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MOTOR REACCELERATION TO IMPROVE PROCESS UPTIME

Copyright Material IEEE


Paper No. PCIC-

Lubomir Sevov, PE Dave Allcock Ray Luna Jim Bowen, PE


IEEE Senior Member IEEE Member IEEE Member IEEE Fellow
GE DE Multilin GE DE Multilin GE DE Multilin Aramco Services Company
Markham, ON L6E 1B3 Markham, ON L6E 1B3 4418 Canonsburg 9009 West Loop South
Canada Canada League City, TX 77573 Houston, Texas 77096
lubomir.sevov@ge.com dave.allcock@ge.com USA USA
ray.luna@ge.com jim.bowen@aramcoservices.com

Abstract – Reacceleration is a method of automatically that also used steam turbines, to maintain essential services
restarting motors after unexpected de-acceleration caused by such as instrument air and boiler feed-water.
system voltage events, such as, dips, outages, or bus Reacceleration can be applied to all types of substation
transfers. Reacceleration schemes are designed to minimize designs to assist in recovery from severe voltage dips. A
process disruptions by rapid detection of supply loss, common industrial application for medium voltage and low
recovery/ monitoring of acceptable transient torque limits, and voltage systems is the secondary selective substation. The
then automatic reclosure of the motor contactors. secondary selective system transfers motor load bus from a
Depending on the connected load and minimum available normal source (bus A) to an alternate source (bus B) when the
fault current, the reacceleration may be ‘instantaneous’ or a normal source is lost. This is accomplished by isolating the
staged event designed to assure the bus voltage is maintained motor bus until the residual voltage of the motor bus has
at an acceptable level during the process restart. Poor decayed to a safe level. The allowable residual voltage and
coordination of the reacceleration process may cause further the resultant worst case transient torque are recommended in
system outages if the nominal bus voltage drops below the IEEE Guide for AC Motor Protection [6].
tolerable levels. Once the residual voltage decays to the allowable 20%-
Special consideration is required to prioritize loads, to 25% of the initial level, the load bus is reenergized utilizing the
maintain production, prevent lifting of safety valves, and avert tie-breaker. In the past, to assure continuous process
equipment damage. operation after low or no voltage conditions, group motor
Various processes differ in their ability to withstand reacceleration was implemented to automatically restart
temporary outages, from milliseconds (ms) to several previously online motors. When electrical faults and outages
seconds. Today’s protection and control Intelligent Electronic make a transfer necessary, reacceleration systems can be
Devices (IED) provide settings, dedicated measurement, and applied to maintain process continuity. The time constant of
timing circuits, to allow these variances to be pre-programmed the process unit must be sufficient to allow reacceleration of
and activated based on outage duration and magnitude. the motor loads to occur while maintaining process control.
Short time outages within milliseconds range combined with
electrically held contactors, provide the least complex B. Issues Associated with Reacceleration of Motors
situations for enabling a reacceleration system. More complex
situations arise when motors are still decelerating, and when Modern relaying systems are available for high speed
the supply is restored, especially if the contactors were synchronous reclosure of the tie-breaker. If the tie-breaker is
maintained closed during the outage. successfully closed quickly enough in synchronism with the
Certain more advanced IEDs also provide multiple residual voltage, the motor contactors and breakers may not
reacceleration schemes that are automatically deployed based open, and the motors may not need to be reaccelerated.
on longer outages – typically up to 30 minutes. However, if the voltage collapses quickly, to very low levels,
the high-speed bus transfer mechanism may not be able to
Index Terms - reacceleration, under voltage auto restart, transfer. In such cases, the bus transfer falls back on residual
step reacceleration, motor torque, process time constant, transfer. One measure of a system's transient performance is
residual voltage its ability to reaccelerate groups of motors when voltage is
restored after a system voltage loss or disturbance thus
I. INTRODUCTION maintaining process integrity. These abnormal voltage
conditions may be caused by short circuits, either in the plant,
A. “Motor Reacceleration and system benefits” the utility system, or by the loss of a generating unit or utility
tie connection.
Modern petrochemical facilities are predominantly designed During voltage losses or disturbances, running induction
around electric motors for process drives. These “all electric” motors will incur a reduction in torque output, due to the low
designs place greater burdens on the electrical system ride voltage conditions. The driven equipment torque requirement
through capability when compared with older plant designs exerts a deceleration effect causing an increase in motor slip
and a decrease in operating speed.

