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Writing an Argument

The purpose of argument writing is to present a position and to have an audience adopt or at
least seriously consider your argument.
The Writer:
Perhaps more than any other kind of writing, argument writing demands a serious commitment
from the writer. Many effective rhetorical tools in oral argument (arguing against an individual
instead of an issue, inflaming the audience) will not work in a written argument. Your reader has
the luxury and responsibility of analyzing your reasoning carefully. Therefore, one of the most
important elements of argument is presenting yourself as logical and reasonable about your
issue—no matter how volatile the subject or how passionately you feel.
Good argument writing is critical, assertion-with proof-writing. It should reflect a serious attempt
on the writer’s part to have considered the issue from all angles—to have analyzed and
synthesized all arguments on the subject, and having done so, chosen the most logical and
reasoned position.
A good argument writer does not always have to choose the side he/she believes in—he/she
chooses to write on the side that affords him/her the best, most effective argument.
Above all, you should take a reasonable tone in your writing. The best argument writing is
objective writing. First person almost inherently (and unintentionally) reflects bias or personal
opinion. Present your argument in the more objective, third person to suggest that any
reasonable writer or thinker could take and accept your position. Be confident and assertive
without sounding self-righteous or closed-minded.
The Audience:
Knowing your audience is crucial in argument writing. Of course, it is best if you can anticipate
the position your audience already takes on your subject. The language and tone of your essay
may change depending on whether you have a friendly audience who already supports your
position, or if you have either a neutral or hostile audience.
It is imperative that you do not insult or judge your reader by suggesting that he/she is somehow
less intelligent or knowledgeable if he/she does not accept your position.
Avoid making absolute statements that could somehow exclude your particular reader (“Anyone
with even a high school education must believe . . .”).
Try to anticipate your audience’s objections to your position. Acknowledge these opposing
arguments and, if you can, refute them.

The Opposition: It is always best in argument that you consider all sides of your issue.
If you show your audience that you have considered all opposing points of view before you
chose your own side, you look as if you have made an impartial, fair evaluation of your whole


When writing, it is often effective to let the audience know you are aware of opposing
arguments—we call this bowing to the opposition. There are a few ways to do this:
--You may list in the introduction the opposing arguments before advancing your own.
--You may present an opposing position and refute it within each paragraph.
--You may present your entire argument logically and effectively, and then bring up and refute
opposition at the end of the essay.

The Writing:
Introduction: You must accomplish two important tasks in the introduction of argument
writing—defining your issue and making your stance clear.
You may define your issue by offering historical background, listing the pros and cons, etc., but
it is imperative that you make your position clear. The reader must know by the end of the
introductory section the argument you will advance and the direction you will take.
Some writers try to engage the audience by offering compelling statistics, an intriguing story, or
a rhetorical question. These are excellent tools to draw the reader into the argument, but do not
over-rely on gimmicks to engage the audience. Your job is not to ask many rhetorical questions;
your job is to anticipate and answer audience questions.
When you first begin to craft a thesis statement for argument writing, think of creating a
mathematical equation. Let your reader know that by considering a + b + c + d, he or she will be
able to accept your conclusion. Of course, your thesis does not have to be so rigidly
constructed, but the equation offers you a good example of how to give your reader both your
argument and its direction early in the essay. The equation will also serve as a good check
during revision for the writer; that is, the writer can go back and see whether he/she has actually
done effective paragraphs on all parts of the equation promised in the introduction.

Sample Thesis Paragraphs:

Thousands of Americans suffer daily from depression and anxiety, and without some kind
of help these illnesses can be unbearable. In 1987, Eli Lilly and Co. presented to Americans
what they and many others believed to be a miracle drug, the antidepressant, fluoxetine,
commonly called Prozac. Prozac was designed to be the optimal solution to mental distress. It
was marketed as having less side effects than other antidepressants, and as being effective in
treating patients suffering anything from anxiety to depression to bulimia and obsessive-
compulsive disorders (“Singing” 76). From the beginning of its use, however, the drug has been
surrounded by controversy. Many doctors and patients blame Prozac for terrible side effects
and mind altering experiences. Violent behaviors, including murder and suicide, have been
directly linked to Prozac use. Therefore, while the drug may be useful in isolated cases,
overwhelming medical evidence suggests that Prozac is potentially dangerous to one’s mental
and physical well-being, and should thus be banned from use in the mental health profession.
In 1995, three Southern states reinstituted the use of chain gangs as part of their new
prison reform systems. The reappearance of chain gangs in this country has rekindled strong
objections from people who believe that this is a form of cruel and unusual punishment and that
chaining human beings together violates the civil rights of our inmates. Advocates of the chain
gang, however, believe that the American prison system is in dire need of reform. They argue
that prisons are no longer places of punishment and reform, but are places where prisoners can
receive free medical care, free college education, and even free cable television. Indeed, there
is a strong case to be made that chain gangs, when executed humanely, will serve as a
valuable deterrent to crime by making the prison experience more rigorous. Chain gangs may
also play an important part in rehabilitating criminals by putting them to work and offering some
kind of restitution to the community they victimized.
Paragraphing: Every paragraph should begin with a clear topic sentence—one that
specifically considers one aspect of the argument. Every sentence in the paragraph should
relate to the topic sentence. The legitimacy of any argument depends on the evidence offered
for each point the writer advances. Each point should have substantial, convincing detail and
evidence. The more evidence you offer, and the better the experts you cite, the more winning
the argument. If you are doing secondary research, try not to rely on just one outside source for
evidence—the more experts you consider, the more well-rounded your argument.
Organization: Try to outline your argument before you begin writing. This will help you discover
the most effective plan of organization. Should you go from strongest point to weakest or from
simplest to most complex? Remember, by nature, the reader usually remembers what he/she
reads last. No matter what the order you decide to present your points, you must create a
logical progression and smooth transitions between paragraphs.
Conclusion: Be sure to include some kind of final statement that gives the reader a sense of
closure to your argument. Some writers deal with opposition in the conclusion; others restate
the thesis and summarize the argument. Some even use the conclusion to encourage the
audience to take some action. But you must remember not to introduce new, unsubstantiated
arguments in the conclusion.
Reasoning: Before completing your final draft, you will want to check each of your arguments
for sound reasoning. Below is a list of common logical fallacies (taken from Axelrod and
Cooper’s The Concise Guide to Writing) that can jeopardize the soundness of your argument
and can alienate your audience. Be careful to avoid them.

Failing to accept the burden of proof: when the writer asserts a claim but provides no support for
it. The prophet Ezekiel’s encounter with a U.F.O. is paraphrased in the first chapter of

Ezekiel. This is not the only encounter in the Bible but the most obvious one to be recognized by
modern man as an alien encounter.

Hasty generalization: when the writer asserts a claim on the basis of an isolated example.
Bob is left-handed. He is very creative. Left-handed people are creative.

Sweeping generalization: when the writer fails to qualify the applicability of the claim and
asserts that it applies to “all” instead of to “some.” All people are bad drivers.


Overgeneralization: when the writer fails to qualify the claim and asserts that “it is certainly
true” rather than “it may be true.” It is certainly true that men perform better in high stress jobs.

Begging the question: when the believability of the support itself depends on the
believability of the claim—circular reasoning. Women do not belong in military schools because
they were designed exclusively for men.

False analogy: when two cases are not sufficiently parallel to lead readers to accept the claim.
What the police force did to frame O.J. Simpson was exactly like what the Nazis did to the Jews
during the Holocaust.

False use of authority: when the writers invoke as an expert in the field being discussed a
person whose expertise or authority lies not in the given field but in another.If Oprah
recommends She’s Come Undone, it must be a great novel.

Non sequitur—“it does not follow”: when one statement is not logically connected to another.
Many people question the legitimacy of the stories in The National Enquirer—but they must hold
some truth since over 3 million people buy it every week.

Red herring: when a writer raises an irrelevant issue to draw attention away from the central

Marijuana smoking is not very harmful. I’d rather ride in a car driven by a pot smoker than
someone under the influence of alcohol.

Post hoc—“after this, therefore because of this”: when the writer implies that because one
event follows another, the first caused the second. Chronology does not equal causality.

Before uniforms were introduced at Will Rogers Middle School, Rogers ranked 14th out of 19
district schools on a statewide algebra test, but the following year when they wore uniforms,
their ranking jumped to 4th.

Slippery Slope: when the writer argues that taking one step will lead inevitably to a next step,
one that is undesirable.

