Anda di halaman 1dari 48

Eye Wonder



How to be an inventor
From then to now
Written and edited by Caroline Bingham
Designed by Laura Roberts
Early inventions
Additional design Jane Horne
and Helen Chapman 10-11
Editorial assistance Fleur Star The Industrial Revolution
Publishing Manager Susan Leonard
Managing Art Editor Clare Shedden 12-13
Jacket design Chris Drew
Picture Researcher Harriet Mills
On the water
Production Shivani Pandrey
DTP Designer Almudena Díaz
DTP Assistant Pilar Morales Full steam ahead
Consultant Roger Bridgman
First published in Great Britain in 2005 by
Dorling Kindersley Limited On the road
80 Strand, London WC2R 0RL

A Penguin Company 18-19

2 4 6 8 10 9 7 5 3 1 In the air
Copyright © 2004 Dorling Kindersley Limited, London
A CIP catalogue record for this book
is available from the British Library. Blast off!
All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be
reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in 22-23
any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical,
photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior In the kitchen
written permission of the copyright owner.

ISBN 1-4053-0599-1 24-25

Colour reproduction by Colourscan, Singapore Everyday things
Printed and bound in Italy by L.E.G.O.

Discover more at A new material
The telephone
A world of sound
... and vision
Write it down!
Into the future
Glossary and Inventors
How to be an inventor
Have you ever thought of something Small be
that would make your life easier, or more Some inv
en t
Take th ions seem accide
fun? A time machine? A robot? Whatever needed s
e Post-i ®
t note. ntal.
omething Art
your invention is, to be successful, lots of church h
ymn book
to bookm Fry
other people will have to want it too. idea of u . He hit o k his
sing pape nt
new glue r notes w he
a colleag ith
Silver, h ue, Dr Sp a
ad deve encer
One invention sparks another loped.
Your invention doesn’t have to be a new idea.
You could improve on something that already
exists. James Dyson didn’t invent the vacuum The Star was
lightweight, The Dyson bagless
cleaner. He invented the bagless vacuum cleaner was a
but it still
cleaner – one that many people want to buy. needed hand huge development.
The first
Early This cleaner upright cleaner
vacuum had to be collected dust
cleaners pumped by in its canvas
were huge. hand – an sack.

1902 1908 1911 1920 1986

Never give up!
The electric light bulb is an invention that
really changed the world. But it didn’t come
easily. Thomas Edison thought it would take
six weeks to develop, but instead it took
more than a year. He famously claimed:
“I have not failed... I have just found
10,000 ways that will not work.”
Many people tried to invent the
light bulb. Edison and Joseph
4 Swan were the most successful.
Protect your invention
Once you have a brilliant
invention, you must patent it to
show that it was your invention,
so no one else can say it was theirs.
Patent applications are granted for This is a model of
a certain number of years. the Wright Flyer.

Another way
Draw a diagram of
your invention and w
all about it, then po rite
st all the informatio
yourself. The letter n to
will get a date Patent for the
stamped on it in th
e post, which proves Wright Flyer –
you thought of it be the first granted for
fore that
date. But remembe a flying machine.
r, do
not open it!
R em
emb l o pe
er, keep the enve Eureka?
d and keep it safe! •Many patent applications
are never developed, like the
one for a ladder to help spiders
climb out of the bath.

•Other patents include a

nappy for a pet bird, and
The bat rests one for an inflatable rug.
safely on two You can file a patent for
plastic clips while
all sorts of ideas.
a hook holds the
glove and ball.

A child inventor
At the age of nine,
Austin Meggitt
invented a device to hold Austin called his
invention the
his baseball equipment
“glove and battie
on the front of his bike. caddie”.
He filed his invention
at the US Patent
Office in 1998.

Fossils suggest that early
humans used tools.
From then to now
It is fascinating to take a look at the inventions
that have changed our lives over the centuries.
Just imagine life without wheels, or light bulbs, or
any of the other things that make life easier.

Making fire Wheel First ships Paper Printing press

page 8 page 9 page 12 page 40 page 41
c 2,000,000 BC c 7000 BC c 3500 BC c 2000 BC c 50 BC 1455
Where it all began ,
Early humans had very little. They From the first steps humans took
learnt to use stones as tools, and used
fire – though nobody knew how to
make it until about 9,000
years ago. But people
Light bulb
are quick learners. X-ray Petrol-powered page 29
page 39 car page 16
Brownie camera
page 32 1885 1878
1900 Electricity
Wright Flyer People had known about electricity for
page 18 some time before its use really took off in

the late 1800s. It was another key step

to the modern world.

page 36

Sputnik 1 1971
192 page 21 Microprocessor
1957 Personal computer
The microprocessor page 43
The microprocessor was yet another 1977
huge leap for humankind. Without
its invention, personal computers would
have been an impossible dream.
The Industrial Revolution
The modern world really began
with the birth of the factory
during the Industrial Revolution.
The factory brought together
workers and powered machinery,
and so speeded up production.

Spinning jenny Industrial Improved steam
Hot-air balloon First
page 10 engine page 10
Revolution page 18 photographic
1764 1769 1783 image page 32
people have never stopped inventing. Stephenson’s
page 14
2 9
Box telephone
page 22
1800s page 30
page 35
What’s next?
All sorts of people invent objects that
make our lives comfortable, or more fun.
Some inventions are simple, others the
result of years of research by
huge companies. We can
only imagine what the
future holds.

Mobile phone shuttle
page 31 page 20
Compact disc
1979 page 35
page 43
1981 1982 1983
Early inventions
At first,
fire came
from sparks.

Many of the things around us were invented

thousands of years ago. These are the things
whose invention was essential to life as
we know it: the control of fire,
farming, clothing, tools,
and transport.
From an open fire...

to fire in
a box.

Strike a light
Fire has been used for thousands of years,
but it was not until the invention of the
match in the 1800s that people had a
portable, safe, and easy source of fire.

Stone saws didn’t work very well.

The long- It’s all in the edge
handled axe hasn’t Like the axe, the main
changed much since improvement to the saw
its first appearance. The obvious came with a metal blade.
different is that a stone head has Serrated edge But the basic design, with its serrated,
been replaced with forged metal. jagged edge, stayed the same.

7000 BC 6000 BC 4000 BC 3500 BC

Making fire Axe Plough Wheel
Earliest example found Earliest example found First used in Sumeria Earliest example found
in Europe in Sweden in Mesopotamia
Plough s like Solid and small
this were used Some early wheels
The first
ploughs were
4,000 years ago. were made from
made of wood. solid discs of
wood. Before
that logs had
sometimes been
used as rollers.

Strong but heavy

Wheels made of
three planks held
together by struts
Power brings change became more
Farmers used ploughs in ancient Egypt
common, and are
to turn the soil ready for planting, but
Today’s ploughs still used in some
they used wooden ploughs pulled by
are made from areas of the world.
oxen. Today’s metal.
tractor has the
power of Getting lighter
hundreds Spokes first
of oxen. appeared when
sections were cut
out to lighten the
weight. It made
chariots possible.

New materials
The discovery that
rubber and metal
could be used for
That’s more comfortable! wheels brought
Do you wear trainers? They are probably made
about a wheel
from plastics and rubber. Early people used the
strong enough
materials around them to protect their feet –
to carry a car.
such as the reeds used for these Egyptian sandals.

