……..…………………………………………………………

## Graph gradient is fixed

…………………………………………………………………

## time (s) The object move with uniform velocity

……….…………………………………………………………

## c) displacement (m) Graph analysis:

…….……………………………………………………………

…………………………………………………………………

## d) Displacement (m) Graph analysis:

…………………………….………………………………………

……………………………………………..………………………

## time (s) ………………………………………………………………………

…………………………………………………………………

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JPN Pahang Physics Module Form 4
Chapter 2 : Force and Motion

## e) displacement (m) Graph analysis:

Graph is quadratic form.
…………………………………………………………..
Displacement increases with time.
…………………………………………………………..
Graph gradient decreases uniformly
…………………………………………………………..
time (s)
The object moves with decreasing velocity, with uniform
…………………………………………………………..
deceleration.
f) displacement (m) Graph analysis:

## A B OA = uniform velocity (positive – move ahead)

…………………………………………………………..
AB = velocity is zero (rest)
…………………………………………………………..
BC = uniform velocity (negative – reverse)
……………………………………………………………
O C time (s)
The velocity-time Graph
a) v/ m s-1 Graph analysis:
No change in velocity
…………………………………………………………..
Zero gradient the object moves with a constant velocity or
…………………………………………………………..
the acceleration is zero.
……………………………………………………………
t t /s The area under the graph is equal to the displacement of the
moving object :
s=vxt
b) v/ m s-1 Graph analysis:
Its velocity increases uniformly
………………………………………..………………..
The graph has a constant gradient
…………………………………………………………
The object moves with a uniform acceleration
…………………………………………………………
t t /s The area under the graph is equal to the displacement,
…………………………………………………………
s of the moving object :
s = ½ ( v x t)

## c) v (m s-1) Graph analysis:

The object moves with a uniform acceleration for t1 s
…………………………………..………………….
After t1 s, the object decelerates uniformly (negative gradient )
………………………………………………………
until it comes to rest.
………………………………………………………
The area under the graph is equal to the displacement of the
t1 t2 t (s)
moving object : s = ½ vt2

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JPN Pahang Physics Module Form 4
Chapter 2 : Force and Motion

## d) v (m s-1) Graph analysis:

The shape of the graph is a curve
...…………………………………..………………..
Its velocity increases with time.
……………………………………………………..
The gradient of the graph increases.
………………………………………………………
The object moves with increasing acceleration.
t (s) ………………………………………………………
The area under the graph is equal to the total displacement of
.……………………………………………………...
the moving object.

## e) v (m s-1) Graph analysis:

The shape of graph is a curve
………..…………………………..………………..
Its velocity increases with time.
……….
The gradient of the graph decreases uniformly.
……………………………………………..
The object moves with a decreasing acceleration.
………………………………………………………
The area under the graph is the total displacement of the
t (s) ………………………………………………………
moving object.
Examples ………………………………………………………
1. s/m Calculate:-
(i) Velocity over OP, QR and RS
(ii) Displacement
Given : SOP = 20 m SOQ = 20 m SOR = 0 m
P
Q SOS = - 10 m
Solution : tOP = 2 s tPQ = 3 s tQR = 2 s
tRS = 1 s
20 0 − 20
(i) VOP = =10ms−1 VQR = = −10ms−1
O R 2 2
0 2 4 6 8 t/s -10 − 0
VRS = = −10ms−1
1
S (ii) S = 20 – 10 = 10 m

2. v/m s-1
Calculate:-
(i) acceleration,a over OP, PQ and QR
10
(ii) Displacement
P Given : VO = 0 m s-1, VP = 10 m s-1 ,
5 Q
Solution : VQ = 10 m s-1 VR = 0 m s-1
tOP = 4 s tPQ = 4 s tQR = 2 s
10 − 0 10 −10
(i) aOP = = 2.5ms−2 aPQ= = 0 ms −2
O 4 4
R
0 − 10 −2
0 2 4 6 8 10 t/s aQR = = −5.0 ms
2
1
(ii) S = (4 +10)(10) = 70.0m
2
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JPN Pahang Physics Module Form 4
Chapter 2 : Force and Motion

Excercise 2.2
1. (a) s/m (b) s/m (c) s/m
10

## t/s 0 2 4 t/s t/s

-5 -10
Figure 2.21
Describe and interpret the motion of a body which is represented by the displacement
time graphs in Figure 2.21
a) The body remains in rest 5 m at the back of initial point

b) The body start move at 10 m infront of the initial point, then back to initial point
in 2 s. The body continue it motion backward 10 m..
The body move with uniform velocity.

## c) The body move with inceresing it velocity.

2. Describe and interpret the motion of body which is represented by the velocity-time
graphs shown in figure 2.22. In each case, find the distance covered by the body and its
displacement

## (a) v/m s-1 (b) v/m s-1

10

t/s 0 2 4 t/s
-5 -10

Figure 2.22
(a) The body move with uniform velocity , 5 m s-1 backward.

(b) The body start it motion with 10 m s-1 backward and stop at initial point
in 2 s, then continue it motion forward with increasing the velocity until
10 m s-1 in 2 s.

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JPN Pahang Physics Module Form 4
Chapter 2 : Force and Motion

## 2.3 UNDERSTANDING INERTIA

Idea of inertia
A pillion rider is hurled backwards when the motorcycle starts to move.
1. ………………………………………………………………………………………………
Bus passengers are thrust forward when the bus stop immediately.
2. ………………………………………………………………………………………………
Large vehicle are made to move or stopped with greater difficulty.
3. ………………………………………………………………………………………………
Hand-on activity 2.5 in page 18 of the practical book to gain an idea of inertia

4. Meaning of inertia :
The inertia of an object is the tendency of the object to remain at rest or, if moving, to
…………..………………………………………………………………………………….
continue its uniform motion in a straight line
………………………………………………………………………………………………
Mass and inertia
1. Refer to figure 2.14 of the text book, the child and an adult are given a push to swing.
(i) which one of them will be more difficult to be moved ……………………...
(ii) which one of them will be more difficult to stop? …………………………….
2. The relationship between mass and inertia : ……………………………….
The larger the mass, the larger its inertia.
……………………………………………………………..
have the tendency to remain its situation either at rest or in
3. The larger mass ………………………………………………………………………….
moving.
………………………………………………………………………………………………
Effects of inertia
Application of inertia
1. Positive effect : …………………………………………………………………………
Drying off an umbrella by moving and stopping it quickly.
(i) ………………………………………………………………………………………
Building a floating drilling rig that has a big mass in order to be stable and safe.
(ii) ………………………………………………………………………………………
To tight the loose hammer
(iii) ………………………………………………………………………………………
We should take a precaution to ovoid the effect.
2. Negative effect : ………………………………………………………………………….
During a road accident, passengers are thrust forward when their
(i) ……………………………………………………………………………………...
car is suddenly stopped.
Passengers are hurled backwards when the vehicle starts to move and are hurled forward
……………………………………………………………………………………..
(ii) when it stops immediately.
………………………………………………………………………………………
A person with a heavier/larger body will find it move difficult to stop his movement.
………………………………………………………………………………………

## A heavier vehicle will take a long time to stop.

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JPN Pahang Physics Module Form 4
Chapter 2 : Force and Motion

(iii) ………………………………………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………………………………………
(iv) ………………………………………………………………………………………
Execise 2.3
1. What is inertia? Does 2 kg rock have twice the inertia of 1 kg rock?
Inetia is the tendency of the object to remain at rest or, if moving, to continue its uniform
………………………………………………………………………………………………
motion in a straight line.
………………………………………………………………………………………………
Yes, the inertia increase with the mass increased.
………………………………………………………………………………………………
2.