The legalization of euthanasia will ultimately lead to our killing the homeless, the handicapped,
and the elderly.

Equivocation: when a writer uses the same term in two different senses in an argument. To
equivocate is to use ambiguous words purposely to mislead or deceive or hedge.

People say that sexism and racism are forms of discrimination. But what’s wrong with
discrimination? We discriminate all the time in our choices of food, homes, and friends.


Oversimplification: when an argument obscures or denies the complexity of the issue.
The welfare system’s problems can be solved if we enroll its recipients in job training programs.

Either/or reasoning: when the writer reduces the issue to only two alternatives that are polar

Either we choose democracy or we choose anarchy.

Ad hominem—“against the man”: when the writer attacks his or her opponents personally rather
than arguing the issues.

The president, who was little more than a draft dodger, sent our troops into Iraq yesterday.

Argumentative Essays
What is an argumentative essay?

The argumentative essay is a genre of writing that requires the student to

investigate a topic; collect, generate, and evaluate evidence; and establish a
position on the topic in a concise manner.

Please note: Some confusion may occur between the argumentative essay and
the expository essay. These two genres are similar, but the argumentative essay
differs from the expository essay in the amount of pre-writing (invention) and
research involved. The argumentative essay is commonly assigned as a capstone
or final project in first year writing or advanced composition courses and involves
lengthy, detailed research. Expository essays involve less research and are
shorter in length. Expository essays are often used for in-class writing exercises
or tests, such as the GED or GRE.

Argumentative essay assignments generally call for extensive research of

literature or previously published material. Argumentative assignments may also
require empirical research where the student collects data through interviews,
surveys, observations, or experiments. Detailed research allows the student to
learn about the topic and to understand different points of view regarding the
topic so that she/he may choose a position and support it with the evidence
collected during research. Regardless of the amount or type of research involved,
argumentative essays must establish a clear thesis and follow sound reasoning.

The structure of the argumentative essay is held together by the following.

 A clear, concise, and defined thesis statement that occurs in the first
paragraph of the essay.


In the first paragraph of an argument essay, students should set the context
by reviewing the topic in a general way. Next the author should explain why the
topic is important (exigence) or why readers should care about the issue. Lastly,
students should present the thesis statement. It is essential that this thesis
statement be appropriately narrowed to follow the guidelines set forth in the
assignment. If the student does not master this portion of the essay, it will be
quite difficult to compose an effective or persuasive essay.

 Clear and logical transitions between the introduction, body, and


Transitions are the mortar that holds the foundation of the essay together.
Without logical progression of thought, the reader is unable to follow the essay’s
argument, and the structure will collapse. Transitions should wrap up the idea
from the previous section and introduce the idea that is to follow in the next

 Body paragraphs that include evidential support.

Each paragraph should be limited to the discussion of one general idea. This
will allow for clarity and direction throughout the essay. In addition, such
conciseness creates an ease of readability for one’s audience. It is important to
note that each paragraph in the body of the essay must have some logical
connection to the thesis statement in the opening paragraph. Some paragraphs
will directly support the thesis statement with evidence collected during research.
It is also important to explain how and why the evidence supports the thesis

However, argumentative essays should also consider and explain differing

points of view regarding the topic. Depending on the length of the assignment,
students should dedicate one or two paragraphs of an argumentative essay to
discussing conflicting opinions on the topic. Rather than explaining how these
differing opinions are wrong outright, students should note how opinions that do
not align with their thesis might not be well informed or how they might be out of

 Evidential support (whether factual, logical, statistical, or


The argumentative essay requires well-researched, accurate, detailed, and

current information to support the thesis statement and consider other points of
view. Some factual, logical, statistical, or anecdotal evidence should support the
thesis. However, students must consider multiple points of view when collecting
evidence. As noted in the paragraph above, a successful and well-rounded


argumentative essay will also discuss opinions not aligning with the thesis. It is
unethical to exclude evidence that may not support the thesis. It is not the
student’s job to point out how other positions are wrong outright, but rather to
explain how other positions may not be well informed or up to date on the topic.

 A conclusion that does not simply restate the thesis, but

readdresses it in light of the evidence provided.

It is at this point of the essay that students may begin to struggle. This is the
portion of the essay that will leave the most immediate impression on the mind of
the reader. Therefore, it must be effective and logical. Do not introduce any new
information into the conclusion; rather, synthesize the information presented in
the body of the essay. Restate why the topic is important, review the main
points, and review your thesis. You may also want to include a short discussion of
more research that should be completed in light of your work.

A complete argument

Perhaps it is helpful to think of an essay in terms of a conversation or debate with

a classmate. If I were to discuss the cause of World War II and its current effect
on those who lived through the tumultuous time, there would be a beginning,
middle, and end to the conversation. In fact, if I were to end the argument in the
middle of my second point, questions would arise concerning the current effects
on those who lived through the conflict. Therefore, the argumentative essay must
be complete, and logically so, leaving no doubt as to its intent or argument.

The five-paragraph essay

A common method for writing an argumentative essay is the five-paragraph

approach. This is, however, by no means the only formula for writing such
essays. If it sounds straightforward, that is because it is; in fact, the method
consists of (a) an introductory paragraph (b) three evidentiary body paragraphs
that may include discussion of opposing views and (c) a conclusion.

Longer argumentative essays

Complex issues and detailed research call for complex and detailed essays.
Argumentative essays discussing a number of research sources or empirical
research will most certainly be longer than five paragraphs. Authors may have to
discuss the context surrounding the topic, sources of information and their
credibility, as well as a number of different opinions on the issue before
concluding the essay. Many of these factors will be determined by the


Advantages of Argument Writing
Helps Develop Critical Thinking Skills

Argumentative writing helps writers develop their critical thinking skills. Critical thinking is
one of the most important skills that people acquire through formal education, and being
able to write persuasive arguments often helps students break down the components of
logical thinking, find fault in others' and their own argumen ts, and present stronger
arguments overall. In the real world, people who are able to write good arguments will
likely also be able to notice faulty logic, or fallacies, in other people's arguments much
more quickly.

Emphasizes Persuasion

One important skill that a writer enhances by practicing argumentative writing is the art of
persuasion. In argumentative writing, writers are able to understand what persuasion is,
how it works and how to use it to their advantage. They will then be able not only to
convince others to see things from their perspective, but also to take action in their favor.

Is Effective in the Real World

Argumentative writing enchances a writer's ability in ways that are easily transferable.
Writers can draw on their argumentative writing skills when they make sales pitches for
products or services, write grant proposals or write letters to the editor about important
issues. They may also have to correspond through email in the workplace in ways that
require smaller-scale argumentation.

Enhances Broad Thinking

With other styles of writing such as the expository style, the writer may not need to have
broad knowledge in order to execute the topic. Argumentative writing promotes broad
thinking because it forces the writer to contend with oppos ing views and to integrate them
into his overall argument.

1. Don’t make up data. Made up statistics and facts won’t impress the GMAT graders, but
strong organization, logical arguments, and specific supportive examples will. Don’t be
tempted to make up data because you are not an “expert” in the subject matter. It doesn’t


matter, in fact, what the subject matter of the Argument is! You’re always “right” because
the argument is always flawed! Sound logic will get you to a “6”.
2. Aim for cogency. Focus more on conveying your argument succinctly and forcefully than on
pedantic word choice and construction. Don’t include long-winded sentences that go
nowhere in the hopes of sounding more scholarly. The argument essay needs to be
formal, but more importantly, forceful. These essays are, let’s face it, pretty boring. Let’s not
make the readers suffer more than they have to.
3. You already know your thesis. No matter what the prompt, your thesis is essentially, “the
argument is flawed.” All you have to do is come up with solid logic backed by specific
examples that show why.
4. Attack diction. An easy way to find fault in the structure of the argument is to pick apart its very
wording. Just how much is “too much”? Exactly what does the author mean by “certain”?
Look for vague wording and qualifying language to critique. It will be there!
1. Plan. In this phase you will thoroughly take apart the presented argument, construct your
thesis, choose your three examples (flaws), and lay out your main points. Give yourself a
clear “road map” before you start writing.
2. Write. 20 minutes may not sound like a long time, but with a solid template structure under your
belt, you’ll be surprised how quickly you can get your thoughts down. Use this template for
3. Revise. Always leave time to proofread your essay. You’re looking to correct grammar and
spelling, as well as clarify the “flow” of the essay.

