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Table 1.

2 Force resultants in beam AB for different load combinations


S. Load Combination Left end Centre Right end
No. Shear Moment Shear Moment Shear Moment
(kN) (kN-m) (kN) (kN-m) (kN) (kN-m)
1 1.5DL+1.5LL 63.7 36.5 1.33 -25.9 -61.1 32.1

2 1.2(DL+LL*+EQZ) 56.4 38.1 6.5 -21.4 -43.4 15.1


-
3 1.2(DL+LL*-EQZ) 12.8 20.4 -4.4 -20.1 54.3 36.35

4 1.5(DL+EQZ) 66.8 46.1 8.1 -24.7 -50.5 16.15


-
5 1.5(DL-EQZ) 53.2 23.11 5.4 -22.9 63.5 42.7

6 0.9DL+1.5 EQZ 42.8 32.2 7.6 -15.2 -27.5 4.4


-
7 0.9DL-1.5 EQZ 29.3 9.2 -5..9 -13.4 41.1 31

* Appropriate fraction of live load has been used

1.4 Various Checks


1.4.1 Check for Axial Stress Minimum reinforcement
Factored axial force = 0.00 kN f
ck 0.24 × 30
Factored axial stress = 0.0 MPa < 0.08fck = 0.24 =
fy 415
Hence, design as flexural member.
= 0.32%.
(Clause 6.1.1; IS 13920:1993)
= 0.32 x 300 x 235/100
1.4.2 Check for Member Size
= 225.6 mm2
Width of beam, B = 300 mm > 200 mm, (Clause 6.2.1 of IS 13920: 2016)
Hence, ok (Clause 6.1.2; IS 13920:2016) Maximum reinforcement
Depth of beam, D = 300 mm = 2.5%
B
D = 300300= 1> 0.3, hence ok = 2.5 x 300 x 235 /100
= 1762.5 mm2
(Clause6.1.1; IS 13920:2016)
(Clause 6.2.2 of IS 13920: 1993)
Span, L = 3650 mm
L 1.5 Design for Flexure
D = 3650300 = 12.16> 4, hence ok
Table 1.3 shows, in brief, the reinforcement
(Clause 6.1.3 of IS: 13920-2016) calculations at left end, centre and right end of the
beam AB as per IS 13920:2016. Design aid SP:
1.4.3 Check for Limiting Longitudinal 16 has been used for this purpose. Detailed
Reinforcement calculations at left end are given in the following
Effective depth for moderate exposure conditions sections. In actual practice, a spread sheet can be
with 20 mm diameter bars in two layers on an used conveniently.
average
1.5.1 Design for Hogging Moment
= 235mm
Mu= -=__ kN-m
0.7 × 3650
= + 300 + 6 ×125Or 5,840

, = 1475.83 mm or 3650 mm
= 1,475.83 mm (lowest of the above)
(Clause 23.1.2 of IS 456: 2000)
Substituting the values and solving the quadratic
equation, we get
Astat bottom = 1073.08mm2>
225.6mm2
< 1762.5 mm2
It is necessary to check the design assumptions
before finalizing the reinforcement.
A
0.87 fy st
xu=
0.36 fckbf
0.87 × 415 ×1073
= = 24.30mm
0.36 × 30 ×1475
<df ok
1.5.2 Design for Sagging Moment <xu,max i.e. < 209 mm Ok
Mu= 46.1 kN-m
The beam is designed as T beam. The limiting
capacity of the T-beam assuming xu< Dfand
xu<xu,maxmay be calculated as follows. (Clause 6.2.3 of IS 13920: 1993)
A
M u = 0.87fyAstd(1 − st fy
) 1.5.3 Required Reinforcement
f
b f d ck Top reinforcement required is
(Annex G of IS 456: 2000) 536.5mm2
Where,
Bottom reinforcement required is
Df= depth of flange
1073 mm2 .
= 125 mm
xu= depth of neutral axis
1.6 Details of Reinforcement
xu,max= limiting value of neutral axis Table 1.4 shows summary of reinforcement
= 0.48 x d provided at left end, at centre, and at right end of
= 0.48 x 235 the beam AB.

= 112.8 mm A total of 3-16Φ straight bars each are provided


bw= width of rib throughout the length of the beam at both top and
bottom. 2-16Φ extra at bottom (i.e., a total of
1.1%) are provided at the left end. At the right
end, 2-12Φ extra are provided at the top (i.e, a
total of 0.54%.
= 300 mm
bf= width of flange

= Lo + bw + 6dfor c/c of beams


6
In an external joint, both the top and bottom bars 1.7.2 Shear Force Due to Plastic Hinge
of the beam shall be provided with an anchorage Formation at the ends of the Beam
length beyond the inner face of the column equal
The additional shear due to formation of plastic
to the development length in tension + 10 times
hinges at both ends of the beams is evaluated as
bar diameter minus the allowance for 90 degree
bend (Clause 6.2.5 of IS 13920:2016) as shown in per clause 6.3.3 of IS 13920:2016 and is given by

± 1.4 (MuAs +MuBh)


Vswaytoright =
L

± 1.4 (MuAh + MuBs)


