Anda di halaman 1dari 31

PROBLEMARIO

MÁQUINAS DE
FLUIDOS
COMPRESIBLES
E J E R C I C I O S P R O P U E S TO S
CICLO RANKINE
I D E A L , R E A L , R E C A L E N TA M I E N T O Y
R E G E N E R AT I V O .
IDEAL
• Steam is the working fluid in the ideal Rankine cycle 1–2–
3–4–1 and in the Carnot cycle 1–2–3’–4’–1 that both
operate between pressures of 1.5 bar and 60 bar as
shown in the T–s diagram in Fig. P8.3. Both cycles
incorporate the steady flow devices shown in Fig. 8.2. For
each cycle determine (a) the net power developed per
unit mass of steam flowing, in kJ/kg, and (b) the thermal
efficiency. Compare results and comment.
IDEAL
• Figure P8.13 provides steady-state operating data for a solar power plant
that operates on a Rankine cycle with Refrigerant 134a as its working fluid.
The turbine and pump operate adiabatically. The rate of energy input to the
collectors from solar radiation is 0.3 kW per m2 of collector surface area,
with 60% of the solar input to the collectors absorbed by the refrigerant as
it passes through the collectors. Determine the solar collector surface area,
in m2 per kW of power developed by the plant. Discuss possible operational
improvements that could reduce the required collector surface area.
REAL
• Una central eléctrica de vapor opera en el ciclo que se muestra en la figura
10-5. Si las eficiencias isentrópicas de la turbina y la bomba son de 87 por
ciento y de 85 por ciento, respectivamente, determine a) la eficiencia térmica
del ciclo y b) la salida de potencia neta de la central para un flujo másico de
15 kg/s.
REAL
• The ideal Rankine cycle 1–2–3–4–1 of Problem 8.3 is modified to
include the effects of irreversibilities in the adiabatic expansion and
compression processes as shown in the T–s diagram in Fig. P8.15. Let
T0 = 300 K, p0 = 1 bar.
• Determine (a) the isentropic turbine efficiency. (b) the rate of exergy
destruction per unit mass of steam flowing in the turbine, in kJ/kg. (c)
the isentropic pump efficiency. (d) the thermal efficiency.
RECALENTAMIENTO IDEAL
• Steam is the working fluid in the ideal reheat cycle shown in Fig. P8.27
together with operational data. If the mass flow rate is 1.3 kg/s,
determine the power developed by the cycle, in kW, and the cycle
thermal efficiency.
RECALENTAMIENTO REAL
• Steam is the working fluid in the vapor power cycle with reheat
shown in Fig. P8.35 with operational data. The mass flow rate is 2.3
kg/s, and the turbines and pump operate adiabatically. Steam exits
both turbine 1 and turbine 2 as saturated vapor. If the reheat pressure
is 15 bar, determine the power developed by the cycle, in kW, and the
cycle thermal efficiency.
RECALENTAMIENTO
• An ideal Rankine cycle with reheat uses water as the
working fluid. As shown in Fig. P8.36, the conditions at the
inlet to the first turbine stage are 1600 lbf/in.2, 1200°F
and the steam is reheated to temperature T3 between
the turbine stages at a pressure of 200 lbf/in.2 For a
condenser pressure of 1 lbf/in.2, plot the cycle thermal
efficiency versus reheat temperature and plot the cycle
thermal efficiency versus quality of the steam at the
second-stage turbine exit for the reheat temperature
ranging from 600°F to 1200°F.
REGENERATIVO (ABIERTO)
REGENERATIVO
• Water is the working fluid in an ideal regenerative Rankine cycle.
