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ALKENES

A. Nomenclature, Structure, Isimerics

Alkene: The general name for linear or branched aliphatic hydrocarbons


that contain a double bond.

C n H 2 n ( n  2)
The general formula :

1.Nomenclature of alkenes
a) Common name

CH 2  CH 2 CH 2  CH  CH 3
ethylene propylene

Note: CH 2  CH  is : vinyl
CH 2  CH  CH 2 : allyl
2.Systematic name

ᵜ Parent chain=longest chain that includes double bond , parent


chain's Carbon numbered starting from the most nearly double
bonds

ᵜ The double bond number have priority and must have the
lowest number(s) possible.

ᵜ The first C atom in the C=C bond indicates the double bond’s
location ( or number in naming).

ᵜ Replace -ane ending with-ene eding.

ᵜ Put double bond number in front of entire root name


Branch’s number - substitute - double bond number -parent chain

Example:

CH 2  CH  CH 2  CH 3 CH 3C (CH 3 )  CH  CH 3
1-butene 2-methyl-2-butene
2.Structure and isomeric
a) Structure

In the alkenes molecule, two carbon-containing C = C double


bonds in sp2 hybrid : 1 orbital s with 2 orbitals d orbitals create
3 obitals sp 2

C=C double bond includes one  bond and  bond

b) Isomerics :

※ Alkenes can have geometric isomers

trans-2-butene cis-2-butene
(Z)-2-butene (E)-2-butene

※ Alkenes also has conformational isomers ( ≥ C4 )

Example: C5 H10 has 3 isomers

B.Property, Preparation, Apllication

1. Properties

a)Physical property

C2  C4 : gases .Alkenes are lighter than water, insoluble in


water and colorless

b) Chemical property

Alkenes’s double bond C=C is central to the occurrence of


specific reactions
*Addition of hydrogen (hydrogenation) when catalyst
present of Ni, Pt, Pd at right temperature

General:

alkenes alkanes

*Addition of halogens

=> Using to recognize alkenes ( solution of bromine becomes


colorless)

*Addition of hydrogen halides


2_chloride propene
(major product)

1-chloride propene
(addition product)

*Addition of watwer (hydration reaction) => Alcohol


Note that: Markovnikov's rule states that the hydrogen atom adds to the
carbon atom that already has the larger number of hydrogen atoms
when HX adds to an alkene.

*Polymerization

Polypropylene

=> In addition, the double bonds of alkenes are easily oxidized by the
oxidizing agent such as KMnO 4 => to recognize alkenes ( KMnO 4
becomes colorless)

=> Alken are oxidized by ozone creation ozonid compound. This


compound is unstable, is hydrolysed in acidcreated carbonyl compounds

C.Preparation and Appication

1.Preparation:
* In industry: by cracking reactions from corresponding ankanes

* In labratory:

2. Application
a)Synthetic polymers: to using in manufacture plumbing and
container

(PVC)
b)Synthesis of other chemicals such as ethanol, ethylene glycol , ethylene
oxide and so on.

Ethylene oxide