2000 BC 2000 BC 1500 BC 1827

Spoked wheel Saw Shoes Matches
Earliest example found Earliest example found Earliest example found John Walker
in Mesopotamia in Egypt in Mesopotamia England
The Industrial Revolution
The Industrial Revolution began in Britain in Cloth is woven
on looms.
the 1700s and gradually spread to Europe,
taking new ideas and methods of doing
things. It was an important time. One area
of huge change was the cloth industry.

We need more thread

The 1700s saw the
invention of machines that
wove cloth more quickly.
The water frame, powered
by water, speeded up the
The thread was
making of the thread.
spun onto bobbins.

An injection of power
The discovery that steam could be
harnessed and used to power
machines speeded up industry. The
first steam engine sucked floodwater
out of mines,
The steam
allowing more turns wheels
coal to be mined. and cogs.

Keep on weaving Steam engines

Steam-powered looms first appeared in the appeared in
1780s. Edmund Cartwright, inventor of the the cloth
power loom, actually had no experience of industry.

weaving. He just saw a way to improve it.

1733 1764 1769 1769

Flying shuttle Spinning jenny Improved steam engine Water frame
John Kay James Hargreaves James Watt Richard Arkwright
England England Scotland England

The rise of the factory
u t io
s created pol l
As machines were invented that
needed power sources, so factories ac

were built to put them in. People
had to come to the factory instead SMASH IT UP!
of working from home. Not everybody welcomed the new
machines. In the early 1800s a group
of people went
around smashing
them up. They
were known as
the Luddites.
By 1816 they
had given up.
The machines
were here to stay!

An important metal
Another major invention
in the 1700s was the
increased production of
iron. Iron could now be
used in ways never
before dreamed of.

This factory is powered

by water driving a big Spinning
waterwheel. machines

A changing landscape
The Industrial Revolution
also saw huge changes in
everyday structures. This
iron bridge, the first in the
world, is still in use today.
The first iron buildings
were also put up.

1770 1779 1779 1785

Factories Spinning mule Iron bridge: Abraham Darby Power loom
Richard Arkwright Samuel Crompton (builder) & Thomas Pritchard Edmund Cartwright
England England (designer), England England
On the water
Thousands of years ago, someone wove a large
basket, covered it with animal hide, and used it
as a boat. This was a coracle. That
person would be amazed at the
variety of boats and ships A fast-moving jet-ski is just
that sail the seas today. one of today’s smaller craft.

Reed boat
Slow-moving coracles Some of the earliest boats were
are still in use today.
made from reeds. People making
these boats did so where there
Even the sail was was no supply of wood.
made of reeds.

Speed it up
The Phoenicians
are believed to have
developed the
“bireme”, a ship that
allowed for twice as
many oars as before.

Chinese junks
amazed explorers
with their single
steering oar rudders.

6000 BC 2000 BC 1100 BC 1200

Reed boat First ships Oars Rudder
Egypt Egypt Phoenicians China
Eastern Mediterranean
SS Great Britain A man of vision
This incredible ship Isambard Kingdom
was the first of its Brunel designed three
kind. It was a extraordinary ships in the
triumph for its 1800s, using the latest f lo
p a
designer, Brunel. technology of the time.
s hi
It was the first ge st
steamship built of
y 2 is the
iron, and the first ship

ueen Mar
built as a luxury liner.

e Q

Big for its time

If you’d lived in the
1200s, your first A modern giant
sighting of a This gigantic ship can
Chinese junk would carry 2,620 passengers,
have left you with 1,253 crew. It is
speechless. These more than three and a
were the largest half times the length of
SS Great Britain had a six-blade
ships in the world. propeller. Previous ocean-going
the SS Great Britain.
ships had side paddle wheels.

1807 1845 1955 1973

The Clermont SS Great Britain Hovercraft Jet-ski
Robert Fulton Isambard Kingdom Brunel Christopher Cockerell Clayton Jacobsen
USA England England USA
Full steam ahead
Horses had been pulling wagons along
tracks since the 1550s. As steam power
developed, some forward-thinking
inventors began to imagine the benefits of
steam locomotives replacing the horses.
George Stephenson
George Stephenson The first steam train
invented a train Chimney
History was made as Richard
and railway line Trevithick’s steam locomotive
that really worked; chuffed slowly along a cast-iron
not bad for a man track. The train managed
who had no schooling 8 kph (5 mph), but it was so
and couldn’t read heavy it broke the rails.
until he was 19.
The pistons move up Steam travels
and down as steam along this pipe to
is forced in and out. the pistons.

The Rocket
George Stephenson
and his son Robert
built the Rocket – the The driver
Boiler – water boils and
engine that finally makes steam.
stands here
and shovels
proved to people
coal into
that trains were Firebox – fire the firebox.
heats water in
faster and stronger
the boiler.
than horses. It went
a record-smashing
48 kph (30 mph),
easily beating any
other locomotives at
The wheels move round
the time. The railway as the pistons pump up
age had arrived! and down.

1769 1804 1825 1829

Efficient steam engine The first steam locomotive First railway – Stockton The Rocket
James Watt Richard Trevithick and Darlington George & Robert Stephenson
Scotland England England England
Making tracks US use wood
The first railway opened in 1825. It ran Early US steam
for 43 km (27 miles). You can now travel locomotives burnt
10,214 km (6,346 miles) from Russia to wood instead of coal.
North Korea without changing trains! The frame at the
front of this train
pushed cattle off
the track.
An 1880s woodburning train
It’s electric
This electric
locomotive is an
early version of
today’s high-speed
A train wheel’s lip, or flange, trains. Overhead
helps to prevent derailment. cables or a third rail
supply the power.
How does it work? Early electric train

Steam pumps the

pistons up and down. Diesel power
The pistons are Diesel-electric engines
joined to the need less servicing
front wheels, than steam trains.
Water barrel
so this makes They also don’t
them turn. need overhead
cables like electric
trains do.
Coal is stored here. The Burlington Zephyr

The future
High-speed electric
trains are already used
instead of planes for
short journeys in
Japan, France, and
Germany. People tend
to prefer them.
The Japanese Bullet train

1832 1879 1897 1964

Woodburning train Electric locomotive Diesel engine The Bullet train
Baldwin locomotive works Werner von Siemens Rudolf Diesel Central and West Japan
USA Germany Germany Railways, Japan
On the road
Before the invention of the car, people used
horses to move any great distance – or they
walked. Yet today many people could not lead
the lives they do without this machine.
The steam tractor was
the first self-propelled
Karl Benz
road vehicle, but it This man sold the first ever
was unstable. car. By 1896, about 130 Benz
cars were chugging about.
First car Benz never looked back.
The first “horseless carriage”,
the steam tractor, was never What a strange car
going to be a success. Its steam The first true cars had
engine was just too heavy for three lightweight
a road-bound vehicle. wheels, no roof, and
could only reach
13 kph (8 mph)!
The spoked
wheels were
bicycle wheels.

How it works
A practical car was only
developed because of one
important invention:
Étienne Lenoir’s internal
combustion engine.

1769 1859 1885 1891

Steam tractor Internal combustion engine Petrol-powered car Four-wheel car
Nicolas Cugnot Jean Joseph Étienne Lenoir Karl Benz Émile Levassor
France France Germany France
Internal combustion engine A new craze
An internal combustion engine burns The Benz Velo
fuel inside cylinders after an electrical was the first
spark is sent to start the fuel burning. car to sell in
Its invention led to smaller engines. significant
numbers. It
looked a little like
a horse carriage.