Superheated vapor enters the turbine at 10 MPa, 480°C, and the
condenser pressure is 6 kPa. Steam expands through the first-stage
turbine to 0.7 MPa where some of the steam is extracted and diverted to
an open feedwater heater operating at 0.7 MPa. The remaining steam
expands through the second-stage turbine to the condenser pressure of
6 kPa. Saturated liquid exits the feedwater heater at 0.7 MPa. Determine
for the cycle (a) the heat addition, in kJ per kg of steam entering the first-
stage turbine. (b) the thermal efficiency. (c) the heat transfer from the
working fluid passing through the condenser to the cooling water, in kJ
per kg of steam entering the first-stage turbine. Reconsider the analysis
assuming the pump and each turbine stage have an isentropic efficiency of
80%. Investigate the effects on cycle performance as the feedwater
heater pressure takes on other values. Construct suitable plots and
discuss for the cycle
REGENERATIVO
• A power plant operates on a regenerative vapor power cycle with
one open feedwater heater. Steam enters the first turbine stage at 12
MPa, 560°C and expands to 1 MPa, where some of the steam is
extracted and diverted to the open feedwater heater operating at 1
MPa. The remaining steam expands through the second turbine stage
to the condenser pressure of 6 kPa. Saturated liquid exits the open
feedwater heater at 1 MPa. The net power output for the cycle is 330
MW. For isentropic processes in the turbines and pumps, determine:
(a) the cycle thermal efficiency. (b) the mass flow rate into the first
turbine stage, in kg/s. (c) the rate of entropy production in the open
feedwater heater, in kW/K.
REGENERATIVO
• Reconsider the cycle of previous Problem as the feedwater heater
pressure takes on other values. Plot the cycle thermal efficiency, cycle
work per unit mass entering the turbine, in kJ/kg, the heat transfer
into the cycle per unit mass entering the turbine, in kJ/kg, the fraction
of steam extracted and sent to the feedwater heater, the mass flow
rate into the first turbine stage, in kg/s, and the rate of entropy
production in the open feedwater heater, in kW/K, versus feedwater
heater pressure ranging from 0.3 to 10 MPa.
REGENERATIVO
• Water is the working fluid in an ideal regenerative Rankine cycle with
one closed feedwater heater. Superheated vapor enters the turbine at
10 MPa, 480°C, and the condenser pressure is 6 kPa. Steam expands
through the first-stage turbine where some is extracted and diverted
to a closed feedwater heater at 0.7 MPa. Condensate drains from the
feedwater heater as saturated liquid at 0.7 MPa and is trapped into
the condenser. The feedwater leaves the heater at 10 MPa and a
temperature equal to the saturation temperature at 0.7 MPa.
Determine for the cycle (a) the heat transfer to the working fluid
passing through the steam generator, in kJ per kg of steam entering
the firststage turbine. (b) the thermal efficiency. (c) the heat transfer
from the working fluid passing through the condenser to the cooling
water, in kJ per kg of steam entering the first-stage turbine.
REGENERATIVO
• As indicated in Fig. P8.52, a power plant similar to that in Fig. 8.11 operates on a
regenerative vapor power cycle with one closed feedwater heater. Steam enters
the first turbine stage at state 1 where pressure is 12 MPa and temperature is
560°C. Steam expands to state 2 where pressure is 1 MPa and some of the steam
is extracted and diverted to the closed feedwater heater. Condensate exits the
feedwater heater at state 7 as saturated liquid at a pressure of 1 MPa, undergoes a
throttling process through a trap to a pressure of 6 kPa at state 8, and then enters
the condenser. The remaining steam expands through the second turbine stage to
a pressure of 6 kPa at state 3 and then enters the condenser. Saturated liquid
feedwater exiting the condenser at state 4 at a pressure of 6 kPa enters a pump
and exits the pump at a pressure of 12 MPa. The feedwater then flows through the
closed feedwater heater, exiting at state 6 with a pressure of 12 MPa. The net
power output for the cycle is 330 MW. For isentropic processes in each turbine
stage and the pump, determine. (a) the cycle thermal efficiency. (b) the mass flow
rate into the first turbine stage, in kg/s. (c) the rate of entropy production in the
closed feedwater heater, in kW/K. (d) the rate of entropy production in the steam
trap, in kW/K.
