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A report on


FOR VE 8100
Technical Services Department

Project Mentors: By:

Mr. Pravin Mishra Shlok Jain

Mr. Tarun Kumar B.E. Final Year
​ ​SGSITS,Indore


Serial Name of Topic Page

Number Number
1 Acknowledgments 3

2 Preface 4

3 Introduction & Product of VECV 8

4 Assembly Tool Planning for VE 8100 27

5 Why Pulse Tools are best for the Plant 41

6 Tool Balancing 52

7 Ordering & Maintenance 53


During the period of my internship work, I have received generous help from many quarters,
which I like to put on record here with deep gratitude and great pleasure.

First and foremost, I am grateful to my guide, Mr. Tarun Kumar. He allowed me to encroach
upon his precious time freely right from the very beginning of this project work till the
completion of my internship. His guidance, encouragement and suggestions provided me
necessary insight into the project problem and paved the way for the meaningful ending the
work in a short duration.

My special gratitude goes to my mentor, Mr. Pravin Mishra, for showing his trust and giving me
the opportunity to work under this project and all departmental heads, officials and also all
office staffs of Technical Services Department for their sincere co-operation and support during
the internship.

I would like to thank all the officials, supervisors and also all the operators of the assembly line
for their co-operation and sharing their knowledge which gave me a better understanding of
the assembly lines.
This report documents the work done during the summer internship at Technical Services
Department, Volvo Eicher Commercial Vehicle Ltd., Pithampur under the supervision of my
mentors Mr. Pravin Mishra and Mr. Tarun Kumar.

I spent most of my time at the assembly lines studying the process flow and applications of HD
lines. The report includes the study and analysis done for the planning assembly tools for PRO
8000. It includes all the technical aspects and methods undertaken which were considered
before preparing the final sheet for tool planning during my two months training.

During my internship tenure I have gained a lot of knowledge about the various applications
and machines at the HD Assembly Lines under the supervision and guidance of my mentors. I
also gained experience of working at an esteemed organization like this one.
Let’s take a look at Eicher Motors Ltd(EML) .EML is the Indian partner of VECV ltd. The History
of Eicher goes long back. Eicher is also a leading player in the two wheeler segment with the
help of its prestigious brand i.e. “Royal Enfield” .The history of Eicher starts with the setup of
the Good earth Company in 1948 in India. Its purpose was to sell and service imported tractors
in India. It managed to sell about 1500 tractors in India. In 1958, Eicher Tractor Corporation of
India Ltd. was formed. The first indigenous Eicher tractor was built in 1959 from its Faridabad
factory. The company changed its name to Eicher Tractors India ltd. It was again renamed
Eicher Good earth in 1980. In 1982 it entered into a collaboration agreement with Mitsubishi
for the manufacture of light commercial vehicles. In the same year, the incorporation of Eicher
Motors ltd. took place. The company went Public in 1987. In 1990 Eicher bought a 26% stake in
Enfield India ltd. In 1991 Eicher took over “Ramon and Demm” . Eicher also got selected as
company of the year in 1991 in its segment. Further enhancing its strides, Eicher acquired a
majority stake in Enfield India in the same year. In 1994 , Enfield India Ltd. changed its name to
Royal Enfield Motors Ltd. In 1996 Eicher Tractors Ltd. amalgamated with Royal Enfield Motors
to form Eicher Ltd.

In June 2001, Eicher Motors Ltd. has disinvested the businesses of tractors and engines to TAFE
Motors & Tractors Ltd. (TMTL). Further in 2008, Volvo Group and Eicher Motors Ltd. established
VE Commercial Vehicles Limited (VECV).

This partnership marked a new era in the heavy vehicles market, by launching the VE-series of
Heavy Duty trucks in 2010.
From here onwards there has been no looking back for VECV. Keeping this in mind, I will now
proceed to inform the reader about VE commercial vehicles limited(VECV).

VE Commercial Vehicles Ltd. is a 50:50 joint venture between the Volvo Group (Volvo) and
Eicher Motors Limited (EML). Operational since July 2008, VE Commercial Vehicles Ltd. (VECV)
comprises of five business verticals – Eicher Trucks and Buses, Volvo Trucks India, Eicher
Engineering Components and VE Powertrain. VECV includes the complete range of Eicher’s
commercial vehicles, components and engineering design businesses as well as the sales and
distribution of Volvo trucks. Each of its business units is already well established and backed by
a sizable customer base.

Knowing this, we move forward to discuss all of the five business segments of VECV ltd. We
start with Eicher trucks and buses. It was 25 years back, in 1986, when the first Eicher truck
rolled out from its Pithampur plant in Madhya Pradesh. Today the company has transformed
into a complete commercial vehicle (CV) manufacturer with a wide product range.


Since its inception, the company’s efforts have been towards providing value to its customers
the result of which is reflected through the growing sales numbers. In addition to being
customer centric, the geographical expanse of its service network has also ensured a dominant
position for EICHER TRUCKS AND BUSES (ETB). Eicher trucks and buses are also evidently visible
in South Asian markets of Bangladesh, Nepal and Sri Lanka. ETB plans to tap the distribution
network and the international requirements in South East Asia, Middle East and Africa.VECV is a
partnership that brings together Global leadership in technology, quality, safety and
environmental care, along with the deep knowledge and understanding of the Indian CV market
and low cost structure. The company is well on the way to achieve its vision to be recognized as
an industry leader driving modernization in commercial transportation, in India and other
developing markets.

The various category of products offered are-


Articulated Tractor


Troop Carrier

Water Tanker

Mild Steel Container

School and Staff bus

Volvo Trucks India

It’s been over 85 years since the first Volvo truck was built back in 1928. Today Volvo Trucks is
the second-largest heavy-duty truck brand in the world; more than 95% of the trucks built are
in the heavy weight class above 16 tonnes . Volvo trucks are sold and serviced in more than 140
countries all over the world.

The various types of trucks produced by Volvo are as follows-

Volvo FM Dump Truck

Volvo FMX

Volvo FM Tippers

Volvo FM Tractors

Volvo FH

Volvo FM rigid

Eicher Engineering Components(EEC)

Eicher Engineering Components (EEC) is the automotive component division of VECV (VE
Commercial Vehicles Limited).EEC came into existence in 1992 in a take-over from Ramon &
Demm, Thane.Ramon & Demm plant was originally set up in 1964 in technical collaboration
with "Fratelli Daldi & Matteucci" of Italy - the makers of the famed "DEMM" brand gears - and it
was the first gear manufacturing facility in the auto-ancillary sector in India.

In the ensuing years, EEC has grown from strength to strength and is a leader in the field today.
The company has achieved excellence in manufacturing Power-train components (Differential
Gears, Transmission Gears & Shafts) and Gear Boxes for a worldwide clientele both in OEMs
and spare part market.

Eicher Engineering Solutions (EES)

Eicher Engineering Solutions (EES), a unit of VE Commercial Vehicles, is engaged in providing
design and engineering services to its customers worldwide. Backed by four decades of design
and development experience in automotive domain, EES has helped its clients achieve lower
cost, enhanced productivity, improved reliability and innovative products.EES was created in
1997 as "Centre of Excellence" for providing engineering & design support for captive
requirements. This Centre consisted of a team of well qualified engineers possessing expertise
in Design and Analysis for passenger cars, commercial vehicles, farm equipment & Heavy
Engineering industry. Growing rapidly over the years, EES team strength is presently over 200
spread over four locations across the globe.

VE Powertrain
The VE Powertrain facility will meet the medium-duty automotive engine requirements of
Volvo globally for five- and eight-litre engines. These will be four-and six-cylinder diesel engines.
The domestic requirements will also be met from this capacity.

Euro 6 compliant base engines with 5 L and 8 L capacity will be manufactured at the engine
plant to meet the global requirements of Volvo for medium duty engines for automotive


VE Commercial Vehicles Ltd. is a joint venture between the Volvo Group (Volvo) and Eicher Motors
Limited (EML).
Operational since July 2008, VE Commercial Vehicles Ltd. (VECV) comprises of five business verticals –
Eicher Trucks and Buses, Volvo Trucks India, Eicher Engineering Components and VE Powertrain. VECV
includes the complete range of Eicher's commercial vehicles, components and engineering design
businesses as well as the sales and distribution of Volvo trucks. Each of its 'business units is already well
established and backed by a sizable customer base.

VE Series

Eicher Terra series offers enhanced value to customer in areas which are critical to a tipper operating
economics. Better uptime and pulling power, stronger aggregates, and the ability to run more number of
trips. The range has a significant effect on the operators' productivity and profitability by offering better
fuel economy.

Eicher TERRA 16

Eicher 20.16

Eicher 40.35

Eicher 35.31

Eicher TERRA 25

Eicher 40.40

Eicher 30.25 XP

2.Pro Series

Eicher Trucks are built to deliver low 'Total cost of ownership'. Designed for superior performance with
better fuel economy. Higher rated payload and faster turnaround these trucks have low operating cost
and, high reliability loading to higher profits.