Figure 2,3

A wooden dowel is fitted in a hole through a wooden block as shown in figure 2.31.
Explain what happen when we

## (a) strike the top of the dowel with a hammer,

A wooden block move up of a wooden dowel.
………………………………………………………………………………………
A wooden block has inertia to remains at rest.
………………………………………………………………………………………
(b) hit the end of the dowel on the floor.
The wooden block move downward of a wooden dowel.
………………………………………………………………………………………
A wooden block has inertia to continue it motion.
……………………………………………………………………………………

## 2.4 ANALYSING MOMENTUM

Idea of momentum
it has momentum.
1. When an object ic moving, …...…………………………………………………………
defends on its mass and velocity.
2. The amount of momentum ...……………………………………………………………
as the product of its mass and its velocity, that is
3. Momentum is defined…………………………………………………………………….
Momentum, p = m x v Unit= kg m s-1

11
JPN Pahang Physics Module Form 4
Chapter 2 : Force and Motion

………………………………………………………………………………………………

Conservation of momentum
mg
mb vb vg = 0

Momentum = mbvb
(mb + mg)
Starting position before vb&g
she catches the ball

## Receiving a massive ball Momentum =

(mb+mg)vb&g

vb vg
mb
Momentum = mbvb mg
Starting position
before she throws Momentum = -
the ball mgvg
Throwing a massive ball

## The principle of conservation of momentum :

In the absence of an external force, the total momentum of a system remains
………………………………………………………………………………………………………
unchanged.
………………………………………………………………………………………………………
The colliding objects move separately after collision.
1. Elastic collision .…………………………………………………………………………..
u1

m1 u2 v2
m2 m1
m2

12
Momentum : m1u1 + m2u2 = m1v1 + m2v2
JPN Pahang Physics Module Form 4
Chapter 2 : Force and Motion

## The colliding objects move together after collision.

2. Inelastic collision :………………………………………………………………………...
u1
v
m1 u2 = 0
m2
m1 + m2

## Before collision after collision

Momentum : m1u1 + m2u2 = (m1 + m2) v

The objects involved are in contact with each other before explosion and are
3. explosion : …….....…………………………………………………………………...
separated after the explosion.
(m1 + m2), u = 0 v1 v2
m2

Before
Momentum : (mexplosion after explosion
1 + m2)u = m1 vv - m2 v2

Example 1 :

Car A Car B
Car A of mass 100 kg traveling at 30 m s-1 collides with Car B of mass 90 kg traveling at
20 m s-1 in front of it. Car A and B move separately after collision. If Car A is still moving at
25 m s-1 after
Givencollision,
: m = 100determine
kg the, velocity
u = 30 m ofsCar
-1
, v B=after
25 mcollision.
s-1, m = 90 kg,
A A A B
-1
uB = 20 m s , vB = ?
Solution :
mAuA + mBuB = mAvA + mBvB
(100)(30) + (90)(20) = (100)(25) + (90)(vB)
vB = 25.56 m s-1

Example 2 :
Car A of mass 100 kg traveling at 30 m s-1 collides with Car B of mass 90 kg traveling at
20 m s-1 in front of it. Car A is pulled by Car B after collision. Determine the common velocity of
Car A and B after collision.
Given : mA = 100 kg , uA = 30 m s-1, mB = 90 kg, uB = 20 m s-1 , v(A+B) = ?

## mAuA + mBuB = (mA +13mB ) v (B+A)

(100)(30) + (90)(20) = (100 + 90) v (B+A)
v(A + B) = 25.26 m s-1
JPN Pahang Physics Module Form 4
Chapter 2 : Force and Motion

Solution :

Example 3 :
A bullet of mass 2 g is shot from a gun of mass 1 kg with a velocity of 150 m s-1 . Calculate the
velocity of the recoil of the gun after firing.
Solution : Given ; mb = 2 g = 0.002 kg, mg = 1 kg, u(g+b) = 0 , vb = 150 m s-1
vg = ?
0 = mgvg – mb vb,
0 = (1)(vg) – (0.002)(150), vg = 0.3 m s-1
Exercise 2.4
1. An arrow of mass 150 g is shot into a wooden block of mass 450 g lying at rest on a
smooth surface. At the moment of impact, the arrow is travelling horizontally at 15 ms-1.
Calculate the common velocity after the impact.
ma = 150 g mwb = 450 g m (a+wb) = 600 g
va = 15 m s-1 vwb = 0 v(a+ wb) = ?
Force can make an object;
1. Move 2. Stop the moving
mava + mwbvwb = m(a+wb)v(a+wb) , (0.15 x 15) + (0.450 x 0) = 0.6 v(a+ wb)
3. Change the shape of the object v4. =Hold
3.75the
m sobject
-1 at rest
(a+ wb)
2. A riffle of mass 5.0 kg fires a bullet of mass 50 g with a velocity of 80 m s-1 .Calculate the
recoil velocity. Explain why the recoil velocity of a riflle is much less than the velocity of
the bullet.

mr = 5.0 kg mb = 50 g
vr = ? vb = 80 m s-1
mr vr = mb vb , ( 5.0 ) vr = ( 0.05)(80)
vr = 0.8 m s-1

## 2.5 UNDERSTANDING THE EFFECT OF A FORCE

Idea of force
1. What will happen when force act to an object?

14
JPN Pahang Physics Module Form 4
Chapter 2 : Force and Motion

………………………………………………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………………………………………………
Idea of balanced forces
1. An object is said to be in balance when it is:
1. In a stationary state
………………………………………………………………………………………………
2. Moving at uniform velocity
………………………………………………………………………………………………
2. Stationary object
Normal reaction, N
……………………………… explanation :
Magnitude R = W but R acts in an opposite
Stationary object ………………………………………………
direction to the weight.
………………………………………………
( object is in equilibrium )
……….……………………………………..
weight, w = mg
…………………………………………
3. An object moving with uniform velocity
Normal reaction, N
…………………………….. explanation :
Frictional force Force, F Force , F = Friction
…..……………. …………… ……………………………………………..
Resultant = F – Friction
…………………………………………….. = 0 (object is in equilibrium)
weight, w = mg Examples :
……………………………………………..
……………………………… 1.A car move at constant velocity.
………..…………………………………….
2.A plane flying at constant velocity.
……………………………………………..
……………………………………………..
when it is moving in acceleration.
Idea of unbalancedResultant
forces force
1. A body is said to be in unbalanced..……………………………………………………
The ball move in acceleration
2. ……………………….. Explanation;
because the forces act are not balanced.
F > F’
………………………………………………
F F’ So, the ball move in F direction
………………………………………………
………………………………………………
……… …….. ………………………………………………
Relationship between forces, mass and acceleration (F = ma)

15
JPN Pahang Physics Module Form 4
Chapter 2 : Force and Motion

## Experiment 2.2 page 29.

Aim : To investigate the relationship between acceleration and force applied on a constant
mass.
Experiment 2.3 page 31
Aim: To investigate the relationship between mass and acceleration of an object under
constant force.