REGENERATIVO
• Reconsider the cycle of the previous Problem, but include in the
analysis that each turbine stage and the pump have isentropic
efficiencies of 83%.
EXAMEN 1
• Figure P8.79 provides steady-state operating data for a cogeneration
cycle that generates electricity and provides heat for campus buildings.
Steam at 1.5 MPa, 280°C, enters a two-stage turbine with a mass flow
rate of 1 kg/s. A fraction of the total flow, 0.15, is extracted between
the two stages at 0.2 MPa to provide for building heating, and the
remainder expands through the second stage to the condenser
pressure of 0.1 bar. Condensate returns from the campus buildings at
0.1 MPa, 60°C and passes through a trap into the condenser, where it
is reunited with the main feedwater flow. Saturated liquid leaves the
condenser at 0.1 bar. Determine (a) the rate of heat transfer to the
working fluid passing through the boiler, in kW. (b) the net power
developed, in kW. (c) the rate of heat transfer for building heating, in
kW. (d) the rate of heat transfer to the cooling water passing through
the condenser, in kW.
EXAMEN 2
• Consider a cogeneration system operating as shown in Fig. P8.80.
Steam enters the first turbine stage at 6 MPa, 540°C. Between the
first and second stages, 45% of the steam is extracted at 500 kPa and
diverted to a process heating load of 5x108 kJ/h. Condensate exits the
process heat exchanger at 450 kPa with specific enthalpy of 589.13
kJ/kg and is mixed with liquid exiting the lower-pressure pump at 450
kPa. The entire flow is then pumped to the steam generator pressure.
At the inlet to the steam generator the specific enthalpy is 469.91
kJ/kg. Saturated liquid at 60 kPa leaves the condenser. The turbine
stages and the pumps operate with isentropic efficiencies of 82% and
88%, respectively. Determine (a) the mass flow rate of steam entering
the first turbine stage, in kg/s. (b) the net power developed by the
cycle, in MW. (c) the rate of entropy production in the turbine, in
kW/K.
EXAMEN 3
• Figure P8.82 shows a cogeneration cycle that provides power and process
heat. In the steam cycle, superheated vapor enters the turbine at 40 bar,
440°C and expands isentropically to 1 bar. The steam passes through a
heat exchanger, which serves as a boiler of the Refrigerant 134a cycle and
the condenser of the steam cycle. The condensate leaves the heat
exchanger as saturated liquid at 1 bar and is pumped isentropically to the
steam generator pressure. The rate of heat transfer to the working fluid
passing through the steam generator of the steam cycle is 13 MW. The
Refrigerant 134a cycle is an ideal Rankine cycle with refrigerant entering
the turbine at 16 bar, 100°C. The refrigerant passes through a heat
exchanger, which provides process heat and acts as a condenser for the
Refrigerant 134a cycle. Saturated liquid exits the heat exchanger at 9 bar.
Determine (a) the mass flow rate of steam entering the steam turbine, in
kg/s. (b) the mass flow rate of Refrigerant 134a entering the refrigerant
turbine, in kg/s. (c) the percent of total power provided by each cycle. (d)
the rate of heat transfer provided as process heat, in kW.
PROYECTO 1
• Referring to Fig. 8.12, if the fractions of the total flow entering the
first turbine stage (state 1) extracted at states 2, 3, 6, and 7 are y2, y3,
y6, and y7, respectively, what are the fractions of the total flow at
states 8, 11, and 17?
