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COURSE TITLE: Basic Electricity and COURSE CODE: EECIM01

Systems
SUBJECT: Safety and Precautions TITLE: Procedures and practices for
safety in the workshop
TRAINING AIMS:
� Providing and maintaining a working environment that is safe.
� Demonstrate the importance of personal protective wear
� Read and implement rules and regulations in safety
� Ability to use the fire extinguishers.
� Differentiate between different type of extinguishers
Precautions with electrical fire

DESCRIPTION OF TASK:

� Show notice warning visitors that the workshop is a hazardous area;


� Identify that the floors of the workshop should be covered with an insulating
material Draw
� Chose the right overcoat and the right size
� Identify the emergency exit door
� Locate the first aid box

BASICS WORK HABBITS IN THE WORKSHOP

1. Wear helmet to protect head.

2. Wear ear protectors to protect your ears.

3. Wear goggles for eyes.

4. Always wear a protective over coat/ overall.


-It will protect your body and holds lose clothing.

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5. Wear insulated gloves for hands so that it will
protect against burns and injuries.

6. Wear Anti-static and grounding strap to protect from shock.

7. Wear good strong shoes for protecting your feets.

8. Use electrostatic discharge mat to protect the components/equipment.

9. Do not touch live conductor or wire with bare hands.

10. Use hand tools carefully, keep both hands behind the cutting edges.

11. Before assembling and disassembling the electronic equipment


make sure that the power supply is switched off so that it prevents the
component from damage.
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12. Don't run or play in the workshop/laboratory.

13. Don't eat, drink or smoke inside the laboratory.

14. Don't keep unwanted material in the wok table.

15. Make sure of the availability and access to first aid kits, fire extinguishers,
emergency stop buttons, exits and other safety equipments.

Electronic Tool Kit

Screw Drivers
Parts: Blade, Rod, Handle
Uses :To tighten and loosen the screws.

Tester
To test the current, voltage in the plug/Equipment.

Slide Cutter
For cutting the wires

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Pliers

Combination Pliers
Parts: Jaws, Hinges, Arms.
Used for gripping or holding tight

Nose Pliers
Used for shaping, bending and twisting wires

Punch Plier

Used for pressing the wire

Automatic stripper

Wire Stripper

Used for stripping

Hammers

Used for hitting things

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Soldering Iron

For assembling and disassembling the components on the board.

Hacksaw

Used for cutting the wooden rod or steel rod.

Rulers and Measuring tapes

For measuring the length of the worktable, etc...

Spanner

Used for loosening or tightening the nuts.

Driller

Used for making holes.


• Place the tools after working in the corresponding tool box.

Electrician Knife

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EXTINGUISHERS:
� Fire extinguishers are first aid equipments for controlling and putting out small
fires before they become large ones.
� Rule of firefighting is
- To save lives and property
- To get yourself and your family to safety before attempting to stop any fire.

Classification of fires:

• Class A fires involve organic solids such as paper and wood.

• Class B fires involve flammable or combustible liquids, including petrol, grease, and oil.

• Class C fires involve flammable gases.

• Class D fires involve combustible metals.

• Class E fires involve electrical equipment/appliances.

• Class F fires involve cooking fat and oil.

Classification of fire extinguishers:

Water: Class A
Water stored pressure extinguishers cool burning material by absorbing heat from the
burning material.

Dry Powder: Class A, B, C, & Electrical


Powder based fire extinguishers separate the four parts of the “fire tetrahedron”. This
prevents the chemical reaction between heat, fuel and oxygen and halts the production of
fire sustaining "free-radicals", thus extinguishing the fire.

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Foam: Class A & B
This extinguisher type, which is generally applied to fuel fires, forms a frothy blanket or seal
over the fire, thereby starving the fire of oxygen and cooling the fire through the
evaporation of the water content in the foam.

Carbon Dioxide: Class B & Electrical


CO2 is a clean gaseous agent which displaces oxygen and cools the fire. This extinguisher is
not intended for Class A fires as the high-pressure cloud of gas can scatter burning
materials. It is also not suitable for use on fires which contain their own oxygen source,
metals fires or cooking fat fires, making this extinguisher unsuitable for kitchen fires.

Wet chemical: Class A & F


Wet chemical fire extinguishers put out a fire by forming a soapy foam blanket over
burning oil and by cooling the oil below its ignition temperature. Generally used for class A
and class F fires, this type of extinguisher is ideal for commercial kitchen cooking fat fires.
This extinguisher type is not suitable for electrical fires.

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Stages of fire fighting:

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Alert at the time of fire
� If You Discover a Fire – remember the acronym RACE!
� Rescue anyone in immediate danger of the fire, if you can do so safely.
� Alert others and emergency services to the fire. Activate the building’s fire alarm,
if equipped. Yell “Fire” to warn occupants to evacuate.
� Call 9999 to alert the fire department and always call from a safe location away
from the fire.

� Contain the spread of fire by closing windows and doors as you evacuate the area
and building.
� Evacuate to a safe place outside; preferably a pre-arranged meeting place..

How to use the fire extinguisher-pictorial

P.A.S.S
P - Pull the pin
A – Aim at the base of the fire
S – Squeeze the handle
S – Sweep the fire

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P.A.S.S - P - Pull the pin
� Pull the pin.
� Some models require you to remove a locking pin on
the handle or lever.
� Some models may have other lever-releasing mechanisms,
such as a button

P.A.S.S- A - Aim at the base of the fire


� Aim low and direct the hose nozzle or cone
at the base of the fire.
� If aim at the flames, the extinguishing agent
will flow right through the flames, and be ineffective.
� The extinguishing agent must hit the base of the fire.

� Most portable fire extinguishers must be used from a distance of 1.8 to 3 meters
(6 to 10 feet) to be effective.

P.A.S.S- S - Squeeze
� Squeeze the lever above the handle to discharge the extinguishing agent.
� Releasing the lever will stop the discharge.
� Some models may have a button instead of a lever.

P.A.S.S- S - Sweep
� Sweep the nozzle or hose from side to side at the base of the fire.
� Moving carefully toward the fire, keep the extinguisher aimed at the base of the
fire and sweep back and forth until the flames appear to be out.
� Never turn your back on a fire; watch the fire area in case the fire re-ignites, and
repeat use of the extinguisher if necessary.

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COURSE TITLE: Basic Electricity and COURSE CODE: EECIM01
Systems
SUBJECT: Common electrical circuits TITLE: Electric quantities

TRAINING AIMS:
� Understand the meaning of different electric quantities (current, voltage,
resistor ).
� Calculate voltage , current , total resistance value
� Build simple circuit
� Calculate for branch currents of series-parrel
� Understand Ohms law , Kirchoff's theorems and Thevenin laws

DESCRIPTION OF TASK:
Basic quantities
1- Charge
Most matter is macroscopically electrically neutral most of the time. Exceptions:
clouds thunderstorm, people on carpets in dry weather, plates of a charged capacitor…
Microscopically, of course, matter is full of charges. The application of an electric field
causes charges to drift, or move. Electrons will naturally move from lower electric
potential to higher potential. The rate at which the charges move depends on the
magnitude of the potential difference and the properties of the matter.
Charge is measured in Coulombs. An electron has charge : -1.6 x 10-19 C.

CURRENT
2- Current
1 Ampere flow of 1Coulomb per second

where q is the charge in Coulombs and t is the time in seconds


Current is defined as flow of positive charge!

3- voltage :
Voltage is the difference “Vab” means the
in electric potential potential at a minus the
between two points. potential at b.

Potential is always defined by two points.