1
When healthy voltage is restored to the motor terminals, the frequency from the newly connected system, will not result in
corresponding motor torque must be sufficient to meet the damaging transient torques.
load torque requirements at that instant in time, and have Vb
additional torque margin to provide accelerating torque until
the motors reach normal operating speed. 100
If the restored voltage is insufficient to provide the required
torque, the motors will fail to accelerate, and either will remain

% ter m in al vo lta ge
at one speed, or continue to slow down until tripped by the
motors’ protective devices. At approximately 90 percent of To - open circuit time constant
61
rated speed and lower, the typical motor draws almost full
starting current.
During the automatic transfer of a secondary selective
37
substation, after voltage is restored to the isolated load bus by
the transfer operation, all critical motors that were operating safe level
before the transfer must reaccelerate to maintain process 20
continuity. Further, the voltage drop caused by the
reacceleration must not be so great as to upset the running 0
motors fed from the restoring bus. 0 0.5 1 1.6
t / To
Computer modeling of the dynamic motor starting can be Fig. 1 Open circuit time constant determines the decay of
used to determine the power system's ability for motor starting terminal voltage with time
and reacceleration. If the system supplies a single large
motor, with a rating of approximately 25% or greater than the The trapped energy in the inertia and the magnetic field of
minimum generator operating KVA, the dynamic model the spinning motor loads from a bus disconnected from the
simulations of the motor starting must be performed early in power supply, results in residual voltage on the motor
the design. The simulations should check the adequacy of the terminals. If the motor contactors have not dropped out, there
system for minimum short circuit current configuration, to start is a net effect on the residual bus voltage. This voltage will
the motor and reaccelerate the motor under worst case continue to do work on the other loads of the isolated motor
loading conditions. Since definitive data is often not available bus. The magnitude and frequency of the motor’s residual
on most low voltage motors in the early stage of the project, a voltage, decreases as the group of rotating motors spin down.
simplified system representation of lumped loads in staged But, the reduction in RPM of the motor is not the same as the
reacceleration can be used to set-up the reacceleration steps. coast down of an uncoupled motor. The frequency decay is a
function of the normal losses, and the shaft speed is a function
C. Criteria for Successful Motor Reacceleration of the process load, friction, winding, and the regenerative
braking effects of the voltage from the other loads. The
The design criteria typically used for successful re- magnitude of the residual voltage falls with the exponential
acceleration aims to maintain the initial voltage of the motor decay in rotor flux, and is a function of the load inertia. See
bus at roughly 80% of the bus rated voltage. This should Fig. 2 for an example of the open circuit collapse of a 6,000
insure that voltage at the motor terminals is at least 75% of the HP induced draft fan.
motor nameplate voltage. The 75% voltage is sufficient for Once the system is isolated from the power supply, the
reaccelerating normal inertia loads, such as pumps, when various motors will each have a different time constant. Until
motors have at least 100% starting and 200% maximum the individual contactors and circuit breakers open, isolating
torques. High inertia loads, such as fans, compressors or the motors, the ones with shorter time constants and faster
motors requiring higher terminal voltage, need special drops in shaft speeds will continue to be “motor” driven by the
attention during the design and need be flagged for specific reverse power from the motors with longer time constants,
checks. higher inertias, or lighter loads that are operating as induction
generators. There will be one bus voltage and one bus
II. WHAT IS RESIDUAL VOLTAGE AND WHY DO WE HAVE frequency throughout the collapse. This residual voltage is
TO WORRY ABOUT MOTOR STARTING? the source of “induction motor contribution to fault current”
used in short circuit calculations. A fault on the system
NEMA MG1 Section 1 defines the unusual service constitutes a severe load, which dissipates the stored energy
conditions for the motors, such as bus transfer or reclosing. in the isolated system in a very few cycles.
This standard defines a slow transfer as one in which the time
between disconnection and reclosing is 1.5 times the open A. The Nature of Residual Voltage
circuit time constant of the machine. By waiting until 1.5 times
the open circuit time constant, before transferring a motor, The open circuit time constant used in analyzing the time
possible damage to the motor and driven equipment is limited. delay requirement before reapplying voltage from the alternate
See Fig. 1. source is determined by the motor model. The definition of
During a fast transfer and/or reclose in a period less the open circuit time constant is the time in seconds for a motor’s
open circuit time constant interval, the closing should be terminal voltage, to decay of 36.8% of its initial value, after
synchronized to occur when the difference between the motor being isolated from the source. The value is found by dividing
residual voltage and the frequency, and the voltage and the motor inductive reactance by the rotor resistance. The
equivalent motor model from Fig. 3 below shows the motor