## 1. Refer to the result of experiment 2.2 and 2.3,

it is found that; a ∝ F when m is constant and a ∝ 1/m when F is constant.
……………………………………………………………………………………………
Therefore, a ∝ F/m
……………………………………………………………………………………………
From a ∝ F/m,
……
F ∝ ma
……………………………………………………………………………………………
Therefore, F = kma … k =constant
……………………………………………………………………………………………
……
………………………………………………………………………………………………
2. 1 newton (F = 1 N) is defined as the force required to produce an acceleration of 1 m s-2
(a=1 m s-2) when its acting on an object of mass 1 kg ( m = 1 kg)
F = ma
So, …………………………………………………………………………………………
3. Example 1 : Calculate F, when a = 3 m s-2 dan m = 1000 kg
F = ma
F = (1000)(3)
F = 3000 N

Example 2 :
m = 25 kg
F = 200 N

## Calculate the acceleration, a of an object.

F = ma
200 = 25 a
a = 8.0 ms-2
m = 30 kg , F = 50 N , Ff = 20 N , a = ?
Exercise 2.5
F – Ff = ma , 50 – 20 = 30 a
1. A trolley of mass 30 kg is pulled along the ground by horizontal force of 50 N. The
a = 1.0 m s2
opposing frictional force is 20 N. Calculate the acceleration of the trolley.

## m = 1000 kg , u = 72 km h-1, v = 0, s = 40 m, F = ? Note : u = 72 km h-1 =20 m s-1

F = ma, v2 = u2 + 2as
= 1000 x 5.0 16 0 = 202 + 2a(40)
= 5000.0 N a = 5.0 m s2
JPN Pahang Physics Module Form 4
Chapter 2 : Force and Motion

2. A 1000 kg car is travelling at 72 km h-1 when the brakes are applied. It comes to a stop in
a distance of 40 m. What is the average braking force of the car?

## 2.6 ANALYSING IMPULSE AND IMPULSIVE FORCE

Impulse and impulsive force
The change of momentum
1. Impulse is ……………………………………………………………………………….
The large force that acts over a short period of time during collision
2. Impulsive force is ………………………………………………………………………
and explosion.
………………………………………………………………………………………………
3. Formula of impulse and impulsive force:
Refer, F = ma It is known that a= (v–u)/t
Therefore, F = m( v – u)
t
So, Ft = mv – mu , Unit = N s
Ft is defined as impulse, which is the change in momentum.
F = mv – mu ,
t
Ft = mv – mu Unit : newton (N)
F is defined as impulsive force which is the rate of change of momentum over the
short period of time

Example 1; v u

5(10) - (- 5(10))
wall 100 = 100 N

If ; u = 10=m s-1100
, vNs
= - 10 m s-1 , m = 5 kg and t = 1 s 1

## Impulse, Ft = and impulsive force, F =

Example 2; v u

5(10) - (- 5(10))
Wall with a soft surface 100 = 50 N
= 100 Ns 2

Impulsive force , F ∝ 1 / t 17

## Therefore, F decreases when the time of collision increases ( refer to examples )

JPN Pahang Physics Module Form 4
Chapter 2 : Force and Motion

## If ; u = 10 m s-1 , v = - 10 m s-1 , m = 5 kg and t = 2 s

Impulse, Ft = and impulsive force, F =

## 4. The relationship between time of collision and impulsive force.

………………………………………………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………………………………………………
Exercise 2.6
1. A force of 20 N is applied for 0.8 s when a football player throws a ball from the sideline.
What is the impulse given to the ball?

Fimpulse = Ft
= 20 x 0.8
= 16.0 Ns

2. A stuntman in a movie jumps from a tall building an falls toward the ground. A large
canvas bag filled with air used to break his fall. How is the impulsive force reduced?

## 1. A large canvas bag will increase the time of collision.

2. The impulsive force will decrease.

## 2.7 BEING AWARE OF THE NEED FOR SAFETY FEATURES IN VEHICLES

18
JPN Pahang Physics Module Form 4
Chapter 2 : Force and Motion

pillars
Windscreen

Crumple zones
Anti-lock brake
system (ABS)

Air bags

## Increases the time interval of collision so the impulsive force

produced during an impact is thereby reduced

Rubber bumper Absorb impact in minor accidents, thus prevents damage to the car.

## Shatter-proof windscreen Prevents the windscreen from shattering

Acts as a cushion for the head and body in an accident and thus
Air bag
prevents injuries to the driver and passengers.
Prevents the passengers from being thrown out of the car. Slows
Safety seat belt down the forward movement of the passengers when the car stops
abruptly.
- The absorber made by the elastic material
Prevents the collapse
: To absorb the effectofofthe front (hentaman)
impact and back ofduring
the caritinto the
moving
Side bar- in doors
by the soft material compartment. Also gives good protection from a side-on
of bumper
collision.
: To increase the time during collision, then the impulsive
force will be decreased.
- The passenger’s space made by the strength materials.
Exercise 2.7 : To decrease the risk trap to the passenger during accident.
1. - Keep
By anphysics
using air bagconcepts,
at the in front
explainof dash board and infront
the midifications to the of
buspassengers
that help to improve that
: Acts as a cushion for
safety of passengers and will be more comfortable. the head and body in an accident and
thus prevents injuries to the driver and passengers.
- Shatter-proof windscreen
: Prevents the windscreen from shattering.

19
JPN Pahang Physics Module Form 4
Chapter 2 : Force and Motion
the object is said to be free
falling
is known as acceleration due to gravity.

## on the strength of the gravitational field

.
the gravitational field of the earth.
is on the force of gravity.
as the gravitational force acting on a 1 kg mass.