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4- Power
Transfer of energy per unit time (Joules per second = Watts) In falling through a
potential drop V>0, a positive charge q gains energy
Potential energy change = qV for each charge q
Power = P = V (dq/dt) = VI

P = V ⋅ I (Volt ⋅ Amps) = ( Volts ⋅ Coulombs/sec) = (Joules/sec = Watts)

Multiples and Sub-multiples

Prefix Symbol Multiplier Power of Ten


Terra T 1,000,000,000,000 1012
Giga G 1,000,000,000 109
Mega M 1,000,000 106
kilo k 1,000 103
none none 1 100
centi c 1/100 10-2
milli m 1/1,000 10-3
micro µ 1/1,000,000 10-6
nano n 1/1,000,000,000 10-9
pico p 1/1,000,000,000,000 10-12

Page 12
Power and Energy Quiz

1. What is the power dissipated by a circuit that passes a current of 1.6A when a
voltage of 6V is connected across it?

a) 3.75 W

b) 9.6 W

c) 3.75 J

d) 267 mW

2. What power is dissipated by a 40 Ω resistor when a voltage of 6V is connected across


it?

a) 267 W

b) 6.67 W

c) 267 mW

d) 900 mW

3. How much power is dissipated by a 150 Ω resistor when a current of 100 mA flows
through it?

a) 1.5 W

b) 66.67 mW

c) 2.25 mW

d) 2.5 W

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4. A resistor is needed to reduce the voltage supplying a circuit by 7V when the circuit
draws a current of 100mA. Choose the best resistor for the job from the values below.

a) 700 Ω 2 W

b) 70 Ω 0.5 W

c) 680 Ω 5 W

d) 68 Ω 1 W

5. How much energy is used by a light emitting diode when it is illuminated by a 10


mA current at a voltage of 2 V for 30 minutes?

a) 20 mW

b) 36 J

c) 0.6 J

d) 600 mW

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1 OHM

It can be defined as "The amount of resistance that will produce a potential difference
(p.d.) or voltage of 1 Volt across it when a current of 1 Ampere flowing through it."

1 AMPERE

It can be defined as "The amount of current which, when flowing through a resistance
of 1 Ohm will produce a potential difference of 1 Volt across the resistance."

(Although more useful definitions of an ampere are available)

1 VOLT

It can be defined as "The difference in potential (voltage) produced across a


resistance of 1 Ohm through which a current of 1 Ampere is flowing."

(Again alternative definitions using other quantities can also be used)

Ohm´s Law
Ohm´

Note that when using these formula the values of V I and R written into the formula must be in its BASIC
UNIT i.e. VOLTS (not millivolts) Ohms (not kilohms) and AMPERES (not micro Amperes )etc.

Page 15
Ohm
Ohm´´s Law Quiz (Resistance, Voltage and Current).
Current)

1. What will be the potential difference across a 50Ω resistor if a current of 500mA is
flowing through it?

a) 0.25 Volts

b) 25 Volts

c) 5 Volts

d) 50 Volts

2. What current will be needed to produce a voltage of 5V cross a 12kΩ resistor?

a) 2.4mA

b) 416.67mA

c) 240mA

d) 416.67µA

3. What value of resistor will be needed to produce a current of 100mA when a voltage
of 12V is applied across the resistor?

a) 120Ω

b) 8K3

c) 1K2

d) 830

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4. What voltage will be developed across a 560Ω resistor if a current of 20mA is flowing
through it?

a) 11.2mA

b) 112 Volts

c) 112mA

d) 11.2 Volts

5. What current passing through 10kΩ resistor will produce a voltage of 8V cross it?

a) 800mA

b) 800µA

c) 8mA

d) 80µA

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Branchs and nodes

Branch: Elements connected end-to-end, nothing coming off in between (in series)

Kirchhoff’’s voltage law


Kirchhoff
For any node sequence A, B, C, D, …, M around a closed path, the voltage drop from A to
M is given by :

V =V +V +V +V
AE AB BC CD DE

E
Node:
Kirchhoff’’s Current Law (KCL)
Kirchhoff
Sum of currents entering node = sum of currents leaving node

For any node of the circuit ∑i in


= ∑i out
i1+i2 = i3 + i4

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Resistances in series

V AB
=V T
= V 1 +V 2
+V 3

KCL tells us that all of the elements in a single branch carry the same current
current. We
say these elements are in series
series.
Current entering node = Current leaving node : iin = iout
We apply Ohms law on the circuit : ( V = R.I )
so we simplify by I we find V AB = RT . I = R1. I + R2 . I + R3 . I

R =R +R +R
T 1 2 3

Resistances in parallel

Parallel
Resistors are said to be connected together in "Parallel
Parallel" when both of their terminals
are respectively connected to each terminal of the other resistor or resistors.
In the following resistors in parallel circuit the resistors R1, R2 and R3 are all
connected together in parallel between the two points A and B as shown

applying Ohms law : V T = V R1 + V R 2 + V R 3


R T R 1 R 2 R 3

since we have : V =V =V =V
T 1 2 3

We can simplify, and the final equation is :


1 1 1 1
= + +
R T R 1 R 2 R 3

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Example 1:
Using Ohms Law, calculate the equivalent series resistance, the series current,
voltage drop and power for each resistor in the following resistors in series circuit.

All the data can be found by using Ohm's Law, and to make life a little easier we can
present this data in tabular form.
1-Theocratical : Compete the table
Resistance Current Voltage Power
R1 = 10Ω I1 = V1 = P1 =
R2 = 20Ω I2 = V2 = P2 =
R3 = 30Ω I3 = V3 = P3 =
RT = IT = VS = PT =

2- Practical : Build the circuit on the breadboard, and compete the table :

Resistance Current Voltage Power


R1 = 10Ω I1 = V1 = P1 =
R2 = 20Ω I2 = V2 = P2 =
R3 = 30Ω I3 = V3 = P3 =
RT = IT = VS = PT =

3- Comment :
.....................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................

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Example 2: R1=1K Ω

R2=100 Ω

R4=5.6K

R3=10K Ω

1- build the circuit on the breadboard


2- calculate the theoretical value of :
� RT (theor ) = ..............................................................................................
.................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................
� I T (theor ) = ..............................................................................................
� I (theor ) =...............................................................................................
1

� I (theor ) = ...............................................................................................
2

3- Use the multimeter and measure :


� RT ( pract ) =.................................
� I ( pract ) = ...................................
T

4- Draw the simplified circuit

Page 21
Resistor Circuits Quiz

For each circuit, calculate the total resistance.

a) 831Ω

b) 1.83KΩ

c) 831KΩ

d) 151KΩ

2-

a) 10KΩ

b) 5.5KΩ

c) 454Ω

d) 2KΩ

a) 10.8KΩ

b) 3.3KΩ

c) 6.63KΩ

d) 18.3KΩ

Page 22
Potential Divider Network

Example
Calculate the voltage across X and Y.
a) Without RL connected
b) With RL connected

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Thevenin's theorem

Thevenin's theorem states that any circuit consisting of resistors and EMFs has an
equivalent circuit consisting of a single voltage source VTH in series with a single

resistor RTH.
The concept of "load" is useful at this point. Consider a partial circuit with two output
points held at potential difference Vout which are not connected to anything. A

resistor RL placed across the output will complete the circuit, allowing current to flow

through RL. The resistor RL is often said to be the "load" for the circuit. A load
connected to the output of our voltage divider circuit is shown in Fig. 2
The prescription for finding the Thevenin equivalent quantities VTH and RTH is as
follows:
� For an "open circuit" ( R L → ∞ ), then VTH = Vout .
V TH
� For a "short circuit" ( R L
→ 0 ), then R TH
=
I short

Thevenin's equivalent circuit.

Thevenin's Theorem Summary


The basic procedure for solving a circuit using Thevenin's Theorem is as follows:
� 1. Remove the load resistor RL or component concerned.
� 2. Find RS by shorting all voltage sources or by open circuiting all the current
sources.
� 3. Find VS by the usual circuit analysis methods.
� 4. Find the current flowing through the load resistor RL

Page 24
COURSE TITLE: Basic Electricity and COURSE CODE: EECIM01
Systems
SUBJECT: Common electrical circuits TITLE: Common electrical
components

TRAINING AIMS:
• Read and interpret schematic symbols of resistor
• Test resistors
• Read and interpret schematic symbols of capacitor
• Test capacitors
• Differentiate between different types of coils and transformers
• Construct series-parallel resistive circuit with DC source voltage
• Construct capacitive and inductive circuit with AC source voltage
• Test LCR circuit using oscilloscope and signal generator

DESCRIPTION OF TASKS:

Resistor construction
Because resistors are "passive components" they cannot amplify or increase voltages
currents or signals, they can only reduce them. Nevertheless they are a most essential
part of any electronic circuit..