Business writing
 Business writing is a type of writing that seeks to elicit a business response. It's a
purposeful piece of writing that provides relevant information to help a reader
know something or do something. It must be substantive, clear, correct, and easy
to scan.
 Business writing includes memorandums, reports, proposals, emails, and other
forms of writing used in organizations to communicate with internal or external
audiences. Business writing is a type of professional communication and is also
known as business communication and professional writing.

Business Writing Examples


 There are numerous types of business writing, which is by no means restricted to
letters or emails, but memos, business letters, and emails are the most common.

Business Writing Should be Purposeful

There are two primary questions to ask every time we begin a business document (or email):

1. Who is my reader? We have to understand our reader to match the information they
2. What do I want my reader to know or do?

If we can't answer either of these questions, stop. There is no purpose to what you are about
to write, so it's not business writing.

If you are looking for more quick tips, you may enjoy our complete list of the best business
writing tips and tricks.

Substance Must be Both Accurate and Relevant

The most important element in business writing is the information it conveys.

If there are content gaps, incorrect information, irrelevant information or the same
information is repeated in different spins, the document will fail. Always. Even if the words
and grammar are beautiful and correct, the document will fail.

At its core, business writing is about information exchange, so this information is the
essence of business writing. The information must be complete, relevant to the reader, and

Be Clear. In business writing, "Write to Express, Not to

The goal is to transmit information to a reader, so business writing requires clear language to
help a reader understand information easily. Writing clearly is one of the harder aspects of
business writing. One of my favorite quotes about writing is by Blaise Pascal:

"I apologize for the length of this letter. I did not have time to make it shorter."


It's easy to write long, rambling sentence. Concise, clear writing requires skill.

Concision can be challenging because it's a skill not emphasized in college. In academic
writing, assignments often require a certain length. We have to fill ten pages, and we're
instructed to develop our writing and expand the concept. We earn good grades partially
through the length and impressive language. Puffed up language is rewarded.

I've taught both academic writing at a university and business writing to thousands of clients.
Good business writing is harder to write than good academic writing.

Grammar and Sentence Structure Must be Correct

Good grammar shows both attention to detail and skill.

These traits are highly valued in business. A grammar error is unprofessional. Good grammar
is the convention language uses to help us communicate in a common language. It does

Business writing, like all language, evolves. Grammar and style evolve, also. Interestingly, all
but one style guide now state that emoticons, used judiciously, are acceptable in business
writing. All style guides now advocate one period after a period or other full stop in a
sentence, instead of two. These changing standards are why business writers need to
continually hone writing skills to stay current with conventions by reading articles about
business writing or taking a business writing course.

Easy to Scan
Business readers are busy and cannot read everything. To help with this information
overload, business documents must be easy to absorb. This means:

 No long paragraphs.
 Use lots of white space
 Indent sub-information to indicate hierarchy
 Use numbered or bulleted lists
 Headings above document sections are a natural antidote for information overload
 Judicious use of bold or color can highlight key points

Format in business writing matters .These principles of business writing can be applied to
help improve your business writing skills.


The difference between business writing and other types of writing is similar to Mark
Twain's insight about word choice: “The difference between the right word and the almost
right word is the difference between the lightning and the lightning bug.”

4-Types of business writing

The world of business writing can seem vast. Each office seems to have variations of
documents, each with their personalized templates and industry focus. Varying scenarios
require varying forms of business writing. However, the innumerable documents can be
distilled into to four main categories.

Each category has its overall goal. Based on the objective, each of the many business
documents falls within these four broad segments.

This article will break down the broad field of business writing into four categories.
Understanding these conceptual divisions will help guide your decisions about your
document choice and goal.

Style Reminders
While the document goal varies, the core of business writing does not.

o Effective professional writing is written with a clearly defined audience and

purpose in mind. This is results-oriented writing. The text helps the reader do or know
o The writing style should be written to be concise, relevant, and understandable.
Excessive wording, jargon, or extraneous information have no place in any type of business
writing. Each element of the document supports the communication of the purpose to the

Of course, good writing is free of grammar and spelling errors and inaccurate information.

1. Instructional Business Writing

Instructional business writing provides the reader with the information needed to
complete a task. The task may need be accomplished immediately or it may be for
future reference.


This type of document must break down a process into steps that are understandable
to the reader. The written record must account for reader’s knowledge of the area, the
scope of the task while integrating variations or potential problems.


User Manual: a guide focused on allowing the customer to use a product. Effective
user manuals are crucial to a good user experience and a happy customer. User
manuals are often considered part of technical writing, which is closely related to
business writing.

Specifications: a technical document which provides an outline of a product or

process that allows it be constructed or reconstructed by an unfamiliar but
knowledgeable user, enabling effective distribution.

Memo: a short notification of new information shared within a large group in an

organization. The memo may include a direct instruction or be a reference on how to
complete future tasks.

2. Informational Business Writing

Not all business writing requires action. A large volume of writing is created for
reference or record. This category can include some of the less glamorous but still
essential documents.

Recording business information accurately and consistently is important for marking

progress, predicting future work, as well as complying with legal and contractual

Report: perhaps the bulk of informational writing is report writing. Organizations rely
on reports to act, to communicate business and technical information, to capture work
completed, to record incidents, to finalize projects and recommendations, and to act as
an archive. A well written report allows the reader to easily grasp the content and, if
applicable, make informed decisions.


Financials: documents that outline the financial state of a company. These statements
provide a fiscal snapshot of a company over a defined period.

Minutes: a summary of the proceedings of a meeting. A record of discussions,

decisions, and assignments for attendees and others.

3. Persuasive Business Writing

When people think of business writing, they often think of the persuasive writing
category. These documents are generally associated with sales. The persuasive writing
may be direct, with focus on a specific item, or indirect, with focus on developing the
client relationship.

The goal is to two-fold: to convey information and to convince the reader that the
presented information offers the best value. The text is written to impress the reader
and sway their decision.

Proposals: these documents outline an offer of a product or service to a specific

potential client. The proposal generally presents project overview, benefits, timeline,
costs, and competency.

Sales Email: an email written to a large number of people to pitch a product or service.

Press Release: a text written for journalists and media presenting new information. The
text aims to persuade the reader to share the content through their own channels

4. Transactional Business Writing

Everyday communication falls under transactional business writing. The majority of this
writing is by email, but also includes official letters, forms, and invoices. An easy way to
quickly improve your transactional business writing is to take an online course.

These documents are used to progress general operations. They are also used to
convey good and bad news, often associated with human resource processes.

Emails: documents used to quickly communicate information between staff or clients

in business activities. Read our guide on how to write a business email here.


Dismissal notice: this letter provides the official context and procedural details
associated with employment termination.

Each business document falls into one of these four categories. By determining the
category, you will better understand your document’s goal. This insight will improve
your writing.

The 10 Most Important Business Writing Skills You Will Need

We all wrote essays and papers in high school and college. And we were taught to
write in very formal, scholarly ways. Vocabulary and style were important; impeccable
grammar was a “must” for a decent grade. Most of us, moreover, have probably
composed a resume or two, along with cover letters that made us sound highly skilled
and perfect for a position. There will still be a need for scholarly writing, of course, for
those who enter career fields in academia or research and who must publish for those
venues. For most of us, however, our careers will be elsewhere, and entirely different
writing skills will be required.

1. Clear, Concise, and Simple Prose

Long, complicated sentences with sophisticated vocabulary is “out.” No one has the
time anymore to re-read content, in order to figure out what has actually been said.
You will need to practice writing shorter sentences, containing only one thought. Your
vocabulary, unless it must be technical in nature, will need to be at a high school level.
Consider these two examples:

A. We are rapidly approaching a point in our organizational growth at which we must

consider viable courses of action for expansion into additional global markets, and it
will be imperative, in the ensuing months, that everyone begin developing strategies
that will achieve this, so that we may evaluate their efficacy at our March 15 meeting.

B. We’re at a point where we have to think about expansion. We need to come up with
ways to market our products to consumers in more countries. Over the next few
months, everyone should think about options for getting this done. Let’s get together
on March 15, and bring your ideas with you.


“B” will be the preferred style – everyone will “get” it during the first “read.” And if this
message must be sent by text or email, it will be much easier to compose if you keep it

2. Writing skills will not only include prose

No one will have time to pour through volumes of text and detailed explanations. The
use of graphics to impart information will be critical and far more effective. You will
need to be able to reduce lots of information and concepts into picture form, and this
means some self-study. There already are great tools and apps for creating info
graphics, and these will only get better over the next few years. Learn to use them!