Eicher Pro 1059

Eicher Pro 1055T

Eicher Pro 1050

Eicher Pro 1049

Eicher Pro 1110XPT

Eicher Pro 1059XP

Eicher Pro 1075

Eicher Pro 1080XPT

Eicher Pro 1090

Eicher Pro 1095

Eicher Pro 1110

Eicher Pro 1114

To be recognised as the industry leader driving modernization in commercial transportation in India and
the developing world.

VECV aims to continuously improve transportation efficiency in India and developing markets, thereby
reducing logistics costs for goods and people – leading to higher enablement of specialisation in
manufacturing, agriculture and services, thereby increasing the nation's economic activity and

We choose to do this in a sustainable manner by having the safest, most durable and efficient
products in the market;

We care for our customers holistically by offering not just trucks and buses, but also the best
service and soft products to enable him to be most profitable;

We work with the driver community to enhance their productivity and overall working
We ensure a level of quality and innovation that will continue to set standards in the
commercial transportation industry.


Pithampur​is a town in the Dhar district of Madhya Pradesh, India. VECV plant at Pithampur has working
facility of 24 hours with manual and automatic operated advanced machines. Vehicles are manufactured
, designed and tested here. Both vehicles i.e. Heavy Duty (HD~24 tones) and Low Medium Duty (LMD~
6-12 tones) vehicles are produced here.


The plant contains various hi-tech machines in the machine shops MAZAK, Gun drilling, Grinding Vertical
surface, Line bore, Vertical bore, Robot washing etc. for cleaning, drilling , mining, boring, tightening,
surface finishing the engine’s cylinder head and block sub assembly that is prepared by casting and
imported to the plant.


The cabin of truck is welded by robotic arms and manual spot welding of various parts transferred by
conveyers and crane to the modern paint shop where there is a single line for both HD and LMD


The cabin moves in conveyer in a skid and is firstly pretreated with primer, washed and cleaned in
different tanks. In other tanks it is rotated and washed in different chemicals and cathode electrically
deposited on it to avoid rusting of cabin. The importance of the plant is that it has a fast painting process
with no contact (wireless power transmit) via magnetic flux. A total of 12 km pipeline in the paint shop
and65 km wiring unique feature present only in few industries in India . The cabin is heated in over and
then painted via robots having 6 degree of freedom .These two robotic arms paint the outer surface of
cabin and they operate on the programming preinstalled according to co-ordinates of the model of
cabin to be painted and mixing of color is done in PMR, the robotic paint machine takes 6 seconds to
flush the previous color and fill the required one. Inner surface of the cabin is painted manually .The skid
is changed and then cabin is sealed with a sealant (PVC powder and rexine) UBS manually in order to
finish the paint and fill the holes and areas in order to avoid seepage of water into the cabin of the truck,
followed by manual cleaning by cotton cloth and then heated up in the cabin. IF some dust or dirt settles
and gets hardened due to heating on the surface it is scrapped off by the rough sand paper.


The painted and finished cabin is transferred back to the shop where there are two lines for LMD and
HD vehicles. Here, fender is fixed (the part of an automobile that frames a wheel well followed by
bracket and damper, footstep fitment, and the air filter. The harness is fixed in cabin drop body harness
dashboard, clutch pedal, door and garnish of the front wiper in the inner and outer panel of the mirrors
to avoid water leakage into the cabin. The quality test is done and later driver seat, berth, wiper nozzle is
fitted along with the fan. Then final inspection is done on the cabin and passed on to respective HD or
LMD line.


F​ inally all assemblies are transferred to the production lines HD and LMD where all the sub-assemblies
are mounted on the chassis or the frame and the product is available at the end of line where tests are
done on the product for checking its proper working and efficiency and safety of the driver. Both the
lines i.e. LMD and HD work parallel to each other and the product is achieved at the same end where the
line begins (U-type layout).


In ​manufacturing​ ​engineering​, process layout is a design for the floor ​plan​ of a plant which aims
to improve ​efficiency​ by arranging equipment according to its function. The production line
should ideally be designed to eliminate waste in material flows, inventory handling and
management. In process layout, the work stations and machinery are not arranged according to
a particular production sequence. Instead, there is an assembly of similar operations or similar
machinery in each department (for example, a drill department, a paint department, etc.). It
services to department to achieve great coordination and efficiency of 4M’s: Man, Material,
Machines and Methods.

The plant layout is U-type i.e. product is available at the same end of the line where the line of
production begins. Both LMD and HD line have similar layout type and they run parallel to each
other. The advantage of this layout is that it can be used in plant where longitudinal dimension
of the plant is less, it takes more power and time to transfer sub-assembly to different stations
of from the store, area is utilized efficiently and also conveyer cost can be reduced (area and
motor cost, also size of the conveyer is less during initial stations). The change in layout is made
in Computer Aided Designing (CAD) software like Cadian or AutoCad after then it is executed.

Work is being done to increase the line (HD) to achieve more products in the day as the right
side of the work is slower therefore replica of right side is done in order to do the same job
twice under HD Line extend execution. The number of stations is being increased in order to
decrease the cycle time of the HD assembly line. As the plant operates for 24 hours in 3 shifts
and the number of vehicles produced daily are:

HD: 70 LMD: 230

The HD vehicles work on diesel while LMD work on CNG and diesel depending upon the model.

The HD vehicle frame is inverted after few stations, before inverting all the sub-assembly
present in under side of the frame is mounted as they are heavy and it would be difficult to
carry and fix these. The LMD vehicle frame is not inverted during the process.


Air Piping

​ ompressed Air Pipe are available in various stations and extensively used in heavy duty
conditions and Light Medium duty. Aluminum piping for compressed air is a new concept which
is basically using Push In fittings to join aluminum pipe. It takes a very limited amount of time
and no tools are required for the same. It can be used for pressures up to 17 bar and because of
the fact that all fittings and pipes are made in aluminum there is a good durability of the system
and the air system remains corrosion free and leakage free for years.

Water Piping

Water supply to the plant for various cleaning, washing, cooling etc. purposes.

HSD Piping

High Speed Diesel Oil is automotive fuel that serves power trains, buses, trucks, and
automobiles, to run construction, petroleum drilling and other off-road equipment and to be
the prime mover in a wide range of power generation & pumping applications .It is used in the
plant to fill the fuel tank of the truck.
LSD Piping

Light Diesel OIL supports and provides for optimum functional usage support. LDO comprises blend of
distillate fuel with small proportion of residual fuel falling under class C category fuel, it comes with flash
point above 66OC. It accurately composes and provides for superior performance of machines as well as

LPG Piping

LPG is a low carbon fuel that is used in thousands of industrial and commercial applications .Regarded as
exceptional source of energy. It is cleaner than any other fossil fuel , highly energy efficient and safe to


A device used for lifting or lowering a load by means of a drum or lift-wheel around which rope or chain
wraps. It may be manually operated, electrically or ​pneumatically​ driven and may use chain, fiber or
wire ​rope​ as its lifting medium. The load is attached to the hoist by means of a ​lifting hook​.


The carrying medium of a belt conveyor system (often shortened to belt conveyor). A belt conveyor
system is one of many types of ​conveyor systems​. A belt conveyor system consists of two or more
pulleys​ (sometimes referred to as drums), with an endless loop of carrying medium—the conveyor
belt—that rotates about them. One or both of the pulleys are powered, moving the belt and the
material on the belt forward. The powered ​pulley​ is called the drive pulley while the unpowered pulley is
called the idler pulley. There are two main industrial classes of belt conveyors; Those in general ​material
handling​ such as those moving boxes along inside a factory and ​bulk material handling​ such as those
used to transport large volumes of resources and agricultural materials, such as ​grain​, ​salt​, ​coal​, ​ore​,
sand​, ​overburden​ and more.

Impact Wrench

An impact wrench (also known as an impact or, impact gun, air wrench, air gun, rattle gun, torque gun,
windy gun) is a ​socket wrench​power tool​ designed to deliver high ​torque​ output with minimal exertion
by the user, by storing energy in a rotating mass, then delivering it suddenly to the output shaft.
Compressed air​ is the most common power source, although ​electric​ or ​hydraulic​ power is also used,
with ​cordless electric​ devices becoming increasingly popular in recent times.

DC Nut Runner

Nut runners and nut drivers are tools used for tightening nuts. By definition, nut drivers are purely
mechanical ​hand tools​, while nut runners are pneumatic, electric, or hydraulic ​power tools​.

Pneumatic nut runners are powered by compressed air and vary in terms of air fittings and air
consumption. Electric nut runners use a DC controller as a power supply. Hand held cylindrical devices
are lightweight and portable. Pistol-style devices with trigger actuators are also available. Large nut
runner systems are designed to be mounted in a fixed position, usually on an assembly line.