A car for all

Ford introduced the
mass production of
cars, which made
them cheaper. By
1927 more than
15 million Model Ts
had been sold.

On the road now

The four
pistons suck The cars we use today are powered
in a mixture by petrol, but one day petrol
of fuel and air. will run out so we
need to find an
A spark
ignites the source of
mixture of fuel power.
and air.

A possible alternative
WARNING! CAR COMING! This car has fuel cells that are
The Red Flag Act of 1865 said powered by hydrogen. The
that three people had to be in
charge of a “horse-less vehicle”
owner has to buy tanks
in England: two on board and of liquid or
one in front with a red flag. gaseous
The vehicle could only travel hydrogen.
at 3 kph (2 mph) in towns.

1893 1908 1959 1999

Licence plate Model T Ford Modern seat belts Fuel-cell (hydrogen) car
France Henry Ford Nils Bohlin Daimler-Chrysler
USA Sweden USA
In the air
People dreamed of taking to the skies for
hundreds of years, but the first aeroplane did not
take off until the 1900s. Imagine how incredible
Cluck, quack, baa that first flight was for its inventors, the Wrights.
The first creatures to
fly in a man-made
craft were a duck, a
An early dream
Wilbur and Orville Wright grew up
cockerel, and a sheep.
fascinated by flight. They longed to
They were sent up
find a way that they
in a hot-air balloon
could achieve it. 0
by the French
m( 1
Montgolfier brothers.
bout 3
ros ea
e r
The long narrow
wings had a
T he
slight curve.
r 1 2 se
s te d fo
li gh t la
The first f A movable
rudder helped
the steering.

The pilot lay on

the lower wing.

Let’s try again! An elevator moved

the nose up or down.
This is a replica of the
Wright Brothers’ Flyer, the first
aeroplane. The Flyer was the result The Flyer was made
of years of experiments and failures.
Yet the Wrights refused to give up.
of wood and cloth.

1505 1783 1853 1903

Leonardo da Vinci draws Hot-air balloon Glider Wright Flyer
flying machines Montgolfier brothers George Cayley Orville and Wilbur Wright
Italy France England USA
Sikorski R-4
It works on paper...
The first idea for a helicopter was
The first successful single-
sketched by Leonardo da Vinci 500 years
rotor helicopter flight. ago, but it took until 1940 to make a
successful machine. Today’s helicopters
can fly at speeds of up to 400 kph
(250 mph).

A jet success
This little aircraft
was one of the first
aeroplanes to be fitted with a
jet engine. Jet engines speeded up air Gloster E28/39
travel and paved the way for longer flights.

Concorde Speed queen

Concorde’s appearance in
the 1970s was exciting because it
was the fastest passenger aeroplane in the
world. It has travelled from New York
to London in less than three hours.

Boeing 747 (jumbo jet)

Getting bigger
The Superjumbo
is far larger than the
jumbo jet, currently
the world’s largest
passenger plane.
It will seat up to 555
A380 (Superjumbo)
passengers, on two decks
running its full length.

1930 1940 1969 2006

First jet engine Single rotor helicopter Concorde, British Aircraft Superjumbo A380
Frank Whittle, England, Igor Sikorsky Corporation (UK) & Airbus consortium
Hans von Ohain, Germany Russia/USA SudAviation (France) Europe
Blast off! •
Rocket facts
The first living creature in
space was a dog called Laika.
Glance into the night sky and you She was sent up in 1957.
may be lucky enough to see a • Many of the inventions
around us were developed for
satellite as it passes overhead. Yet use in space. Smoke detectors
were first used on Skylab!
the discovery that we can blast
•(23Sputnik 1 was 58 cm
into space is a recent one. in) wide.

Rocket man
Robert Goddard got little praise when
his liquid-fuelled rocket shot upwards
in 1926, but it was a key moment Return trips
in the history of space travel. The launch of
the space shuttle
The rocket only
reached the height Igniter Columbia in
of an 11-storey 1981 was
building. Rocket motor
watched by
Fuel line
Liquid oxygen
millions. This
line was the first
spacecraft that
Robert could be reused.

Fuel Alcohol
tank burner

Pipe leading to
oxygen cylinder

1926 1957 1959 1973

Liquid-fuelled rocket Sputnik 1 Space suit Space station
Robert Goddard Valentin Glushko & Sergey B.F. Goodrich Company NASA
Sputnik 1
Sputnik 1 was the world’s
Sputnik sent a
continuous “beep, first man-made satellite.
beep” signal back At little more than
to Earth.
the weight of an
adult human, this
Russian invention
was tiny – yet it took
just 98 minutes to
One of four orbit the Earth.
radio antennae.

Nine astronauts lived

on Skylab before it was
abandoned in 1974. Getting dressed for space
Before people could travel into
space, they needed special
clothing. The first space suit
A life in space was invented in 1959. It was
The first people to live hard and uncomfortably heavy.
successfully in space were
those on board the space
station Skylab. Skylab was Skylab collected power
launched in May 1973. from the sun by means of
its solar panels.

The Hubble space telescope

has more than 400,000 parts.
Let’s get closer!
Hubble was designed to send back clearer
images of far-off planets and galaxies than
could be obtained from Earth. The idea was
first suggested in 1946 by Dr Lyman Spitzer.

1981 1984 1990 2004

Space shuttle Manned maneuvering unit Hubble telescope Pathfinder on Mars
In the kitchen CAN IT
Most people have a store of tinned food.
Canning began as a means of
Have a good look in your kitchen. feeding French soldiers, with
When do you think the cooker was sealed glass jars of
food being placed
invented, and what about the fridge? in boiling water.
In 1810 a British
What about things like tea bags, inventor began to use tin
cans. It was ideal. In fact, a
or margarine? Everything can he sealed in 1818 was
has a history! opened, still fresh, in 1938.

You could buy an

expensive car for
the price of the first

Gas stove, c 1910 refrigerator, 1934

A slow start A cold start A happy accident

Zachaus Winzler gave The first practical Percy Spencer was studying
dinner parties in Austria refrigerator was built by radar when he felt a sticky
in 1802 using a gas cooker, Jacob Perkins in 1834, but mess in his pocket. The radar
but the idea didn’t spread like many inventors, he microwaves had melted a
until James Sharp began didn’t push his machine, peanut bar, and he’d found
making cookers in 1826. and others developed it. a new way of cooking.

1810 1826 1834 1869

Canned food Gas stove Refrigerator Margarine
Nicolas Appert, France, James Sharp Jacob Perkins Hippolyte Mège-Mouriés
Peter Durand, England England USA France
Fancy a cuppa?
It is believed that
tea bags were
invented when a tea
A shaky start merchant began
Fancy eating a mixture of beef fat, sending out tea samples
cow’s udder, milk, and pig’s stomach? in silk bags. People
Well, that’s what went into the poured boiling water
first margarine. It got a over the bag... and
prize for being the first ordered more.
butter substitute!

le, even a child Has it popped yet?

The first toaster p

for the home ca Charles Strite was so fed up of

was called the no burnt toast that he invented
oaster so

a pop-up toaster in 1919, but
perate it!”
the first toasters didn’t appear
in the home until 1926.
People loved them.
!A w

o At one point, the

“N inventor of sliced bread
tried holding the slices
together with hat pins!

A long wait
It took 16 years for Otto
Rohwedder to produce a
sliced bread that didn’t
go stale. He invented a
machine that sliced and
wrapped the loaf.