## . g= F . where, F : gravitational force

m m : mass of an object

g = 9.8 N kg-1

## 2.8 UNDERSTANDING GRAVITY

that an object of mass 1 kg will experience a gravitational force of 9.8 N.
Carry out hands-on activity 2.8 on page 35 of the practical book.
Acceleration due to gravity.
It pulled by the force of gravity.
1. An object will fall to the surface of the earth because………………………………...
Solution : F = mg = (60) as (9.8)
earth’s gravitational force.
2. The force of gravity also known ………………………………………………………...
= 588.0 N
3. When an object falls under the force of gravity only, ………………………………...
………………………………………………………………………………………………
4. The acceleration of objects falling freely ………………………………………………
5. The magnitude of the acceleration due to gravity depends ………………………...
Given : m = 600 kg. F = 4800 N, g = ?
………………………………………………………………………………………………
g = F = 4800 . = 8 N kg-1
Gravitational field
m 600
1. The region around the earth is ………………………………………………………….
2. The object in gravitational field …………………………………………………………
3. The gravitational field strength is defined ……………………………………………..
4. The gravitational field strength, g can be calculate as;

## 5. At the surface of the earth, …………….

………………………………………………………………………………..

20
JPN Pahang Physics Module Form 4
Chapter 2 : Force and Motion

6. This means
……………………………………………………………………………………………..
7. Example 1. Can you estimate the gravitational force act to your body?
mass = 60 kg, g = 9.8 N kg-1, F = ?

Example 2,
A satellite of mass 600 kg in orbit experiences a gravitational force of 4800 N. Calculate
the gravitational field strength.

Example 3,
A stone is released from rest and falls into a well. After 1.2 s, it hits the bottom of the
well.
(a) What is the velocity of the stone when it hits the bottom?
(b) Calculate the depth of the well.
Given : u = 0 ms-1, t = 1.2 s, a = g = 9.8 ms-2
(a) v = ? v = u + at
= 0 + (9.8)(1.2)
= 11.76 ms-1
(b) Depth = s = ? s = ut + ½ at2
= (0)(1.2) + ½ (9.8)(1.2)2
= 7.1 m

Weight
as the gravitational force acting on the object.
1. The weight of an object is defined ……………………………………………………..
2. For an object of mass m, the weight can be calculate as :
weight, W = mg
where, g = acceleration due to gravity.

Example : The mass of a helicopter is 600 kg. What is the weight of the helicopter
when it land on the peak of a mountain where the gravitational field is
9.78 N kg-1? W = mg
= 6000 x 9.78
= 58 680 N
21
JPN Pahang Physics Module Form 4
Chapter 2 : Force and Motion

Exercise 2.8
1. Sketch the following graphs for an object that falling freely.
(a) Displacement-time graph,
(b) Velocity-time graph
(c) Acceleration-time graph
(a) s / m (b) v / m s-1 (c) a / m s2

## t/s t/s t/s

2. The following data was obtained from an experiment to measure the acceleration due to
gravity.
Mass of steel bob = 200 g, distance covered = 3.0 m, time of fall = 0.79 s.
Calculate the acceleration due to gravity of steel bob.
Give the explanation why your answer different with the constant of gravitational
acceleration, g = 9.8 m s-2.
mIt is= in a stationary
200 g s=state
3.0 m t = 0.79 s u=0 g=?
= 0.2 kg
It is moving with uniform velocity
Normal
s = ut + ½ greaction,
t2 R Normal reaction, R
3.0 = 0 (0.7) + ½ g (0.792)
g = 9.6 m s-2

## The answer Weight,

less thanW=mg
the constant because of theweight,
air frictional
W=mgforce.

## 2.9 IDEA OF EQUILIBRIUM FORCES

Magnitude of R = W Magnitude of R = mg cos θ
An object
R andisWinacts
equilibrium
in oppositewhen :
direction. And acts in opposite direction.
1. So,………………………………………………………………………………………………
Resultant force = W – R = 0 So,Resultant force = mg cos θ – R = 0
( object in equilibrium ) ( object in equilibrium )
2. ………………………………………………………………………………………………
normal reaction, R

Weight, W

## Force , F = Frictional force

Resultant force = F – Frictional force
=0 22 in equilibrium)
(object
JPN Pahang Physics Module Form 4
Chapter 2 : Force and Motion

stationary object

## An object moving with uniform velocity

a resultant force is a single force the
1. Addition of force is defined as ...……………………………………………………..
represents in magnitude and direction two or more forces acting on an object
………………………………………………………………………………………………
F resultant = the total of forces (including the directions of the forces)
………………………………………………………………………………………………
Examples : the forces are acting in one direction
F1 = 10 N
F2 = 5 N

Resultant force, F = F1 + F2 = 10 + 5 = 15 N

## Example : the forces are acting in opposite directions

F1 = 10 N
F2 = 5 N

Resultant force, F = F1 - F2 = 10 - 5 = 5 N

## Example : the forces are acting in different directions

F2 = 5 N

23
JPN Pahang Physics Module Form 4
Chapter 2 : Force and Motion

500 F

F1 = 10 N

Parallelogram method:
1. Draw to scale.
2. Draw the line parallel with F1 to the edge of F2, and the line parallel with F2 to the
edge of F1
3. Connect the diagonal of the parallelogram starting from the initial point.
4. Measure the length of the diagonal from the initial point as the value of the
resultant force.

F2
F

F1

Triangle method
Solution : Resultant force, F = 6000 – 5300
1. Draw to scale. =700 N
2. Displace one of the forces to theequilibrium
They mere not in edge of another force.
3. Complete the triangle and measure the resultant force from the initial
point.

Example 1: During Sport Day two teams in tug of war competition pull with forces of
6000 N and 5300 N respectively. What is the value of the resultant force?
Are the two team in equilibrium?

## Resultant force, F = 10.5 x 50

= 525 N

24
JPN Pahang Physics Module Form 4
Chapter 2 : Force and Motion

## Example 2: A boat in a river is pulled horizontally by two workmen. Workmen A

pulls with a force of 200 N while workmen while workmen B pulls with a
force of 300 N. The ropes usedFmake
x an angle 250 with each other. Draw a
Cos θ = F , therefore Fx = F cos θ
parallelogram and label the resultant force using scale of 1 cm : 50 N.
Fy
Sin θ of
Determine the magnitude = resultant force. Fy = F sin θ
, therefore
F

250
10.5 cm Fx = F cos θ = 50 cos 60
Fx = 50 (0.5)
= 25 N

## Fy = F Sin θ = 50 sin 600

Fy = 50 (0.8660)
= 43.3 N
Resolution of a force
reverse process of finding the resultant force
1. Resolution of a force is …………………………………………………………………
Fy F is the resultant force of Fx and Fy
Therefore, F can be resolved
F = mg sin 400 + 200
into Fx and Fy
= 800(0.6427) + 200
F
= 514.2 + 200
Vertical
= 714.2 N
Component
θ
Fx horizontal component
mg = 800 N

## Refer to trigonometric formula:

Example : The figure below shows Ali mopping the floor with a force 50 N
at an angle of 600 to the floor.

F = 50 N

600

25
JPN Pahang Physics Module Form 4
Chapter 2 : Force and Motion

## Example of resolution and combination of forces

F=?