The frame or the chassis of the required heavy duty truck is brought to the conveyer via hoist or
the crane whose load capacity is 3.2T + 3.2 T. The frame is lifted remote controlled by the
workers and placed on the pilot. The pilot holds the frame firm and supports it as it moves
through the conveyer belt and sub-assembly are mounted on it. Firstly pipe bunch is fitted on
the frame and is winded.Then compressor pipe is mounted on the frame that is connected to
the DDU unit. Pipe bunch is used in brake routing of the vehicle.

DDU(Drying and Distribution Unit)​Air Drying – Removes moisture completely from the
compressed air

Unloading​ – Regulates system pressure by exhausting the air delivered to the compressor, to
the atmosphere when system pressure is increases; and allows re-charging of the system when
the system pressure reduces.

Safety Valve ​– In case of any malfunctioning of the unloader valve, it protects the compressor
and system by blowing off the excess pressure. This device is integrated with the unloader valve
Quadruple System Protection Valve (QSPV) – This function is integrated into the DDU, which
protects the healthy circuits of the air brake system, in case of failure in one of the circuits. The
non-return valves in this portion prevent back flow of stored compressed air upstream.

Tyre inflator​ (Optional feature) – This device helps for inflation of the vehicle tyres.

Purge tank ​– This tank which is integrated with the DDU stores dry air for regeneration of the
desiccant bed.


Two or more ​air tanks​ are mounted depending on the model requirement on the frame using
the ​brackets​ and the dc runners. The capacity of these tanks also varies as per requirement
10-35 L. The connection till the brake chamber is done in this station.​Brake hoses​(used to
transfer ​brake​fluid to the ​brake​ caliper and force the ​brake​pads onto the ​brake​ discs) are fixed.
The clutch routing is also fitted on the frame and earthing wire of the battery to avoid shot
circuit. The speed limiter cable is mounted i.e. used at maximum speed limit where it makes the
accelerator free and this is done by tuning. ​Relay​ is fixed (If pressure is increases then air should
not return when it decreases therefore relay is used).E​xhaust brake​ is a means of slowing a
diesel engine​ by closing off the exhaust path from the engine, causing the exhaust gases to be
compressed in the exhaust manifold, and in the cylinder. Since the exhaust is being
compressed, and there is no fuel being applied, the engine works backwards, slowing down the
vehicle. The amount of negative torque generated is usually directly proportional to the back
pressure of the engine.​Modulator ​is the device that blocks the braking if the rpm of the tire is
less than other that is in case of tire lock. It intakes and exhales air around 60 times I one
minute and thus helps in controlling the brakes and the tire movement i.e. prevents sliding
caused due to tire lock and thus reduces the braking distance in slippery area and also better
control over the vehicle.


Spring​ is a simple form of ​spring​ commonly used for the s​ uspension​ in ​wheeled​vehicles​. Originally called
a laminated or carriage spring, and sometimes referred to as a ​semi-​elliptical​ spring​ or ​cart spring​, it is
one of the oldest forms of springing, dating back to ​medieval​ times.
A ​shock absorber​ (in reality, a shock "damper") is a mechanical or ​hydraulic​ device designed to absorb
and ​damp​shock​ impulses. It does this by converting the ​kinetic energy​ of the shock into another form of
energy (typically ​heat​) which is then dissipated. Most shock absorbers are a form of ​dashpot​.

Tryion leaf spring for the bogie and leaf spring for slider bogie.

Air plates are used near the spring for fitting them. Depending on the type of suspension air or other
shocker and dampers are used.


6*2 or 6*4 type axles are mounted. Here, 6 denotes number of wheels on the Truck and 2 or 6
denotes ​LIVE WHEELS​ i.e. Axles where power is actually transmitted.

All the vehicles are rear wheel driven. Depending upon the size of the model 2 or more axles
are mounted.

Differential​is a gear train with three shafts that has the property that the angular velocity of one shaft is
the average of the angular velocities of the others, or a fixed multiple of that average.

In ​automobiles​ and other wheeled vehicles, the differential allows the outer drive wheel to rotate faster
than the inner drive wheel during a turn. This is necessary when the vehicle turns, making the wheel
that is traveling around the outside of the turning curve roll farther and faster than the other. The
average of the rotational speed of the two driving wheels equals the input rotational speed of the drive
shaft. An increase in the speed of one wheel is balanced by a decrease in the speed of the other.

The ​counter-pressure brake ​halts the locomotive using the driving ​cylinders​. In doing so it reduces wear
and tear and overheating of the ​driving wheel​ tires and brake blocks and enables a continuously high
brake force​ to be applied. The brake works by using the cylinders as air compressors and converting
kinetic energy into the main part of the system is piping and regulation of atmospheric air drawn into
the cylinders, into which cooling water and oil is injected. There are of two different kinds 60-31 and

The smallest HD Truck is 2015 LPO and uses the leaf spring 870 and the shocker.

The axle is brought by the ​PROGRAM CONTROLLED robots​ that follow the colored line and later axles
are picked manually by the hoist operated by the worker.


A ​bumper​ is a structure attached or integrated to the front and rear of an ​automobile​ to absorb impact
in a minor collision, ideally minimizing repair costs. Bumpers also have two safety functions: minimizing
height mismatches between vehicles, and ​protecting pedestrians from injury​.

A ​bracket​ is an ​architectural element​: a structural or decorative member. It can be made of wood,

stone, plaster, metal, or other mediums. It projects from a wall, usually to carry weight and sometimes
to strengthen an angle. A ​corbel​ and console are types of brackets.

Bumper is mounted in the rear end of the frame and covered with bubble wrap and the advantage of
color is that it reflects light at night for safety against accident from behind.

A ​U-bolt​ is a bolt in the shape of the ​letter U​ with ​screw threads​ on both ends.

U-bolts have primarily been used to support ​pipework​, pipes through which fluids and gasses pass. As
such, U-bolts were measured using pipe-work engineering speak. A U-bolt would be described by the
size of pipe it was supporting.

For example, a ​40 Nominal Bore U-bolt​ would be asked for by pipe work engineers, and only they
would know what that meant. In reality, the ​40 nominal bore​part bears little resemblance to the size
and dimensions of the U-bolt.The ​nominal bore​ of a pipe is actually a measurement of the inside
diameter of the pipe. It is actually designing a pipe by the amount of fluid / gas it can transport.

A ​drag link​ converts rotary motion from a crank arm, to a second bellcrank, usually in an
automotive steering system.The drag link connects the pitman arm to the steering arm, or in
some applications it connects to the tie rod assembly. Unlike a center link, the drag link does
not connect to an idler arm, and has no inner tie rod ends attached to it. On some applications
the drag link swings from the front to the rear of the vehicle. On these applications the drag link
connects to the steering arm located at the wheel. In some Jeep applications, the drag link will
swing from right to left on the vehicle and will connect to the steering arm at the wheel. Drag
links can be a solid one-piece design or an adjustable design. Many drag links have replaceable
or rebuild able ends.

In case of two axles, the last axle is fitted and only used for ​toe in or out​ while the second last
contains the differential.


Propshaft​ assembly, which transmits torque from the transmission or transfer case to the front
and rear axles. Propeller shaft joints can be used in high-speed (up to 5000 RPM) applications
that require constant velocity through all angles. The joint can be engineered to accommodate
either fixed or stroking requirements in the driveline as well as address vehicle rotation.With its
low rotational lash, and no internally generated axial forces, the ​cross-groove joint​ is an ideal
choice for propshaft applications. The joint’s short length results in relative mass efficiency and
reduced packaging. The design also makes it easy to assemble and service the propeller shaft.
Cross-groove joints for propeller shafts are manufactured to precise tolerances and are
lubricated with specially formulated greases to ensure optimum high-speed performance.

Propeller shaft​ (prop shaft), or Drive shaft is a mechanical component for transmitting ​torque​ and
rotation, usually used to connect other components of a ​drive train​ that cannot be connected directly
because of distance or the need to allow for relative movement between them.As torque carriers, drive
shafts are subject to ​torsion​ and s​ hear stress​, equivalent to the difference between the input torque and
the load. They must therefore be strong enough to bear the stress, whilst avoiding too much additional
weight as that would in turn increase their ​inertia​.To allow for variations in the alignment and distance
between the driving and driven components, drive shafts frequently incorporate one or more ​universal
joints​, ​jaw couplings​, or ​rag joints​, and sometimes a ​splined joint​ or ​prismatic joint​.

Rear Propeller Shaft ​is fitted in this station in inclined position and jointed at propeller joint. It
is connected to the differential.


Since vehicle contains certain air pipes and windings that are responsible for various purposes
and even as important as breaking the pipes need to be checked for puncture in these pipes or
leakage at their joints otherwise they may increase the braking distance that can cause delay in
braking and lead to mishaps In order to get the desired braking without any fault air leakage
test is done on these pipes. Compressed air is passed through the pipes and soap solution is
dropped at the joints to see if there is any leakage, on action of compressed air leaking from
these joints bubbles are visible via naked eye and these leakage can be fitted by fixing these

Chassis is ​inverted ​by the hoist that has a capacity of 5.4 T + 5.4 T. This is because all the
sub-assembly on the underside of the frame are now mounted and fixed as they are heavy and
cannot be mounted from below.