1908 1919 1928 1946

Tea bag Pop-up toaster Sliced bread Microwave oven
Thomas Sullivan Charles Strite Otto Rohwedder Percy LeBaron Spencer
Soap helps oil
and water mix.
Everyday things
Take a look around you. What things
do you use every day? We all wash
and clean our teeth, and perhaps you
have a pair of jeans. Where do you
think these things first came from?
No dirt on me!
Soap was originally A pig has its uses
made from a boiled Have you ever felt the back of
mixture of animal fat a pig? Pig hair is stiff and
and wood ashes. It scratchy, and before the 1930s
certainly didn’t smell it was ideal for making the
very good. Many soaps bristles of a toothbrush. The
still contain animal fat, handle was made from bone.

und of the zip bein

but the ashes have
been replaced – and he so
perfume added.
e fro op
cam en Bone handle

zip” ed
e “ an

Zip it up!
Whitcomb Judson
got so bored of lacing his
boots that he invented a boot
fastener. This early zip didn’t work
properly, but Gideon Sundback improved
it, and the zip as we know it was born.

c AD 150 c 1280 1767 1873

Soap Spectacles Jigsaw Jeans
Romans China or Italy John Spilsbury Jacob Davis and Levi Strauss
Italy England USA
I see more clearly now That goes there
Like many things, it’s The first jigsaw
hard to know who puzzle was made
invented spectacles, from a handpainted
but we do know map. It was used to
that they were in teach children
use in the 1200s. geography.
Early spectacles had no
arms and were hinged.
First teddy
“Teddy’s bears” were
A pair for life? first sold by a New York
Hardwearing and shop owner after an
tough, jeans were American president,
developed as a result Theodore “Teddy”
of a rush for gold in Roosevelt, refused
the USA in the to shoot and kill
1800s. This picture a bear cub.
shows one of the first
pairs produced. What shall we make?
These colourful plastic
bricks have only been
around for about 50
years. The name LEGO®
Stripes provided side
support to the
comes from the Danish
world’s first trainer, words leg godt,
launched in 1949. meaning “play well”.

Down... up, down... up

I didn’t know that! The yo-yo is believed to be
That ridged rubber sole on your the world’s second oldest toy
trainers began life in 1971 when after the doll, but it’s so old
an American athlete poured that nobody really knows
molten rubber into a waffle iron. when it first appeared. Like the
Don’t try this at home! doll, it is popular everywhere.

1902 1914 1949 1958

Teddy bear Zip Trainers LEGO®
Morris Michtom Gideon Sundback Adolf “Adi” Dassler Godtfred Christiansen
USA Sweden Germany Denmark
billiard balls
A new material
tended to How many things can you think of that
explode on
are made of plastic? Did you know that
there are many different varieties of
It started with a ball… man-made, or synthetic, plastics?
The discovery of the first usable Their invention changed the world.
plastic, celluloid, happened
because of the search for a new b asic ingredi r e...
e ents a
material to make billiard balls.
T h of PVC
PVC plastic
Oil Salt Water

+ + =
Expanded polystyrene keeps heat
These PVC dolls
in, stopping burnt fingers.
date from the
early 1950s.
A slow starter
It took 100 years to find a
polystyrene that was stable
enough to use. Most people
know things made from
expanded polystyrene,
but did you know that
cd cases are
polystyrene in
its pure form? Ready for rain
The material used for your raincoat,
PVC, was first created in 1872,
but the real leap forward was made
Expanded polystyrene is
by Waldo Semon in the 1920s.
made from foam pellets. He found a way to make it flexible.

1839 1869 1872 1905

Polystyrene Celluloid PVC (polyvinyl chloride) Bakelite™
Eduard Simon John Wesley-Hyatt Eugen Baumann Leo Baekeland
Germany USA Germany Belgium/USA
A real winner Polythene
Most plastics soften This was formed in an
with heat, others, like experiment that went
Bakelite™, set rock hard. wrong. Its inventors
After its discovery, were delighted – here
Bakelite was moulded was a new plastic that
into all sorts of items, was a perfect insulator
including thermos and could be easily
flasks, clocks, statues, moulded. This large
and telephones. Polythene balloon is polythene
bags don’t
sheet tubing.
“Dr West’s Miracle when thrown
Toothbrush” was the first away.
with nylon bristles.
Natural gas
Better than pig hair! e lon


o ™
Invented by an American Fl u
chemist called Wallace
Carothers, nylon
was first used
a ngest plastic ever?
for toothbrush r
t , st
ir es
bristles. Nylon
has been a hugely e

successful plastic.
li p

From saucepans to space

Teflon’s heat-resistance and
Plastic facts slipperiness makes it ideal for non-
• Plastics take different stick saucepans. It was also used
forms. For example, vinyl is to coat the Apollo spacesuits.
used to make hard pipes, but it
It was discovered by chemist
is also used for plastic wrap.
Roy Plunkett when the gas he
•Man-made spandex fibres was testing wouldn’t come
(Lycra™) will stretch to five
times their length, then return
out of its container. He
to their original form. found it had coated
the inside.

1933 1934 1938 1959

Polyethylene (polythene) Nylon Teflon™ Spandex fibre (Lycra™)
Eric Fawcett & Reginald Wallace Carothers Roy Plunkett Joseph C Shivers
Gibson, ICI, England USA USA USA
Electricity The metal Eiffel
Tower in France
is a magnet for
lightning strikes.
The inventions surrounding the
discovery of electricity have changed
our world. In some areas of the world it
is hard to imagine life without electric
lighting, or without the power for
telephones, televisions, and computers. A safe route
Franklin’s experiment led to his
Don’t try this! invention of the lightning
In 1752, Benjamin conductor. This is basically a
Franklin flew a kite metal rod placed at the top of
during a thunderstorm, buildings to attract lightning
having tied a key to and divert it to the ground.
the kite string, to test
Volta’s invention
his idea that lightning
was known as the
was electricity. Luckily Voltaic pile.
he survived! Discs of wet paper
were sandwiched
between two
different metals.

A pile of energy
Once scientists
learned more about
electricity, they tried
to make it themselves.
Alessandro Volta
managed to invent a
means of producing
and storing electricity.
It was the first battery.
Volta presented his
ideas to Napoleon.

1752 1800 1821 1831

Lightning conductor Voltaic pile (the first battery) Electric motor Generator and transformer
Benjamin Franklin Alessandro Volta Michael Faraday Michael Faraday
USA Italy England England
Swan invented the Thomas
glass bulb. Edison Edison
Calico found a filament
that would last
Iron for a long time.

Coils of
copper wire

n’s light came with a

E diso
Getting safer “ Do not a ttempt Whose bulb?
Michael Faraday invented Light bulbs were invented
the transformer. This to lig at about the same time in
important piece of equipment h t with a ma tch”! two different countries, by
converts high voltage Thomas Edison in America
electricity to low voltage, and Joseph Swan in England.
making it safer to use. It was a long process.

Light facts Power for all

• When electricity passes Power stations make
through a conductor, the enormous quantities of
conductor can glow. In a bulb, electricity to run all the
this is called a filament.
things we need electricity for.
• Edison tried and rejected
many materials for his
filament, including wood, cork,
grass, rubber, and human hair.