Vswaytoleft=
20 # L
The sagging and hogging moments of resistance
(MuAs,MuBs, MuAh and MuBh) at both ends of beam
980 are calculated on the basis of the actual area of
steel provided in the section.
784 The beam is provided with a steel area of 536.5
mm2 (i.e., pt =0.67 %) at top and 1073.08 mm2
(i.e. pc = 1.1%) at bottom on the left end of the
16 # beam.
For pt = 0.67% and pc = 1.1%, referring to SP:
16, (for pt = 0.67% or pc = 1.1% whichever gives
lowest value in the table),
M Ah
Figure 5: Anchorage of reinforcement barsin u = 0.73
an external joint 2
bd
Hogging moment capacity at A,
In this case, for Fe415 steel and M20 grade
concrete, from Table 65 of SP: 16, MuAh= 0.73 x 300 x (235)2/(1 x 106) = 15 kN-m
ld= 47Φ+ 10Φ- 8Φ= 49Φ The limiting moment carrying capacity of a beam
= 980 mm for 20 Φ bar section can also be evaluated from the first
= 784 mm for 16 Φ bar principle. This method is iterative but gives more
appropriate values of Mu.
= 588 mm for 12Φ bar
For calculation of MuAs, the tensile steel
pt= 1.1% and compressive steel pc= 0.67% is
1.7 Design for Shear used. The contribution of the compressive steel is
ignored while calculating the sagging moment
1.7.1 Design Shear Strength of Concrete capacity as T-beam. Referring to Annex G of IS:
Tensile steel provided at left end =.67% 456-2000, sagging moment capacity at A for xu<
Dfandxu<xu,maxmay be calculated as givenbelow.
Permissible design shear stress of concrete,
τ c= 0.45 MPa (IS 456:2000 Table 19)Design MuAs= M = )
shear strength of concrete f
= τ cb d = 11.26 kN-m

= 0.45 x 300 x 235 /1,000


= 31.725 kN
Similarly, design shear strength of concrete at
center and right end are evaluated.
Table 1.3: Flexural design for beam AB
Beam AB Top reinforcement
Left end Center Right end
Hogging
moment - -25.93 -
(kN-m)
-Mu/bd2 -
Astat top
0.67% 0.67%
0.25%
Ascat 1.1%
1.1% 0.125%
bottom
-

Bottom reinforcement
Sagging
moment 46.1 - 51
(kN-m)
Astat Astrequired = 1073 mm2 Astrequired = 225mm2 Astrequired = 225.6 mm2
bottom = 1.1% = .25% = 0.25 %

Ascat top 0.55% 0.25/2 = 0.125%


0.25/2 = 0.125 %

Summary of required reinforcement


Top = 0.55% Top = 0.25% Top = 0.25%
Bottom = 1.1% Bottom = 0.125% Bottom = 0.125%

Table 1.4 Summary of reinforcement for beam AB


Beam AB Longitudinal Reinforcement
Left end Center Right end
Top 3-16Φ straight 3-16Φ straight
3-16Φ straight
Reinforcemen
t

Bottom 3-16Φ straight + 2-12Φ


3-16Φ straight + 2-16Φ extra 3-16Φ straight
Reinforcemen
t
As perforce
shear
of: Clause 6.3.3
to be of IS shall
resisted 13920:2016, the design
be the maximum
Similarly, for the right end of the beam we obtain,
i) Calculated factored shear forces as per analysis
MuBh= 0kN-m andMuBs= 42.794kN-m, (Refer Table 1.4)
Shear is calculated as below:
ii) Shear forces due to formation of plastic hinges
± 1.4(MuAs + MuBh) at both ends of the beam plus factored gravity
Vswaytoright= load on the span (as calculated in Section 1.9.3)
L
Hence, design shear force (Vu) will be 66.79kN
= ± 17.6 kN
(maximum of 66.79kN from analysis and 50.82kN
corresponding to hinge formation) for left end of
the beam and 63.49 kN
1.4(MuAh+ MuBs)
Vswaytoleft = ±
L The required capacity of shear reinforcement at
= ±16.38 kN the left end of the beam is:
Vus = Vu – Vc

1.7.3 Design Shear = 66.79-31.725

Referring to the dead and live load diagrams = 29 kN


(Figure 1.4), Similarly the, required capacity of shear
DL = 51.124 kN reinforcement at the right end is 31.765kN.

LL = 4.24kN Referring to Table 62 of SP:16, we get the


Figure 1.7 shows the shear force diagram due to required spacing of 2 legged 8φ stirrups as 300
DL, LL and due to hinge formation at the ends of mm 190 mm respectively at left end and right end.
beam. As per Clause 6.3.5 of IS 13920:1993, the spacing
Shear at left end for sway to right, of stirrups in the mid-span shall not exceed d/2 =
235/2 = 117.5 mm.
Vu,a= 1.2(DL+LL) − 1.4(MuAs+MuBh ) Minimum shear reinforcement as per
2 L Clause 26.5.1.6 of IS 456:2000 is given by:
= 15.62kN Sv=Asvx 0.87fy /(0.4 b)
= 2 x 50 x 0.87 x 415 / (300 x 0.4)
Shear at left end for sway to left,
= 303.33 mm.
Ah Bs
Vu,a= 1.2(DL+LL) + 1.4(Mu +Mu ) Spacing of links over a length of 2d at either end
2 of beam as per Clause 6.3.5 of IS13920: 1993
= 50.82 kN shall be the least of:
Shear at right end for sway to right, i) d/4 = 235 /4 =58.75 mm
ii) 8 times diameter of smallest bar
Vu,b= 1.2(DL+LL) + 1.4(MuAs+MuBh ) = 8 x 16 = 128 mm
2 L However, it need not be less than 100 mm.
= 35.76 kN
Hence, provide 2 Legged - 8 φ stirrups @125mm
Shear at right end for sway to left, c/c at left and at right end over a length of 2d = 2
x 235 = 470 mm.
Vu,b= 1.2(DL+LL) − 1.4(MuAh+MuBs ) In case of splicing of reinforcement, the spacing
2 L of links shall be limited to 150 mm centers as per
= -6.42 kN clause 6.2.6 of IS 13920:1993.