The chassis is now transferred to new pilot present on a new conveyer that has higher load
bearing capacity and more number of motors.

A number is punched on the chassis by the machine using program controlled machine. This
number is generated by the computer it is unique and stored for later purposes in case of
warranty and recognition of chassis and model.

4 Cylinder or 6Cylinder assembly having the cylinder block and head and the gear box etc. is
brought and dropped by the hoist onto the frame where it is fixed and all the wiring is
connected along with nut bolts sub-assembly. These engines are single or double valves
depending upon the model.

The exhaust pipe is also fixed to the engine so that the exhaust gases can be removed out of
the engine successfully.Muffler is a device for decreasing the amount of noise emitted by the
exhaust of an internal combustion engine.

Radiators are used for cooling ​internal combustion engines​, mainly in automobiles. To cool down the
engine, a ​coolant​ is passed through the ​engine block​, where it absorbs heat from the engine. The hot
coolant is then fed into the inlet tank of the radiator (located either on the top of the radiator, or along
one side), from which it is distributed across the radiator core through tubes to another tank on the
opposite end of the radiator. As the coolant passes through the radiator tubes on its way to the opposite
tank, it transfers much of its heat to the tubes which, in turn, transfer the heat to the ​fins​ that are
lodged between each row of tubes. The fins then release the heat to the ambient air. Fins are used to
greatly increase the contact surface of the tubes to the air, thus increasing the exchange efficiency. The
cooled coolant is fed back to the engine, and the cycle repeats. Normally, the radiator does not reduce
the temperature of the coolant back to ambient air temperature, but it is still sufficiently cooled to keep
the engine from overheating.
This coolant is usually water-based, with the addition of ​glycols​ to prevent freezing and other additives
to limit ​corrosion​, ​erosion​ and ​cavitation​. However, the coolant may also be oil. The first engines used
thermo siphons​ to circulate the coolant; today, however, all but the smallest engines use ​pumps​.

The radiator is fixed in front of the chassis that is the front face of the truck. This is done in order to
allow maximum air entering the fins and thus maximum heat loss from the coolant to the atmosphere.
So that coolant can be fed back to the engine.


The front prop shaft needs to be fitted to the engine therefore it is mounted after the engine drop so
that power can be transmitted successfully to the rear wheels as all the products are Rear Wheel Driven.
Power from the Flywheel of the engine is transmitted to gear box and then to the propeller shaft (front)
then to the rear and thus to the differential and the wheels.

The cabin that is painted, fitted, garnished, painted and inspected perfectly is brought to the
HD line using tugged and it is fixed in front of the vehicle using torque guns and all the wirings
of brakes ,headlamps all the fitments related to front and rear are done.

air filter​ is a device composed of ​fibrous​ materials which removes solid ​particulates​ such as ​dust​,
pollen​and ​bacteria​ from the ​air​. A chemical air filter consists of an ​absorbent​ or ​catalyst​ for the removal
of airborne molecular contaminants such as ​volatile organic compounds​ or ​ozone​. Air filters are used in
applications where air quality is important, notably in building ​ventilation​ systems and in engines.

The air intakes of ​internal combustion engines​ and ​air compressors​ tend to use either ​paper​, ​foam​, or
cotton​ filters. Oil bath filters have fallen out of favor.

The ​cabin air filter ​is typically a pleated-paper filter that is placed in the outside-air intake for the
vehicle's passenger compartment. They are uniquely shaped to fit the available space of particular
vehicles' outside-air intakes. This filter is often overlooked, and can greatly reduce the effectiveness of
the vehicle's air conditioning and heating performance. Clogged or dirty cabin air filters can significantly
reduce airflow from the cabin vents, as well as introduce ​allergens​ into the cabin air stream.

Also fitting for fuel tank is done in this station.


A ​fuel tank​ (or ​petrol tank​) is a safe container for ​flammable​ fluids. Though any ​storage tank​ for
fuel may be so called, the term is typically applied to part of an engine system in which the ​fuel
is stored and propelled (​fuel pump​) or released (pressurized gas) into an ​engine​.

Oil pump priming ​is done that is Remove any air between the ​oil pump​ and ​oil​ tank. This is
done because the feed pump gives diesel but sometimes it takes air in water separator
therefore priming is done to remove this air.

Brake fluid​ is a type of ​hydraulic fluid​ used in ​hydraulic brake​ and ​hydraulic clutch​ applications in
automobiles​, ​motorcycles​, ​light trucks​, and some ​bicycles​. It is used to transfer force into pressure, and
to ​amplify​ braking force. It works because ​liquids​ are not appreciably ​compressible​ — in their natural
state the component molecules do not have internal voids and the molecules pack together well, so bulk
forces are directly transferred to compress the fluid's chemical bonds.

Brake fluids must meet certain requirements as defined by various standards set by organizations such
as the ​SAE​, or local government equivalents.

REQUIRED PROPERTIES FOR BRAKE FLUID:It must have a high boiling point to avoid vaporizing in the
lines. Brake fluid must maintain a constant viscosity under a wide range of temperatures, including
extreme cold. Brake fluids must not corrode the metals used inside components such as calipers, wheel
cylinders, master cylinders and ABS control valves. Brake fluids must maintain a low level of
compressibility, even with varying temperatures to accommodate different environmental conditions.
This is important to ensure consistent brake pedal feel. As compressibility increases, more brake pedal
travel is necessary for the same amount of brake caliper piston force.

A ​relay valve ​is an air-operated valve typically used in ​air brake​ systems to remotely control the brakes
at the rear of a heavy truck. Relay valves are necessary in heavy trucks in order to speed-up rear-brake
application and release, since air takes longer to travel to the rear of the vehicle than the front of the
vehicle, where the front service brakes, foot-valve, parking-control valve, and trailer-supply valve (if
applicable) are located.

Without relay valves, it would take too long for sufficient air to travel from the ​brake pedal​ valve to the
rear of the truck or trailer in order to apply the rear service brakes concurrently with the front service
brakes, resulting in a condition known as brake lag.


Automobile​tires​ are described by an alphanumeric ​tire code​, which is generally molded into the ​sidewall
of the tire. This code specifies the dimensions of the tire, and some of its key limitations, such as
load-bearing ability, and maximum speed. Sometimes the inner sidewall contains information not
included on the outer sidewall, and vice versa.

The code has grown in complexity over the years, as is evident from the mix of S.I. and English units, and
ad-hoc extensions to lettering and numbering schemes. New automotive tires frequently have ratings
for traction, tread wear and temperature resistance.

Tire are fixed by the torque guns on the axle and rotated using the steering wheel.

In ​automobiles​, ​power steering​ (also ​power assisted steering (PAS)​ or ​steering assist system​) helps
drivers steer by augmenting steering effort of the steering wheel.

Hydraulic or electric actuators add controlled energy to the steering mechanism, so the driver can
provide less effort to turn the steered wheels when driving at typical speeds, and reduce considerably
the physical effort necessary to turn the wheels when a vehicle is stopped or moving slowly. Power
steering can also be engineered to provide some artificial feedback of forces acting on the steered
wheels.Representative power steering systems for cars augment steering effort via an actuator, a
hydraulic cylinder that is part of a servo system. These systems have a direct mechanical connection
between the steering wheel and the linkage that steers the wheels. This means that power-steering
system failure (to augment effort) still permits the vehicle to be steered using manual effort alone.

Largest off-road construction vehicles have no direct mechanical connection to the steering linkage; they
require electrical power. Systems of this kind, with no mechanical connection, are sometimes called
"​drive by wire​" or "steer by wire", by analogy with aviation's "​fly-by-wire​". In this context, "wire" refers
to electrical cables that carry power and data, not thin-wire-rope mechanical control cables.

In other power steering systems, electric motors provide the assistance instead of hydraulic systems. As
with hydraulic types, power to the actuator (motor, in this case) is controlled by the rest of the
power-steering system.


Inspection of the product is done when it is brought down form the conveyer line first and now it is
manually driven and checked for proper working of parts. A checklist is used to check if any part is not
properly fixed or missing in the product. This checklist contains all the list of tools used in the product
along with their frequency. Thus the inspection team ticks for the tools used and fixed and cross if
something’s missing. Therefore, these queries can be fixed at the later stages where all the tools are
provided so that the truck works efficiently and safely.

Wheel alignment​, sometimes referred to as ​breaking​ or ​tracking​, is part of standard

automobile​maintenance​ that consists of adjusting the angles of the wheels so that they are set to the
car maker's specification. The purpose of these adjustments is to reduce ​tire​ wear, and to ensure that
vehicle travel is straight and true (without "pulling" to one side). Alignment angles can also be altered
beyond the maker's specifications to obtain a specific handling characteristic. Motorsport and off-road
applications may call for angles to be adjusted well beyond "normal" for a variety of reasons.