1878 1881 1882 1888

Light bulb Hydroelectric power Commercial power station, Wind turbine
Joseph Swan, England, England and electricity meter Charles Brush
Thomas Edison, USA Thomas Edison, USA USA
The telephone
Before the invention of the telephone, people
got in touch by letters that were carried by
horses. With the telephone, people were
able to talk instantly for the first time.
But it didn’t happen overnight.
Who invented it?
Alexander Graham Telegraph poles
Bell has always been connected cities.
credited with the The first telephone
invention of the Early telephones used a combined
telephone, but there mouthpiece and earpiece. Someone
is a lot of evidence spoke into the horn and their voice
that an Italian- was changed into electrical signals.
American, Antonio Bell’s first words were to his
Meucci, got there first. assistant, Mr Watson.

The back was

originally “Mr W
hidden in atson,
a box.

and earpiece.

Bell got people

Where did the voice go? interested in his
The messages were carried along a box telephone
by giving many
network of wires, at first held away talks and
from the ground by telegraph poles. demonstrations.
Some were later routed underground.
Before this, telegraph poles had been
used to transmit tapped messages.

1876 1879 1889 1900

Box telephone Wall-mounted phone Automatic telephone Candlestick phones
Alexander Graham Bell Thomas Edison exchange Europe/USA
Scotland USA Almon B Strowger, USA
Wall-mounted telephone
By 1879, Thomas Edison
had perfected a
telephone that had a
separate mouthpiece
and earpiece. The
user turned a handle
to ring the operator
and make it work.

Is that the operator? Candlestick telephone

In the 1880s, anybody making a telephone call Many telephones of the
had to go through an operator at a telephone early 1900s still had no
exchange. This made private calls impossible dial: the connection was
because the operator could listen in. The first made via a telephone
automatic telephone exchange appeared in 1891. exchange. The user lifted
the receiver to call
the operator.

e, I want you.” A single fibre can

Cradle telephone
e he
carry thousands of

telephone circuits. Telephones like this became
popular in the
1930s. Many
All wired up phones were
Early telephone cables made of wood
contained lots of or metal, but plastic
paper-insulated wires was appearing.
contained in a metal
casing. Many Mobile telephone
telephone circuits are Recognize this? The first
now connected by mobile phones were so
fibre-optic cables. large and heavy that they
were called “car phones”.
They certainly
weren’t pocket-sized!

1925 1979 2001 2002

Cradle phones (bakelite) Mobile phone US Congress Statute Camera phones
Europe/USA Bell Telephone declares Antonio Meucci’s Finland
Laboratories, USA part in telephone invention
In 1826 Joseph Niépce took the world’s first
photograph. The problem was that he had
to leave the camera still for eight hours.
Nonetheless, photography had been invented!
The first photograph shows a
view of roofs and chimneys. A plate was put into
the back
of the
Daguerre’s camera camera.
Niépce’s colleague, Louis Daguerre, developed
his invention and produced an image that
did not fade. He called his photographs
Daguerreotypes. One problem was that you
could only make one copy of the picture.

A new way
At the same time an
Englishman, William
Early Daguerreotypes
Fox Talbot discovered needed a 3–15-minute
a means of taking exposure time. That’s a
negatives. These long time to sit still!
could then be used to
make unlimited copies
of photographs.

The camera had

William Fox Talbot to rest on a
tripod to keep it
Talbot only looked into steady.
photography because he The Daguerreotype
was used for a good
was frustrated by his poor artwork. 20 years before
His discovery was the path to being abandoned.
the future of photography.

1826 1839 1889 1900

First photographic image Daguerreotype Roll film The Brownie
Joseph Niépce Louis Daguerre George Eastman George Eastman
France France USA USA
Speed it up a little! Photography for all
Photography still took time and In 1888 George Eastman
could be uncomfortable to sit invented film that could
for, but in 1851 Frederick be rolled and placed
Scott Archer introduced the inside a simple camera.
wet-plate process. It made He called it the Kodak
photography far faster. (a word he made up).
Photographs could be taken in
just 30 seconds in bright light.

One rather large problem

In 1900, enlargements could not be made.
If you wanted a big picture, the camera had
to be big! In 1900, George Lawrence built a
mega-sized camera to take shots of a train.

The first Kodak

camera weighed just
over 1 kg (2 lbs).

t point and sna

Jus p.

Lawrence’s camera needed

15 people to work it.

No need for film

Digital cameras work in the same
way as television cameras; they
don’t use film, but make electronic do not
pictures. These pictures are loaded use film.

onto a computer, where they

can be altered and printed out.

1931 1935 1948 1969

Electronic flash Colour film Polaroid camera Photo of Earth from Moon
Harold Edgerton Kodak Edwin Land Crew of Apollo 11
A world of sound
Today’s portable
radios show how
What is a radio? It brings us music,
bulky early
radios were.
news, and comedy, and all with the
flick of a switch. It is an incredible
invention because it keeps everybody
Let’s go “wire-less” in touch with what is
The key moment for the
invention of radio was the happening in the world.
discovery that messages could
Tall wooden towers
be sent without the need for held up the wires that
wires running from the sent and received
transmitter to the receiver. the messages.

Who’s he?
Guglielmo Marconi
sent the world’s first
radio messages when
he was just 20 years

old. He has long
been seen as

the inventor

of radio.
t fr

The wire-less station


One of Marconi’s earliest

radio stations, at Wellfleet,

Massachusetts, shows

how high the masts


Marconi’s radio

had to be to send station was pulled

and receive

down many years ago.

the signals.

1877 1887 1901 1924

Phonograph Gramophone First radio transmission First message sent from
Thomas Edison Emile Berliner across the Atlantic Ocean England to Australia
USA USA Guglielmo Marconi Guglielmo Marconi
Edison turned
Sound was the handle to A record
recorded on work the player has a
the cylinder. phonograph. needle on the
end of an arm.

From records...
Say that again, please A vinyl record stores
Progress with recorded sound came sound in grooves. The
a little earlier than that with radio. record can be played
The first recorded words, “Mary had using a needle, which
a little lamb”, were made by Thomas vibrates between the
Edison on his phonograph. walls of the groove.

usic cam gramop

m h
e out

of th

Audio cassette tape


e’s horn. to tapes...


A cassette tape
stores sound
in magnetic
patterns. A tape
recorder reads these.
Play that again to cds...
The gramophone A compact disc,
was invented by a cd, stores sound
German engineer in tiny pits on its
Emile Berliner. surface. It is read
Music could be The user had by a laser.
to turn a
recorded onto flat handle.
discs and played back, MP3 player

again and again.

to MP3
MP3 allows music to
be copied from the
Early discs were made
of shellac, a gummy Internet, organised,
substance that oozes and stored in a
from some insects. computer’s memory.

1948 1962 1982 1989

LPs (Long-playing records) Compact audio cassette Compact disc MP3
Peter Goldmark Philips Electronics Philips, Netherlands, and Fraunhofer Gesellschaft
USA Netherlands Sony Corporation, Japan Germany
... and vision
Imagine that you have never seen television.
One day, in a large shop, you see a “televisor”.
On its tiny screen is a flickering image of a face.
This is what greeted amazed
shoppers in a famous
Scotsman John Logie shop in London,
Baird televised the first England, in 1926.
moving image with his
televisor. Although this
machine was not used Let’s buy a televisor!
for long, Baird’s public About 1,000 televisors were
demonstrations fired Inside the televisor’s made between 1926 and 1934.
wooden casing was a
people’s enthusiasm large spinning disc.
However, one of its problems
for television. was that the picture and the
sound could not be seen and
Baird used a heard together. Many people
spinning Nipkow thought television had no future.
disc in his televisor.