2
reactance and resistance at rated speeds in Ω per phase. The
circuit is shown in per-phase, and is valid for balanced voltage
Vt  Ve  t T0 (2)
analysis. where,
100 0 Vt Voltage at motor terminals
V Voltage before power loss
80 PHASE - 72
V o l ta g e M ag n it u d e ( %)

T0 Open circuit time constant, (s)

Ph a se ( de gr ee s)
t Time after open circuit
60 - 144
VOLTAGE
MAGNITUDE
B. Residual Bus Voltage and Transient Torque
40 - 216
In the secondary selective system, the de-energized bus
voltage decrement is a function of the connected motors'
20 - 288 open-circuit time constants and the isolated system
impedance once the incoming breaker is opened. As motor
internal voltage decays in magnitude, it also changes in
0 - 360 frequency.
10 10 20 30 40 50 60 Equation (3) represents an induction motor voltage and
T im e ( cyc les )
torque relationship, and provides the approximation ∆%
Fig. 2 Phase angle and residual voltage decay of a large Torque = (∆% Voltage)2.
motor with high inertia load
Rr/s
%Torque  V 2 (3)
 X s  X r   Rs  Rr / s 
2 2
 1/ 2

Rs Xs Xr
If the feeder breaker opens, the tie-breaker closes in-
Xm Rr/ s phase, and the motor internal voltage is 30% of the bus
voltage rating, the ∆% voltage is 70%. Squaring 70% results
in 49% starting torque.
Fig. 3 Motor model schematic Consider 30% residual voltage magnitude and 180º out-of-
phase with the system voltage, on the healthy side of the tie-
where, breaker. The resultant voltage would be 130%V with a
Rs = hot stator resistance reacceleration torque of 170% (130% squared) of normal
Xs = stator leakage reactance starting torque. With 50% residual voltage, and 180 out-of-
XM = magnetizing reactance phases with the system voltage on the healthy side of the tie-
Xr = rotor leakage reactance, referred to stator breaker, the resultant voltage would be 150% and the
Rr = hot rotor resistance, referred to the stator reacceleration torque would be 225% of rated starting torque
s = Slip results. From (2), it can be seen that the transient torque
f = frequency magnitude may range from 2 to 20 times the rated torque.
This indicates the importance of reviewing the motor open-
This model is defined by the design of the motor. The motor circuit time constant, and the need for residual under-voltage
open circuit time constant, at any given time, is given by the 27R detection.
following equation:
Xm  Xr III. HOW ARE CONTACTORS AND BREAKERS AFFECTED
To = (1) BY THE BUS UNDERVOLTAGE?
2fRr
At any fixed point in time, the magnetizing reactance has a Today’s petrochemical projects consist of motors fed by soft
larger impact on the motor flux density than on the rotor starts; variable speed drives; manual, magnetically held
leakage reactance, and thus, on the open circuit time starters and smart magnetic starters; medium voltage (MV),
constant. Therefore, the model can be simplified using only magnetically held DC contactors; MV latched contactors; and
the magnetizing reactance and rotor resistance. circuit breakers. Each of these devices behaves quite
As stated above, when the line voltage is removed from a differently when a voltage dips and an outage is experienced.
motor, its terminal voltage does not instantaneously drop to In some cases, the internal smart starter of the unit may be
zero. After the motor is isolated from the system voltage, the counter productive to the step reacceleration.
flux remains entrapped and the voltage continues to appear at Manual low voltage (LV) magnetically held motor starters
the motor open circuited terminals. To ascertain what the will dropout, as the bus voltage runs down, to the point at
instantaneous motor terminal voltage is, at a given t seconds which the starter control power transformer (CPT) secondary
time after isolation, the open circuit time constant is used, as voltage dips below the dropout voltage. Normally, this number
seen in Fig 1, according to (2). is in the range of 60% to 70% of rated control voltage. There
is also a small time delay that is a function of the