200 N

400

400

Problem solving
the resultant force is equal to zero.
1. When a system is in equilibrium, ……………………………………………………….
2. If all forces acting at one point are resolved into horizontal and vertical
the sum of each component is equal to zero.
components, ……………………………………………………………………………
3. Example 1; Show on a figure;
a) the direction of tension force, T of string
b) the resultant force act to lamp
700 700 c) in
calculate the magnitude of tension force, T
Fmaximum when both of forces act same direction;
a)T b) T’ T (c ) T’ = 2T sin 700
Fmaximum = 18 + 6 18 N 24 N
Therefore, mlampg = 2T sin 700
= 24 N 6N
mlamp g
mlamp = 1.5 T =
Fminimum when the forces actkgin opposite direction ; 2sin70 0
Fminimum = 18 – 6Wlamp = 14.7 N 18 N 12 N
= 12 N 6 N= 1.5(9.8) = 7.82 N
2sin70 0
Exercise 2.9
1. Two force with magnitude 18 N and 6 N act along a straight line. With the aid of
diagrams, determine the maximun possible value and the minimum possible value of the
resultant force.
F = Resultant of Force
F2 = 2202 + 2002
F = 297.32 N
F

26
JPN Pahang Physics Module Form 4
Chapter 2 : Force and Motion

2. A football is kicked simultaneously by two players with force 220 N and 200 N
respectively, as shown in Figure 2.9. Calculate the magnitude of the resultant force.

220 N
900

200 N

## 2.10 UNDERSTANDING WORK, ENERGY AND EFFICIENCY

Work
When a force that acts on an object moves the object through a
1. Work is done, ……………………………………………………………………………..
distance in the direction of the force.
………………………………………………………………………………………………
of a force and the distance traveled in the direction of
2. WORK is the product.…………………………………………………………………….
the force.
………………………………………………………………………………………………
WORK = FORCE X DISPLACEMENT
3. The formulae of work;
W =Fxs
W : work in Joule/J
F : force in Newton/N
s : displacement in meter/m

4. Example 1;
Force, F

W = Fs s

If, F = 40 N and s = 2 m
Hence, W = 40 x 2
= 80 J

Example 2;

27
JPN Pahang Physics Module Form 4
Chapter 2 : Force and Motion

80 N

600

W = Fs s= 5m

## = 80 cos 600 (5)

= 80 (0.5) (5)
= 200 J

Example 3;

T T

F = 30 N
h = 1.5 m
W=Fs=Fh
= 30 (1.5)
= 45.0 J

Example 4;
W=Fs
= 600 x 0.8
F = 600 N = 480 J

S = 0.8 m

Energy
It is the potential to do work.
1. Energy is .................................................................................................................
created nor be destroyed.
potential energy, kinetic energy, electrical
28
energy, sound energy, nuclear energy and chemical energy.
JPN Pahang Physics Module Form 4
Chapter 2 : Force and Motion

## 2. Energy cannot be ....................................................................................................

3. Exist in various forms such as …………………...……………………………………
………………………………………………………………………………………………
4. Example of the energy transformation;
When we are running up a staircase the work done consists of energy change from
………………………………………………………………………………………………
Chemical Energy à Kinetic Energy à Potential Energy
………………………………………………………………………………………………
The energy quantity consumed is equal to the work done.
5. ………………………………………………………………………………………………
Example
If 100 J of: work is done, it means 100 J of energy is consumed.
………………………………………………………………………………………………

Force, F

## energy of an object due to its motion.

1. Kinetic energy is …………………………………………………………………………
2. Refer to the figure above,
Work = Fs
Through, v2 = u2 +2as
= mas u=0
and, as = ½ v2
= m ( ½ v2)
The formulae of Kinetic energy, Ek = ½ mv2

3. Example 1; A small car of mass 100 kg is moving along a flat road. The
resultant force on the car is 200 N.
a) What is its kinetic energy of the car after moving through 10 m?
b) What is its velocity after moving through 10 m?

## Solution : Given : m = 100 kg , F = 200 N

a. Kinetic energy, Ek = Fs
= 200 x 10= 2000 J
b. Velocity, v à ½ mv2 = 2000
v = 6.32 m s-1
29
JPN Pahang Physics Module Form 4
Chapter 2 : Force and Motion

## Work done and gravitational potential energy

h = 1.5 m
created or destroyed but can be changed from one form to
another form. energy of an object due to its position.
1. Gravitational potential energy is………………………………………………………...
(possessed by an object due to its position in a gravitational field)

W = Fs Maximum
= mg h Potential
………………………………………………………………………………………………2. where,energy
F = mg
Refer to the figure above; So, Gravitational energy, Ep = mgh

## Kinetic energy decrease potential energy decrease

and potential energy W = 10 (10) 1.5 and kinetic energy
3.Increase
Example; If m = 10 kg increase
= 1500 J
Therefore Work done = 1500J
Principle of conservation of energy And, Ep = 1500 J
Maximum kinetic energy
Carry out hands-on activity 2.10 on page 38 of the practical book.
To show the principle
Given : hof= conservation
20 m, u = 0 ,ofg energy.
= 9.8 ms-2 , v = ?
1. Energy cannot be ………………………………………………………………………
Ep = Ek
……………………………………………………………………………………………
mgh = ½ mv2
2. Example : a thrown ball upwards
m(9.8)(20) will
= ½mv 2 achieve a maximum height before changing its

## direction and falls

v2 = 392, v = 19.8 m s-1

## the rate of doing work.

workdone W
Therefore, power, P = , so, P=
timetaken t
Where, P : power in watt/W
W : work in joule/J
t : time to do work in seconds/s

3. Example in calculation : A coconut falls from a tree from a height of 20 m. What is the
velocity of coconut just before hitting the earth?

30
JPN Pahang Physics Module Form 4
Chapter 2 : Force and Motion

Power
1. Power is …………………………………………………………………………………

2. A weightlifter lifts 180 kg of weights from the floor to a height of 2 m above his head in a
time of 0.8 s. What is the power generated by the weightlifter during this time?-2
g = 9.8 ms-2) Solution : Given : m = 180 kg, h = 2 m, t = 0.8 s and g = 9.8 ms . P = ?
W mgh
P= =
t t
180 × 9.8 × 2
= = 4 410 W
Efficiency 0.8
as the percentage of the energy input that is transformed into useful energy.
1. Defined……..…………………………………………………………………………….
2. Formulae of efficiency :
Useful energy output
Efficiency = ×100 %
Energy input

## Energy input, Einput Useful energy, Eoutput

Energy transformation
Solution : Given : m = 0.12 kg, s= 0.4 m, t = 5 s, Einput = 0.8 J
4. Example;(a)
AnEelectric
output = ?motor in a toy crane can lift a 0.12 kg weight through a height of
0.4 m in 5 s. During this time, the batteries supply 0.8 J of energy to the motor. Calculate
(a) The usefulEoutput = F xofs the motor.
of output
(b) The efficiency of=the(0.12 x 10) x 0.4
motor
= 0.48 J
(b) Efficiency = ?
E
output
Efficiency = E x 100 %
input

0.48
= x 100% = 60%
0.80

31
JPN Pahang Physics Module Form 4
Chapter 2 : Force and Motion

Carry out hands-on activity 2.11 on page 39 of the practical book to measure the power.