Stooky Bill

Stooky Bill
The first image that John Logie Baird
transmitted was that of a dummy’s
head that he called Stooky Bill. His
first machine was made from a
hatbox, torch batteries, bits of old
wood, and knitting needles.

1884 1897 1926 1953

Nipkow disc Cathode ray tube Televisor First colour TV
Paul Nipkow Ferdinand Braun John Logie Baird broadcast
Germany Germany Scotland USA
Cathode ray tube
Inside a television
The cathode ray tube has
been at the heart of
electronic televisions since
they began to replace
televisors in 1936. This
strange-looking object
changes electricity into
the pictures that we
see on the screen.

e biggest t Coloured dots

“Th im
e- The picture you see
on your television

screen is made up

of 625 lines. The

er of all time?”

colour comes from

thousands of tiny
red, green, and blue
dots. The light from
these blends together
to form all the
With just colours you see
30 scan lines, on the screen.
the televisor
produced a
weak image.

This is a television from the 1950s, when colour

televisions were beginning to appear.

New developments
Today’s flat-screen
televisions don’t used
cathode ray tubes. Instead,
liquid crystals display the
picture on the screen.

1955 1956 1977 1988

First portable TV Remote control Pocket TV LCD television
Ekco Robert Adler Clive Sinclair Sharp
England USA England Japan
People have always practised medicine.
Early people used herbs, and the ancient
Chinese invented acupuncture. But many
of the medical instruments we use were not
invented until surprisingly recently.
Get the point This 19th-century Numb that pain
Vaccines are inhaler was used
Before the discovery of
medicines that to send patients
to sleep before anaesthetic to knock
stop people from surgery. somebody out, many
catching diseases.
patients having surgery had
Today we inject
to be tied or held down.
vaccines, but when Ether-soaked
The first anaesthetic was
first discovered they were sponges.
a liquid called ether.
simply wiped onto a cut because
syringes had not been invented. The surgeon sees
inside the patient and
controls the robotic arms
from this workstation.

Lister’s use of
antiseptic spray
helped to keep
operating theatres

Preventing infection
Doctors in the mid-1800s did not
know that germs on dirty clothes,
hands, and equipment caused disease.
Fortunately, along came Joseph Lister
with his antiseptic spray, which killed germs.

1798 1819 1846 1866

Vaccine Stethoscope Anaesthetic Clinical thermometer
Edward Jenner René Laënnec William Morton Thomas Allbutt
England France USA England
It began with a mould
Penicillin, the first antibiotic,
was discovered by Alexander
Fleming. He was growing
bacteria when he noticed
some had been killed by a
mould. He used the mould to
make penicillin. It was later
developed by Ernst Chain
and Howard Florey.
The German physicist who produced the Dead bacteria
x-ray image above of his wife’s hand was surround the
staggered by his accidental invention.
Here was a way of seeing through skin. Penicillium

The robotic arms are

m ou
operated by remote

Ap ic
articular pen e
is u h
sed to make t .
pen c
icillin antibioti

Robotic help
Some surgeons today use robots This is a
to perform operations. The magnified
surgeon then has three, steady picture of the
robot hands to use, which can mould.
work through smaller cuts in the
patient. This means that there is
less pain for the patient, and it
takes less time to heal.

1867 1895 1921 1999

Antiseptic X-rays Band aids Robotic surgical system
Joseph Lister Wilhelm Röntgen Earle Dickson Intuitive Surgical, Inc.
Scotland Germany USA USA
Write it down!
Green Do you keep a diary? You certainly write notes at
outer rind
school. Keeping records in this way is something
that would be impossible without the invention of
something to write on – paper – and something to
write with – pencils and pens.
The inner fibres
are used to make
papyrus sheets. It flies across the page!
Believe it or not, some early
Strip by strip pens were made from goose
About 5,000 years feathers and called quills.
ago the ancient The tip was sharpened to
Egyptians a point, and the quill pen
discovered how to dipped in ink. Quill scribes
use papyrus, a produced beautiful writing.
waterside reed, to
make parchment.
Strips of the inner The tip was
The hollow feather
only held a small
fibres were laid sharpened
amount of ink.
and slit.
down, then a second
layer was pressed on Reed pens were
dipped in an ink
top. The result was made of
dried in the sun. soot and glue.

We have paper
Paper was invented in
China some 2,000 years
ago, but its invention was
actually kept a secret for
700 years. Paper can be
made from the fibres of
certain plants, and from
cotton or linen rags.

c 3100 BC c 3000 BC c 220 BC c 50 BC

First writing Papyrus Standardised Chinese Paper
Sumeria Egypt writing China
Pencil Ballpoint pen Felt-tip pen
The “lead” inside The tiny ball inside The nib of a felt-
a pencil is actually a ballpoint pen’s nib tip pen is made of
made of graphite rolls as you write, nylon fibres, which
(a form of carbon), taking ink from the soak up ink from
combined with clay. pen onto the page. the pen’s body.

Printing then
Hand lettering was slow.
Things speeded up with the
invention of the printing press.
Whole pages of a book could
now be set up and inked
from movable type. Printing now
Movable type is
Most books and
reversed. It prints the newspapers today
right way around. are printed on
massive machines
called web presses.
A book is designed
on a computer, and
then printed on a
large sheet of paper,
which is later cut up
into pages. It is
much faster than
hand lettering or
Setting type Printing press using movable type!

c AD 500 1455 1565 1938

Quill pen Letterpress printing Pencil Ballpoint pen
Europe Johann Gutenberg Conrad Gesner Ladislao and Georg Biró
Germany Germany Hungary

Computers are special machines and their
invention has changed our world. They are used
for numerous tasks, from booking holidays and
designing books to guiding aeroplanes.
Charles Babbage The first computer?
the first computer?
Babbage is sometimes thi s In 1832 Charles Babbage
called the “father of Wa drew up plans for a
computing”. His plans calculating machine called
for calculating a Difference Engine.
machines were very It wasn’t a computer,
advanced, but they but it was a beginning.
were never fully
built because he
ran out of money.

Moving on
The Difference
Engine would have
had an estimated
25,000 parts.
Babbage went
on to invent a
machine that
did have many
characteristics of a
modern computer.

A part of Babbage’s
Difference Engine No. 2
was built in 1991.
It worked perfectly.

1832 1945 1947 1958

Difference Engine ENIAC Transistor Integrated
Charles Babbage United States Army J. Bardeen, W. Brattain, circuit
England USA and W. Shockley, USA Jack Kilbey, USA
The Internet
The birth of Eniac began as a means
The first all-purpose of linking military
electronic computer, computers.

Eniac, filled a large

room. It depended
The Internet
on 18,000 glass tubes now links
called valves, which millions of
led to overheating

A new solution
The invention of the transistor got
around the problem of valves. It is
First basically an electronic on-off
transistor switch, and it led the way to
making things smaller,
and cheaper.

Silicon chip
Today’s computers
The Internet
The Internet allows
contain millions of transistors placed on Some silicon
chips are so tiny
computers all around the
tiny slices of silicon. With the invention
that an ant can world to link up to each
of the silicon chip, or integrated circuit, pick them up. other. It provides an easy,
computers got even smaller. quick, and cheap method
of communication.
This will sell it!
It’s an interesting fact that
the first computer game,
Space War, was invented
to help sell a computer.
The computer had a
circular screen.