Failure to do this may result in the camber and toe specifications drifting outside the manufacturer's
limit. This may lead to vehicle pulling and tire wear. Initially consumers may not notice these defects but
after usage of some days or running some kilometers it can cause uneven tire wear and a pull/drifting to
the left or right. Tire wear leads to frequent replacement of tires thus adding to running cost for the
consumer. Vehicle pulling causes irritation and/or fatigue while driving the car. The primary angles are
the basic angle alignment of the wheels relative to each other and to the car body. These adjustments
are the ​camber​, ​caster​ and ​toe​. On some cars, not all of these can be adjusted on every wheel.

These three parameters can be further categorized into front and rear (with no caster on the rear,
typically not being steered wheels). the parameters are:

Front: Caster (left & right)

Front: Camber (left & right)

Front: Toe (left, right & total)

Rear: Camber (left & right)

Rear: Toe (left, right & total)

Turning Angle


King pin inclination.

Wheel alignment machine is used to test all the parameters. It contains cameras that are mounted on
the wheels and all the parameters are checked. If there is some fault then they can be fixed.


End-of-Line Test System is laptop-based and designed for a broad range of test applications.


FRONT AND REAR AXLE(ABS Testing, Drag Force, Brake Balance, Gear Engagement, Speed Verification At Different



Noise(wheel, differential ,engine, transmission)








Shower testing station for the Automobile production areas to test water ingress in the car. The
pipelines and Nozzles used are of Stainless Steel which provide long life to the equipment.
Though the pressures and time are almost standard, however, the Shower Booth tester
equipment can be engineered as per the requirements provided by the client.

The shower testing equipment has automatic water recycling system which automatically
flushes once it senses reduction in flow of water. The complete system operates independently
and un attended.

The shower booth equipment can be supplied with or without the conveyor.
Can be integrated with water recycling system

Stainless Steel Pipes

Stainless Steel Nozzles

Individual arch controls

PLC Controlled

Yamazaki Mazak Corporation​ is a ​Japanese​machine tool​ builder based in ​Oguchi​, ​Japan​.[2]​
​ In the ​United
States​, ​Russia​and ​UK​ it is known as ​Mazak​.The company was founded in 1919 in N​ agoya​ by Saddakichi
Yamazaki as a small company making pots and pans.During the 1920s it progressed through mat-making
machinery to woodworking machinery to metalworking machine tools, especially lathes. The company
was part of Japan's industrial buildup before and during ​World War II​, then, like the rest of Japanese
industry, was humbled by the war's outcome.

During the 1950s and 1960s, under the founder's sons, Yamazaki revived, and during the 1960s it
established itself as an exporter to the American market. During the 1970s and 1980s it established a
larger onshore presence in the USA, including machine tool-building operations, and since then it has
become one of the most important companies in that market and the global machine tool market.

CNC​ stands for ​computer numerical control​. CNC routers can perform the tasks of many
carpentry shop machines such as the panel saw, the spindle moulder, and the boring machine.
They can also cut mortises and tenons. A CNCrouter is very similar in concept to a CNCmilling
Assembly Tools Planning For VE8100

Assembly tools have been utilized widely in assembly line, which has made great contributions to
guaranteeing productive efficiency and quality. As a result, assembly tools are indispensable during
product assembly process. So, assembly tool planning is one of the main tasks of APP. Generally
speaking, assembly tool planning includes tool selection and accessibility reasoning. Tool selection
means to select an appropriate tool for a certain assembly task, including selecting a tool from assembly
tool library according to assembly task and determining whether the selection is right or not. Tool
accessibility reasoning means to analyze whether there is enough space for tool orientation and

The following characteristics of assembly tools make it very difficult to model and manipulate them in
virtual environment:

1. Variety in function. Assembly tools are quite different in function. For example, screwdriver is used to
screw down or off parts like screw; hammer is used to knock parts like pin; some equipment is used to
test the quality of assembly, etc.

2. Complexities in construction. With the development of automation of assemble line, auto-tools and
autoequipments are used more and more, and they often contain quite complex construction. An
assembly equipment may contain many parts and these parts may form a complex mechanism.

3. Differences in working condition. Some tools should be grasped and driven by hand completely; some
tools need to be fixed with the object with the help of operator, and it can drive the object
automatically; while some tools need no help from operators at all, and it works entirely automatically.

Assembly tool planning for the PRO-8000 Vehicle included:

● Application Study of all the operations at the assembly line at different stations included
identifying the different kinds of fitments, studying the process flow charts for the line,
observing the working postures and angles of operations etc. .

The motion study and method study helped in determining the tool type for each application
of fitment, eg. Gun type or Angle type tools.

● Understanding the ergonomics of tools also plays a major role in selecting a better tool.
As from operator’s point of view the ease of fitment, impact on the hands, weight of
the tool, time of fitment etc. also has large impact on the overall productivity of the
Identifying the critical operations with high torque values and keeping in mind the
operator’s safety is also an important factor.
Thus it becomes indispensable to select a tool which is ergonomically feasible and easy
for the operators on the line.
● Low maintenance cost also plays a role in tool planning in the long run.
● Obtaining data about the existing torque values and the current tools being used at the
line determined the no. of existing tools. It was used to find out the no. of tools to be
ordered based on the required torque values and applications for the new vehicle.
● Tool Balancing- After the data for collected from the assembly line and based on the
requirements, an effective way of tool balancing was used to determine the no. of tools,
what range of torque values and at what station should the tool be placed was planned.
● Comparing tools based on safety issues for operators, performance, reliability,
maintainability, cost effectiveness, ergonomics, variety of torque ranges, quality etc.
from different companies was one of the major factors of tool planning for the new

Selecting the Power Tool to Suit the Joint

It is important to select a power tool with low scatter and low mean shift. Joint stiffness varies, so it's
necessary to make an allowance for it to achieve the proper torque.
Fitting screws into steel without interlining components is one example of a hard joint with rapid
tightening. For this application, the power tool needs to have a quick clutch that interrupts the torque at the
preset level.
Another example is a soft joint with gaskets and washers, or a long screw, requires a screwdriver with a
strong motor to attain short tightening times.
If there are subsidence or plastic deformations in the joint, then opting for a clutch type power tool or a
tool with a hydraulic pulse mechanism is better. The joint would then have time to settle when being
Joints with self-locking elements in the thread or clamped nuts are becoming increasingly common. A
screwdriver with a shut-off clutch is recommended for it.
To fully utilize the high performance of a quality power tool, it is important to know the demands made
on the power tool by different screwed joints.
Machine Screw - Hard Joint
Low resistance to turning until the screw head reaches its seating,
after which resistance rapidly increases.
For rapid screw driving with moderate torque accuracy choose a
high speed tool.
For close torque limit or when the quality of thread is uneven,
choose a lower speed tool. This is also recommended for brittle
material. The most suitable clutch is a shut-off type.

Machine Screw - Soft Joint

Low resistance to turning until the screw head reaches its seating,
after which resistance slowly increases.
A slower and more powerful tool should be used to seat the
fastener properly to minimize relaxation in the joint. Most suitable
clutches: Shut-off type. Slip type possible.

Self-Drilling Screw​
The turning resistance gradually increases during drilling and
thread cutting, but more slowly than with self-threading screws.
Choose a tool with speed over 1000 RPM. A slip type clutch is
generally suitable but for thin material choose shut-off.

Machine Screw - Locking Element in Thread

Relatively high resistance to turning before screw head reaches its
seating after which resistance rapidly increases. Choose a tool
with high torque from the lower speed range.
If rapid driving is required choose a larger tool with a higher
speed. Suitable clutches: Shut-off and slip type.
Thread Producing Screw
The turning resistance gradually increases as the screw is
producing the thread and reaches a maximum just before the
entire hole is threaded. Choose a tool within speed range 800 to
1300 RPM.
Slip type clutches are generally suitable, but for thin material
choose shut-off type.

Hand Tool Ergonomics - Tool Design

Major Ergonomic Concerns of a Hand Tool Design

Weight of the tool
Ideally, a worker should be able to operate a tool with one hand. The weight of the tool may
depend on the use:
● 2.3 kb (5 lb) if the hand tool will be used away from the body or above shoulder height.
● 0.4kg (1 lb) for precision tools to allow for good control.

Tools above these recommendations should be supported with a counterbalance.

It is also important that the

centre of gravity be aligned with
the centre of the gripping hand.
In other words, tools should feel
"easy" to hold either in an
upright position or in the
position it will be used (i.e.,
pointing down). For example,
drills that are "front-heavy" will
require effort (especially in the
wrist and forearm) to hold in a
usable position and should be avoided. The exception to this principle is a power hand tool, such as a
grinder, that has to be heavy in order to reduce the force that the worker has to exert while using it.
With the exception of tools for precision work (e.g., watchmaking, microsurgery, carving), the
handles and grips of hand tools should be designed for a power grip. The belief that smaller
tools should have smaller handles while larger tools have larger ones is debatable.

Handle shape
Tools with "bent" or angled handles or tools with pistol-grips are beneficial where the force is
exerted in a straight line in the same direction as the straightened forearm and wrist, especially
when the force must be applied horizontally .