Exercise 2.10
1. What is the work done by a man when he pushes a box with a force of 90 N through a
distance of 10 m? State the amount of energy transferred from the man to the force.
W=Fs The energy transferred to the force = 900 J
= 90 x 10
= 900 J
2. A sales assistant at a shop transfers 50 tins of milk powder from the floor to the top shelf.
Each tin has a mass of 3.0 kg and the height of thee top shelf is 1.5 m.

## (a) Calculate the total work done by the sales assistant.

m = 3.0 x 50 = 150 kg h = 1.5 m

## W = mhg = 150 x 9.8 x 1.5

= 2205 J
(b) What is his power if he completes this work in 250 s?
W
P=
t
2205
= = 8.82 w
250

32
JPN Pahang Physics Module Form 4
Chapter 2 : Force and Motion

## 2.11 APPRECIATING THE IMPORTANCE OF MAXIMISING THE EFFICIENCY

OF DEVICES
1. During the process of transformation the input energy to the useful output energy,
some of energy transformed into unwanted forms of energy.
……………………………………………………………………………………..
The efficiency of energy converters is always less than 100%.
2. .……………………………………………………………………………………………..
The unwanted energy produced in the device goes to waste.
3. ………………………………………………………………………………………………
Example of wasting the energy;
Kinetic energy
………..…………………
Input enegy output
from the petrol energy

Energy loss due to Energy loss Energy loss Energy loss due to friction at
…………………… ……………. ……………… …………………….
friction in as heat as sound other parts in the
..………………….. …………….. ………………….. …………………….
moving parts engine
..………………….. ……………. …………………. …………………….
4. The world we are living in face acute shortage of energy.
5. It is very important that a device makes
the best possible use of the input energy.
…………………………………………………………………
Ways of increasing the efficiency of devices
Engine must be designed with the capability to produce greater amount of
1. Heat engines ……………………..………………………………………………………
mechanical work.
………………………………………………………………………………………………
2. Electrical devices. ...……………………………………………………………………...
Light Fittings
……………………………………………………………………………………………
- replace filament light bulb with fluorescent lamps which have higher efficiency.
……………………………………………………………………………………………
- use a lamp with a reflector so that the illumination can be directed to specific areas
……
of the user.
………………………………………………………………………………………………
Air-conditioners.
………………………………………………………………………………………………
- choose a model with a high efficiency.
………………………………………………………………………………………………
- accommodate the power of air-conditioner and the size of the room
………………………………………………………………………………………………
- Ensure that the room totally close so that the temperature in the room can be
………………………………………………………………………………………………
maintained.
………………………………………………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………………………………………………

33
JPN Pahang Physics Module Form 4
Chapter 2 : Force and Motion
Refrigerators
………………………………………………………………………………………………
- choose the capacity according to the size of the family.
………………………………………………………………………………………………
- installed away from source of heat and direct sunlight.
………………………………………………………………………………………………
- the door must always be shut tight.
………………………………………………………………………………………………
- more economical use a large capacity refrigerator.
………………………………………………………………………………………………
- use manual defrost consumption.
………………………………………………………………………………………………
Washing machines
………………………………………………………………………………………………
- use a front loading as such more economical on water and electricity
………………………………………………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………………………………………………

## Operation of electrical devices

when they are in good operating
1. The electrical devices increase the efficiency………………………………….……
condition.will increase the life span of device.
2. Proper management ….....………………………………………………………………
Example : -the filter in an air-conditioner and fins of the cooling coil of a refrigerator
3. …………..………………………………………………………………………………
must be periodically cleaned.
………………………………………………………………………………………………
2.12 UNDERSTANDING ELASTICITY
Carry out Hands-on activity 2.12 page 40 of the practical book.
the property of an object that enables it to return its original shape and
1. Elasticity is ……………………………………………………………………………...
dimensions after an applied external force is removed.
………………………………………………………………………………………………
The property of elasticity is caused by the existence of forces of
2. Forces between atoms …………………………………………………………………..
repulsion and attraction between molecules in the solid material.
………………………………………………………………………………………………
3. Forces between atoms in equilibrium condition
Force of attraction

## Force of repulsion Force of repulsion

Explanation :
1. The atoms are separated by a distance called the equilibrium distance and vibrate at
………………………………………………………………………………………………
it position.
………………………………………………………………………………………………
2. Force of repulsion = Force of attraction
………………………………………………………………………………………………
4. Forces between atoms in compression
compressive force
compressive force

34
JPN Pahang Physics Module Form 4
Chapter 2 : Force and Motion

## Force of repulsion Force of repulsion

Explanation ;
1. Force of repulsion takes effect.
………………………………………………………………………………………………
2. When the compressive force is removed, force of repulsion between the atoms
………………………………………………………………………………………………
pushes
………………………………………………………………………………………………
the atom back to their equilibrium positions.
5. Forces between atoms in tension
force of attraction

## stretching force stretching force

Explanation ;
1. Force of attraction takes effect.
………………………………………………………………………………………………
2. When the compressive force is removed, force of repulsion between the
………………………………………………………………………………………………
atoms pushes the atom back to their equilibrium positions.
………………………………………………………………………………………………
Carry out Experiment 2.4 on page 41 of the practical book
To investigate the relationship between force and extension of a spring
Hooke’s Law
that the extension of a spring is directly proportional to the applied force
1. Hooke’s Law states ………………………………………………………………………
provided that the elastic limit is not exceeded.
………………………………………………………………………………………………
as the maximum force that can be applied to
2. Elastic limit of a spring is defined……………………………………………………….
spring such that the spring will return to its original length when the force released.
………………………………………………………………………………………………
when the length of the
3. The spring is said to have a permanent extension,...…………………………………
spring longer than the original length even though the force acts was released and the
………………………………………………………………………………………………
elastic limit is exceeded.
……………………………………………………………………………………………… When the spring obey Hooke’s Law.
4. The
Theelastic limit is not
mathematical exceeded,…………………………………………….…………
expression for Hooke’s Law is :
………………………………………………………………………………………………
F ∝x
………………………………………………………………………………………………
F = kx, k = Force constant of the spring
Force constant, k = F with unit N m-1, N cm-1 or N mm-1
x
5. Graf F against x
F/ N
P
Q
E
35