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The Standard Resistor Colour Code Chart.

For example, a resistor has the following Coloured markings;


Yellow Violet Red = 4 7 2 = 4 7 x 102 = 4700 Ω or 4.7 KΩ .
4700Ω

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Find theoretical value using the colour code

Page 27
Surface Mount Resistors

4.7k
4.7kΩΩ SMD Resistor
Surface Mount Resistors or SMD Resistors, are very small rectangular shaped metal
oxide film resistor. They have a ceramic substrate body onto which is deposited a thick
layer of metal oxide resistance. The resistive value of the resistor is controlled by
increasing the desired thickness, length or type of deposited film being used and highly
accurate low tolerance resistors, down to 0.1% can be produced. They also have metal
terminals or caps at either end of the body which allows them to be soldered directly
onto printed circuit boards.
Surface Mount Resistors are printed with either a 3 or 4-digit numerical code which is
similar to that used on the more common axial type resistors to denote their resistive
value. Standard SMD resistors are marked with a three-digit code, in which the first
two digits represent the first two numbers of the resistance value with the third digit
being the multiplier, either x1, x10, x100 etc. For example:
"103" = 10 × 1,000 ohms = 10
kiloΩ´s
"392" = 39 × 100 ohms = 3.9
kiloΩ´s
"563" = 56 × 1,000 ohms = 56
kiloΩ´s
"105" = 10 × 100,000 ohms = 1
MegaΩ

The British Standard (BS 1852) Code.


BS 1852 Codes for Resistor Values
0.47Ω = R47 or 0R47
1.0Ω = 1R0
4.7Ω = 4R7
47Ω = 47R
470Ω = 470R or 0K47
1.0KΩ = 1K0
4.7KΩ = 4K7
47KΩ = 47K

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The Capacitor :

� A capacitor consists of two metal plates separated by a dielectric.


� The dielectric can be made of many insulating materials such as air, glass, paper,
plastic etc.
� A capacitor is capable of storing electrical charge and energy.
� The higher the value of capacitance, the more charge the capacitor can store.
� The larger the area of the plates or the smaller their separation the more charge
the capacitor can store.
� A capacitor is said to be "Fully Charged" when the voltage across its plates equals
the supply voltage.
� The symbol for electrical charge is Q and its unit is the Coulomb.
� Electrolytic capacitors are polarized. They have a +ve and a -ve terminal.
� Capacitance is measured in Farads
Farads, which is a very large unit
so micro-Farad ( µ F ), nano-Farad ( nF ) and pico-Farad ( pF ) are
generally used.

The basic construction and symbol for a parallel plate capacitor is given as:

Consider the capacitor below:

The capacitor on the left is of a ceramic disc type capacitor


that has the code 473J printed onto its body. Then the 4 =
1st digit
digit, the 7 = 2nd digi
digit, the 3 is the multiplier in
pico-Farads, pF and the letter J is the tolerance and this
translates to:

47pF * 1,000 (3 zero's) = 47,000 pF , 47nF or 0.047 uF

the J indicates a tolerance of +/- 5%

Then by just using numbers and letters as codes on the body of the capacitor we can easily
determine the value of its capacitance either in Pico-farad's, Nano-farads or Micro-farads

Page 29
1- Film Capacitor

Radial Lead Type Axial Lead Type Film Capacitors Ceramic Capacitors

2/ Variable Capacitor

3/ Electrolytic Capacitors

Charge on a Capacitor

Where: Q (Charge, in Coulombs) = C (Capacitance, in Farads) x V (Voltage, in


Volts)

Page 30
Capacitors in Parallel

Capacitors in Parallel have a "common voltage" supply across them giving

VC1 = VC2 = VC3 = VAB = 12V

In the following circuit the capacitors, C1, C2 and C3 are all connected together in a
parallel branch between points A and B as shown.

and this can be re-written as:

Then we can define the total or equivalent circuit capacitance, CT as being the sum of
all the individual capacitances add together giving us the generalized equation of

Parallel Capacitors Equation

Page 31
Capacitors in Series
Consider the following circuit in which the three capacitors, C1, C2 and C3 are all
connected together in a series branch across a supply voltage between points A and B.

Capacitors in a Series Connection

The voltage drop across each capacitor will be different depending upon the values of
the individual capacitances. Then by applying Kirchoff's Voltage Law, ( KVL ) to the
above circuit, we get:

Since Q = CV or V = Q/C, substituting Q/C for each capacitor voltage VC in the above
KVL equation gives us

dividing each term through by Q gives

Series Capacitors Equation

Page 32
The inductor

Inductor Symbols

An Inductor is nothing more than a coil of wire wound around a central core. For
most coils the current, ( i ) flowing through the coil produces a magnetic flux, ( NΦ )
around it that is proportional to this flow of electrical current.

Prefix Symbol Multiplier Power of Ten


milli m 1/1,000 10-3
micro µ 1/1,000,000 10-6
1/1,000,000,0
nano n 10-9
00

Self Inductance of a Coil

16. Where:
17. L is in Henries
18. N is the Number of Turns
19. Φ is the Magnetic Flux Linkage
20. Ι is in Amperes

Page 33
Inductors in Parallel

The voltage drop across all of the inductors in parallel will be the same. Then,
Inductors in Parallel have a Common Voltage across them and in our example
below the voltage across the inductors is given as:
VL1 = VL2 = VL3 = VAB ...etc
In the following circuit the inductors L1, L2 and L3 are all connected together in parallel
between the two points A and B.

the self-induced emf across an inductor is given as: V = L di/dt

The sum of the individual currents flowing through each inductor can be found using
Kirchoff's Current Law (KCL) where, IT = I1 + I2 + I3 and we know from the previous
tutorials on inductance that the self-induced emf across an inductor is given as: V = L
di/dt
Then by taking the values of the individual currents flowing through each inductor in
our circuit above, and substituting the current i for i1 + i2 + i3 the voltage across the
parallel combination is given as:

By substituting di/dt in the above equation with v/L gives:


We can reduce it to give a final expression for calculating the total inductance of a
circuit when connecting inductors in parallel and this is given as

Page 34
Inductors in Series

Inductors in series are simply "added together" because the number of coil turns is
effectively increased, with the total circuit inductance LT being equal to the sum of all
the individual inductances added together.

Inductor in Series Circuit

The current, ( I ) that flows through the first inductor, L1 has no other way to go but
pass through the second inductor and the third and so on. Then, inductors in series
have a Common Current flowing through them, for example:

IL1 = IL2 = IL3 = IAB

The sum of the individual voltage drops across each inductor can be found using
Kirchoff's Voltage Law (KVL) where, VT = V1 + V2 + V3 and we know from the
previous tutorials on inductance that the self-induced emf across an inductor is given
as: V = L di/dt.

So by taking the values of the individual voltage drops across each inductor in our
example above, the total inductance for the series combination is given as:

By dividing through the above equation by di/dt we can reduce it to give a final
expression for calculating the total inductance of a circuit when connecting inductors in
series and this is given as:

L =L +L +L
T 1 2 3

Page 35
The Transformer

Where:

• VP - is the Primary Voltage


• VS - is the Secondary Voltage
• NP - is the Number of Primary Windings
• NS - is the Number of Secondary Windings
• Φ (phi) - is the Flux Linkage

A Transformers Turns Ratio

Example
A voltage transformer has 1500 turns of wire on its primary coil and 500 turns of wire
for its secondary coil. What will be the turns ratio (TR) of the transformer.

Page 36
Quiz

1. What type of is inductor illustrated in Fig 3.5.1 ?


• a) A laminated iron cored inductor.
• b) A ferrite cored inductor.
• c) A preset inductor.
• d) An air cored inductor.

2. The inductance of an inductor will be affected by which property or properties of the


inductor's core?
• a) The material of the core.
• b) The material and size of the core.
• c) The shape and size of the core.
• d) The shape, size and material of the core.

3. Which of the following ranges of inductance values would be most commonly


encountered in electronic circuits?
• a) henrys.
• b) milli-henrys.
• c) henrys and milli-henrys.
• d) milli-henrys and micro-henrys.