3.Grammar, Spelling and Punctuation won’t be “thrown out”

While you’re writing may become simpler, basic writing skills will still need to be in
play. You never know. The person you are trying to impress with a sales pitch may be a
“stickler” for good grammar and spelling. Fortunately, if you have never been really
good at this, the tools, apps and services keep getting better. There won’t be any
excuse, except laziness.

4. Prose writing will have to be broken up

One of the effects of so much use of technology is that people’s attention spans are
shorter. If you want your stuff read from start to finish, you had better learn how to use
headings, sub-headings, and bullet points. This is going to require real thought
organization before you ever begin to write, so that your points flow logically.
Remember that old outline “routine?” It’s still a pretty good organizer for writing!

5. Writing for Your Audience

This will be more important than ever. You have to know the intellectual and reading
levels of the people who will be reading your stuff, and you will have to adjust your
style and vocabulary accordingly. Being able to change your style for different
audiences will be pretty critical, and it takes real skill.


6. Creativity
People are inundated with so much content these days that they become very fickle.
They more creative you can be with what you write, the less fickle your audience will
be. You will need to find unique ways to say the same things that others are saying –
ways that are really engaging for your reader. This is especially true if you will be
marketing products or services on the web, and who won’t be by 2020?

7. Article and Blog Writing

While these venues for grabbing audiences will certainly evolve over the next 5 years,
they are here to stay, for this is how company brands are spread and customer loyalty
is achieved. Your business blog will have to be chock full of wonderfully entertaining
content that educates as well. You will need to use those techniques for people with
short attention spans, and, in this case, the reading level should be at about age 13-
14. And media?

8. Writing for Social Media

Here is another writing venue that is not going away! By 2020, you can expect many
more social media sites that are just as popular as Facebook, LinkedIn, and Pinterest.
Individuals who do not have the skill to grab attention with a few short phrases, with a
couple of stunning facts, or with a great story will be losers on these platforms.

9. Writing as Video
Just as writing will continue to morph into graphics, it will also evolve into videos.
Showing rather than telling will be the new “writing,” and those who are skilled in
creating compelling short videos that inform and educate will continue to expand their

10. Business writing will not be dead

Yes, there will still be a need for reports, strategic plans, employee policy manuals and
e-guides; people will still write memorandum (although these will obviously be
distributed electronically). But the trend toward simplicity and the use of graphics and
videos will continue, and the skilled “writer” will be able to weave text, graphics, and
media into coherent pieces that readers/viewers can absorb quickly and completely.

Techniques of business writing

 Persuasion: The technique of persuasion is employed in writing to do and alter the reader’s
purpose of read on a specific subject or topic. During this writing technique the author
presents during a compelling format facts and opinions so as to persuade the reader.
Persuasive writing is most typically found in editorials, newspapers, magazines and political
 Description: an outline may be a easy nonetheless important writing technique. You’ll most
often realize descriptions in magazines, books, newspapers and lots of alternative kinds of
writing. The aim of a description is to assist the read use the senses of seeing, hearing, felling
and smelling to expertise what the author experiences. Descriptions facilitate the reader to
grasp things concerning that the author is writing.
 Comparison and Contrast: the aim of the writing technique is to indicate the reader the
similarities and variations a few one thing. Comparison is employed to indicate or justify
however what’s alike or common. Contract is employed to indicate what’s completely
different. Once asked to check and distinction the warfare with warfare II, the author would
show the similarities and variations between these 2 wars.
 Exposition: the aim of exposition is to tell, explain, explain, expound or clarify the writer’s
concepts and thoughts. Whereas like descriptive writing, exposition provides the reader larger
detail and depth of understanding concerning the writer’s thoughts and ideas. Expositions are
most ordinarily found in newspapers, magazines and books.
 Narration: The narration technique for writing is employed once telling a story. The weather
of a story embraces the setting, time, downside and backbone to the matter, a main character
and sometimes supporting characters. a unique is an example of an extended story and a
children’s book would be an example of story. Moving-picture show and play scripts we have
a tendency to conjointly samples of narrations.
Advantages Of Business Writing
1. Exchange business related information: Letter is the best media of exchanging
information. Businessmen can easily exchange information related to business activity.
2. Convey information: The basic purpose of any business letter is to convey information
regarding business activities. Information can be transmitted through business letter to
customers, suppliers, debtors, government authorities, financial institutions, bank and
insurance companies and to any other parties related with the business.


3. Find the new sources of product: A b letter can help to find the sources of a new
product in home and abroad.
4. Expand markets: By means of a business letter a producer can easily create market of
his product. Through goodwill messages and through circular letters existing market can be
5. Establish business relationship: Another important purpose of business letter is, it
helps to establish mutual relationship with the customers, suppliers and with the other
interested parties.
6. Low cost: As a media of communication writing a letter is very cheap than those of
others. The other forms of communication are too expensive for a small firm to bear.
7. Building goodwill and image: An excellent business letter increases the good will of
the business organization. In this electronic era messages can be sent within few seconds
through electronic media but a well decorated business letter has its own importance in
creation positive image of the company.
8. Maintaining records and references: Business letters are also used to maintain
documentary evidence. A business letter acts as a proof document which is completely absent
in other means of communication. Letters can be preserved for future reference.
9. Maintaining the secrecy: A business letter maintains the secrecy of both the buyers
and the sellers on business affairs.
10. Save time: A business letter saves the valuable time of both seller or sender and buyer
or receiver.
11. Easiest: Business letter is the easiest, sagest and the most convenient means to
transmit at any place.
12. Credit business: It is quite impossible to contract credit business without business
letter. A business letter plays a vital role in credit trade which is a common figure in business
13. Creation of demand: Business letters especially circular letters used to create demand
for new products. Circular letters can communicate many people in the same time.
14. Placing order: It is a very common purpose for using business letter. Both trading and
manufacturing concerns need to place orders for finished goods or raw-materials to run the
15. Conclude transaction: This is one of the specific purposes of business letter. To
conclude in completed transactions business letters are frequently used.
16. Others: Preventing misinterpretation, Reducing the probability of distortion, Preventing
tendency of non-acceptance, Giving instruction, Decision making, Overcome
misunderstanding etc.



We can see a few limitations of letters as a written document. They are as follows:

1. It is a limitation of the business writing, because experience is necessary of the letter, as

experience is necessary to write it.
2. Old media: Business Writing is an old written means of communication. But there are many
modern forms of written communication.
3. Complex language: Sometimes business Writing is written in complex language for
lacking of sense. If it occurs, business letter becomes meaningless.
4. Missing: Business Writing may be missed. But it is impossible for E-mail, fax, telephone etc.
5. Taking time: In this modern era of communication letter is considered as slow moving tool
of communication. It takes more time than any other form of communication. But the
modern devices take no time to send written document such as e-mail, fax etc.
6. Secrecy: Sometimes business Writing fails to maintain business secrecy.
7. Costly: In comparison to other form of communication business Writing is costly.
8. No immediate response: There is no immediate feedback in business letter.
9. Others: Red-tap-ism, lack of flexibility etc.

Letter writing
Letter writing is the exchange of written or printed messages.

Distinctions are commonly drawn between personal letters (sent between family members, friends, or
acquaintances) and business letters (formal exchanges with businesses or government organizations).

Letter writing occurs in many forms and formats, including notes, letters, and postcards. Sometimes
referred to as hard copy or snail mail, letter writing is often distinguished from forms of computer-
mediated communication (CMC), such as email and texting.

Letter Writing Way

A letter is such a written message that we sent to persons who are far away from us and we want to
convey our message to them in a clear and forceful manner. We usually write letters to our friends
and relatives. Although the advent of IT- Telephones, Mobile SMS’s and Chat- has reduced the
importance of personal letter writing as we can send our messages through these mediums very
easily but this art is still required where there is need of formal communication. Sometimes we have
to send an application to the school for grant of leave and at other time we have to complain about
someone. The same way we get a lot of chances where we have to send a formal letter. Thus this art
of letter writing is no more an ornamental accomplishment but something that every educated
person must acquire for practical purposes.

Letter Writing Types

Informal Letter Writing

Business Letter Writing

Official Letter Writing

Letter Writing Rules

Letter Writing Examples

Letter Writing Samples

There are many types of letter writing but most of the English grammar letter writing deals with the
following given categories:-

Informal Letter Writing

These types of letter are written to relatives or friends. These can also include invitations etc. Such
kinds of a letter are also known as Personal or Social Letters.