0 R x (cm)
JPN Pahang Physics Module Form 4
Chapter 2 : Force and Motion

F = kx
Spring obeying
Hooke’s Law Spring not obeying Hooke’s law
(exceeded the elastic limit)

x

## 6. Spring Constant, k k is the gradient of the F - x graph

F/N F
k=
0.8 x
= 0 .8
8
= 0.01 N cm-1

0 8 x/cm

Example 1; A spring has an original length of 15 cm. With a load of mass 200 g
attached, the length of the spring is extend to 20 cm.
a. Calculate the spring constant.
b. What is the length of the spring when the load is in increased
by 150 g? [assume that g = 10 N kg-1]
Given : lo = 15 cm, m = 200 g , F = 2.0 N, l = 20 cm x = 5 cm
2.0
a. k = ?, k = Fx = = 0.4Ncm−1
5
b. l = ? , when m = 150 g, F = 1.5 N From a, k = 4.0 N cm-1
F 1.5
x= = = 3.75 cm
k 0.4
l = 15 + 3.75 = 18.75 cm
Example 2; The graph shows the relationship between the
Graph F against x of stretching force, F and the spring extension, x.
F (N) spring P and spring Q (a) Calculate the spring constant of P and Q.
(b) Using the graph, determine the
8
stretching force acts to spring P and
P
spring Q, when their extension are 0.5 cm
7
Solution
6 a. Spring constant, k = gradient of graph
5 Q 6
kP = =15.79 N cm −1
4 0.38
3
3 kQ = = 6.0 N cm−1
0.5
2
1
36b. When x = 0.5, FP = 8.0 N
( extrapolation of graph P)
FQ = 3.0 N
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 x (cm)
JPN Pahang Physics Module Form 4
Chapter 2 : Force and Motion

## Elastic potential energy

the energy stored in a spring when it is extended or compressed
1. Elastic potential energy ………………………………………………………………..
spring with the original length
F compression
x spring compressed x
F x = compression x
x F spring extended
x = extension F, extension
Other situation where the spring extended
and compressed
Relationship between work and elastic potential energy
F/N
Graph F against x
Area under the graph = work done
= ½ Fx
So, Elastic potential energy = ½ Fx
F
x

x / cm
Example ;
5 kg x = 15 – 8
= 7 cm
= 0.07 m
Force act to the spring,
15 cm F = 5 x 10 = 50 N
8 cm
Elastic potential energy = ½ Fx
= ½ 50 (0.07) = 1.75 J

## Factors that effect elasticity

Hands-on activity 2.13 on page 42 the practical book to investigate the factors that affect
elasticity.

37
JPN Pahang Physics Module Form 4
Chapter 2 : Force and Motion

## Type of material different same same same

Diameter of spring wire same different same same
Diameter of spring same same different same
Length of spring same Same same different
Summarise the four factors that affect elasticity
Factor Change in factor Effect on elasticity
Shorter spring Less elastic
Length
Longer spring More elastic
Smaller diameter Less elastic
Diameter of spring
Larger diameter More elastic
Smaller diameter More elastic
Diameter of spring wire
Larger diameter Less elastic
Type of material the elasticity changes with the type of materials

Exercise 2.12
1. A 6 N force on a spring produces an extension of 2 cm. What is the extension when the
force is increased to 18 N? State any assumption you made in calculating your answer.
To solve the problem, determine the spring constant to use the formula F = k x
F = 6 N , x = 2 cm
F = kx When, F = 18 N, x = ?
6 = k (2) 18 = 3 x
-1
k = 3 N cm x = 6 cm

## 2. If a 20 N force extends a spring from 5 cm to 9 cm,

(a) what is the force constant of the spring?
F = 20 N, x = 9 – 5 = 4 cm, k = ? F = kx
20 = k (4)
k = 5 N cm-1

## (b) Calculate the elastic potential energy stored in the spring.

E = ½ Fx
= ½ (20)(4)
= 40 J

Reinforcement Chapter 2

## 1. When a coconut is falling to the quantities is constant?

ground, which of the following

38
JPN Pahang Physics Module Form 4
Chapter 2 : Force and Motion

A. Velocity
B. Momentum Velocity / ms-1
C. Acceleration
D. Kinetic energy 4

## 2. In an inelastic collision, which of the

following quantities remains
constant before and after the 0 2 4 6 Time / s
collision? Calculate the momentum of the
trolley from t = 2s to t = 4s.
A. Total acceleration
B. Total velocity A. 1.5 kg m s-1 P = mv
C. Total momentum B. 3.0 kg m s-1 = 1.5 x 4
D. Total kinetic energy C. 4.0 kg m s-1 = 6.0 kg ms-1
-1
3. Calculate the weight of a stone with D. 6.0 kg m s
mass 60 g on the surface of the E. 7.5 kg m s-1
moon.
(The gravitational acceleration of the
7. This figure shows an aircraft flying
moon is 1/6 that of the Earth.) Lift
in the air.
A. 0.1 N 60 g = 0.06 kg
B. 0.2 N W = 0.06 (1/6)(10)
= 0.1 N Thrust Air friction
C. 0.4 N
D. 0.6 N
E. 0.8 N Weight
The aircraft above accelerates if
4. The momentum of a particle is
dependent on
A. Lift > Weight
B. Thrust > Lift
A. mass and acceleration
B. weight and force C. Lift > Air friction
C. mass and velocity D. Thrust > Air friction
5. Which of the following diagrams 8. m = 0.3 kg
shows a body moving at constant
velocity? 5m

A. 2N 2N
What is the momentum of the stone
B. 12 N 7N just before it hits the ground?

C. 12 N 14 N A. 0.15 kg m s-1
B. 0.3 kg m s-1
D. 20 N 17 N C. 1.5 kg m s-1
D. 3.0 kg m s-1
E. 15.0 kg m s-1
6. The graph below shows the motion
of a trolley with mass 1.5 kg.
Solution
P : v first to calculate the P)
= mv (find
Ep = Ek  mgh = ½ mv2
(0.3)(10)(5) = ½ (0.3) v2
39 v = 10 m s-1
P = (0.3)(10)
= 3.0 kg m s-1
JPN Pahang Physics Module Form 4
Chapter 2 : Force and Motion

## 10. An iron ball is dropped at a height of

10 m from the surface of the moon.
Calculate the time needed for the
iron ball to land.
(Gravitational acceleration of the
moon is 1/6 that of the Earth and
9. A big ship will keep moving for some g = 9.8 N kg-2)
distance when its engine is turned off. 2
This situation happens because the ship A 0.6 s s = ut + ½ gt
= (0)t + ½ (9.8/6)t2
has B 1.4 s
C 1.7 s t = 3.5 s
A. great inertia D 3.5 s
B. great acceleration E 12.0 s
C. great momentum
D. great kinetic energy

1.
Method (a)

## The forces given parallel with the surface of motion,

So, all the
(i) Car A forces given used to move the
(ii)car.
Car B
Diagram 1.1
Diagram 1.1(i) and (ii) show two methods used by the mechanic to move a breakdown
car. A constant force, F = 500 N is used to push and pull the car in method A and B.
(a) (i) FWhich
= Fgivenmethod
- Ffrictionis easier to move the car?
………………………………………………………………………………
= 500 – 200
(ii) State
= 300a reason
………………………………………………………………………………
F = Fgiven Cos 500 – Ffriction
………………………………………………………………………………
= 500 cos 600 – 200
(b) The frictional force acting between the car and track surface in both methods is
= 50.0 Nthe
200 N. Calculate,
(i) horizontal resultant force in method A.