Tools with straight handles are for tasks where the force is
exerted perpendicular to the straightened forearm and
wrist, for instance, when the force must be applied

Shaped tools such as bent-handle

tools are effective where most of
the tasks are done in the same
plane and height as the arm and
hand, and when only one or two
other tools are used.

Knowing the tasks and the layout

of the workplace where they will
be used is vital for selecting the
right tools for any given job.
Select tools that do NOT require
wrist flexion, extension or deviation. In other words, select tools that allow you to keep the wrist
straight or in a neutral position.

The crucial ergonomic principle in tool use and design -- ​bend the tool, not the wrists​ --
however correct and valuable does not always prevent discomfort and injuries when
bent-handle tools are used indiscriminately, regardless of the layout of the work situation.

Handle diameter recommendations vary. In general, cylindrical handles at 40mm (1.5 in) offer a
better power grip, with a range from 30-50mm (1.25 to 2 in). For precision grips, a diameter of
12mm (0.45 in) is recommended, with a range of 8-16mm (0.3 to 0.6 in). The larger diameter
will allow for maximum torque, while the smaller diameter helps with dexterity and speed.

A handle that is too short can cause unnecessary compression in the middle of the palm. It
should extend across the entire breadth of the palm. Tool handles should be not less than 100
mm (4 in) to reduce the negative effects of any compression exerted. Handles around 120 mm
(5 in) are generally recommended. Keep in mind that the use of gloves requires longer tool

Separation between handles

Crushing, gripping or cutting tools such as pliers or tongs are equipped with two handles. The
recommended distance separating the handles is between 65-90 mm (2.5 to 3.5 in). Grips that
are larger than 100 mm (4 in) will be difficult for some users. Tools with larger or smaller spans
will reduce one's maximum grip strength.

Materials and texture of handles

To ensure a good grip on a handle, sufficient friction must exist between the hand and the
handle. This is particularly important where a considerable force must be applied with a sweaty
hand. Hand tools should be made of non-slip, non-conductive and compressible materials. For
example, textured rubber handles provide a good grip, reduce the effort needed to use the tool
effectively, and prevent the tool from slipping out of the hand. Glossy coatings and highly
polished handles should be avoided. The electrical and heat insulation properties of the handles
are important for power hand tools. Handles made of plastics or compound rubber are
recommended. Sharp edges and contours can be covered with cushioned tape to minimize
The table below summarizes some of the guidelines presented above.
Guidelines – Summary

Description Guideline Reason

Tool shape Slightly contoured Easy grip

Direction of force is in-line with forearm and wrist Bent handle Minimal wrist deviation
(typically horizontal)

Direction of force is perpendicular to forearm and Straight handle Minimal wrist deviation
wrist (typically vertical)

Separation distance between handles (for crushing, 65-90 mm Maximum grip strength
gripping or clipping tools such as pliers or tongs) (separation distance)

Handle length > 100 mm Keep contact out of palm

Handle diameter (power grip) 30-50 mm Greater force and stability

Handle diameter (precision task) 8-16 mm Greater control

Material and texture of handles Non-slip For comfort and reduces

non-conductive effort required to use tool

When should power tools be used?

When manual hand tools are used for tasks that require the frequent and repetitive use of
force to perform a task or job, the risk of contracting an WMSD increases. One of the most
effective ways in reducing injury risk associated with the use of manual hand tools is to replace
them with power tools. Always conduct a risk assessment before making any change. Make
sure that all aspects of the new tool have been considered (weight, size, etc.) to be sure that
one type of hazard has not been exchanged for another.

Ergonomic Factors which are unique to Powered Hand Tools

Power Tool Triggers
Frequent movements of the index finger while operating the trigger of power tools (such as a power
drill) poses a considerable risk for both "trigger finger" and "trigger thumb" (tendonitis in the index
finger and/or thumb). A longer trigger which allows the use of two or three fingers to activate them
reduces discomfort and minimizes the risk for injury.

The only effective way to reduce vibration in power tools is at the design stage. This fact makes tool
selection most critical. "Anti-vibration" materials will dampen some vibration above certain frequencies
that are characteristic for the kind of material used.

What should one remember when selecting and using hand

When selecting and using a hand tool it is important to:

❖ "Bend" the tool, not the wrist​; use tools with angled or "bent" handles, when
❖ Avoid high contact forces and static loading.
❖ Reduce excessive gripping force or pressure.
❖ Avoid extreme and awkward joint positions.
❖ Avoid twisting hand and wrist motion by using power tools rather than hand tools.
❖ Avoid repetitive finger movements, or at least reduce their number.
❖ Avoid or limit vibration.
❖ Minimize the amount of force needed to activate trigger devices on power tools.

How does hand tool maintenance reduce the risk for injuries?
The condition of tools is an important factor. Blunt or dull tools such as scissors, cutters, saws,
screwdriver tips, in fact any tools in a poor state of repair, not only compromise safety but also
increase (sometimes by a factor of ten) the effort needed to use them. Tools in poor condition
should be discarded (with the exception of those few that can be restored to optimum
condition, for example, a wood chisel or wood saw) and replaced with new ones.


Clutch Selection
There are two clutch classification-

Continuous drive and non-continuous drive.

A continuous-drive clutch delivers power continuously without interruptions. Common

continuous-drive clutches are automatic shut-off, direct drive or stall, and cushion.
Continuous-drive tools are typically gear-driven, and they may or may not have torque control
or an automatic shut-off function.

Discontinuous-drive tools deliver power in short bursts with no torque between each burst.
Common discontinuous-drive tools are pulse tools and impact wrenches. Pulse tools generate
torque hydraulically, while impact tools generate torque mechanically.

Application Criteria
So, which drive type is better? It depends. One factor to consider is whether the joint is "hard"
or "soft." A joint is considered hard if it takes less than 30 degrees of rotation to go from snug
to final torque. A soft joint requires more than 720 degrees, or two full revolutions.

If cycle time is important, discontinuous-drive tools can increase productivity with their high
free speeds on hard to medium-soft joints with little prevailing torque. Most
discontinuous-drive tools have free speeds exceeding 3,000 to 8,000 rpm—that’s 1,000
percent faster than most continuous-drive tools. (Under load, these tools will slow down as
they rotate the fastener.) As an ergonomic benefit, discontinuous-drive tools produce
virtually no torque reaction. Because each burst of power is measured in milliseconds, the
operator barely feels it.

Continuous-drive tools may be more appropriate on softer joints and joints with high
prevailing torque, because the speed of the tools does not change as much during run-down
and under load. However, as a result of this continuous supply of power, the operator is
exposed to the torque reaction for a longer period of time. This trade-off in ergonomics is
especially critical when the torque exceeds 40 newton-meters​.

The two most commonly used tools for assembling critical joints are continuous-drive tools
with an automatic shut-off clutch and discontinuous-drive pulse tools.

These tools primarily overlap in the broad range of 5 to 500 newton-meters. Tools with other
clutch types are primarily for applications where cost alone is the major issue or where little to
no torque control is required.

Power Sources
Pneumatic tools have been around since Charles King’s 1890 invention of the air hammer. All
clutch styles are available in pneumatic tools. Electric tools were developed in the early 1980s.
Most of the common clutch styles are also available with electric motors. With the
advancements in battery technology, many clutch styles are available with cordless tools, too.

With the exception of a few operational issues, the power source has little effect on clutch
selection. Tools with automatic shut-off clutches are available with pneumatic and electric
motors from many vendors. Pulse tools are available in pneumatic, electric and cordless
models, as well.

​The application’s parameters determine the class of clutch—continuous or

discontinuous—not the power source.

So, why choose electric tools? Some say that DC electric tools are more efficient and use less
energy than pneumatic tools. This is correct.

​However, DC electric tools are more expensive than pneumatic tools. In the typical
application, the difference in energy costs requires a 20-year payback to justify the additional
expense of DC electric tools.(eg. DC Wheel Nutrunner)

Manufacturers choose electric tools primarily for their ability to control certain aspects of the
fastening process, such as speed and power during run-down​.

Pneumatic motors, following a horsepower curve, slow down as they approach the stall
torque. Electric motors maintain a constant speed under load, and they can run at multiple
preset speeds.
Electric tools are associated with the ability to control several fastening parameters with a
single tool, to measure angle of rotation, and to measure dynamic installed torque. While
electric tools can perform all these functions, pneumatic tools—both pulse and automatic
shut-off clutch styles—are available with these identical capabilities.

Individual Priorities
Even after we had narrowed our tool choice to a specific clutch and power source,we still had
many tools to pick from. This is where our priorities came into play. Choosing between
automatic shut-off or without, tool on the high end or low end of the torque range, lighter or
beefier tool. By identifying our priorities, we were able to make the right decision quickly.

When evaluating power tools, we were concerned with four key factors: productivity,
ergonomics, reliability and quality. The value of each factor relative to the other varies from
one engineer to the next.

This is really a measure of the tool’s speed. A high-speed tool can run down more fasteners in
less time than a slow tool. However, the trade-off may be accuracy.