Business Letter Writing

These letters are used as a communicative tool in the business and are usually written by the traders,
firms and companies etc for business purposes. These kinds of letter fall under the category of formal

Official Letter Writing

These include a letter of application, letter to government officials and letter to Newspapers etc.
These letters are used for the official communication of the information from one department to
another. Ex:- Termination letter, Recommendation letter, Reference letter, job letter etc

Irrespective of the type of letter there is a certain matter of forms which are applicable all and have to
be taken care of while writing any kind of letter to make it impressive and purposeful.

Letter Writing Rules

Main six Points that has to be taken care of while writing a letter are:-


The Salutation or Courteous Greetings


The Body of the letter -Communication or the Message-.

The Subscription -Courteous Leave-taking, or Conclusion-.

The Signature -Name of the writer-

The Address

1. Heading of a letter basically consists of Two Parts:

Address of the writer followed by the date on which the letter was written by him.

Heading can be written on the Right or Left (keep on changing with time-presently we follow the
convention of writing Heading in the left corner) corner of the first page of the letter.

Examples of a Heading are:-

63, Geeta Colony


June 12, 2010

Examination Hall


12th June 2010

2. The Salutation in the letter will depend upon the depth of relationship of the writer with the person
to whom the letter is being written thus vary from letter to letter.

The salutation is written at the left hand of the page, at a lower level the Heading. The first and last
word of the salutation is always started in Capital Alphabets.

Examples of the Salutation are:

In Informal Letters

To Blood Relations

My dear Father,

My dear Mother,

My dear Kavita,

To Friends

Dear Rajesh,


My dear Ajay,

Note: - Dear Friend or My dear Friend is never used as Salutations

In Business Letters
To Businessmen:

Dear Sir,

Dear Sirs,

In Official Letters

To Officials/Principal/Headmaster/Teachers



3. The Body itself is considered as the life of the letter and the style in which it is written will depend
upon the kind of letter one wishes to write. Like, the style of the letter to be written to a friend will be
entirely different from the style of the letter to be written to an official and so on. But few points that
one has to keep in mind irrespective of the style while writing the body of the letter are:-

Divide the letter into paragraphs, to mark changes of subject-matter etc.

Use simple and direct language in short sentences. It will make the message clear and to the point

Always try to be complete. For this think out what you want to say before the beginning of writing of
letter, and put down all the point in a logical manner.

Write neatly to avoid inconvenience to the reader because of your bad penmanship.

Take care of the punctuation and be consistent with it. Incorrect punctuation may alter the whole
meaning of the sentence.

Besides letter can be make impressive to leave an indelible mark on the reader we can use following
given starting and ending with the various kind of letters:-

Informal Letter Writing Format


I got your letter yesterday.

I am in receipt of your letter.


I am glad to receive your letter.

It gives me pleasure to inform you.

It is long since I heard from you.

I cannot understand your long silence.

It has made me very anxious.

I am sorry I could not write to you earlier.


With Kind regards,

With best wishes,

Convey my best regard to your dear parents,

With love to your brother and sister,

Well, goodbye for now,

Hoping to hear from you very soon,

With love from all of us.

With sincere sympathy for your distress

Wishing you still better luck.

Please remember me to all at home.

Business Letter Writing Format


I shall be obliged if you kindly…

I shall be glad if you send me…

Would you be kind enough to send me the following articles…

May I draw your kind attention to…


Thanking you,

Thanking you in anticipation,


Hoping to be favoured with an early reply.

Official Letter and Applications Writing Format


I beg to submit…

I beg to state…

I have the honour to report…

I have the honour, to bring to your kind notice…

With reference to your advertisement in the ‘Times of India’…


Thanking you,

Thanking you in anticipation,

Hoping to be favoured with an early reply.

4. The Subscription of the letter ie the end should be according to the staring of the letter. A letter
must not end abruptly as this would look rude. So certain forms of polite leave-taking are prescribed
That should be written after the last words of the letter on the left-hand side corner of the lines after
the body. It should start with a Capital letter and end with a comma. Some examples of the
subscription of the letter of various kinds are:-

To Blood Relations: Yours affectionately,

To Friends: Yours Sincerely,

To Principal/Headmaster/Teacher etc: Yours Obediently,

To Officials/Businessmen: Yours faithfully,

To Strangers: Yours truly,

Note:- Never use an apostrophe(‘) with yours in the subscription.


5. The Signature of the writer of the letter should be below the subscription. In a letter to the
stranger, the signature should be clearly written so that he could know whom to address in reply.

Note: A women should prefix to the name Miss or Mrs. or Ms in brackets before her name like

(Miss) Preetinder Kaur

6. The Address is written on the envelope of the postcard very clearly with a pin code.

Free Letter Writing Samples

Business Letter Sample (placing order)

Informal Letter Sample (apology)

Official Letter (job termination)

Letter Writing Techniques

Make It Clear

It’s incredibly easy to get side-tracked when writing letters, especially if you’re feeling upset or
emotional. Remember: You are writing to make a point, clarify an event, make a request, and create a
paper trail. Refer back to the sheets of paper you used during the brainstorming stage. Have you
answered these three questions?

Why are you writing?

What is the point you want to make?

What do you want?

Talk out loud. Avoid vague words, jargon, and long rambling sentences. Use short words when
possible. If you naturally use long words to express yourself, try substituting short words that mean
the same thing. Long rambling letters put people off because they are hard to read. You don’t want
this to happen. You want the reader, your Stranger, to enjoy reading your letter.

Make It Short!
Say what you have to say. Be succinct. Most people don’t have the time to read long letters. If you
repeat yourself, you’re wasting the reader’s time and your letter will generate a negative response.
Keep your message short and to the point.

There is one exception to this rule. If you are writing a letter to request a due process hearing, then
the letter needs to be a comprehensive "Letter to the Stranger." This letter should tell story, from the
beginning, using visual imagery.


Make It Alive!
Speak directly to the reader. Use the same words and figures of speech you use in your day-to-day
speech. Think about the Stranger as a real person. Visualize the Stranger and imagine yourself talking
with him about your problems. This is the person you are writing to. You’re not firing a letter off to
the person who chaired the IEP meeting and didn’t have the courage to tell you that the school had
just suspended your child, as you see in the example below.

Use words like "you," "we," "us," "our" to make your letter more personal. Everyone who reads the
letter will feel that the message is directed at them.

Make it RIGHT
Letters filled with errors are distracting. Readers get so distracted by misspelled words and poor
grammar that they miss the point. If you send a letter that’s filled with mistakes, your real message is
that you are sloppy and careless. If you prepare your letter on a computer, it will be easier to read.
The Stranger will thank you for little touches like this.

Importance of letter Writing

Your goal is to eliminate all spelling, grammatical, and formatting errors from your letters. The
problem? We don’t notice our own errors! The solution? Always have at least one other person proof-
read your letters. Try to locate more than one proof-reader. Buy a book about "How to Write Business

Letter writing is an art. A well written letter is a pleasure to read. It’s also very hard work.

The Importance of Writing Letters

It might seem a bit old fashion, but it never goes out of style.

In a world full of endless forms of communication and technology that is constantly changing, one
would think sitting down and writing a letter is considered “old fashioned.” Why write a letter when
you can text, call, or FaceTime? Even though it is not as fast and easy as choosing one of those
options, it is still just as important. If not, then it is a thousand times more meaningful.

All of this I hardly ever feel from a text or social media messaging. Only when I am holding a hand
written letter rather than my phone my day becomes two times brighter. So if you ever feel like
making someone’s day, grab a pen, notecard, envelope and a stamp, and I guarantee they'll feel the
same way.

Advantages and disadvantages of letter writing



Exchange business related information: Letter is the best media of exchanging information.
Businessmen can easily exchange information related to business activity.

Convey information: The basic purpose of any business letter is to convey information
regarding business activities. Information can be transmitted through business letter to
customers, suppliers, debtors, government authorities, financial institutions, bank and
insurance companies and to any other parties related with the business.

Find the new sources of product: A b letter can help to find the sources of a new product in
home and abroad.

Expand markets: By means of a business letter a producer can easily create market of his
product. Through goodwill messages and through circular letters existing market can be

Establish business relationship: Another important purpose of business letter is, it helps to
establish mutual relationship with the customers, suppliers and with the other interested

Low cost: As a media of communication writing a letter is very cheap than those of others.
The other forms of communication are too expensive for a small firm to bear.