F=ma
50.0 = 1000 a
(ii) horizontal resultant force in method B.
a = 0.05 m s-2

## The acceleration of Car A = 0.3 m s-2

To move Car B with the same acceleration
40 of Car A, increase the force given to
1000 N
JPN Pahang Physics Module Form 4
Chapter 2 : Force and Motion

## (iii) acceleration of the car in method B.

(c) Suggest a method to move Car B so that the acceleration produced is equal to that
of method A.
……………………………………………………………………………..………..
………………………………………………………………………………………

2. ceiling

Tin
P
(i)
Q
water

Diagram 2.1
M N

(ii)
 R
hand

a) Diagram 2.1(i) shows tin P that is empty and tin Q that is filled with water. A
student find difficult to pushed tin Q. Write the inference about the observation.
The difficulty to move the tin depends to its mass.
………………………………………………………………………………………
b) Diagram 2.1(ii) shows a tin being released from the different positions M and N.
The hand of a student at position R needs greater force to stop the motion of the
tin falling from position M. Explain this observation.
From position M the velocity of tin is more than the velocity compare when it is
………………………………………………………………………………………
from N. Ek increase then the force to stop it will be increased.
………………………………………………………………………………………
c) Based on the observation (i) and (ii), state two factors that affect the magnitude of
the momentum of the object.
mass and velocity
………………………………………………………………………………………
d) If water flows out from a hole at the bottom of the tin Q, how would the inertia of
Tin Q depends on time ?
inertia of tin Q will decrease because the mass of tin decreased.
……………………………………………………………………………………

3. 2 ms-1

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JPN Pahang Physics Module Form 4
Chapter 2 : Force and Motion

P iron ball ( 2 kg )
S T
3.0 m smooth surface
1.0 m 2.0 m

Q R
Diagram 3 Rough surface
The figure shows a iron ball that is rolled through PQRST. The rough surface of QR has
frictional force of 4 N.
a) Calculate
(i) the kinetic energy of the iron ball at P.
Ek = ½ mv2
= ½ (2)(22) = 4.0 J

## (ii) the potential energy of the iron ball at P.

Ep = mgh
= (2) (10) (3.0)
= 60.0 J
(iii) the total of energy of the iron ball at P.
E = Ek + Ep
= 4.0 + 60.0
b) = 64.0 J
c) (i) Calculate the total of energy of the iron ball when it reaches at Q ?
64.0 J ( the conservation of energy )
(ii) Calculate the work done against friction along QR.
W = Ff x s
= 4 x 1.0
= 4.0 J
d) Calculate the total kinetic energy of the iron ball at S.
Es = E – Ef Ek at S = Es - Ep at s
= 64.0 – 4.0 = 60.0 – (2)(10)(2.0)
= 60.0 J = 20.0 J
e) Calculate the speed of the ball at position T.
Ek at T = 20.0 J v2 = 20
= ½ m v2 v = 4.5 m s-1
= ½ (2)(v2)

## Part C : Essay Questions

1.

42
JPN Pahang Physics Module Form 4
Chapter 2 : Force and Motion

(i) (ii)
Diagram 1.1
Diagram 1.1(i) shows the condition of a car moving at high velocity when it suddenly
crashes into a wall.
Diagram 1.1(ii) shows a tennis ball hit with racquet by a player.
a) (i) What is the meaning of momentum?

(ii) Based on the observations of Diagram (i) and (ii), compare the
characteristics of car when it crashes into the wall and the tennis ball when
it is hit with a racquet. Hence, relate these characteristics to clarify a
physics concept, and name this concept.
b) Explain why a tennis player uses a taut racquet when playing.

## c) In launching a rocket, a few technical problems have to be overcome before the

rocket can move upright to the sky. By using appropriate physics concepts,
describe the design of a rocket and the launch techniques that can launch the
rocket upright.

a) (i) momentum is product of mass and velocity

(ii) - The shape of car changed but the shape of wall remained.
- The shape of ball remained but the shape of the racquet string was
changed. (The racquet string is elastic but the wall is harder)
- The time taken of collision between the ball and racquet string more
than
the time taken when the car hit the wall.
- The impulsive force will decrease when the time of collision increased.
- The concept is the impulsive force.

b) - To decrease the time of collision between the ball and the racquet string.
- Impulsive force will be increased.
- The force act to the ball will be increased.
- The velocity of ball will be increased.

## c) - Make a gradually narrower at the front shape (tapering)

: To decrease air friction
- Made by the high strength and high rigidity of materials
: To decrease the probability to become dented (kemik).
- Made by the low density of material.

43
JPN Pahang Physics Module Form 4
Chapter 2 : Force and Motion

## : To reduce the mass/weight

- The structure is fractional engine
: The mass will be decreased and the velocity will increase.
- Made by the high of heat capacity of materials
: It will be high heat resistance.

2.
Properties
Engine thrust Resistance
Brand Reaction time / s Mass / kg
force / N force / N
A 0.3 1.5 10.0 4.0
B 0.5 1.8 12.5 2.4
C 0.2 0.9 6.5 2.2
D 0.6 2.5 16.0 6.5
In a radio-controlled car racing competition, 4 mini-cars branded A, B, C and D took
part. The information of the 4 cars is given in the table above. Details of the above
information are given as below;
Reaction time - Duration between the moment the radio-controlled is switched on and
the moment the car starts moving.
Resistance - Average value of opposing forces includes the friction between
wheels and track, and air resistance.
(a) What is the meaning of acceleration?
(b) Draw a graph of velocity against time that shows a car moving initially with
constant acceleration, then moving with constant velocity and followed by
constant deceleration until it stops.
(c) Explain the suitability of the properties in the above table in constructing a radio-
controlled car racing purpose. Hence, determine which brand of car will win the
50-metre race.
(c) If Car B in the above table is moved up the plane at the angle of 30o to the
horizon,
(i) Show that the car is able to move up the plane.
(ii) Determine the acceleration of the car.

44
JPN Pahang Physics Module Form 4
Chapter 2 : Force and Motion

## (a) Increase the velocity

(b) v / ms-1
displacement = area under the graph

t/s
(c) - time reaction mast be short : fast to detect the signal to start its move
- has a small of mass : to decrease the inertia, then easier to start move and to
stop its moving.
- thrust force is high : has more power during its moving / increase the
acceleration
- friction force is low : decrease the lost of force
- the best car is A : because it has short of time reaction, small of mass, high of
thrust force and low friction of force.
(d) (i) EB = (12.5 – 2.4 ) (50) = 505.0 J
0
50 m0 50Sin30 E (suitable to move up) = 1.8 (10)
(50Sin300) 30
= 450 .0 J
EB> E ( car B can move up the plane)
(ii) F = ma , 12.5 – 2.4 = 1.8 a, a = 5.61 ms-1

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