1965 1971 1977 1983

Computer mouse Microprocessor Personal computer Internet
Doug Engelbart Ted Hoff Stephen Wozniak and J. C .R. Licklider,
USA USA Steve Jobs, USA Larry Roberts, USA
Into the future
What inventions will appear in the next
hundred years? What would you like to see?
The inventions of the future are ready and
waiting for somebody to come along and
It looks so real! unlock their secrets.
Scientists are working on a
TV image that can be
watched in 3D. You’d be able
to walk around the image and
see it from different angles.

Make me invisible
This clever invention makes it
appear as if its wearer is see-through.
A tiny camera films what is going on
behind the wearer’s back, and this
is shown on the front.
Results of a “smell” test
are printed on a
An intelligent kitchen
computer screen. These cooks are actually
scientists. They are trying
out a computer “nose” that
can tell how fresh a food is
and suggest things to add
to cook up a dish.

Future facts
• Imagine pressing a button
on the spine of a book to
change the text inside. It’s
called electronic text, and it’s
being developed right now.

• How about a computer so

tiny that it’s built into a pair of
sunglasses. Be online in the
blink of an eye!
Teeny tiny robots
The future of transport? Nanorobots may be one
One hundred years ago, the of the major inventions to
first aeroplane had just taken come in medicine. These
to the skies. Who knows will be so tiny that they
what the future of transport can attack infections
will be – perhaps we will from inside the body.
have traffic jams in the sky!

Diseased human cell


ou ld be
w e c cars!
t ure f lying
e fu ng
h ivi

Help at any cost?

One day, robot companions
may be a part of every home... but
not yet. This little helper may be able
to walk and sing and kick a ball, but
it would cost as much as a luxury car.

Here are the meanings of some words it is useful
to know when learning about inventions.

Antibiotics medicines that kph this stands for “kilometres Rocket a machine that
work by killing bacteria. per hour”, a measurement of carries its own fuel and
Battery a container that uses an object’s speed. oxygen so that it can propel
chemicals to store electricity. Orbit the path an object takes itself through space.

Electricity a form of energy that as it circles a larger body. Man- Silicon a dark grey, hard
is used to provide heat and made satellites orbit Earth. substance that looks rather like
light, and to power all sorts Paddlewheel huge wheels with metal but is not a metal. It is
of machines. paddles that were used to move used to make silicon chips.

Fuel something that can be boats and ships before the Steam-powered a machine
burned to give heat, such as invention of the propeller. that works because
petrol for a car engine. Patent a document granted by of the power of
a country’s government stating steam, produced
Industrial Revolution a period when water boils.
of rapid change, which began in that a person is the first to
the 1760s and saw the birth of invent something. It protects Technology the
factories, powered machinery, their rights to that invention. methods used to
and an increasing use of iron. Propeller a shaft fitted with make objects and
blades that spins to move a ship machines.
Internal combustion engine a
machine inside which fuel burns or propeller plane. Transmitter the part
to create power. Radar a way of using radio of a machine that
to detect objects that are sends sound
Jet engine an engine that takes or signals.
in air from outside, heats it up, not in sight.
and pumps it out again to Receiver the part of a machine
push itself forwards. that collects sound or signals.
Most of the inventors found in this book are listed here, along with the page number on
which they can be found, the dates of their birth and death, and their invention.

Archer, Frederick da Vinci, Leonardo 19 Lenoir, Étienne 16 Spencer, Percy 22

Scott 33 1452-1519 Artist, inventor, 1822-1900 Internal 1894-1970 Microwave oven
and scientist combustion engine
1813-1857 Wet-plate
photography Daguerre, Louis Stephenson, George 14
32 Lister, Joseph 38
1781-1848 The Rocket
1787-1851 Daguerreotype 1827-1912 Antiseptic
Babbage, Charles 42
1791-1871 Calculating Dyson, James 4 Marconi, Guglielmo 34 Swan, Joseph 4, 29
machines 1947- Bagless vacuum 1828-1914 Electric light bulb
1874-1937 Radio
cleaner transmissions
Baird, John Logie 36
Talbot, William Fox 32
1888-1946 Televisor Eastman, George 33
Meggitt, Austin 5 1800-1877 Negative
1854-1932 Roll film photographic images
1988- Glove & battie caddie
Bell, Alexander
Graham 30 Edison, Thomas 4, 29, Trevithick, Richard 14
31, 35
Meucci, Antonio, 30
1847-1922 Telephone 1808-1896 Telephone 1771-1833 Steam locomotive
1847-1931 Edison patented
more than 1200 inventions,
Berliner, Emile 35
including the electric light bulb Montgolfier, Joseph Volta, Alessandro 28
1851-1929 Gramophone and the phonograph and Etienne 18 1745-1827 Voltaic pile (the
1740-1810 (Joseph); 1745-1799 first battery)
Brunel, Isambard Faraday, Michael 29 (Etienne) Hot-air balloon
Kingdom 13 1791-1867 Transformer Walker, John 9
1806-1859 New uses of iron, Niépce, Joseph 1781-1859 Matches
including ships and bridges Fleming, Alexander 39 Nicéphore 32
1881-1955 Penicillin
1765-1833 First
Watt, James 10
Carothers, Wallace 27
Franklin, Benjamin 28 photographic image 1736-1819 Improved steam
1896-1937 Nylon engine
1706-1790 Lightning
conductor Perkins, Jacob 22
Cartwright, Edmund 1766-1849 Refrigerator Wright, Wilbur and
10 Goddard, Robert H 20 Orville 18
1743-1823 Steam-powered 1882-1945 Liquid-fuelled Röntgen, Wilhelm 39 1867-1912 (Wilbur); 1871-1948
loom rocket 1845-1923 X-rays (Orville) First aeroplane

aeroplanes 18-19
anaesthetic 38
antiseptic 38
audio cassette 35
internal combustion engine pencil 41
space shuttle 7, 20, 21
space suit 20, 21
spectacles 24, 25
spinning jenny 7, 10
16, 17 penicillin 39 Sputnik 1 6, 21
battery 28 Internet 7, 43 personal computer 6, 43 steam engine 7, 10, 14
boats 12-13 iron 11 phonograph 7, 34, 35 Stephenson’s Rocket 7, 14
camera 6, 32-33 photograph 7, 32
jeans 24, 25 telephone 7, 30-31
canned food 22 plastic 26-27
jet-ski 12, 13 television 36-37
car 6, 16-17, 44-45 plough 8, 9
jigsaw puzzle 24, 25 televisor 6, 36
compact disc 7, 35 printing press 6, 41
LEGO™ 25 toaster 23
Difference Engine 42 radio 34 tools 8
light bulb 4,
refrigerator 7, 22 toothbrush 24, 27
electricity 7, 28-29 6, 29
robots 39, 45 trainers 25
LPs 35
factory 10-11 ships 6, 13 trains 14-15
fire 6, 8 margarine 22,
shoes 9 vaccine 38
gas stove 22 matches 8, 9 vacuum cleaner 4
Gramophone 34, 35 microprocessor wheel 6, 8, 9
helicopter 19 6, 43 Wright Flyer 5, 18-19
hot-air balloon 7, 18 mobile phone
7, 31 x-ray 6, 39
hovercraft 13
Hubble 21 paper 6, 40 zip 24, 25
Industrial Revolution 7, patent 5
10-11 pen 41 Aibo, a robot dog
invented by Sony, Japan