T​ his indicates how safe and easy the tool is to use during a shift. An ergonomic tool is
lightweight, balanced and less fatiguing. It produces little torque reaction and has a
comfortable grip.

​This is a measure of the overall longevity of the tool. The key factor here is the cost and
frequency of maintenance. Pulse tools require less expensive, but more frequent maintenance.
The process involves changing fluid and replacing soft parts, such as gaskets. Angle nutrunners
require more expensive, but less frequent maintenance. The parts that fail on these tools are
hard parts, such as clutches and gears. Over the life of the tool, pulse tools and nutrunners
should have comparable maintenance costs.
Another consideration is that pulse tools are self-diagnostic. The tool indicates when
maintenance is needed well before the tool stops performing. Most nutrunners run for long
periods but have instant failures with no warning.

This is a measure of how well the tool should meet your engineering specifications. This might
mean that the tool should drive a bolt tight enough so that it won’t loosen up, but not so tight
that the bolt breaks. Or, it could mean the tool should tighten the bolt to 30 newton-meters
within 8 percent repeatability and a C​pk​ of 1.67, measured dynamically.

A common misperception is that pulse tools without an automatic shut-off are less accurate
than pulse tools with such a clutch. If used correctly, both tools should perform almost
identically. A pulse tool without an automatic shut-off may not completely tighten a bolt if the
operator prematurely lets go of the trigger before the cycle is complete. A shut-off pulse tool
reduces this possibility because the operator must wait for the tool to shut off on its own.

Making Trade-Offs
To make choosing a tool easier,we ranked two of these four factors as most important to the
application. From those two choices, we could narrow the field to a specific type and size of
tool. This also helped us recognize the trade-offs associated with choosing those priorities.

The following examples show how these priorities play out in applications where both pulse
tools and angle nutrunners could be considered.

Productivity and Ergonomics

​In this case, a small pulse tool without an automatic shut-off has the edge over an angle

Pulse tools boost productivity because they are faster on hard and medium joints. They can also
be operated one-handed, allowing the worker to feed and start fasteners with the opposite
hand. Ergonomics will benefit because the pulse tool will be smaller and lighter than the
nutrunner. In addition, a tool without an automatic shut-off will be lighter than a tool with such
a clutch.
The trade-offs involve reliability and quality. Pulse tools require regular, simple fluid changes.
And, because the tool lacks an automatic shut-off, engineers must be willing to live with some
potential variability in the fastening process.

Productivity and Quality​

Here, a midsized pulse tool with an automatic shut-off gets the nod over the nutrunner. Again,
the tool is fast and can be operated one-handed. The automatic shut-off ensures consistent
quality. If process verification or documentation is necessary, a controlled pulse tool should be

The trade-offs involve reliability and ergonomics. Maintenance may be an issue, and the
automatic shut-off will increase the tool’s weight. Torque reaction will still be lower with the
pulse tool than with the nutrunner.

Productivity and Reliability

On hard or medium joints, a large pulse tool without a shut-off is a better choice than a small
pulse tool or an angle nutrunner. On soft joints, the nutrunner is better than a pulse tool. Large
pulse tools and angle nutrunners require less maintenance. The trade-offs involve quality and
ergonomics. Without an automatic shut-off, there may be some operator influence over the
fastening process. And, the beefier pulse tool will weigh slightly more.

Ergonomics and Reliability

Here, the choices are a large pulse tool without a shut-off or an angle nutrunner, depending on
the joint and torque requirement. Large pulse tools are still ergonomic compared with many
nutrunners, because they produce little or no torque reaction.

The trade-offs are quality and productivity. The nutrunner will be slower than a pulse tool. In
this case, an automatic shut-off on a nutrunner is strictly a side benefit.

Ergonomics and Quality

Here, a pulse tool with an automatic shut-off is better than a nutrunner, even on softer joints.
Look for the lowest weight model possible for the given torque. The automatic shut-off will
eliminate operator variability.
The trade-offs are productivity and reliability. Pulse tools will slow down on softer joints and
may require more frequent fluid changes.

Reliability and quality

For these priorities, the angle nutrunner is the best option. These tools need less frequent daily
maintenance and do not require periodic fluid changes. They also have a very reliable
automatic shut-off. If process verification is needed, consider a controlled pneumatic or electric

The trade-offs are ergonomics and productivity. Nutrunners are slower and heavier than pulse tools.
They will also produce torque reaction.

Finally, it’s important to note that priorities can change. A manufacturer that has been using
small, lightweight tools for ergonomic reasons may find that the tools aren’t durable enough to
withstand the rigors of the assembly line. For this company, reliability becomes the most
important issue, and larger, more rugged tools are needed.

Continuous Drive Nutrunners

Continuous drive nutrunners and screwdrivers provide very good accuracy– particularly when
equipped with a fast, shut-off clutch. In addition, high quality continuous drive tools have a
durable design that provides long service lives. The drawback is that reaction torque may result
in operator fatigue. A reaction bar is needed for higher torques to protect the operator –
particularly when using straight or pistol grip tool.

Impact Wrenches

Impact wrenches virtually eliminate torque reaction. And compared to continuous drive tools,
they are lighter and faster. Since they are based on a rotary hammer pounding on a rotary anvil,
using an impact wrench can be compared to repeatedly hitting a wrench with a hammer to turn
a bolt. You get high power, or torque, but less control over the process– especially with non
shut-off tools. In addition to moderate accuracy, the hammering of metal against metal results
in wear and tear of components and high noise and vibration levels. Excessive vibrations can
result in injuries, such as Hand/Arm Vibration Syndrome.

Pulse Tools

Where ergonomics, high speeds and reliability are important, pulse tools are an ideal choice.
Pulse tools have all the positive qualities of impact wrenches – they are almost reaction free,
very fast, and provide light, one-hand operation. At the same time, pulse tools offer high
accuracy and long service life-times.

Pulse tools avoid the metal-to-metal impact of impact wrenches by using a hydraulic pulse unit
to create and transfer the torque. The pulse unit also makes it possible to control the maximum
delivered torque. Thus, pulse tools provide a softer, more controlled pulse with considerably
less vibrations and noise.

Pulse Tool Benefits

• Very high speed means short cycle times for hard to semi-soft joints
• One-hand tool, with high power-to-weight ratio

• Consistent torque level, but not as accurate as high quality continuous drive tools
• Good correlation between torque and clamp force

• Long service life with simple maintenance requirements

• Virtually no reaction forces
• Low noise and vibration levels
• Low weight

Inside A Pulse Tool

In general terms, a pulse tool consists of an air motor, a hydraulic pulse unit, the handle and the
Air Motor
The conventional air motor for assembly tools is the one chamber motor, providing a very fast
The twin chamber motor has been developed specifically for pulse tools. It has dual air inlets
and outlets to accelerate faster at low rpm – giving higher speed during pulsing. Power can thus
be increased without increasing the size and weight of the tool. As the free rundown normally
takes little time, the power and speed during pulsing has more effect on the cycle time. In
addition, a two-chamber motor gives a higher maximum torque output.

Pulse Unit 
The heart of a pulse tool is the pulse unit, positioned between the air
motor and the outgoing shaft. Since the pulses are very short (0.5 ms
– 3 ms, depending on size of tool), there is almost no reaction force
in the handle – only the much lower motor torque is transferred to
the operator’s hand.

Non Shut-off Pulse Tools

A non shut-off tool produces pulses until the operator releases the trigger. In non shut-off pulse
tools the maximum installed torque can be controlled by regulating the maximum hydraulic
pressure in the pulse unit. For this purpose, an easily adjustable by-pass valve controls the flow
of oil in the impulse unit (from high pressure to low pressure), and thereby limits the power of
each pulse.
In some applications it is an advantage for the operator to be able to control the process by
shutting off the tool manually. In such cases, the lighter, non-shut-off ErgoPulse versions are
the ideal solution.

Shut-off Pulse Tools

Shut-off pulse tools will shut off the air supply as soon
as the pre-set torque has been reached. The ErgoPulse
shutoff versions are based on a retardation sensing
system, which means that the tools are less sensitive to
variations in joint hardness. Other designs normally use
the hydraulic pressure inside the pulse unit to control installed torque.

A pulse tool with automatic shut-off is preferred if the aim is to reduce operator influence. The
shut-off function “tells” the operator when the tightening cycle has been properly completed.
The result is increased accuracy and faster tightening.

Torque Build-up
Torque is built up in increments generated by the pulses. And the increments are less with each
pulse. From this we can conclude that for shut-off pulse tools you must allow for a minimum of
five pulses, otherwise scatter will be high. For non shut-off tools you should run the tool until
the screw has stopped.

ErgoPulse Shut-off Tools

The pulse unit provides full power during pulsing – at all settings.The shut-off pulse tools use
the twin chamber motors, giving high speed and power during pulsing. An innovative feature is
the patented, piston roller-type pulse unit.

