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Definition of literature and benefit


of reading literature
Which one of them belongs to Literature? LOGO

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ENGLISH: literature

GREEK: litteratura = grammatika


(grama=letter)

DUTCH: gellettered

French: belles-lettres (tulisan yang


sopan dan indah)

SANSKERTA: pustaka=books

18th century: Literature is “Great books”


WHY LITERATURE IS DIFFICULT TO DEFINE? LOGO

Literature isn’t science. It is art. Art


includes humanity especially feeling
so it is difficult to apply scientific
approaches to measures art exactly.
The definition of literature is difficult
to cover the major of all kind of
literature (poetry, prose, or a play)
Literature is depend on place and
time. What is considered of a good
literature is different in a certain
places and certain time.
GENERAL DEFINITION OF LITERATURELOGO

 Lord Morely:
 “Literature consists of all the books
where moral truth and human passion
are touched with a certain largeness
 In other words, literature heightens our
awareness of human life. It enhances
our vision of life and we begin to look at
nature with new eyes. It interprets with
ornamental language the experiences
and spiritual intuitions of man. Literature
appeals us greatly due to its essential
features including thought, feeling,
imagination and beauty of style and form
etc., sanity and attraction of form”
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"literature" is used to describe


anything from creative writing to
more technical or scientific works, but
the term is most commonly used to
refer to works of the creative
imagination, including works of
poetry, drama, fiction, and nonfiction.
Literature is important to us because
it speaks to us, it is universal, and it
affects us. Even when it is ugly,
literature is beautiful.
THE DEFINITION OF LITERATURE LOGO

 Literature Is The Art Of Language

 Literature Is A Spontaneous Expression From He


Deepest Feeling.

 Literature Is The Expression Of Thought In Language.


(Thought: Ideas, Feelings, Opinions And Mental
Activities)

 Literature Is All Inspiration Of Life Manifested In


Beautiful Forms

 Literature Is All Books Containing Deep Human


Feelings And Moral Truth With Original Touch, Deep
Thought And Enchanting Forms

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Function of Literature LOGO

19th century: Art for art


20th century (renaisance)
Edgar Allan Poe : Sastra berfungsi
untuk menghibur dan mengajarkan
sesuatu.
Horace/ Horacious : Dulce et Utile
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ELEMENTS OF LITERATURE LOGO

 CONTENT OF LITERATURE: opinion, feeling,


experience, idea, spirit, believe.

 EXPRESION: attempt to present what is


inside human thought.

 FORMS: language, movement, color, sounds

 LANGUAGE IS THE MAIN MATERIAL TO


PRESENT PERSONAL EXPRESSION

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GENRE OF LITERATURE LOGO
(Based on Fictionality and special used of Language)
ESSAY

CRITICISM
BIOGRAPHY

AUTOBIOGRAPHY

NON IMAGINATIVE HISTORY


LITERATURE
MEMOIR
DIARY
EPIC

LETTER LYRIC

DRAMATIC
LITERATURE
POETRY

NOVEL

NOVELLETE LONG SHORT


STORY

IMAGINATIVE FICTION
LITERATURE
SHORT SHORT STORY
STORY

SHORT SHORT
STORY
COMEDY
PROSE
TRAGEDY
PROSE
DRAMA
MELODRAMA

TRAGI-
DRAMA POETIC COMEDY
DRAMA
Based on total number of words LOGO

NOVEL (at least 35.000 words or 100


pages)
NOVELLETE (between 35.000 words
or between 40-100 pages)
SHORT STORY (at least 10.000 words
or 30 pages)
LONG SHORT STORY (between 5000
and 10.000 words or it can be read in
30 minutes)
SHORT SHORT STORY (5000 words at
most or around 15 pages and can be
read in 15 minutes)
The Uniqueness of Literature LOGO

What is the
effect when we
read literature?

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METAWORLD LOGO

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 We take flight into another existence as if


riding a magic carpet into a secondary world
of imagination.

 We see and hear through language and


respond to its feeling rather than seeing and
hearing our actual surroundings or
responding to them.

 It is as though we are hypnotized, released


from our own limited bodies and given the
freedom to become anything, see anything,
and feel anything.

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Leland H Roloff (1973) LOGO

Literature has some uniqueness as


pointed out by :
 (1) Literature depends upon
Performance
 (2) Literature creates Metaworlds
 (3) Literature is oriented essentially to
Acoustic Space

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Literature depends upon Performance LOGO

it offers and presents itself to our


sensory awareness as a performance.

There is no such thing as literature


without a performance, and this truth
unites all men who value the use of
language and symbol in creating, re-
creating and interpreting human
experience.

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METAWORLD LOGO

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Literature is oriented essentially to Acoustic
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Space

since ancient times, literature was not


printed; literature was vocalized.

So it was created and transmitted


orally as myth, story, fable song,
poem, chant, rite, ritual and play

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Novel and Prose

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The uniqueness: LOGO

Literature is Language performed


by life word of art in form of
writing
The keys:
1. Performance
2. Metaworld
3. Acoustic Space
Reading Fiction LOGO

For Enjoyment (fun)


For Understanding
(background of the story/
the culture)
Fiction ……….is make up story LOGO

 Divided into two categories


1. Escape Literature: - Written purely for entertainment
- Escape from real world
(It is also called commercial fiction or popular fiction)

2. Interpretation Literature:
-written to broaden, deepen and sharpen our
awareness of life.
- written in more serious artistic intents and seeks to
be interpretative.
- and take our imagination into real world.
- This kind of fiction will bring pleasure and
understanding.
(It is also called quality fiction or literary fiction)
The Characteristics of :LOGO
 1. Escape Writer:
- using trick: -the same as our life
- surprises : - the end is always nice

2. Interpretive Writer:


Lead us to discover the tricks
Prose LOGO

 1. Prose is a form of language that has no


formal metrical structure. It applies a
natural flow of speech, and ordinary
grammatical structure rather than rhythmic
structure, such as in the case of traditional
poetry.
 2. common place expression or quality
 3. roman catholic church: A hymn of
irregular meter sung before Gospel.
 Origin of prose:
 Middle English, from Anglo-French, from
latin Prosa.
 First known use: 14th Century
Critical debates LOGO

Its simplicity and loosely defined


structure has led to adoption for the
majority of spoken dialog, factual
discourse as well as topical and
fictional writing.

It is commonly used in literature,


magazines, encyclopedias,
broadcasting, films, and many other
forms of communication.
Novel and Prose? LOGO

Novel is a prose narrative on a


large scale

Short story is also called prose.


It is shorter than the novel
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SHORT STORIES NOVEL


- Single incident - Many incidents
- Characters are - Characters are
seldom developed developed
- Characters - Length permits
revealed experience and
- Qualities: expansive in space
- Compression as well as time
- Concentration
- Intensity
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NOVEL: (CAMBRIDGE ADVANCE DICT.) a


long printed story about imaginary characters
and events

NOVELLETE (NOVEL + SUFFIX et (LITTLE) is


little novel (between short story and novel)

SHORT STORY is a story shorter than novel or


novelette characteristically developing a
single central theme and limited in scene and
numbers of character.
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