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Syl Log Isms

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Legal Technique

Syllogisms:

reasoning process which is the link that joins the premises to the conclusion. This

conclusion even of a formally correct argument can still be wrong due to a false

he also noted that even with a formally correct argument, there can still be an error

“Germans are European; but the French are European; therefore, Germans are

argument with a reference to something general and from this it draws conclusion

2 Literary Devices. http://literarydevices.net/syllogism/

3 Philosophy Pages. http://www.philosophypages.com/dy/s9.htm#syl

Sanguinetti states that simple syllogism is the logical process in which, starting

with an antecedent that relates two terms with a third, a conclusion can be drawn

that unites or separates these two terms and such a conclusion may be in the

antecedent.

following: the extremes which entail a subject (S) which has perfection, another

perfection (P) and a (M) middle term which enables the person to relate or serve as a

bridge between the two extremes, (S) and (P). It is further noted that the middle term

and the extremes appear in the antecedent and that the middle term appears in the

first and second premise, related to either extreme, creating a relation between the

two.

Example:

The middle term allows for an inference to be made wherein human reason

entails that destruction is a predicable of war and involves the property of bringing

The predicate is the major term and included in the major premise while the

subject is the minor term contained in the minor premise. The middle term relates

both in such a way that one is enabled to make an inference based on the premises

Simple syllogisms (categorical syllogism) involve practical rules and are based

on the nature of syllogism and the function of the middle term. The Following rules

a) The middle term must always be taken in the same sense or no conclusion can be

Ex. The crime of buying and selling stolen goods is fencing, but fencing is a recreation;

The conclusion is false for fencing in the first premise refers to the crime of

buying and selling stolen goods while the second premise is actually the sport of

fencing.

Undistributed middle.

The middle term connects the major and the minor term and if the middle

term is never distributed, then the major and minor terms might be related to

different parts of the M class, thus giving no common ground to relate S and P4.

distributed, then that term is saying something about every member of the P class. If

that same term is NOT distributed in the major premise, then the major premise is

saying something about only some members of the P class5. This leads to an invalid

argument because the conclusion contains information that is not contained in the

premises.

d) A conclusion cannot have greater universality than its premise for the effect

e) The conclusion follows the weakest premise. This entails that if the antecedent is

Syllogisms.http://faculty.bsc.edu/bmyers/Section5.3.htm

5 Id.

f) From two particular premises, nothing follows. This entails that the one of the

premises must be universal in order to validly link the the major and minor premises

g) From two negative premises nothing follows. This simply states that there rule does

not allow two negative premises for it could lead to a fallacy of exclusive premises.

Hurley notes that if the premises are both negative, then the relationship

between S and P is denied; therefore, the conclusion cannot, therefore, say anything

in a positive fashion and that the information goes beyond what is contained in the

premises.

according to figure, derived from Aristotle, and mood, from medieval logicians6. The

in each figure.

Immediate inferences about the extremes of a relation can be made, following

a) Convertable relations entail that the same relation is produced between extremes

which are some relation in some way and that the nature of such inferences is

then X id related to Z.

related in the same or some other way to Z, then X is somehow related to Z but in a

special way.

7 Sanguinetti. supra

8 Sanguinetti. supra

statements or sentences) 9 . Sanguinetti noted that they are those whose major

denies one part of the major premise. It was further stated that the major premise

affirms a connection between various enunciations but leaves the truth of its

component parts unknown. All the while, the minor premise designates the true value

to one of the parts while the conclusion, the true value of the other 10. Dr. Naugle

noted that Compound syllogisms are more familiar and are more often used than

categorical syllogisms, and the rules of their uses are much easier to grasp.

Furthermore are several kinds of compound syllogisms are available: the conditional

grounded upon a hypothetical statement which takes the form: "IF . . . THEN." These

syllogisms are not entirely hypothetical, but one of its premises is.

Ex.

If water boils, water temperature has reached at 100 degrees Celsius; water

temperature has reached at 100 degrees Celsius; therefore, water boils. The water

temperature did not reach at 100 degrees Celsius; therefore, water did not boil.

10 Sanguinetti. supra

Dr. Naugle noted that this kind of syllogism must be constructed of a

3. An unconditional conclusion.

It has been noted that a hypothetical syllogism has only two terms rather than

operator (in this case the conjunctive, "and," symbolized by " . "), and is used to

connect exactly two propositions in such a way that the resulting compound

proposition is true if and only if both component propositions are true, and false if

either or both of the conjuncts are false. Conjunctive syllogisms are based on

“both/and” sentences.

"A and B" is true if and only if "A" is true, and "B" is true.

the two parts can neither be simultaneously true nor simultaneously false 11. A

disjunction is true if either of the disjuncts is true or if either one of its disjuncts is

11 Sanguinetti. supra

true12. Valid disjunctive syllogisms were noted to contain a disjunction as one

premise, the negation of one of the disjuncts as second premise, as well as the

affirmation of the remaining disjunct as its conclusion13. Its basic form was noted to

___________ ___________

that that

Ex.

________________________________

Furthermore, Sanguinetti noted that there are two possible ways of drawing

conclusions via disjunctive syllogisms: one involves the minor affirms of one of the

predicates while the conclusion denies the other and the second, involves the minor

denying one of the predicates while the conclusion affirms the other.

conjunctive manner in the major premise. The second or minor premise, a disjunctive

"either/or" statement then either affirms that one or the other of the antecedents is

12

PHIL chapter 10 deductive.pdf.

http://www.cos.edu/faculty/johnd/documents/phil%20chapter%2010%20deductive.pdf

13

Id.

true (constructive), or denies that one or the other of the consequents is true

(destructive)14. The conclusion forces one to choose between (1) the consequents on

the basis of affirmed antecedents or (2) the denied antecedents on the basis of denied

consequents15.

variable letters (A, B, C.....). The connection or relation between propositions are

represented by symbols (“^” means “and”; “v” means “or”; “” if this is true , the this

other thing is true”; while all and some are symbolized by quantifiers). After

constructing the formal language, symbolic logic goes on to affirm axioms (postulated

series of basic propositions), along with rules of inference17. These eventually lead to

the formation of new formulas or the conclusions. Starting from the axioms and

drawing conclusions from them via the rules of inference leads to a conclusion, called

a theorem.

Ex of use of symbols:

14

Dr. Naugle. Conjunctive Syllogisms and Dilemmas

15

Id.

16

Sanguinetti.supra

17

Id.

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