The pulse unit has a pair of rollers and pistons moving radially in the out-going anvil. They are
pushed in by a cam in the impulse cylinder and out by a camshaft, connected to the impulse
cylinder. Once per revolution, oil is trapped between the pistons. The pistons and rollers
transfer the torque directly to the anvil and outgoing spindle.

The shut-off system – an active part of the tightening

The tools are designed with
patented shut-off system. An
inertial mass, located behind
the pulse unit, directly senses
the delivered torque at each
impulse and thereby controls
the air shut-off.
Torque is “sensed” by means
of a rotatable inertial mass
acting against an adjustable
spring. The force required to
rotate the mass is directly
proportional to the torque
delivered to the joint through the outgoing spindle. When this force is higher than the pre-set
force of the spring, the inertia body rotates, the stop pin releases a valve pin and the air supply
is immediately shut off. The result is a highly accurate and easily adjustable shut-off system.

TRIM Valve

To improve the performance of PT

shut-off pulse tools particularly on
hard joints and low torque settings,
the TRIM valve concept has been
developed. This smart
design incorporates an adjustable
valve on the air outlet that can be
closed to create a back pressure. In
this way, the TRIM valve makes it
possible to decrease the speed of
the motor during free rundown.

During pulsing, the motor stops at each pulse and the air
flow through the outlet is limited. Therefore, the TRIM valve
does not significantly reduce power and speed during
pulsing, but may still be used to control the free rundown
speed. The TRIM valve gives an installed torque with high
tightening accuracy on both hard and soft joints.
Reducing free speed
Since the energy in the first pulse is proportional to the speed squared, even a small reduction
in speed will effect a significant reduction in kinetic energy, and thus a more reliable
performance. By reducing the free speed with the TRIM valve by 10%, the kinetic energy will be
reduced by 19% (1-0.81). By reducing the speed by 30%, kinetic energy is reduced by 51%!

Unbeatable performance in all conditions

Our patented Auto Trim valve, built into the silencer, ensures excellent
installed torque repeatability, whether joints are hard or soft. Full
speed-control throughout rundown, with automatic shift to full power for
the final pulse phase. Set the desired torque level and Auto Trim will take
care of the rest. whether the joint is hard or soft.

Process control/reporting versions

Ergo Pulse tools supply an air signal that can be
connected to a monitoring instrument that counts the
number of approved tightenings and detects premature
shut-off and rehits and other irregularities.

After calibrating for the working pressure and pulsing

time of correct rundowns on a certain application, the
system will check that the signal reaches and maintains
the correct pressure interval for the correct time. It also
ensures that the shutoff pressure is reached and
maintained for a short period. A re-hit or cross threading will result in a very short pulsing time,
which, in turn, will lead to a reject. If the tool does not shut off, either because the operator lets
go of the trigger too soon or because of bolt stripping, the shut-off pressure is never reached
and the cycle will not be accepted. Meanwhile, the instrument will accept and count all
approved rundowns.
Note: the system does not measure torque!

Feedback and output for line control

In applications where the quality of tightenings is crucial, RE tools offer new possibilities in line
control. If the operator gets an “OK” from the monitoring instrument, the workpiece proceeds
number of tightening at the station, the production line will come to a stop. By preventing
errors from being passed on to the next station, line control makes a significant contribution to
product quality.
Service and Maintenance
ErgoPulse tools are designed for simple maintenance requirements and long service lives.It is
recommended that pulse tools be overhauled and cleaned after every 250,000 tightenings – or
more often if the tool is in heavy service or not running properly.

Correct oil levels

For optimum performance, the oil in the pulse unit should be filled to the correct level. Using a
simple syringe, refilling the oil is done quickly and easily. It is important to remember that too
much or too little oil will affect the tool’s performance. Because of the hydraulic system, we
recommend that servicing takes place in a clean and dust-free environment.

How do I know if my tool has the correct amount of oil?

The behaviour of the tool is also an
indication. Too much oil in the pulse unit
gives low pulse frequency, heavy pulses and
slow tightenings. On tools torque will
increase after a number of frequent
tightenings. On non shut-off ErgoPulse tools
too much oil will, after a while, give lower
torque values.
Too little oil in the pulse unit gives high pulse frequency, lighter pulses and may result in
reduced torque, particularly when the tool has not been used for a while (oil has room


For the Operator

ErgoPulse tools are designed to reduce operator fatigue. They give virtually no reaction on the
wrists of the operator, and the two-step trigger reduces the strain on the operator’s trigger
finger. For additional comfort, the rubber grip is insulated, and the trigger is easily adjusted for
left- or righthanded operators.

Low Vibrations
Low vibrations is an important ergonomic benefit that also means improved accuracy, product
quality, and increased service life of the tool. At 8-80 pulses per second (depending on the size
of the tool), low vibrations.

For the Working Environment

All ErgoPulse tools are designed with lubrication-free motors. This improves the working
environment by eliminating the risk of oil mist or “slippery” tools. In addition, the operator no
longer has to worry about oil allergy problems due to contact with oil in the hair or on the skin
Boosting Productivity
Since operating costs are a significant part of overall manufacturing costs, ergonomically
designed tools and workstations can mean a substantial boost to the overall productivity of
your operation. Ergonomics is a good investment that improves operator comfort and provides
greater efficiency and cost-savings in the long run.

Clamp force
We normally talk about torque measurement for assembly power tools, but torque is not really
what holds a joint together. The clamp force (or tension) is really the most important
parameter. However, the reasons for controlling torque, instead of clamp force, is that clamp
force is difficult to measure.

When discussing the correlation between torque and
clamp force, it is important to remember that only about
10% of the torque actually goes into the joint as clamp
force. On average, about 90% of the torque is required to
overcome friction – 40% in the threads and 50% under the
head. Small variations in friction will cause serious
inconsistencies in clamp force, even for very consistent
torque. This highlights the importance of having
consistent material and finish of all components in an assembly – no matter what tool is being

Can pulse tools be used on all types of joints?

Pulse tools are recommended for most joints, especially for hard to medium-soft joints.
Generally, pulse tools have good accuracy – however not as good as a shut-off type continuous
screwdriver or nutrunner like LUM or LTV. For critical joints with very high demands on torque
accuracy you are recommended to use a shut-off continuous type tool, either pneumatic or
electrically driven.

Most important for the cycle time of a pulse tool is the joint characteristics.
On hard joints pulse tools are extremely fast, while some soft joints, and especially prevailing
applications may keep a pulse tool pulsing for several seconds. This will increase the cycle time
significantly. If the tool pulses for more than 3-5 seconds, you should consider changing to a
bigger pulse tool or a continuous drive tool.

6.3 bar/90 psi (e)* is required for the tool to deliver its maximum torque level. You can run
ErgoPulse tools on lower pressure levels, but torque will be lower and tightening time will
increase. To get maximum performance from your ErgoPulse tool, always make sure the air
supply is sufficient. When in doubt, measure with a pressure gauge mounted at the tool air inlet
during tightening.

Extensions increase torsion to the system and consequently lower the delivered torque. The
longer the extension, the more the torque is reduced. A guided extension that fits snugly on the
outgoing spindle of the tool reduces torque loss. It also improves accuracy and reduces
vibration and noise levels. Designed specially for Ergo Pulse, Atlas Copco Anti- Vibration
extensions help you optimize the performance of the tool.

Tool Balancing
After application study of each station for determining the type of tool, determining the
number of tools to be ordered is the next step in assembly tool planning. For that one must
have full knowledge of the existing tools on the line with detailed analysis of the torque ranges
of each application.
Tool Balancing is one of the most important steps in Assembly Tools Planning. Tools balancing

➢ Determining the number of existing tools at each station.

➢ Finding out the torque range of each of the tools and the tool type(whether it
auto-shutoff or non-shut off type, oil pulse or impact/ battery type, Atlas Copco/Chicago
Pneumatic/Dissotter company tool)
➢ Procuring the list of the torque ranges for each application at each station.
➢ Comparing the data of existing and required tools.
➢ Finally assigning one tool to applications having similar torque ranges in one station and
another for different torque ranges to the others within the same station.

Similarly repeating this process for all the stations and assigning tools as per the torque
ranges and the variety of such ranges.

➢ Since the tool type for each application were determined with the help of analysis
discussed previously, matching the torque ranges of each application with that of the
tool torque ranges available to us is the next step for assembly tool planning.
➢ Counting the number of tools with each model number, analyzing quotations, preparing
RFQ report, placing PO for the planned tools is the next step for the planning.

➢ Preparing a plant layout and seeking space utility for trenches, tool posts and air lines/
number of extensions available at each tool post.
➢ Finding out the number of extensions available on each post, possibility for setting up
another tool post after analyzing the space distribution and compactness of the line,
tool posts and tools are added to the plant layout as per the number of trenches
available on the line.
➢ The final step of assembly tool planning is testing/validation, standardizing, setting
pressure limit for the air line and finally installation of the tool post and the tools on the

➢ Timely maintaining the tools by changing the oil, proper standardizing, testing and
calibration of tools should be done on a regular basis.