3
manufacture’s starter design, and the stray capacitance and In the case of variable speed drives and soft starts, both
resistance of the control circuit. have ride through capability to a significantly lower voltage
In the case of smart magnetic starters, this dropout voltage than the magnetically held contactor through the pre-charge
and the time delay may be programmable, depending on the setting. Special care must be used in establishing how the
features of the starter package. Once the bus voltage is back drive will respond after voltage is restored, and each drive
up to 95%, after the tie-breaker has closed and reenergized all manufacturer has different schemes for protecting the drive
the individual CPTs, most smart starters will automatically go while allowing a start.
through the power-up checks required on start-up after de- Each of these motor controllers have to be evaluated
energization. However, it should be confirmed with the separately, with the selected manufacturer, to understand the
manufacturer, that the smart starter does not require zero programming required to assure the motor does not dropout,
volts to initiate restart. due to the under-voltage caused while a close in fault is being
The dropout voltage of the MV magnetically held contactors, cleared. It is critical to the success of any reacceleration
typically used for MV motors in the petrochemical industry, scheme that the effect of residual voltage drop to 25%, without
have a nameplate dropout rating of 60% to 68% of the coil passing through a zero, and the ability of the hardware to
voltage. It is important to understand coil voltage dropout. As reaccelerate under this condition, be discussed with the
discussed above, the dropout voltage becomes a function of equipment manufacturer.
the residual voltage generated by the open circuit time
constant of the motor bus. In many cases, these contactors IV. METHODS OF REACCELERATION
have time delayed under-voltage (TDUV) releases, built into
the onboard intelligence to ride through the voltage dips. Group reacceleration relies on contactor dropout to de-
These under-voltage releases can be programmed to ride energize online motors.
through a certain level of line voltage for a set period of time. The motor under-voltage relay (27M), is used to trip feeder
It is normally recommended that these units be set to dropout, circuit breakers powering motors while contactor fed medium
if the bus voltage drops below 80% for 500 ms. In addition, voltage motors in the past relied on an RC circuit to maintain
the contactor has a normal dropout time that is in the order of the contactor in the closed state, upon loss of voltage.
250 ms for control functions. The normal dropout delay can Then, based on the actual bus voltage and fixed delay
also be adjustable in the more advanced contactors. It is timers, previously online loads are reaccelerated in defined
important to understand how the specific manufacture’s TDUV groups. Reaccelerating motor groups are selected to maintain
is designed. In some cases, this results in the trip signal, or adequate bus voltage for motor re-starting torque and
an open command being in place for the period of time of the contactor “hold-in” voltage. Load priority considerations are
TDUV, before the contactor drops out, consequently de- required to prevent equipment damage, prohibit safety valves
energizing the load. With this number being adjustable out to from operating, and maintain “on spec” process production.
2 seconds, a significant impact of arc flash hazards and Although many processes typically can be restarted, the
equipment damage may ensue. process time constant is generally limited. Generally, if
Large motors are often fed by circuit breakers. This can be voltage is not restored within 5 to 15 seconds, reacceleration
the case for any motor size of 2,500 HP and above. Most is aborted. The chance of a safe process restart and the
corporations have a breakpoint where the motor differentials capabilities of the electrical system, establish the acceptable
are required as a part of the standard protection. The low time interval. The total time period required to reaccelerate all
interrupting rating of an MV contactor forces this size motor to priority loads may require several minutes. As Fig. 4
be fed by a circuit breaker. Otherwise tripping delays must be indicates, loads must be prioritized and restarted, only after
inserted in the trip circuit for the contactor, to assure the MV voltage recovers from the initial event, and from the dip
fuses clear all faults above the interrupting rating of the associated with restarting subsequent groups of motors.
contactor. This delay normally allows the fault to damage the Voltage must be adequate during all motor group restarting
magnetic steel of the motor, resulting in a much longer and periods.
more costly repair. Most petrochemical installations use DC Depending on the fault location, and the fault clearance
tripping so that voltage is available to open the breaker via the time, the time duration of the voltage dips may vary from some
27M. Nevertheless, some facilities still use AC trip and close. 50-100 ms to 1 second. Due to the relatively high impedance
The AC power may be fed from anywhere in the system, of the utility transformers, and the voltage support of the on-
although typically, there is a CPT on the incomer to power a site generators at MV levels, the voltage dips caused by utility-
distribution panel. In these cases the breaker relies on a side faults cleared within 400-450 ms will cause only the LV
capacitor trip unit to supply power for tripping power on loss of contactors to dropout. The voltage dips at the MV buses
control voltage. Typically the circuit breaker must be tripped in during such faults does not cause the MV contactors to
less than a second, on loss of AC, to ensure there is sufficient dropout or the under-voltage relay to trip the breaker fed
charge in the capacitor trip unit to open the circuit breaker. motors.
In a few MV cases, latched contactors are used to feed The worst case requiring full, “large scale” reacceleration
motors. The latched contactors behave similar to a circuit process, is caused by MV faults, where the voltage on all
breaker. A latched contactor does not dropout like a normal distribution buses collapse below the 65% of their nominal
motor starter. Instead, it must be tripped by energizing the voltage levels for longer than 50 ms, and all motor fed
tripping coil. Commonly, the latched contactor is fed from an contactors and breakers trip. In such cases, a dynamic
onboard CPT, and must be treated like a circuit breaker with reacceleration process based on accurate process simulation
an AC tripping circuit. must be performed. As stated, to assure successful
reacceleration, the motors and loads must be grouped by

