Anda di halaman 1dari 3

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

In today‘s corporate and competitive world, it is mandatory to have highly efficient and effective
workforce in the organization, so the same is possible, if we will adopt and implement the mosteffective and latest methods of Training and
Development while preparing the workforce for theorganization.Keeping the above fact in mind, the present report is prepared to give a deep
insight to thepresent situation of Training And Development..The project focused on finding out the Effective Method of Training and
Development. Thestated objective of the study was further broken down to secondary objectives which aimed atfinding information regarding the
frequency of the training program to be designed with-in ayear, usual methods of Training and development, length of training and development
module,use of audio/visual aids etc.The exploratory research was carried out with 50 respondents with a set of 18 open endedquestions. A survey
was conducted in the corporate offices with the employee (Of ManagerialLevel) based on the questionnaire to know the situation.The exploratory
findings helped us in determining the key factors which needed to be furtherexplored for making training program more effective. Each of the
questions was designed tosatisfy at least one of the secondary objectives of the research. The response format was of amixed variety which also
helped in better determination of outcomes.The results are based on the percentage share of the sample for each question of thequestionnaire. The
Pie Chart is used to display the result
Chapter-1

GLOBAL STEEL SCENARIO & INDIAN STEEL INDUSTRY

Introduction
Though Iron and steel have been used by men for almost 6000 years, yet the modern form of ironand steel industry came into being only during
the 19th century. The growth and development of iron and steel industry in the world until the Second World War was comparatively slower.
Butthe industry has grown very rapidly after the Second World War. World production of steel,which was only 28.3 million tons (MT) in 1900,
rose to 695 MT by 1992. The oil crisis of theseventies affected the entire economy of the world including the steel industry. The positionstarted
improving after 1983 and peaked at 780 MT in 1989. World Steel production is around1322MT in 2007.Steel is crucial to the development of any
modern economy and is considered to be the backboneof human civilization. The level of per capita consumption of steel is treated as an
importantindex of the level of socioeconomic development and living standards of the people in anycountry. It is a product of a large and
technologically complex industry having strong forwardand backward linkages in terms of material flows and income generation. All major
industrialeconomies are characterized by the existence of a strong steel industry and the growth of manyof these economies has been largely
shaped by the strength of their steel industries in their initialstages of development.Steel industry was in the vanguard in the liberalization of the
industrial Sector and has maderapid strides since then. The new Greenfield plants represent the latest in technology. Outputhas increased, the
industry has moved up in the value chain and exports have raised consequentto a greater integration with the global economy. The new plants
have also brought about agreater regional dispersion easing the domestic supply position notably in the western region. Atthe same time, the
domestic steel industry faces new challenges. Some of these relate to the tradebarriers in developed markets and certain structural problems of the
domestic industry notablydue to the high cost of commissioning of new projects. The domestic demand too has notimproved to significant levels.
The litmus test of the steel industry will be to surmount thesedifficulties and remain globally competitive.
HISTORY OF STEEL
There are evidences that man knew the use of iron since the ancient civilization of Babylon,Mexico, Egypt, China, India, Greece and Rome.
Archeological findings in Mesopotamia andEgypt have proved that iron or steel has been in the service of mankind for nearly 6000 years.The origin
of the methods used by early man for extracting iron from its ores is unknown.In early days the product probably was so relatively soft and unpredictable, that
bronzecontinued to be preferred for many tools and weapons. Eventually iron replaced the non- ferrousmetal for these purposes when man
learned how to master the difficult arts of smelting, forging,hardening and tempering iron.Steel was discovered by the Chinese under the reign of
Han dynasty in 202 BC till 220 AD. Priorto steel, iron was a very popular metal and it was used all over the globe. Even the time period
of around 2 to 3 thousand years before Christ is termed as Iron Age as iron was vastly used in thatperiod in each and every part of life. But, with
the change in time and technology, people wereable to find an even stronger and harder material than iron that was steel. Using iron had somedi
sadvantages but this alloy of iron and carbon fulfilled all that iron couldn‘t do. The Chinese
people invented steel as it was harder than iron and it could serve better if it is used in makingweapons. One legend says that the sword of the first
Han emperor was made of steel only. FromChina, the process of making steel from iron spread to its south and reached India. High qualitysteel
was being produced in southern India in as early as 300 BC. Most of the steel then wasexported from Asia only. Around 9th century AD, the
smiths in the Middle East developedtechniques to produce sharp and flexible steel blades. In the 17th century, smiths in Europe cameto know
about a new process of cementation to produce steel. Also, other new and improvedtechnologies were gradually developed and steel soon became
the key factor on which most of the economies of the world started depending.
INDIAN HISTORY
Indian history is also replete with references to the usage of iron and steel. Some of the ancientmonuments like the famous iron pillar near New
Delhi or the massive beams used in the SunTemple at Konark bear ample testimony to the technological excellence of the
Indianmetallurgists.The history of iron in India goes back to the ancient era. Our ancient literary sources like RigVeda, the Atharva Veda, the
Puranas and other Epics are full of references to iron and to its usesin peace and war. According to one of the studies, iron has been produced in
India for over 3000years, in primitive, small scale facilities.
STEEL INDUSTRY IN INDIA
Steel has been the key material with which the world has reached to a developed position. All theengineering machines, mechanical tools and
most importantly building and constructionstructures like bars, rods, channels, wires, angles etc are made of steel for its feature being hardand
adaptable. Earlier when the alloy of steel was not discovered, iron was used for the saidpurposes but iron is usually prone to rust and is not so
strong. Steel is a highly wanted alloy overthe world. All the countries need steel for the infrastructural development and overall growth.Steel has
a variety of grades i.e. above 2000 but is mainly categorized in divisions

