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Summary overview for Solid State Physics, TN2844

This overview is intended as a reference only. The contents of the course are in no Crystal structure (chapter 1) Diffraction / Reciprocal space (chapter 11)
way limited to what is shown here. However, the overview does provide some Key concepts: lattice points, lattice vectors, (primitive) unit cell Key concepts: scattering vector, Laue conditions, structure factor.
structure to all the content and highlights some of the main points. Expressions and basis. Miller planes and Miller indices. Typical crystal struc- Determine conditions for constructive/destructive interference.
written in black are considered to be known for the exam. The expressions in tures fcc, hcp, bcc, zincblende and their conventional unit cells.
green you should be able to derive (and demonstrate the dervation). Calculate filling factor. Bragg’s law:
Definition and properties of reciprical lattice vectors:

Lattice vibrations / Phonons (chapter 2) Free electrons / Metals (chapter 3)


Set up equations of motion for chains of masses, calculate basic dispersion ω(k). Parabolic dispersion, Fermi Dirac statistics: Periodicity of reciprocal space, Brillouin zone. Bloch theorem.
Acoustic vs. optical branches, degeneracy of branches. Speed of sound, group
velocity vs. phase velocity. Allowed k-values and normal modes. Periodic vs. fixed
boundary conditions. QM treatment: normal mode = harmonic oscillator. Bose
Einstein statistics. Calculate Fermi energy/wavevector/temperature for given crystal, know typical values. Semiconductor theory (continued)
Heat capacity due to electrons: Direct vs. indirect band gap. Absorption
of photons vs. phonons.
Calculate/approximate heat capacity due to phonons in different temperature
Electron transport: only at Fermi surface. Concept of mobility.
limits, Debye model.
Transport properties:
Hall effect: can tell sign of carrier mass.
Distinction ρ(k) vs. g(k). Calculate g(k) in 1D, 2D and 3D. Density of states g(ω).

Temp. dependence of conductivity.


Semiconductor theory (chapter 5)
Nearly free electrons / Tight binding (chapter 4) DOS conduction/valence band:
Determine k-values that are maximally affected by periodic potential. Identify Semiconductor devices (chapter 6)
linear combinations of electron wave function for which Wij matrix is diagonal. Concepts: p-n junction, depletion layer.
Calculate matrix elements and determine size of induced gap at Brillouin zone Zero bias:
edge in terms of Fourier components of periodic potential. Concept of effective density NC, NV, Boltzmann equation, law of mass action:

Derive wn, wp for a given charge denisty


Draw electron dispersion in different directions and predict material type distribution.
(metal/semiconductor) based on position of Fermi energy. Intrinsic behavior:
Applied bias: forward vs. reverse bias.
Tight binding: apply to finite (e.g. H2+ molecule) or semi-infinite (e.g. chain) Net current from electron/hole diffusion:
system. Linear combination of atomic orbitals with Bloch wave function ansatz. Extrinsic behavior:

Bonding vs. anti-bonding states. Formation of band structure from tight binding. E.g. ND>NA: Shockley diode, breakdown voltage.
Devices: LED, p-n laser, solar cell, p-n-p
Effective mass: E.g. only donors: transistor. MOSFET: inversion layer.