4
priority and importance within the overall process in the plant, reaccelerate. In the process of doing a failure analysis, the
and studied in terms of how low the bus voltage would go machinery engineers decided that a thrust load resulted in the
through the dynamics of the reacceleration. In general, during failure of the shaft, due to an unusual electrical displacement
the step reacceleration, the voltage dip caused by the of the magnetic center of the motor. After all, they observed
individual acceleration of a motor, or a group of motors, must motor shafts on uncoupled motors, bouncing back and forth
not decay to 65% or below and cross the contactors to between the side walls when the motors run uncoupled to the
dropout again. loads. This particular motor shaft had a shoulder designed
into the motor. The shoulder permitted the motor shaft to
Bus Volts move back and forth about 0.5“, before the step in the shaft
would touch the matching face of the bearing housing. The
pump had a large thrust bearing. The thrust bearing and the
alignment distance of the pump shaft coupling and motor
shaft, assured the motor would run in magnetic center.
A month or so later, during normal maintenance of another
Motor locked rotor motor, which happened to be fed by the same substation bus
current (typical 5) as the failed motor, it was discovered that the shim pack set in
the gap between the motor coupling face and the pump
t3 coupling face was shattered. The pieces of the shim pack
realigned themselves, so that the coupling was pushing the
t1 motor shaft into the motor. When the motor was dismantled in
the shop, it was found that the motor face between the bearing
casing and the step in the shaft was badly damage. Evidently,
Fig. 4 Step reacceleration this appears to be the cause of the previous failure, and also,
the likely cause of the shim pack damage. When that process
Fig. 4 shows step reacceleration of five groups of motors, unit came down, all the shim packs on similar couplings, were
with the groups of motors connected to Bus A, and a like replaced. A year later, during substation relay checks, it was
group of motors already operating off of another bus. Each of discovered that the 27R relay was permanently dropped out,
the two buses is part of a separate, Main-Tie-Main which permitted transfers at any residual voltage on the bus.
arrangement; where upon, the loss of a power supply to Bus A This meant that when the transfer occurred, it subjected all of
is re-energized by the closing of the tie-breaker after residual the motors to severe transient torques. The transient torque
voltage decay and allowing the step reacceleration to function. played major part in the failure of the shim packs in the
The t1 and t5 from the figure shows the instant of time at couplings.
which each group of motors are switched for reacceleration,
and the voltage dips at the bus to which they are connected V. COORDINATION BETWEEN DETECTION OF LOSS OF
along with the resulting locked rotor current of starting the VOLTAGE AND MOTOR CONTACTOR DROPOUT
loads. The resulting voltage dips the same on both buses,
thus effecting the motors connected on the other bus. It is The following is a list of potential issues associated with
critical for the power engineer to perform motor reacceleration setting up reacceleration:
studies for all motors, groups of motors, and loads connected  If the contactor drops out before the relay senses the
to the buses in the same proximity (supplied by the same voltage dip, the relay may assume the motor was
utility sources), to optimize the reacceleration sequence, and stopped by operations, and stop reacceleration;
decrease the severity of voltage dips.  Too many motors in Step 0 will result in voltage
Perhaps the most frequently misunderstood part of collapse. HVAC motors, which automatically start on
reacceleration is the role of the bus residual voltage relay. loss of flow, two wire motor controls, etc., all can
This relay limits the impact of transient torque. The following cause the amount of motors started as soon as
case study illustrates the importance of this transient torque. power returns, to be too large, resulting in excessive
The facility had a 15kV system that depended on secondary motor starting voltage drop;
relays to monitor bus voltage and control the system  Frequency sensitivity of the under-voltage relay,
automatic transfer. During normal operation of the plant, an which is used to permit restart of the motor on the
outage occurred that required an automatic transfer of the lost bus, can result in incorrect timing. RPMA bus
substation. The substation transferred without incident in the with low inertia loads and power factor correcting
middle of the night - - however, the mechanical 27R had capacitors, may experience a much faster drop in
malfunctioned and allowed the tie to immediately close rather frequency than voltage resulting in incorrect timing, if
than waiting for the residual voltage to decay. the under-voltage relay responsible for permitting
About a month after the transfer, we had a motor failure that restart cannot measure voltage accurately at low
originated in the shaft of the motor. The motor was a 1,250 frequencies;
HP 3,600 RPM induction motor with sleeve bearings. The  Reboot time of reacceleration relays, after loss of
pump was an ethylene product pump, and as such, a rather power, results in delay restarting motor in early steps,
important load in an ethylene plant that was in step zero of the which may be critical. The typical response is to
reacceleration scheme. As noted later in the paper, step zero power the relays in DC reaccelerating motors with
means that those contactors stayed in-service as the tie- high inertias or high restart load, which often results
breaker closed, thus allowing these motors to be the first to in motor overload trips. Reacceleration study must