Acknowledgements Images: 32tl, 32bcl, 38clb; Kawasaki (UK)/Jet Skier & PW Magazine 13br; Levi
Strauss & Co: 24br, 25cl; Marconi Corporation Plc 34b; Marshall Editions: 15tr,
15cra, 15crb, 15bl, 15bc, 15bcl, 15bcr; NASA: 20c, 20clb, 20br, 21c, 21bl; Johnson
Dorling Kindersley would like to thank: Space Center 21bcl, 27crb; Langley Research Center 21tr; National Geographic
Louise Halsey for original artwork, Pilar Morales for digital artworks, Penny Image Collection: George Grall 30(background); Nikon: 33bl; Novosti (London):
Arlon and Elinor Greenwood for editorial assistance, and Sarah Mills, Karl 21br; Robert Opie Collection: 24cb, 24bcr, 25tr; Philips Consumer Electronics:
Stange, and Hayley Smith for picture library assistance. 37crb, 37br; Picture Desk: Advertising Archive 23cl, 23bcl; National Plastics
Center and Museum: 26cr, 26bcr, 27cl, 27bcl; 22cr, 23br;
Powerstock: age fotostock/Liane Cary 33crb; SuperStock 7crb, 45(background);
Picture credits 15br cla; Rex Features: Alain Lockyear 12tl; Sipa Press 13cr;
Science & Society Picture Library: National Museum of Photography Film &
The publisher would like to thank the following for their kind permission to reproduce
Television 30bcr, 31tl, 32cl, 32cr, 32bc, 32bcr, 33cra, 33bcr; Science Museum 4cll,
their photographs:
5tc, 6bc(detail), 6cbl, 10cla, 10bl, 10br, 10-11c, 10bcl, 11bc, 11br, 11bcl, 12c, 12cr-
(Key: a=above; c=centre; b=below; l=left; r=right; t=top) 13cl, 12bcr, 13bcl, 16bcl, 18c, 18br, 19cra, 19bl, 22c, 22bcr, 27tl, 26br, 31crb, 31bc,
33br, 34tl, 34cb, 34br, 36clb, 36bl, 37bcl, 38cla, 38bc, 42tl, 42bl, 42b, 42bcr, 43cl,
adidas-Salomon AG: 25clb, 25bcr; Alvey & Towers: 15ca; Amazing Kids!: Anne
43bc, 43bcr, 47tl; Science Photo Library: 16tr, 30tl, 32bl; George Bernard 31bcr; Dr.
Meggitt 5br; Associated Press AP: 44c; Mark Wagner 19crb;
Jeremy Burgess 26bl; Jean-loup Charmet 28cra; Christian Darkin 45t; Roger Harris
Bridgeman Art Library, London/New York: British Museum 40cl, 40bcl; Private
17cl; James Holmes/Zedcor 27tr; Chris Knapton 11l, Los Alamos National
Collection 10cl; Roger Bridgman: 37tr; Corbis: 8(background), 15cla, 30br, 39tr;
Laboratory 42bcl, 43tl; Peter Menzel 38-39b, 39br, 44bl; Hank Morgan 44tr; Susumu
Paul Almasy 33car; Bettmann 4bl, 11crb, 18ca, 19bcl, 19tl, 28cl, 28bl, 29tr, 33cl, 35c,
Nishinaga 35ca; David Parker 28-29; Andrew Syred 41cla, 41ca, 41cra, 43c; Sony
37cl, 39tl, 39bc; Clouds Hill Imaging Ltd 39r(background); W. Cody
Corporation: 34tl1, 45br, 48c; Sony Ericsson: 31br; SS Great Britain Trust: 13cbr;
14l(background); Gianni Dagli Orti 8bcr, 9tl; Digital Art 31cl; Robert Estall 11clb,
Getty Images: Eryk Fitkau 17bcr; Hulton Archive 13bcr, Fox Photos 36-37b; Image
11bcr; Dennis Galante 26-27(background); Richard Hamilton Smith 12tr; Hulton-
Bank 37c(inset); Klaus Lahnstein 38tl; Taxi/B C Moller 41crb; David Zelick 3r;
Deutsch Collection 13tcl, 14tl, 33tc, 36tl, 36ca; Polak Matthew/Sygma 25crb, 25br;
Texas Instruments Limited: 42br; 36br, 37cr, 37bcr; Special
W. Perry Conway 28tl, 28tr; Sergio Pitamitz 12-13(background); Bob
Collections and Archives, Wright State University: 5tr; 25c;
Rowan/Progressive Image 12crb, 12br; Sygma 19br, 19bra, 21br; Jim West/ZUMA
Zefa Picture Library: Masterfile/J. A. Kraulis 16, 46-47(background).
17crb, 17br; William Whitehurst 35br; John Wilkes Studio 23cr, 23bcr; DK Images:
Timeline pages 6 - 7 Chronological image nos 1 - 26: 1) DK Images: Hunterian
American Museum of Natural History 39cr; Beaulieu Motor Museum 9crb, 16tl, 17tr,
Museum/Harry Taylor; 2) DK Images: Dave King; 3) DK Images: Science Museum;
17cra, 17bcl, 47clb, 47bc; British Airways 19cr, 47tr; British Library: 40cr, Lawrence
4) DK Images: Science Museum; 5) DK Images: Dave King; 6) DK Images: Saint
Pardes 40clb; British Museum 40cb,40bl, Peter Hayman 9clb, 9bcr; Stephen Conlin
Bride Printing Library; 7) & 8) Science & Society Picture Library: Science Museum;
7tr; Cooper Hewitt National Design Museum 2tl, 31cr, 31bcl; Dyson Museum 4crr;
9) DK Images: Science Museum; 10) Hulton Archive/Getty Images; 11) DK
Gables 29br; Simon Miles 6-7cb; NASA/Finley Holiday Films 43r(background);
Images: National Railway Museum, York/Mike Dunning; 12) Science & Society
National Maritime Museum 12cl, 12bl, 12cbl; National Railway Museum,York 14-
Picture Library: Science Museum; 13) & 14) DK Images; 15) DK Images: Science
15c, 14br, 46b; Stephen Oliver 28cbr; Robert Opie 4cl, 4c, 4cr, 22bc, 22l, 24car, 32br;
Museum; 16) DK Images: Beaulieu Motor Museum; 17) Corbis: Bettmann; 18) DK
Saint Bride Printing Library 41bc; Saxon Village Crafts 24bcl, 27tl; Science Museum
Images: Robert Opie; 19) Science & Society Picture Library: Science Museum; 20)
8clb, 8br, 8bcl, 9tr, 10bcr, 10cbr, 12bcl, 14bl,18tl, 18bcl, 24(background), 25clb,
DK Images: Glasgow Museum; 21) DK Images; 22) & 23) Science & Society
28crb, 28bcl, 28bcr, 29bcr, 31clb, 36bcl, 38c, 38bcr, 46tl; Dave King 9br, 22bl, 34bl,
Picture Library: Science Museum; 24) NASA; 25) & 26) DK Images.
34bc, 35tl, 35bc; Clive Streeter 28br; Matthew Ward 6bl; Mary Evans Picture
Library: 13bl, 28cb; Ford Motor Company Ltd: 17cr,47bcr; Hulton Archive/Getty All other images © Dorling Kindersley