steel flat andsteel long, depending on the shape of steel manufactured. Steel flat includes steel products in flat,plate, sheet or strip shapes. The plate
shaped steel products are usually 10 to 200 mm and thinrolled strip products are of 1 to 10 mm in dimension. Steel flat is mostly used in
construction,shipbuilding, pipes and boiler applications. Steel long Category includes steel products in long,bar or rod shape like reinforced rods
made of sponge iron. The steel long products are required toproduce concrete, blocks, bars, tools, gears and engineering products. After
independence,successive governments placed great emphasis on the development of an Indian steel industry. InFinancial Year 1991, the six
major plants, of which five were in the public sector, produced 10million tons. The rest of India steel production, 4.7 million tons, came from 180
small plants,almost all of which were in the private sector. India's Steel production more than doubled duringthe 1980s but still did not meet the
demand in the mid-1990s, the government was seekingprivate-sector investment in new steel plants. Production was projected to increase
substantiallyas the result of plans to set up a 1 million ton steel plant and three pig-iron plants totaling600,000 tons capacity in West Bengal, with
Chinese technical assistance and financialinvestment. The commissioning of Tata Iron & Steel Company's production unit at Jamshedpur,Bihar in
1911-12 heralded the beginning of modern steel industry in India. At the time of Independence in 1947 India's steel production was only 1.25 Mt
of crude steel. Followingindependence and the commencement of five year plans, the Government of India decided to setup four integrated steel
plants at Rourkela, Durgapur, Bhilai and Bokaro. The Bokaro plant wascommissioned in 1972. The most recent addition is a 3 Mt integrated steel
plant with moderntechnology at Visakhapatnam. Steel Authority of India (SAIL) accounts for over 40% of India'scrude steel production. SAIL
comprises of nine plants, including five integrated and four specialsteel plants. Of these one was nationalized and two were acquired; several
were set up incollaboration with foreign companies. SAIL also owns mines and subsidiary companies

GROWTH OF INDIAN STEEL SECTOR


India is amongst the cheapest producers of hot metal in the world. The cost advantage mainlyarises from the abundant availability of cheap and
good quality iron ore. Besides, overallmanpower cost is also low. However, these advantages are nullified to some extent due to lowlabor
productivity, high energy & power costs and high finance charges. The expansion plans of steel majors are likely to put tremendous pressure on
the availability of inputs and infrastructureresources within the country. The nation is endowed with large iron ore reserves, but theirdevelopment
and exploitation would require huge resources. Besides, the effects on theenvironment where virgin areas are being exploited needs to be
addressed. Availability of cokingcoal is expected to remain a serious constraint. Coking coal supplies from public sector coalcompanies have
been declining over the years, leading to higher imports. Traditional coking coaland coke suppliers such as China have also curtailed exports in
order to feed their expanding iron& steel industry.The steel industry needs to remain competitive by improving efficiency across the entire
valuechain in an integrated manner. Hence, logistics would be
an important area of concern for thesteel industry. This involves development of ports, smoother transportation to and fromports, rationalization
of inland freight charges as well as better road movement facilities. Duringthe early 90s, the Sponge Iron industry was especially promoted to
provide an alternativematerial to steel melting scrap, which at that time was increasingly becoming scarce. Since thenIndia has emerged as one of
the largest producers of Sponge Iron. This provides goodopportunities to steel industry as a substitute of scrap.Considering the erratic power
supply position in the country as well as high power tariffs, risingscrap prices and plentiful indigenous iron ore reserves would mean that the most
suitable steelmaking technology for India would be the integrated route.