Building goodwill and image: An excellent business letter increases the good will of the
business organization. In this electronic era messages can be sent within few seconds through
electronic media but a well decorated business letter has its own importance in creation
positive image of the company.

Maintaining records and references: Business letters are also used to maintain documentary
evidence. A business letter acts as a proof document which is completely absent in other
means of communication. Letters can be preserved for future reference.

Maintaining the secrecy: A business letter maintains the secrecy of both the buyers and the
sellers on business affairs.

Save time: A business letter saves the valuable time of both seller or sender and buyer or

Easiest: Business letter is the easiest, sagest and the most convenient means to transmit at
any place.

Credit business: It is quite impossible to contract credit business without business letter. A
business letter plays a vital role in credit trade which is a common figure in business world.


Creation of demand: Business letters especially circular letters used to create demand for
new products. Circular letters can communicate many people in the same time.

Placing order: It is a very common purpose for using business letter. Both trading and
manufacturing concerns need to place orders for finished goods or raw-materials to run the

Conclude transaction: This is one of the specific purposes of business letter. To conclude in
completed transactions business letters are frequently used.

Others: Preventing misinterpretation, Reducing the probability of distortion, Preventing

tendency of non-acceptance, Giving instruction, Decision making, Overcome
misunderstanding etc.

Easy to preserve: The documents of written communication are easy to preserve. Oral and
non-verbal communication cannot be preserved. If it is needed, important information can be
collected from the preserved documents.

Easy presentation of complex matter: Written communication is the best way to represent
any complex matter easily and attractively.

Permanent record: The documents of written communication act as a permanent record.

When it is needed, important information can be easily collected from the preserved

Prevention of wastage of time and money: Written communication prevents the waste of
money and time. Without meeting with each other the communicator and communicate can
exchange their views.

Accurate presentation: Through the documents of the written communication top executive
can present the information more accurately and clearly. As it is a legal document everybody
takes much care does draft it.

Use as a reference: If it is needed, written communication can be used as future reference.

Delegation of authority: Written communication can help the authority to delegate the
power and authority to the subordinate. It is quite impossible to delegate power without a
written document.

Longevity: Written document can be preserved for a long time easily. That is why; all the
important issues of an organization should be back and white.

Effective communication: Written communication helps to make communication effective. It

is more dependable and effective than those of other forms of communication.
Maintaining image: Written communication helps to maintain the images of both the person
and the organization. It also protects the images of the company or organization.

Proper information: It is a proper and complete communication system. There is no

opportunity to include any unnecessary information in a written document.

Less distortion possibility: In this communication system information is recorded

permanently. So, there is less possibility of distortion and alteration of the information.

No opportunity to misinterpret: there is any opportunity to misinterpret the information or

messages of written communication.

Controlling tool: Written communication can help to control the organizational activity. The
written document may be used as a tool for controlling.

Easy to verify: The information and messages that are preserved can be verified easily. If
there arises any misunderstanding any party can easily verify the information.

Disadvantages of business letter

We can see a few limitations of letters as a written document. They are as follows…

Formal structure: Some rules must be followed in drafting a letter. To follow the rules is a
limitation of the business letter, because experience is necessary of the letter, as experience is
necessary to write it.

Old media: Business letter is an old written means of communication. But there are many
modern forms of written communication.

Complex language: Sometimes business letter is written in complex language for lacking of
sense. If it occurs, business letter becomes meaningless.

Missing: Business letters may be missed. But it is impossible for E-mail, fax, telephone etc.

Taking time: In this modern era of communication letter is considered as slow moving tool
of communication. It takes more time than any other form of communication. But the modern
devices take no time to send written document such as e-mail, fax etc.

Secrecy: Sometimes business letter fails to maintain business secrecy.

Costly: In comparison to other form of communication business letter is costly.

No immediate response: There is no immediate feedback in business letter.


Expensive: Written communication is comparatively expensive. For this communication
paper, pen, ink, typewriter, computer and a large number of employees are needed.

Time consuming: Written communication takes time to communicate with others. It is a time
consuming media. It costs the valuable time of both the writer and the reader.

Red-Taoism: Red-Taoism is one of the most disadvantages of written communication. It

means to take time for approval of a project.

Useless for illiterate person: It messages receiver is illiterate, written communication is quite
impossible. This is major disadvantage written communication.

Difficult to maintain secrecy: It is an unexpected medium to keep business secrecy. Secrecy

is not always possible to maintain through written communication. Because here needs to
discuss everything in black and white.

Lack of flexibility: Since writing documents cannot be changed easily at any time. Lack of
flexibility is one of the most important limitations of written communication.

Delay in response: It takes much time to get a response from the message receiver; prompt
response is not possible in case of written communication that is possible in oral

Delay in decision making: Written communication takes much time to communicate with all
the parties concerned. So the decision maker cannot take decisions quickly.

Cost in record keeping: It is very difficult and expensive to keep all the records in written

Complex words: Sometimes the writer uses complex words in writing a message. It becomes
difficult to meaning out to the reader. So the objectives of the communication may lose.

Lack of direct relation: If there is no direct relation between the writer and the reader, writer
communication cannot help to establish a direct relation between them.

Types of letters
The term “business letters” refers to any written communication that begins with a salutation,
ends with a signature and whose contents are professional in nature. Historically, business
letters were sent via postal mail or courier, although the internet is rapidly changing the way
businesses communicate. There are many standard types of business letters, and each of
them has a specific focus.


Business Letters

 Business Letters

 Business Thank You Letters

 Email Messages

Employee Letters

 Employee Letters

 Excuse Letters

 Goodbye Letters

 Late for Work Apology Letter

 Mistake at Work Apology Letter

 Salary Reduction Letter

Informational Letters

 Name Change Announcement - General

 Name Change Announcement - Maiden Name

 Name Change Letter - Married

Job Applicant Letters From an Employer

 Candidate Rejection Letters

 Interview Invitations

Job Interview Letters for Job Seekers

 Follow Up Letters

 Influence Letters

 Missing an Interview Apology Letter

Job Offer Letters

 Counter Offer Letters


 Job Offer Letters

Job Search and Networking Letters

 Application Letters

 Cover Letters

 Inquiry Letters

 Job Application Letter

 Job Search Help Request Letters

 Networking Letters

 Value Proposition Letters

Recommendation and Referral Letters

 Academic Recommendation Letters

 Character Reference Letters

 Personal Recommendation Letters

 Professional Letters

 Professional Recommendation Letters

 Recommendation Letters for Employment

 Reference Letters

 Referral Letters

Resignation and Retirement Letters

 Resignation Letters

 Retirement Letters

 New Job Announcement Letters

Thank You, Appreciation, and Congratulation Letters

 Appreciation Letters


 Congratulation Letters

 Thank You Letters

Sales Letters

Typical sales letters start off with a very strong statement to capture the interest of the reader.
Since the purpose is to get the reader to do something, these letters include strong calls to
action, detail the benefit to the reader of taking the action and include information to help
the reader to act, such as including a telephone number or website link.

Order Letters

Order letters are sent by consumers or businesses to a manufacturer, retailer or wholesaler to

order goods or services. These letters must contain specific information such as model
number, name of the product, the quantity desired and expected price. Payment is sometimes
included with the letter.

Complaint Letters

The words and tone you choose to use in a letter complaining to a business may be the
deciding factor on whether your complaint is satisfied. Be direct but tactful and always use a
professional tone if you want the company to listen to you.

Adjustment Letters

An adjustment letter is normally sent in response to a claim or complaint. If the adjustment is

in the customer’s favor, begin the letter with that news. If not, keep your tone factual and let
the customer know that you understand the complaint.

Inquiry Letters

Inquiry letters ask a question or elicit information from the recipient. When composing this
type of letter, keep it clear and succinct and list exactly what information you need. Be sure to
include your contact information so that it is easy for the reader to respond.

Follow-Up Letters

Follow-up letters are usually sent after some type of initial communication. This could be a
sales department thanking a customer for an order, a businessman reviewing the outcome of
a meeting or a job seeker inquiring about the status of his application. In many cases, these
letters are a combination thank-you note and sales letter.

Letters of Recommendation


Prospective employers often ask job applicants for letters of recommendation before they
hire them. This type of letter is usually from a previous employer or professor, and it describes
the sender’s relationship with and opinion of the job seeker.