PROYECTO 2
• Data for a power plant similar in design to that shown in Fig 8.12 are provided in the
table below. The plant operates on a regenerative vapor power cycle with four
feedwater heaters, three closed and one open, and reheat. Steam enters the turbine at
16,000 kPa, 600°C, expands in three stages to the reheat pressure of 2000 kPa, is
reheated to 500°C, and then expands in three more stages to the condenser pressure
of 10 kPa. Saturated liquid exits the condenser at 10 kPa. Between the first and second
stages, some steam is diverted to a closed feedwater heater at 8000 kPa. Between the
second and third stages, additional steam is diverted to a second closed feedwater
heater at 4000 kPa. Steam is extracted between the fourth and fifth turbine stages at
800 kPa and fed into an open feedwater heater operating at that pressure. Saturated
liquid at 800 kPa leaves the open feedwater heater. Between the fifth and sixth stages,
some steam is diverted to a closed feedwater heater at 200 kPa. Condensate leaves
each closed feedwater heater as saturated liquid at the respective extraction pressures.
For isentropic processes in each turbine stage and adiabatic processes in the pumps, all
closed feedwater heaters, all traps, and the open feedwater heater show that (a) the
fraction of the steam diverted between the first and second stages is 0.1000. (b) the
fraction of the steam diverted between the second and third stages is 0.1500. (c) the
fraction of the steam diverted between the fourth and fifth stages is 0.0009. (d) the
fraction of the steam diverted between the fifth and sixth stages is 0.1302.
… CONTINUA PROYECTO 2
PROYECTO 3
• Data for a regenerative vapor power cycle using an open and a closed feedwater
heater similar in design to that shown in Fig P8.60 are provided in the table below.
Steam enters the turbine at 14 MPa, 560°C, state 1, and expands isentropically in
three stages to a condenser pressure of 80 kPa, state 4. Saturated liquid exiting the
condenser at state 5 is pumped isentropically to state 6 and enters the open
feedwater heater. Between the first and second turbine stages, some steam is
extracted at 1 MPa, state 2, and diverted to the closed feedwater heater. The
diverted steam leaves the closed feedwater heater as saturated liquid at 1 MPa,
state 10, undergoes a throttling process to 0.2 MPa, state 11, and enters the open
feedwater heater. Steam is also extracted between the second and third turbine
stages at 0.2 MPa, state 3, and diverted to the open feedwater heater. Saturated
liquid at 0.2 MPa exiting the open feedwater heater at state 7 is pumped
isentropically to state 8 and enters the closed feedwater heater. Feedwater exits
the closed feedwater heater at 14 MPa, 170°C, state 9, and then enters the steam
generator. If the net power developed by the cycle is 300 MW, determine (a) the
cycle thermal efficiency. (b) the mass flow rate into the first turbine stage, in kg/s.
(c) the rate of heat transfer from the working fluid as it passes through the
condenser, in MW.
…CONTINUA PROYECTO 3
• Data for a regenerative vapor power cycle using an open and a closed feedwater
heater similar in design to that shown in Fig P8.60 are provided in the table below.
Steam enters the turbine at 14 MPa, 560°C, state 1, and expands isentropically in
three stages to a condenser pressure of 80 kPa, state 4. Saturated liquid exiting the
condenser at state 5 is pumped isentropically to state 6 and enters the open
feedwater heater. Between the first and second turbine stages, some steam is
extracted at 1 MPa, state 2, and diverted to the closed feedwater heater. The
diverted steam leaves the closed feedwater heater as saturated liquid at 1 MPa,
state 10, undergoes a throttling process to 0.2 MPa, state 11, and enters the open
feedwater heater. Steam is also extracted between the second and third turbine
stages at 0.2 MPa, state 3, and diverted to the open feedwater heater. Saturated
liquid at 0.2 MPa exiting the open feedwater heater at state 7 is pumped
isentropically to state 8 and enters the closed feedwater heater. Feedwater exits
the closed feedwater heater at 14 MPa, 170°C, state 9, and then enters the steam
generator. If the net power developed by the cycle is 300 MW, determine

• Reconsider the cycle of the previous Problem, but include in the
analysis that each turbine stage and the pump have isentropic
efficiencies of 83%.