4. What is the primary voltage applied to the transformer illustrated in Fig 11.6.1?
• a) 90V
• b) 18V
• c) 62.5V
• d) 0.4V

5. What is the value of current flowing through the resistor R in Fig 11.6.2 ?
• a) 240mA
• b) 6.7mA
• c) 18mA
• d) 125mA

Page 37
6. Refer to the diagram of an autotransformer in Fig. 11.6.3. If the voltage across A
and D is 230V, what will be (approximately) the voltage across A and B?
• a) 20V
• b) 4.5V
• c) 9.6V
• d) 11.4V

7. Flux linkage between primary and secondary windings of a transformer is


proportional to which of the following?
• a) Cross sectional area of the core and the length of the flux path.
• b) Cross sectional area and Permeability of the core
• c) c) Cross sectional area and Reluctance of the core.
• d) Permeability of the core and the length of the flux path.

8. Capacitance is directly proportional to:


• a) The distance between the plates
• b) The area of the plates
• c) The dielectric strength
• d) The charge multiplied by the applied voltage

9. What type of capacitor does the symbol shown (right) represent?


� a) A preset capacitor
� b) An electrolytic capacitor
� c) A variable capacitor
� d) A ganged capacitor

10
10. As a capacitor charges
• a) Electrons gather on the negative plate and displace electrons from the positive
plate.
• b) Electrons flow across the dielectric layer until the capacitor is fully charged
• c) Electrons gather on the positive plate displacing electrons from the negative
plate.
• d) Current only flows through the capacitor for a short time.

Page 38
Serries-Parallel DC Circ
Se uits
rcu

Obje
bjecctive
This exercise will involve the analysis of basic series-parallel DC circuits with
resistors. The use of simple series-only and parallel-only sub-circuits is examined
as one technique to solve for desired currents and voltages.

Schematics
Sch

circuit1
circuit2

Proc
Proceedure

1. Consider the circuit of circuit 1 with R1 = 1 k, R2 = 2.2 k, R3 = 4.7 k and E = 10 volts. R2 is


in parallel with R3. Determine the theoretical voltages at points A, B, and C with respect to
ground. Construct the circuit. Set the DMM to read DC voltage and apply it to the circuit from
point A to ground. Repeat the measurements at points B and C, determine the deviations, and
record the values

2. Applying KCL to the parallel sub-network, the current entering node B (i.e., the current
through R1) should equal the sum of the currents flowing through R2 and R3. These currents
may be determined through Ohm’s Law and/or the Current Divider Rule. Compute these
currents and record them . Using the DMM as an ammeter, measure these three currents and
record the values along with deviations .

3. Consider the circuit of circuit 2. R2, R3 and R4 create a series sub-network. This
sub-network is in parallel with R1. By observation then, the voltages at nodes A, B
and C should be identical as in any parallel circuit of similar construction. Due to the
series connection, the same current flows through R2, R3 and R4. Further, the
voltages across R2, R3 and R4 should sum up to the voltage at node C, as in any
similarly constructed series network. Finally, via KCL, the current exiting the source
must equal the sum of the currents entering R1 and R2.

Page 39
4. Build the circuit of circuit 2 with R1=1
1=1kk, R2 =2
=2..2k, R3 =4.7
=4.7kk, R4 =6.8k
=6.8k,,E=20
E=20vv
Using the series and parallel relations noted in Step 3, calculate the voltages at
points B, C, D and E. Measure these potentials with the DMM, determine the
deviations, and record the values
5.Calculate the currents leaving the source and flowing through R1 and R2. Record
these values Using the DMM as an ammeter, measure those same currents,
compute the deviations, and record the results

Data Tables
Voltage Theory Measured Deviation Current Theory Measured Deviation

VA R1
VB R2
VC R3

Circuit 1 Circuit 1

Voltage Theory Measure Deviation Current Theory Measured Deviation


VB Source
VC R1
VD R2
VE
circuit 2
circuit 2

5. How would the voltages at A and B in circuit.1 change if a fourth resistor equal to
10 k was added in parallel with R3? What if this resistor was added in series with R3?
.....................................................................................................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................................................................................................

Page 40
Network Calculations Quiz

1. What is the value of the supply current Is in Circuit 1?

a) 183mA

b) 5.46mA

c) 12mA

d) 2.4mA

2.
2.What is the value of the component current I1 in circuit 2?

a) 1.25mA

b) 800mA

c) 1.25A

d) 1.26µA

3.
3.Calculate the value of I2 in Circuit 2

a) 148mA

b) 148µA

c) 6.7mA

d) 39µA

Page 41
4.
4.Calculate the total resistance RTOT of Circuit 3

a) 1.36KΩ

b) 278Ω

c) 1.15KΩ

d) 319Ω

5.
5.What is the value of I1 in Circuit 3?

a) 500mA

b) 8.7mA

c) 21.3mA

d) 47mA

6.
6.Calculate the value of I2 in Circuit 3

a) 6.8mA

b) 21µA

c) 21mA

d) 14.7mA

7. What is the supply current IS in Circuit 3?

a) 36mA

b) 8.7mA

c) 47mA

d) 6.8mA

Page 42
8. Calculate the potential difference VR2 across R2 in Circuit 4

a) 3V

b) 2.5V

c) 3.3V

d) 4.5V

9. In Circuit 4, what is the value of the supply current IS?

a) 1.5mA

b) 1mA

c) 751µA

d) 500µA

10. In Circuit 4, what is the value of R2?

a) 7.2KΩ

b) 5KΩ

c) 3.3KΩ

d) 33KΩ

Page 43
Sinusoidal Waveform

Then the generalized format used for analyzing and calculating the various values of
a Sinusoidal Waveform is as follows:

Characteristics of a Sine Wave

The sine wave therefore is a mathematical function and a naturally occurring shape, it is
also the basis of many other wave shapes and is therefore the most important waveform
in the study of AC theory. Other important wave forms commonly encountered in
electronics are;
• The Square wave:
• The Triangular wave:
• The Saw-tooth wave:

1- Peak to Peak value


The PEAK TO PEAK value is the vertical distance between the top and bottom of the
wave. It will be measured in volts on a voltage waveform, and may be labeled VPP or
VPK−PK. In a current waveform it would be labeled IPP or IPK
PK− −PK
PK−

2- Instantaneous Value
This is the value (voltage or current) of a wave at any particular instant. often chosen to
coincide with some other event. The instantaneous value of a sine wave one quarter of
the way through the cycle will be equal to the peak value.

Page 44
3- Amplitude
The AMPLITUDE of a sine wave is the maximum vertical distance reached, in either
direction from the center line of the wave. As a sine wave is symmetrical about its center
line, the amplitude of the wave is half the peak to peak value, as shown

4- Peak value
The PEAK value of the wave is the highest value the wave reaches above a reference
value. The reference value normally used is zero. In a voltage waveform the peak value
may be labeled VPK or VMAX (IIPK or IMAX in a current waveform).

5- Periodic Time & Frequency


The PERIODIC TIME (given the symbol T) is the time, in seconds milliseconds etc. taken
for one complete cycle of the wave. It can be used to find the FREQUENCY of the wave
1
F using the formula T =
F

6- the Average Value of a Sine Wave


The AVERAGE value. This is normally taken to mean the average value of only half a
cycle of the wave. If the average of the full cycle was taken it would of course be zero,
as in a sine wave symmetrical about zero, there are equal excursions above and below
the zero line. Using only half a cycle, as illustrated , the average value (voltage or
current) is always 0.637 of the peak value of the wave.
VAV = VPK x 0.637 or IAV = IPK X 0.637

7- The RMS Value

The RMS or ROOT MEAN SQUARED value is the value of the equivalent direct (non
varying) voltage or current which would provide the same energy to a circuit as the sine
wave measured.