5
evaluate the level of load, to minimize process upsets A typical voltage dip is shown. Dropout is defined as the
during the restarts. Unloading may be necessary. point at which the IED declares an under voltage, and this
Large motors with high inertia, act like generators on buses should be set above the contactor dropout to avoid incorrect
with smaller loads, resulting in reacceleration malfunction. The operation. It is crucial that the IED correctly records the motor
relays sense the brief, higher voltage, which usually indicates status at this point, because it will be used when the voltage is
the bus has recovered, and begin reacceleration timing. This restored as a “go/no go” for the reacceleration function. The
residual voltage then decays below the relay dead bus pickup point is defined as the voltage level at which motor
voltage, tricking the relay into responding as if the motors reacceleration will not cause another dip event to occur. The
were not running before the outage. Consequently, motors difference between dropout and pickup is the Power Fail Time
which were supposed to reaccelerate, do not. Large transient (PFT).
torques on motor shafts, can damage couplings if
reacceleration relays are set to restart motors with too much
residual voltage. Torques 12 x rated can occur. N
 Connecting the under-voltage transfer relay, residual L
C
under-voltage relay, and motor under-voltage relay
to different phases can result in malfunction; L N L N
 Lack of maintenance in setting of step timers can PS U V T In p u t

cause reacceleration problems. Plant load grows


over time, and every 5 or 10 years, the
O u tp u t R e l a y

reacceleration study must be re-run to verify that


none of the steps have grown too large; IED D i g i ta l I n p u t # 4

 Relays that assume all motor capacity is used when D i g i ta l I n p u t # 3

they are powered down and quickly powered back D i g i ta l I n p u t # 2

up, during a power loss event, can result in failed D i g i ta l I n p u t # 1


C1

reacceleration. Some vendor's relays produce an


inaccurate "thermal capacity used" value, when
powered down while operating with a running load Li ne v olt age

and then quickly repowered. This results in the 90%


reaccelerated motor tripping, due to a false thermal
65%
overload, upon reacceleration. It is important to
know how relays function during power events, when
they are used on motors that must reaccelerate.
P ower Fail Ti me
These design considerations must be evaluated when
installing reacceleration in a modern system.
Fig. 5: Typical IED schematic and generic voltage dips profile
VI. INTELIGENT ELECTRONIC DEVICE (IED) CONTROL TO
ASSURE SMOOTH MOTOR REACCELERATION A. Voltage Dip Measurement and Motor Reacceleration