Acknowledgment Letters

Acknowledgment letters act as simple receipts. Businesses send them to let others know that
they have received a prior communication, but action may or may not have taken place.

Cover Letters

Cover letters usually accompany a package, report or other merchandise. They are used to
describe what is enclosed, why it is being sent and what the recipient should do with it, if
there is any action that needs to be taken. These types of letters are generally very short and

Letters of Resignation

When an employee plans to leave his job, a letter of resignation is usually sent to his
immediate manager giving him notice and letting him know when the last day of
employment will be. In many cases, the employee also will detail his reason for leaving the

A memorandum (abbrev.: memo; from Latin memorandum est, "It must be remembered
(that)...") is a note, document or other communication that helps the memory by recording
events or observations on a topic such as may be used in a business office. The plural form of
the Latin noun memorandum so derived is properly memoranda, but if the word is deemed to
have become a word of the English language, the plural memorandums, abbreviated
to memos, may be used.
A memorandum can have only a certain number of formats; it may have a format specific to
an office or institution. In law specifically, a memorandum is a record of the terms of a
transaction or contract, such as a policy memo, memorandum of
understanding, memorandum of agreement, or memorandum of association. Alternative
formats include memos, briefing notes, reports, letters, binders, etc.
A Memorandum of Association (MOA) is a legal document prepared in the formation and
registration process of a limited liability company to define its relationship with shareholders.
The MOA is accessible to the public and describes the company’s name, physical address of
registered office, names of shareholders and the distribution of shares. The MOA and the


Articles of Association serve as the constitution of the company. The MOA is not applied in
the U.S. but is a legal requirement for limited liability companies in European countries
including the United Kingdom, France and Netherlands, as well as some Commonwealth

Policy briefing note

A specific type of memorandum is the policy briefing note (alternatively referred to in various
jurisdictions and governing traditions as policy issues paper, policy memoranda, or cabinet
submission amongst other terms), a document for transmitting policy analysis into the
political decision making sphere. Typically, a briefing note may be denoted as either “for
information” or “for decision”.
The primary purpose of a briefing note “for decision” is to support decision making – and also
to “help (or sometimes influence) a decision-maker to make a better decision in a particular
problem situation than he might otherwise have made without the analysis”. Other purposes
that the briefing note can serve include: conveying information; informing decisions, making a
request, providing a response to a question, making a suggestion, presenting an informal
report, proposing a solution to a problem, or documenting a reference for future use.
As the communication mechanism of the policy analysis process, the briefing note should
provide a coherent synopsis of a policy problem, identify different policy options for
addressing the problem, articulate opposing perspectives and advocate a recommended
option. The typical structure for a briefing note includes: a description of the proposed policy;
relevant background information; a discussion of key considerations (including
implementation concerns, financial considerations, stakeholder impacts, and possible
unanticipated consequences), a summary of arguments for and against the policy and a
recommended decision. Policy documents that start with a proposal and assemble an
argument that position are more accurately referred to as a government white paper. A
government green paper which raises a policy option and is meant to open a dialogue on the
proposal is more similar in tone to a briefing note than is a white paper. remember the abbre
when writing your memo Kiss keep it Short and Simple
Quality criteria
There is no universal standard for a briefing note, but it is generally understood to be a
concise, coherent summary of a public policy problem with a clearly articulated logic for
following a recommended course of action. ”Next to a political nose, and a logical brain, the
most important skill of the good treasury [person] resides in [their] fine drafting hand. The


concise, coherent and penetrating note is the final expression of all other talents.”[4] In many
Westminster / Whitehall governance settings, policy analysts are expected to analyze the
issue and write the briefing note from a neutral public service perspective. However, the
briefing note “for decision” must contain a recommendation, acknowledging that “to say
anything of importance in public policy requires value judgments, which must be explained
and justified”

Example of memorandum
Sample Memo Format

Company Name
Company Address
Date of Memo

To: Recipient of Memo

From: Writer of Memo Writer's Initials*

Subject: Title of Memo in Initial Capitals


What is a Proposal Essay?

A proposal essay is exactly what it sounds like: it proposes an idea and provides evidence intended to convince
the reader why that idea is a good or bad one.
Although proposals are generally a significant part of business and economic transactions, they are not limited
to those two areas. Proposals may be written for any college classes, scientific fields, as well as personal and
other professional areas.
This article will go over how to write an effective proposal essay and provide a sample one that was actually
submitted and implemented.

Before You Start: Pre-Writing Strategies

Much of the work is done before you type a single sentence. Before sitting down to write your proposal you’ll
want to spend some time on each of the following.


1. Get to Know Your Audience. Remember, a proposal essay is an effort to convince a reader that your idea is worth
pursuing - or that another idea is not worth pursuing. To that end, you have to know who you’ll be writing for. Are
they business people? Academics? Government officials? If your audience is primarily business people you’ll want
to justify your proposal by pointing to possible financial benefits. If they’re government officials, you may want to
emphasize how popular a certain proposal is.
2. Do Your Research. Having secondary sources who can support your claims will go a long way to persuading others
of your proposal. Spend some time talking to experts or reading their research.
3. Pre-Write. Before starting the actual essay, spend some time brainstorming excellent ideas. Once you have a
bunch of good ideas, spend some time thinking about how you’d like to organize them.
4. Revise, Revise, Revise. Never turn in a first draft! Have a trusted peer or colleague read your paper and give you
feedback. Then take some time to incorporate that feedback into a second draft.

Main Parts of a Proposal Essay

The main parts of a proposal essay are summarized here. It is important to keep in mind that depending on
your proposal parts may need to be added or taken out. The parts below (with the exception of the
introduction and conclusion) may be rearranged to suit individual proposals.
 Introduction
 Proposal
 Plan of action
 Desired outcomes
 Resources needed
 Conclusion

1. Introduction
The introduction serves to inform your reader of the history of the proposal (if applicable) or to introduce a
subject to an informed/uninformed audience.
This is the most important part of your paper in some respects. You need to both introduce the topic and show
the audience why they should care about this topic. It’s often helpful to begin with an interesting fact, statistic,
or anecdote to grab the reader’s attention.
Typically, people only make proposal to solve a problem. As such, you’ll want to highlight a particular problem
that you think your proposal would solve. Know your audience so that you can emphasize the benefits your
proposal would bring.

2. Proposal
This is a statement of purpose. This section should be brief and only discuss what your actual proposition is. It
is okay for this section to be only a few sentences long if the proposal is short. Do not include details about how
you will carry out the proposal in this section.


3. Plan of Action
How will you go about achieving your proposal? What will you do to show your audience that you are
prepared? This is where you go into detail about how your proposal will be implemented. A couple things to
1. Convince: You need to convince your audience not only that your proposal is a good idea but also that you’re the
person who needs to carry it out. Highlighting your qualifications about why you’re suited for the task is helpful if
you're the one to carry out the proposal.
2. Detail: In discussing the implementation, you’ll want to give enough detail to show your audience that you’ve
thought about how the process will work. That said, you don’t want to bore them with overly-technical or boring
3. Anticipate: Anticipating potential implementation problems is both good practice and communicates to your
audience that you’ve thought carefully about your proposal and about potential stumbling blocks.

4. Will it work?
Focus this area on why the proposal will work. Quite simply, is it a viable proposal? You can draw on similar
past experiences to show why this proposal will work just like previous ones. If you do not have this "past
experience" option, focus on what you think your audience wants to hear. For example, if your manager really
likes getting things done on time, then perhaps you might mention how your proposal can speed up
productivity. Think logically here.
*Tip: Do not structure this section the same way as your "Benefits of..." section.

5. Desired outcomes
Simple. State what the goals of your proposal are. It might seem repetitive with the sections where you
mentioned the benefits, but it serves to really "drill" home the point.*

6. Necessary Resources
Another simple part. What is needed to complete your proposal? Include tangible (paper, money, computers,
etc.)and intangible items such as time.

7. Preparations Made
Show the audience that you know what you are doing. The more prepared you look the better your chances are
to get the proposal passed (or get a better grade if it is for a class).

8. Conclusion
Do NOT restate your introduction here if you choose to mention the "history" of a certain proposal. However if
you did not introduce your proposal with some historical background information, here is the part where you
can quickly restate each section above: Proposal, plan of action, all the "why's" of the paper and so on.


9. Works Cited/Consulted
As in any essay or paper, cite your sources as appropriate. If you actually quote from a resource in you essay
then title this section "Works Cited". If you do not cite anything word for word, use "Works Consulted".