8- The Form Factor


If VAV (0.637) is multiplied by 1.11 the answer is 0.707, which is the RMS value. This
difference is called the Form Factor of the wave, and the relationship of 1.11 is only true
for a perfect sine wave. If the wave is some other shape, either the RMS or the average
value (or both) will change, and so will the relationship between them. This is important
when measuring AC voltages with a meter as it is the average value that most meters
actually measure. However they display the RMS value simply by multiplying the
voltage by 1.11. Therefore if the AC wave being measured is not a perfect sine wave the
reading will be slightly wrong. If you pay enough money however, you can buy a true
RMS meter that actually calculates the RMS value of non-sine waves.

Page 45
9- The Mains (Line) Supply
To demonstrate some of these characteristics in use, consider a very common sine
wave, the mains supply or line waveform, which in many parts of the world is a nominal
230V.

Electrical equipment that connects to the mains supply always carries a label giving information
about what supply the equipment can be connected to. These labels are quite variable in
appearance, but often there is a picture of a sine wave showing that an a.c. supply must be
used. The voltage quoted will be 230V (or 120V in the USA)or range of voltages including these
values. These voltages actually refer to the RMS value of the mains sine wave. The label also
states that the frequency of the supply, which is 50Hz in Europe or 60Hz in the USA.

From this small amount of information other values can be worked out:

a. The peak voltage of the waveform, as VPK = VRMS x 1.414 (VRMS x 2)


b. The AVERAGE value of the waveform, as VAV = VPK x 0.637
c. The PEAK TO PEAK value of the waveform. This is twice the AMPLITUDE, which
(because the mains waveform is symmetrical about zero volts) is the same value as VPK.
Because VPK is already known from a. it follows that VPP = VPK x 2
1
d.The PERIODIC TIME which is given by T=
F

Page 46
AC Waves Quiz

1. If a sine wave has a RMS voltage of 12volts, what will be its Peak-to-Peak voltage?
• a) 33.9V
• b) 8.484V
• c) 16.9V
• d) 15.3V

2. What is the peak value of a sine wave whose VAV value is 15V ?
• a) 19V
• b) 9.5V
• c) 21.2V
• d) 23.5V

3. Select the most accurate description of an AC signal


• a) An AC signal is any complex wave
• b) Has a rapidly changing voltage and a steady current
• c) Has values that change above and below a particular level
• d) An AC signal is always repetitive

4. Complete the sentence "A sine wave...


• a) ...has many harmonics"
• b) ...is a complex wave"
• c) ...consists of a fundamental only"
• d) ...always has the same frequency"

5. If an AC waveform has a periodic time of 2ms, what will be its frequency?


• a) 2kHz
• b) 500Hz
• c) 2MHz
• d) 50Hz

6. With reference to Fig 1.3.1, what is the value labeled A?


• a) Periodic time
• b) Amplitude
• c) Frequency
• d) RMS value

7. With reference to Fig 1.3.1, if the level labeled X has a value of 2V what is the value
labeled B?
• a) The Root Mean Squared value.
• b) The Amplitude.
• c) The Average value.
• d) The Peak value.

Page 47
8. In Fig 1.3.2, how many complete cycles are shown?
• a) 2
• b) 3
• c) 4
• d) 7

9. What value is given by the formula VPK x 0.637?


• a) VRMS
• b) VMAX
• c) The Form Factor
• d) VAV

10. Which of the following features is true of a square wave signal?


• a) It consists of a fundamental and an even number of harmonics.
• b) It consists of a fundamental and a number of even harmonics.
• c) It consists of a fundamental and a number of odd harmonics.
• d) It never has a DC component.

Page 48
AC through a Series R + L Circuit
Consider the circuit below was a pure non-inductive resistance; R is connected in series
with a pure inductance, L.

The quantity represents the impedance of the circuit.

Where ,

Example
A coil has a resistance of 30Ω and an inductance of 0.5H. If the current flowing through
the coil is 4amps. What will be the value of the supply voltage if its frequency is 50Hz?

The impedance of the circuit will be:

Then the voltage drops across each component is calculated as:

Page 49
AC through a Series (R + C) Circuit
Consider the circuit below where an ohmic resistance, R is connected in series with a
pure capacitance, C.

As VR = I.R and VC = I.XC the applied voltage will be the vector sum of the two as follows.

The quantity represents the impedance


impedance, Z of the circuit.

Example
A capacitor which has an internal resistance of 10Ω's and a capacitance value of 100uF is
connected to a supply voltage given as V(t) = 100 sin (314t). Calculate the current
flowing through the capacitor. Also construct a voltage triangle showing the individual
voltage drops.

The capacitive reactance and circuit impedance is calculated as:

Page 50
Then the current flowing through the capacitor and the circuit is given as:

The Series RLC Circuit

The analysis of a series RLC circuit is the same as that for the dual series RL and RC
circuits we looked at previously, except this time we need to take into account the
magnitudes of both XL and XC to find the overall circuit reactance. Series RLC circuits
are classed as second-order circuits because they contain two energy storage
elements, an inductance L and a capacitance C. Consider the RLC circuit below.

Page 51
Instantaneous Voltages for a Series RLC Circuit

By substituting these values into Pythagoras's equation above for the voltage triangle
will give us:

Example
A series RLC circuit containing a resistance of 12Ω, an inductance of 0.15H and a
capacitor of 100uF are connected in series across a 100V, 50Hz supply. Calculate the
total circuit impedance, the circuits current, power factor and draw the voltage phasor
diagram.

Inductive Reactance, XL.

Page 52
Capacitive Reactance, XC.

Circuit Impedance, Z.

Circuits Current, I.

Voltages across the Series RLC Circuit, VR, VL, VC.

Two Formula for Series Resonance.


The fact that resonance occurs when XL = XC allows a formula to be
constructed that allows calculation of the resonant frequency (ƒr) of a circuit
from just the values of L and C. The most commonly used formula in electronics
for the series LCR circuit resonant frequency is:

Page 53
Application :

Build a series RLC circuit , on your breadboard


R= 100 Ω , C= o.o1 µ F , L= 100mH
Use the function generator for Vin ( 2.5 v AC , F=60Hz )
Solve
1- connect the output to the oscilloscope
2- chang the frequency and write your comment
3- Draw the wave form output

Page 54
The Parallel RLC Circuit

The Parallel RLC Circuit is the exact opposite to the series circuit we looked at in the
previous tutorial although some of the previous concepts and equations still apply.
However, the analysis of parallel RLC circuits can be a little more mathematically
difficult than for series RLC circuits so in this tutorial about parallel RLC circuits only
pure components are assumed in this tutorial to keep things simple.
This time instead of the current being common to the circuit components, the applied
voltage is now common to all so we need to find the individual branch currents through
each element. The total impedance, Z of a parallel RLC circuit is calculated using the
current of the circuit similar to that for a DC parallel circuit, the difference this time is
that admittance is used instead of impedance. Consider the parallel RLC circuit below.
Parallel RLC Circuit

Current Triangle for a Parallel RLC Circuit

Page 55
Impedance of a Parallel RLC Circuit

Example
A 50Ω resistor, a 20mH coil and a 5uF capacitor are all connected in parallel across a 50V,
100Hz supply. Calculate the total current drawn from the supply, the current for each
branch, the total impedance of the circuit and the phase angle. Also construct the current
and admittance triangles representing the circuit.