6 page blank

DEMAND OF STEEL IN INDIA


Driven a booming economy and concomitant demand levels, consumption of steel has grown by12.5 per cent during the last three years, well
above the 6.9 percent envisaged in the NationalSteel Policy. Steel consumption amounted to 58.45 mt in 2006-07 compared to 50.27 mt in 2005-
06, recording a growth rate of 16.3 per cent, which is higher than the world average. During thefirst half of the current year, steel consumption
has grown by 16 per cent. A study done by theCredit Suisse Group says that India's steel consumption will continue to grow by 17 per
centannually till 2012, fuelled by demand for construction projects worth US$ 1 trillion. The scopefor raising the total consumption of steel in the
country is huge, as the per capita steelconsumption is only 35 kg compared to 150 kg in the world and 250 kg in China. With this surgein demand
level, steel producers have been reporting encouraging results. For example, the topsix companies, which account for 70 percent of the total
production capacity, have recorded ayear-on-year growth rate of 13.4 per cent, 15.7 per cent and 11.7 per cent in net sales, operatingprofit and net
profit, respectively, during the second quarter of 2007-08 We expect strongdemand growth in India over the next five years, driven by a boom in
construction (43%-plus of steel demand in India). Soaring demand by sectors like infrastructure, real estate andautomobiles, at home and
abroad, has put India's steel industry on the world steel map.The Steel Industry in India is poised for faster growth in the decade ahead as
theindustrial and economic development of the country gains pace. What however cannot beignored is that increasing emphasis on globalization
and liberalization will closely link thefortunes of the Indian steel industry to the global market. The domestic outlook for finished steelhas been
estimated as follows:
Domestic Market Growth OutlookGrowth Trajectory 2006-2007(million tons) 2011-12(million tons) GDP @ 6.5%
39.5 - 40.7 57.8 - 59.
doubling of the consumption level in the country, per capita domestic consumption wouldcontinue to be substantially below the world average,
which is about 145 kg.Amongst the steel consuming segments, transportation of petroleum products, householdappliances, and automobiles are
expected to have the fast growth. However, even a modestgrowth of 4.4% growth in the construction sector will translate into a large increase in
actualconsumption volumes. Thus, construction will contribute towards a high proportion of incremental demand in future.
Projected Consumption Growth of Finished Steel in Major Domestic Segments

Segment 2006-07 2011-


12Construction 4.9% 4.4%Fabrication 5.5% 4.9%Automobile 6.7% 6.0%Transportation of Petroleum Products 21.6% 19.4%Tube mak
ing 4.2% 3.8%Household Appliances 7.9% 7.9%
SUPPLY OF STEEL IN THE INDIAN MARKET
Over the past ten years India‘s crude steel output rose near
ly 7%per year to 55.3 million tons ,while global crude steel output increased by 4% (Germany managed an increase of just under
1%p.a.) Although India is the world‘s eighth largest steel producer, its3%
-plus share of globalsteel output is still very low;
it is roughly the same as Ukraine‘s share of world steel production.China, the world‘s biggest steelmaker, produces nearly ten times as much as
India. In 2005
India‘s crude steel output of 46.5 million tons was 8%higher than in 2004; only in China was the
growth rate considerably higher at 15%. By contrast, production volumes fell in the US and theEU-25 by nearly 5% and roughly 4%
respectively. In the first five months of 2006 Indian steelproduction continued to expand unabated, rising 10% yay. We forecast a significant
increase in
output by the Indian steel industry over the medium term. The entire industry‘s contribution to
gross domestic product should rise in the coming years to more than 30%

compared to justfewer than 27% at present. The growth drivers are the expanding client industries automotiveengineering (production up 16%
p.a. between 2000 and 2005), mechanical engineering (up 10%p.a.) and construction (up 6% p.a.).
STEEL PRODUCTION IN INDIA
India is one of the few countries where the st
eel industry is poised for rapid growth. India‘s share
in world production of crude steel increased from 1.5% in 1981 to around 3.5 % in 2004. Whileplant closures and privatization are rare in India,
the private sector is considered to be the engineof growth in the steel industry and technological changes and modernization are taking place
inboth the public and the private sector integrated steel plants in India. Steel production of Indiaaccounted for 14.33 million tons in 1990-91,
which gradually increased to 36.12 million tons in2003-04, as shown in Table III. The Indian steel industry got a giant importance in the
recentpast when the Tata Steel purchased the Corus steel. Today India plays a significant role in theproduction of steel in the world. The Indian
steel industry is growing at 8.74 % of CAGR. Steeldemand continued to remain upbeat in 2008-2009 with consumption of finished steel growing
bya decent 6.8% during April-may 2008. During same period import surged by 10 %, to 0.7 milliontons, while export reported a 33% decline to
0.6 million tons. While imports and consumption of finished steel reported a healthy rise, production of the steel continued to rise at a tepid
pace.During April 2008 finished steel output rose by a modest 3.8 %. Further in may it increased by
5.2%. Aggregate production growth during April-may stood at 5.1 % In view of no majorcapacities coming on-stream we estimate finished steel
production to touch 60 million tons in2008-2009. On the basis for last year of 52.7 million tons, the steel production growth for 2008-2009
comes to around 14 %. However the joint plant committee has been revising its annualfigures upwards for the last 2-3 years. In the event of an
upward revision in the figures of 2007-2008, the actual growth in steel production in 2008-2009 would turn out to be less as comparedto
our estimates.