Purdue Online Writing Lab

 The Online Writing Lab (OWL)
The Purdue University Online Writing Lab serves writers from around the world and the Purdue University Writing
Lab helps writers on Purdue's campus. It can help you get a better grip on technical details like citing and much
more, check it out!

Sample Proposal Paper

Collage Proposal
In 1912, Pablo Picasso, an avid painter of nature and still life, tore part of a makeshift tablecloth and
glued it to his painting, Still Life with Chair Caning, and thus, by adding different items to aid his
painting, he began the art of collage making. (Pablo Picasso – Still Life with Chair Canning). A collage
is simply a group of objects arranged together to create a complete image of an idea, theme, or
memory. For example, David Modler created a collage called “Big Bug” to represent the irony that is
the importance of insects to our natural world in comparison to their size. The bug in the image is the
smallest feature of the collage yet it is to be viewed as the most important aspect (Modler, David). All
these parts of a collage collaborate together to create a unifying theme or message and can be used
as a helpful tool in education.
Statement of Purpose
I propose that each student make an artistic collage to be presented to the class that will symbolize
the context, audience, setting, structure or any key ideas found in one of the readings this semester.
Students who make a collage will be able to drop the lowest quiz grade.
Plan of Action
The students will have one week from the announcement of the project to complete the collage and
prepare a presentation for it. Each student must choose one reading that we have done so far or will
read in the future, and no two students may choose the same work. Conflict with students wanting to
present the same work will be resolved by a first come first serve basis. The students will be given a
rubric with the exact requirements of the project and what the purpose of the project is.
I will make the rubric myself and submit it for approval, or we can use the rubric that I have attached.
Benefits of Collage Proposal
1. Making a collage would allow the students to think and inspect the readings and ideas visually
(Rodrigo, “Collage”), thus giving them another perspective, or possibly clearing up any
misconceptions and confusions they had about a work when we were just discussing it in class


2. A collage provides the opportunity for revision of a certain work and would certainly help to clear
up any topics in the readings that might come up on the final exam or a future test, via a visual
and more creative method.
3. If a student received a bad grade on a quiz because they did not understand the reading, the
collage would give the student an opportunity to go back to the reading and understand it, or to
read ahead and grasp concepts that might be useful to present to the class before the class does
the reading. A collage would allow the student to become familiar with the work in a visual way
and give them an opportunity to understand the main themes, topics, and ideas of a work, even
one we might not have read yet.
Viability of Collage Proposal
Since a collage would be like giving the student an opportunity to go back and review a subject and at
the same time would resemble preparation for a presentation, the time and effort required to go back
and re-read a work as well as prepare the collage creatively would be sufficient to justify replacing the
lowest quiz grade.
Our course mentor said that this project would be a nice addition to the class because, just like any
play is better seen than read, the collage will allow students to get the visual aspect behind a work
and help them to grasp the ideas better.
Past visuals that we have used in class to describe scenes from our readings such as The
Tempest and The Odyssey have greatly helped me to understand some of the ideas of the stories.
For example, I always pictured the cyclops as a nasty, vile creature, but after some of the “fuzzy”
drawings on the board done by some of my peers, I imagined and understood that he could in fact be
a gentle creature that was just angered by Ulysses trespassing and blinding him. I could not have
seen that perspective of the story had it not been for some of the more innocent visuals on the board.
Finally, I have discussed with the students in our class about the idea of a collage replacing the
lowest quiz grade and the overwhelming majority approved of the idea. Since a collage will substitute
for a quiz grade, the assignment will be optional. Just as a quiz is almost always optional based on
class initiation of discussion, the collage will also be optional based on similar student effort
parameters. The students who do not want to do a collage can choose “door number 2” and take a
quiz that would be created by the teachers and/or myself. This quiz can be used to make the total
number of assignments for each student in the class even, and may or may not be graded based on
the professor's discretion.
Desired Outcomes
The first goal of my collage proposal is to give students a chance to be creative and step outside the
boundaries of classroom discussion. They can use their imaginations to find a way to creatively put
together a collage that will help the class as well as themselves to better understand the course
A second goal of my proposal is that the time and effort put into making the collage and presenting it
in front of the class will equal the worth of dropping the lowest quiz grade. Because this collage
requires the creator to examine the context, audience, setting, structure of any one of the readings, it
is essentially like a quiz itself, which includes questions on similar topics.
Necessary Resources
The literary work that a student chooses to create a collage on will determine how much time is
necessary to fully complete the project. One week to create a collage should give each student—no
matter what reading they choose to do—ample time to create a presentable and educational collage
for the class.
In terms of tangible resources, this project is not very demanding. A simple poster or a series of
photographs or drawings assembled neatly together by the student will be about as resourcefully
demanding as this project gets.
In addition, a few hours of class time will need to be allocated in order to present the collages. If each
student takes at least five minutes to present the total time needed for the presentations will be 1 hour
and 15 minutes. The presentation day(s) and time(s) can be decided by the class as a whole.
The rest of the resources needed are already available:
 The readings are all published online if a student needs to refer back to them
 Craft supplies are readily available
Skills for Successful Completion
 As a good planner and organizer I made a rubric that is specific enough to give the students a
good idea of what they should be doing for the collage. The rubric can be made available upon
your request.
 In addition I can also come up with a quiz if there are students who want to opt out of the collage
 I can talk to the class and come up with a good presentation time and date for everybody.
 I would volunteer myself to hold an early presentation session a few days before the due date so
the others can get an idea of what their collage could look like and why they can benefit from the
 I will make myself available to the class if they have any questions about the proposed project.
A collage will allow students to understand visually a reading or topic in a reading that they may have
been confused about. The project is a fun and creative way to get students to think about a reading
more in depth as well as review for future exams. As a result of the effort and time put into the
collages, the students should be allowed to drop their lowest quiz grade in the semester.

Oral presentation
Making a good oral presentation is an art that involves attention to the needs of your
audience, careful planning, and attention to delivery. This page explains some of the basics of
effective oral presentation. It also covers use of notes, visual aids and computer presentation

The audience
Some basic questions to ask about an audience are:

Who will I be speaking to?


What do they know about my topic already?

What will they want to know about my topic?

What do I want them to know by the end of my talk?

By basing the content and style of your presentation on your answers to these questions, you
can make sure that you are in tune with your audience. What you want to say about your topic
may be much less important than what your audience wants to hear about it.

Planning your presentation

In an effective presentation, the content and structure are adjusted to the medium of speech.
When listening, we cannot go back over a difficult point to understand it or easily absorb long
arguments. A presentation can easily be ruined if the content is too difficult for the audience to
follow or if the structure is too complicated.

As a general rule, expect to cover much less content than you would in a written report. Make
difficult points easier to understand by preparing the listener for them, using plenty of
examples and going back over them later. Leave time for questions within the presentation.

Give your presentation a simple and logical structure. Include an introduction in which you
outline the points you intend to cover and a conclusion in which you go over the main points
of your talk.

Delivering your presentation

People vary in their ability to speak confidently in public, but everyone gets nervous and
everyone can learn how to improve their presentation skills by applying a few simple

The main points to pay attention to in delivery are the quality of your voice, your rapport with
the audience, use of notes and use of visual aids.

Voice quality involves attention to volume, speed and fluency, clarity and pronunciation. The
quality of your voice in a presentation will improve dramatically if you are able to practise
beforehand in a room similar to the one you will be presenting in.

Rapport with the audience involves attention to eye contact, sensitivity to how the audience is
responding to your talk and what you look like from the point of view of the audience. These
can be improved by practising in front of one or two friends or video-taping your rehearsal.

Effective use of notes


Good speakers vary a great deal in their use of notes. Some do not use notes at all and some
write out their talk in great detail. If you are not an experienced speaker it is not a good idea to
speak without notes because you will soon lose your thread. You should also avoid reading a
prepared text aloud or memorizing your speech as this will be boring.

The best solution may be to use notes with headings and points to be covered. You may also
want to write down key sentences. Notes can be on paper or cards. Some speakers use
overhead transparencies as notes. The trick in using notes is to avoid shifting your attention
from the audience for too long. Your notes should always be written large enough for you to
see without moving your head too much.

Visual aids
Visual aids help to make a presentation more lively. They can also help the audience to follow
your presentation and help you to present information that would be difficult to follow through
speech alone.

The two most common forms of visual aid are overhead transparencies (OHTs) and computer
slide shows (e.g. PowerPoint)..