Parallel RLC Circuit

1). Inductive Reactance, ( XL ):

2). Capacitive Reactance, ( XC ):

Page 56
3). Impedance, ( Z ):

4). Current through resistance, R ( IR ):

5). Current through inductor, L ( IL ):

6). Current through capacitor, C ( IC ):

7). Total supply current, ( IS ):

Page 57
COURSE TITLE: Basic Electricity and COURSE CODE: EECIM01
Systems
SUBJECT: Common electrical circuits TITLE: Basic tools and equipments

TRAINING AIMS:
� To interpret specifications for function generators.
� To learn the operational controls of function generators.
� To explain the concepts relating to grounding of oscilloscopes.
� To produce a waveform on an oscilloscope graticule.
� To analyze the effects of manipulating various typical oscilloscope controls.
� To manipulate a waveform so as to optimize its appearance.
� To evaluate a variety of basic oscilloscope waveforms.
� To operate vertically-related oscilloscope controls.
� To operate typical horizontally-related oscilloscope controls.
� Test the capacitor
� Test the resistor
� Test the coil
� Test the transformer

DESCRIPTION OF TASKS:

Page 58
Page 59
Page 60
TESTING RESISTANCE

Select the Ohms range


for the resistor test Testing resistor with
digital multimeter

Page 61
TESTING FUSE :

Continuity test showing the fuse


is working

A fuse

Set your meter to


Set to buzzer to test fuse . If the fuse is good X1 ohms
you will hear a sound

TESTING COILS / INDUCTORS

Pointer should go up

Two coils/inductors located at secondary


side of LCD monitor power supply Set to X1
ohm
A bigger coil can be check with LCR meter
A small coil can be test with an analog multimeter

Page 62
TESTING TRANSFORMER Pointer should not
go up

Primary Secondary
windin winding
g

Make sure set


to X10K ohms

Check for any short circuit between the primary and the secondary
winding . It should not show any reading under X1OK ohms

TESTING CAPACITOR :

Before testing capacitor we must discharge it

You can use a 100watt light to discharge the filter


Use a resistor to discharge capacitor leads
capacitor

Page 63
Use LCR meter to test capacitor
470 µF capacitor

Set 2000 µF if you want to test


470 µF capacitor

Negative pin

Negative (black) to Positive (red) to


capacitor pin negative capacitor positive pin

Page 64
COURSE TITLE: Basic Electricity and COURSE CODE: EECIM01
Systems
SUJECT: Soldering/Desoldering regular and TITLE: Soldering/Desoldering techniques
surface mount
TRAINING AIMS:
� Prepare and use the proper hand tools
� Prepare the main device/project to be soldered
� Ability to sold the parts mounted on a printed circuit board
� Work on soldering of surface-mounted electrical components
DESCRIPTION OF TASKS:

Practical Activity
This practical activity will introduce you to assembly soldering practices. It will enable
you to experience different soldering techniques. You will be required to identify and
load various electronics components to a printed wiring board. These components must
be correctly mounted and terminated using either the straight through or
semi-clinched lead termination method. Discuss the acceptance standards with the
teacher.
Practical Objectives
At the end of this practical activity you will be able to:
• Identify various electronic components.
• Clean, bend and mount on the board various electronic components using suitable
bending techniques as learned in the soldering practice unit.
• Terminate leads with semi-clinched and straight through lead terminations to
specified lengths.
• Solder, using the appropriate flux and solder, with respect to the specified
standards.
• Assess the quality of your solder terminations and indicate to the teacher any that do
not meet the prescribed standard.

Tools used in soldering operation :

Page 65
1-Basic Irons
There are many basic pencil style irons that are suitable for job
use. But you will need one that is capable of heating the joints
quickly enough. Choose an iron with 25 watts at a minimum.

2- Better Irons
An adjustable temperature iron with a
little more power will give you a bit
more control and allow you to work
faster.

3- Best Irons
A professional-style temperature-controlled iron with
interchangeable tips and 50 watts or more of power is
a joy to work with. Feedback control keeps the tip
temperature at precisely the level you set.

Essentials tools and supplies:

These tools are the bare-minimum essentials required for soldering:

� Stand 2- Solder
Standard 60/40 lead/tin
Rosin Core Solder is the
easiest type to work with.

4- Vise
A vise holds your work steady as you solder.
This is important for both safety and sound joints.

3- Diagonal cutter

Page 66
6- Solder Sucker
A Solder Sucker is very helpful tools for
removing excess solder or when you need to
de-solder a joint. As the name implies, this
device literally sucks the solder out of the
joint.

7- Solder Wick
Solder Wick is another way to clean
excess solder from a joint. Unlike the
solder sucker, the wick soaks up the
molten solder.

Warnings

� DO NOT lay a soldering iron down on any surface. A soldering iron should either be
placed on a stand or sealed with a heat resistant cap after every use. Note: Master
Appliance's line of soldering irons is butane powered. All of our irons come with heat
protective caps.
� Soldering should be completed in a well ventilated area.
� Lead is present in most solders. Be sure to wash your hands after your project, or
better yet wear gloves.
� The tip of a soldering iron is very hot. Contact with the tip of a soldering iron would
result in a nasty burn.
� Your soldering iron will perform better if kept clean. A damp sponge can be used to
clean residue caused by flux material. A very small skim of flux should be applied to
the iron after the cleaning.

Page 67
Preparation

1-Heat the Iron


Plug and/or turn on your soldering iron to warm up.
If you are using a temperature controlled iron, set
it to 700F/370C for 60/40 or 750F/400C for
lead-free solder.While the iron is heating dampen
the sponge with a little bit of water.

2- Clean the Iron


Wipe the tip of the hot iron on the damp sponge to
clean off any oxidation. Do not use files or abrasives
to clean the tip. It will damage the plating and ruin
the tip.

3- Tin the Tip


Apply a small amount of solder to the tip and wipe
again to tin the tip. You should have a thin, shiny
layer of molten solder on the tip of your iron. If the
tip is badly oxidized and difficult to tin, it can
usually be reconditioned with some tip-tinning
paste.

4- Make sure that the joint is clean


Dirt, oxidation and oily fingerprints can prevent
the solder from wetting the solder-pad to create
a solid joint. All boards are plated to prevent
oxidation, but if your board appears dirty from
storage or handling, wipe it down with a
little isopropyl alcohol

5- Immobilize the Joint


This is very important! The parts being joined must not
move during the soldering process. If there is any
movement as the molten solder is solidifying, you will
end up with an unreliable 'cold joint'.Most through-hole
components can be immobilized by simply bending the
leads on the solder-side of the hole.

Page 68
Making a good solder joint
Once you have prepared your tools and the joint to be soldered, making a good solder
joint requires just a few simple steps

Heat the joint


Heat the joint with the tip of the iron. Be sure to heat both the
solder pad and the component lead or pin. A small drop of solder
on the tip will help to transfer the heat to the joint quickly.

Apply the solder


Touch the end of the solder to the joint so that it contacts both the
solder pad and the component lead or pin. It should melt and flow
smoothly onto both the pin and the pad. If the solder does not
flow, heat the joint for another second or two and try again.

Let It Flow
Keep heating the solder and allow it to flow into the joint.
It should fill the hole and flow smoothly onto both the
solder pad and the pin or component lead.
Let It Cool
Once enough solder has been added to the joint and it has
flowed well onto both the component lead and the solder
pad, remove the iron from the joint and allow it to cool
undisturbed.

Trim the Lead


Use your diagonal cutters to trim the lead close to the
board.
Note: This step applies only to components with wire
leads. It is not necessary to trim the pins on Integrated
circuit chips or sockets.

Page 69
Surface Mount Components
The previous page showed how to make a good through-hole joint. But more and
more components are only available in surface mount form these days. Not all surface
mount packages are easily worked by hand, but there are plenty that can be managed
with the same basic tools used for through-hole soldering.

Let's start with a surface-mount part common to several kits: The SD Card Holder:

� Immobilize the Joint


Unlike many surface mount components, immobilizing
the SD card holder is relatively easy. There are small pegs
on the back that fit into positioning holes in the board. Once it
is in place, solder the four small corner tabs to make it
permanent

2- Heat the Joint


Start by putting the tip of the hot iron on the solder pad
adjacent to the pin. The pad will take longer to heat, so we
apply most of the heat to the pad to start.

3- Apply the Solder


When the joint is hot, apply solder to the side opposite
the iron. The solder should melt and start to flow into the
joint.

4- Let it Flow
Apply just enough solder to ensure a good joint, and
then keep the heat on while the solder wicks up
between the pin and the pad to make a good electrical
bond.

5- Let it Cool
Remove the iron and allow the joint to cool undisturbed.

Page 70
Common Soldering Problems

The Ideal Solder Joint


The ideal solder joint for through-hole components should resemble the diagram below.

The photos that follow show some common soldering problems, with suggestions for
repair and prevention:
Lifted Pad
This photo shows a solder pad that has become detached from the
surface of the circuit board. This most often occurs when trying to
de-solder components from the board. But it can result simply from
overworking the joint to the point where the adhesive bond between
copper and the board is destroyed.Lifted pads are especially
common on boards with thin copper layers and/or no through-plating
on the holes.

Repairing a Lifted Pad


It may not be pretty, but a lifted pad can usually be repaired. The
simplest repair is to fold the lead over to a still-attached copper trace
and solder it as shown to the left. If your board has a solder-mask,
you will need to carefully scrape off enough to expose the bare
copper.Other alternatives are to follow the trace to the next via and
run a jumper to there. Or, in the worst case, follow the trace to the
nearest component and solder your jumper to the leg of that. Not
exactly pretty, but functional

Page 71
Competency
For this practical activity competency will be considered to be achieved if:
• 90% of all terminations you make are to the standard taught in the soldering practice
unit (a minimum of ‘good’ must be achieved)
• during the process that you use to solder the components to the board no copper pads
are delaminated.
Tools
Only a minimum of tools are needed for most kits. These are:
• A 10 – 30 watt soldering iron with a 1.5 – 4 mm tip.
• A small pair of side cutters.
• A small pair of long nose pliers.
• Wire strippers or a knife.
• A few screwdrivers.
• A multimeter for testing or troubleshooting.

Page 72
COURSE TITLE: Basic Electricity and COURSE CODE: EECIM01
Systems
SUBJECT: Troubleshoot general AC and DC TITLE: General electric circuit
electric circuits troubleshoot

TRAINING AIMS:
� Examine basic electric circuits
� Construct different electric circuit
� Test and measure electrical quantities
� Analyze OPEN and SHORT electric circuit

DESCRIPTION OF TASKS:

To provide student with an understanding of basic electrical principles and concepts,


leading to the ability to carry out calculations involving DC circuits, inductive circuits,
capacitive circuits and AC fundamentals

Current will only flow IN A CIRCUIT. That is, around a continuous path (or multiple
paths) from and back to the source of EMF. Any interruption in the circuit, such as an
open switch, a break in the wiring, or a component such as a resistor that has changed
its resistance to an extremely high value will cause current to cease. The EMF will still
be present, but voltages and currents around the circuit will have changed or ceased
altogether. The open switch or the fault has caused what is commonly called an OPEN
CIRCUIT.

Remember that wherever an open circuit exists, although voltage may be present
there will be no current flow through the open circuit section of the circuit. Also, as
Power (P) is V x I and the current (I) = 0, no power will be dissipated.

Looking further at the simple circuit used in Labeling Voltages and Currents let´s put
some actual voltages and currents in and see what happens under "Open Circuit"
conditions.

Use the drop down box below the following diagram to select a number of open circuit
conditions that might occur in different parts of the circuit. Notice how the voltages
and currents around the circuit change depending on where the break in the circuit
(the open circuit) occurs. Checking the voltages around a circuit with a voltmeter, and
noticing where they differ from what would be expected in a correctly working circuit,
is one of the main techniques used for tracing a fault in any circuit.

Page 73
1- Open Circuit Examples.

Fault 1

................................................................................................................
................................................................................................................

Page 74
Page 75
2- Short Circuits default
If two points in a circuit are connected by some component or conductor having a
resistance of zero (or practically zero) ohms the two points are said to be SHORT
CIRCUITED or that there is a short circuit present. Under these conditions a larger
current will flow, due to the reduction in resistance, and there will be NO (or almost no)
POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE between the ends of the short circuit.
These conditions are illustrated below.

Short Circuit Examples.

Page 76
Page 77
Introduction to filter

Basically, an electrical filter is a circuit that can be designed to modify, reshape or


reject all unwanted frequencies of an electrical signal and accept or pass only those
signals wanted by the circuits designer. In other words they "filter-out" unwanted
signals and an ideal filter will separate and pass sinusoidal input signals based upon
their frequency.
In low frequency applications (up to 100kHz), passive filters are generally constructed
using simple RC(Resistor-Capacitor) networks, while higher frequency filters (above
100kHz) are usually made from RLC (Resistor-Inductor-Capacitor) components.
Passive filters are made up of passive components such as resistors, capacitors and
inductors and have no amplifying elements (transistors, op-amps, etc) so have no
signal gain, therefore their output level is always less than the input.

Introduction :
Filters are so named according to the frequency range of signals that they allow to
pass through them, while blocking or "attenuating" the rest. The most commonly
used filter designs are the:

1. The Low Pass Filter – the low pass filter only allows low frequency signals from 0Hz
to its cut-off frequency, ƒc point to pass while blocking those any higher.

� 2. The High Pass Filter – the high pass filter only allows high frequency signals
from its cut-off frequency, ƒc point and higher to infinity to pass through while
blocking those any lower.

� 3. The Band Pass Filter – the band pass filter allows signals falling within a certain
frequency band setup between two points to pass through while blocking both the
lower and higher frequencies either side of this frequency band.
Simple First-order passive filters (1st order) can be made by connecting together a
single resistor and a single capacitor in series across an input signal, ( Vin ) with the
output of the filter, ( Vout ) taken from the junction of these two components.
Depending on which way around we connect the resistor and the capacitor with
regards to the output signal determines the type of filter construction resulting in
either a Low Pass Filter or a High Pass Filter
Filter.

As the function of any filter is to allow signals of a given band of frequencies to pass
unaltered while attenuating or weakening all others that are not wanted, we can
define the amplitude response characteristics of an ideal filter by using an ideal
frequency response curve of the four basic filter types as shown.

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Ideal Filter Response Curves

Filters can be divided into two distinct types: active filters and passive filters. Active
filters contain amplifying devices to increase signal strength while passive do not
contain amplifying devices to strengthen the signal.

1- The Low Pass Filter


A simple passive RC Low Pass Filter or LPF LPF, can be easily made by connecting
together in series a single Resistor with a single Capacitor as shown below. In this
type of filter arrangement the input signal ( Vin ) is applied to the series combination
(both the Resistor and Capacitor together) but the output signal ( Vout ) is taken
across the capacitor only. This type of filter is known generally as a "first-order filter"
or "one-pole filter", why first-order or single-pole?, because it has only "one" reactive
component, the capacitor, in the circuit.

RC Low Pass Filter Circuit

As mentioned previously in the Capacitive Reactance tutorial, the reactance of a


capacitor varies inversely with frequency, while the value of the resistor remains
constant as the frequency changes. At low frequencies the capacitive reactance, ( Xc )

of the capacitor will be very large compared to the resistive value of the resistor, R
and as a result the voltage across the capacitor, Vc will also be large while the voltage
drop across the resistor, Vr will be much lower. At high frequencies the reverse is true
with Vc being small and Vr being large.

While the circuit above is that of an RC Low Pass Filter circuit, it can also be classed as
a frequency variable potential divider circuit similar to the one we looked at in the
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Resistors tutorial. In that tutorial we used the following equation to calculate the
output voltage for two single resistors connected in series.

We also know that the capacitive reactance of a capacitor in an AC circuit is given as:

Opposition to current flow in an AC circuit is called impedance


impedance, symbol Z and for a
series circuit consisting of a single resistor in series with a single capacitor, the circuit
impedance is calculated as:

Then by substituting our equation for impedance above into the resistive potential
divider equation gives us:

So, by using the potential divider equation of two resistors in series and substituting
for impedance we can calculate the output voltage of an RC Filter for any given
frequency.
Example
A Low Pass Filter circuit consisting of a resistor of 4k7Ω in series with a capacitor of
47nF is connected across a 10v sinusoidal supply. Calculate the output voltage
( Vout ) at a frequency of 100Hz and again at frequency of 10,000Hz or 10kHz.

At a frequency of 100Hz.

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At a frequency of 10kHz.

Frequency Response
We can see above, that as the frequency increases from 100Hz to 10kHz, the output
voltage ( Vout ) decreases from 9.9v to 0.718v. By plotting the output voltage against
the input frequency, the Frequency Response Curve or Bode Plot function of the
low pass filter can be found, as shown below.

Cut-off Frequency and Phase Shift

The cut-off frequency point and phase shift angle can be found by using the following
equation:

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Then for our simple example of a "Low Low Pass Filter
Filter" circuit above, the cut-off
frequency (ƒc) is given as720Hz with an output voltage of 70.7% of the input voltage
value and a phase shift angle of (- 45o).
Time Constant
The time constant, tau ( τ ), is related to the cut-off frequency ƒc as.

or expressed in terms of the cut-off frequency, ƒc as.

Application : Subwoofer low pass filter


R= 1K Ω , C = ??
breadboard
• Build a low pass filter that cut off frequency
more than 150HZ
• Use your mobile phone, to hear the effect of
this filter

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Comment :
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2- The high Pass Filter
A High Pass Filter or HPF
HPF, is the exact opposite to that of the previously seen Low
Pass filter circuit, as now the two components have been interchanged with the
output signal ( Vout ) being taken from across the resistor as shown.
Where the low pass filter only allowed signals to pass below its cut-off frequency
point, ƒc, the passive high pass filter circuit as its name implies, only passes signals
above the selected cut-off point, ƒc eliminating any low frequency signals from the
waveform. Consider the circuit below.

In this circuit arrangement, the reactance of the capacitor is very high at low
frequencies so the capacitor acts like an open circuit and blocks any input signals at
Vin until the cut-off frequency point ( ƒc ) is reached. Above this cut-off frequency
point the reactance of the capacitor has reduced sufficiently as to now act more like a
short circuit allowing all of the input signal to pass directly to the output as shown
below in the High Pass Frequency Response Curve

Frequency Response of a 1st Order High Pass Filter.

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Cut-off Frequency and Phase Shift

The circuit gain, Av which is given as Vout/Vin (magnitude) and is calculated as:

Example

Calculate the cut-off or "breakpoint" frequency ( ƒc ) for a simple high pass filter
consisting of an 82pFcapacitor connected in series with a 240kΩ resistor.

Application :

� The following circuit is to be used as a filter.


47 nF
VIN VOUT

1.5 kΩ

0V

� What is the name of this type of filter? ………………………………………………

� Calculate the reactance of the capacitor at 1000 Hz.

………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
……….............................................................................................................

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c. What is the impedance of the circuit at 1000 Hz.

………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
………………………………………..................................................................................
......

d. Calculate the output voltage if VIN = 10V at 1000 Hz.

………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
………………………………….............................…….....................................................
......

e. Calculate the break frequency for this filter.

………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
………………………………..............................………....................................................
......

3- The band Pass Filter


The cut-off frequency or ƒc point in a simple RC passive filter can be accurately
controlled using just a single resistor in series with a non-polarized capacitor, and
depending upon which way around they are connected either a low pass or a high pass
filter is obtained.
One simple use for these types of filters is in audio amplifier applications or circuits
such as in loudspeaker crossover filters or pre-amplifier tone controls. Sometimes it is
necessary to only pass a certain range of frequencies that do not begin at 0Hz, (DC)
or end at some high frequency point but are within a certain frequency band, either
narrow or wide.
By connecting or "cascading" together a single Low Pass Filter circuit with a High
Pass Filter circuit, we can produce another type of passive RC filter that passes a
selected range or "band" of frequencies that can be either narrow or wide while
attenuating all those outside of this range. This new type of passive filter arrangement
produces a frequency selective filter known commonly as a Band Pass Filter or BPF
for short.

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Unlike a low pass filter that only pass signals of a low frequency range or a high pass
filter which pass signals of a higher frequency range, a Band Pass Filters passes
signals within a certain "band" or "spread" of frequencies without distorting the input
signal or introducing extra noise. This band of frequencies can be any width and is
commonly known as the filters Bandwidth
Bandwidth. Bandwidth is defined as the frequency
range between two specified frequency cut-off points ( ƒc ), that are 3dB below the
maximum center or resonant peak while attenuating or weakening the others outside
of these two points.

Then for widely spread frequencies, we can simply define the term "bandwidth", BW
as being the difference between the lower cut-off frequency ( ƒcLOWER ) and the higher
cut-off frequency ( ƒcHIGHER ) points. In other words, BW = ƒH - ƒL. Clearly for a pass
band filter to function correctly, the cut-off frequency of the low pass filter must be
higher than the cut-off frequency for the high pass filter

Frequency Response of a 2nd Order Band Pass Filter.

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Example :
A second-order band pass filter is to be constructed using RC components that will
only allow a range of frequencies to pass above 1kHz (1,000Hz) and below 30kHz
(30,000Hz). Assuming that both the resistors have values of 10kΩ, calculate the
values of the two capacitors required.

The High Pass Filter Stage.

The value of the capacitor C1 required to give a cut-off frequency ƒL of 1kHz with a
resistor value of 10kΩ is calculated as:

Then, the values of R1 and C1 required for the high pass stage to give a cut-off
frequency of 1.0kHz are,
R1 = 10kΩ´s and C1 = 15nF.

The Low Pass Filter Stage.

The value of the capacitor C2 required to give a cut-off frequency ƒH of 30kHz with a
resistor value of 10kΩ is calculated as:

Then, the values of R2 and C2 required for the low pass stage to give a cut-off
frequency of 30kHz are : R = 10kΩ´s and C = 510pF. However, the nearest preferred
value of the calculated capacitor value of 510pF is 560pF so this is used instead.
With the values of both the resistances R1 and R2 given as 10kΩ, and the two values
of the capacitors C1 and C2 found for both the high pass and low pass filters as 15nF
and 560pF respectively, then the circuit for our simple passive Band Pass Filter is
given as.

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Resonant Frequency.
We can also calculate the "Resonant" or "Centre Frequency" (ƒr) point of the band
pass filter were the output gain is at its maximum or peak value. This peak value is not
the arithmetic average of the upper and lower -3dB cut-off points as you might expect
but is in fact the "geometric" or mean value. This geometric mean value is calculated
as being
ƒr 2 = ƒc(UPPER) x ƒc(LOWER)

for example:

Centre Frequency Equation

Where, ƒr is the resonant or center frequency


ƒL is the lower -3dB cut-off frequency point
ƒH is the upper -3db cut-off frequency point
and in our simple example above, the calculated cut-off frequencies were found to be
ƒL = 1,060 Hz and ƒH = 28,420 Hz using the filter values.
Then by substituting these values into the above equation gives a central resonant
frequency of:

Page 88
Filter Quiz

1. Refer to Fig 8.6.1. What is this circuit called when used with sinusoidal signals?
� a) A high pass filter
� b) A differentiator
� c) A low pass filter
� d) An integrator

2. With reference to Fig 8.6.2, which of the formula would be used to find the corner
frequency of a low pass filter?
� a) Formula a
� b) Formula b
� c) Formula c
� d) Formula d

3. Which of the following labels would most appropriately describe a High pass filter
when used in an audio amplifier
� a) Bass boost
� b) Bass cut
� c) Treble boost
� d) Treble cut

4. With reference to Fig 8.6.3 what would be the approximate amplitude of the signal
at the output?
� a) 1V
� b) 500mV
� c) 250mV
� d) 125mV

5. Which of the following describes the circuit in Fig 8.6.4?


� a) Band stop filter
� b) Band pass filter
� c) High pass filter
� d) Low pass filter

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6. What will be the waveform at the output of Fig 8.6.5?
� a) A rounded square wave
� b) Differentiated pulses
� c) A triangular wave
� d) A parabolic wave

7. A square wave with a periodic time of 10µs is applied to the input of a differentiator
circuit. For differentiated pulses to appear at the output, the time constant of the CR
network should be approximately:
� a) 1µs
� b) 2.5µs
� c) 5µs
� d) 10µs

8. Which of the following networks can be used as a differentiator


� a) Notch filter
� b) High pass filter
� c) Band pass filter
� d) Band stop filter

9. With reference to Fig 8.6.5, if a DC voltmeter is connected across the output


terminals of the circuit with the input shown, what will be the voltmeter reading?
� a) 5V
� b) 2.5V
� c) 1.25V
� d) 0V

10. With reference to Fig 8.6.6, if a triangular wave having a periodic time shorter
that the CR time constant of the circuit is applied to the input, the shape of the
waveform at the output would be approximately...?
� a) A Square wave
� b) A triangular wave
� c) Differentiated pulses
� d) A sine wave

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