The primary goal of automatic motor reacceleration is to The following are key problems associated with voltage dip
keep the process running after short or prolonged power measurement PFT required for reacceleration, and notes on
outages. This simple objective is more complex than first how newer IEDs have overcome these problems:
imagined, since it requires an accurate measurement of 1) Coordination of the reacceleration IED and the
voltage dip and duration, and coordination with the contactor contactor dropout voltage;
coil dropout / pickup level. If the contactor drops out before the IED detects the
Traditionally, motors were either configured to restart or not, Under-voltage condition, the motor will not be
with little configurability other than a coarse approximation of recorded as running; and thus, it will not be
power outage time. This facility was provided using a discrete reaccelerated when voltage is restored;
device, fitted to the motor starter and connected in parallel 2) An electronic IED must be designed to coordinate its
with the contactor coil. Upon detection of an ‘approved’ output relay status with the contactor and provide
voltage dip, the device would provide a voltage pulse to the accurate measurement of a voltage dip and duration;
contactor coil. The IED and contactor are often powered from the
During the early 1990s, IEDs were developed which same source, so both see the same voltage during an
provided crude approximation of dip magnitude and outage under-voltage event. Accurate measurement of the
duration. IEDs replaced the discrete device, but had a wide UV event requires special circuits in the IED;
tolerance, often resulting in some motors restarting and some 3) Power up time of an IED - Following a short power dip,
not - especially if the outage was close to a configured typically <500 ms, the motor can be restarted
boundary. immediately, avoiding the inrush and voltage drop
The diagram from Fig.5 shows a typical wiring scheme for normally associated with motor starting. However, if
an IED. The IED and contactor are connected to the same the IED is slow to power up, this immediate restart
control supply, which is derived from the line voltage. The IED facility cannot be used;
controls the contactor via an output relay and monitors the 4) Alternate IED response dependent on voltage dip
status via an auxiliary contact. duration - It is desirable to modify the restart scheme

6
based on the motor status prior to the event, dip The commissioning of a reacceleration system relies on
duration, and number of sequential dips. component testing of the individual starters, breakers and
Configurability of this nature requires a flexible IED and is drives. As with the various high speed and residual voltage
not possible with conventional relay logic. transfer schemes, it is nearly impossible to acquire permission
Three Types of response are usually required: to test a loaded substation. This requires a well-developed
 Immediate Restart - As discussed in item 3 above, this start-up and commissioning plan.
is relevant to very short duration dips, typically
associated with automatic bus transfer, and it requires VIII. REFERENCES
good timing resolution and accurate measurement of
the dip magnitude. This is typically set for dips below [1] R. H. Daugherty, “Analysis of Transient Electrical
65%, and between 100 ms and 500 ms in duration. Torques and Shaft Toques in Induction Motors as a
Due to the short nature of these events, the IED should Result of Power Supply Disturbances,” IEEE
be able to ride through the dip; Transactions Power Application Society, Vol PAS-101,
 Delayed Restart (Brown out) - Typically used for dips of pp. 2826-2836, August 1982.
several seconds, this function is applied when [2] C. L. Becnel, “Maintaining Process Continuity Suring
automatically staggering the restart in decentralized Voltage Dip,” IEEE PCIC Conference Record, 1981, pp
systems. IED ride through is not required in this case, 57-63.
as long as the power up time is short (<1 second); [3] A. R. Kelly, “Relay response to Motor Residual Voltage
 Delay Restart (Black out) - Typically used for dips During Automatic Transfers,” AIEE Transaction, Vol 74,
greater than 15 minutes, this function allows the user to PT II, Application and Industry Paper 55-4271, Sept
configure a smaller set of motors to reaccelerate when 1955, pp 245-252
utility power is not available for an extended time [4] G. W. Bottrell and L. Y. Yu, “Motor Behavior through
period. Power System Disturbances,” IEEE PCIC Conference
Record, 1979, pp 57-63.
B. IEDs Performing Automatic Transfer on Buses With [5] R. E Cosse, J.E. Bowen, and S.H. Kerr, “Secondary
Large Induction Motors Selective System Residual Bus Transfer – A Modern
Application Approach” IEEE Transaction on Industrial
As noted above, the IEDs used for secondary selective Applications, Vol 41, No. 1, Jan/Feb 2005, pp 112-119.
system operation must correctly measure the decaying [6] C37.96 – IEEE “Guide for AC Motor Protection”
residual voltage magnitude and frequency, after lost of power
to a bus with large induction motors. The residual voltage IX. VITA
measurement is also used by the IEDs to compare against
under-voltage threshold for safe transition, and timing for Lubomir Sevov earned his M.Sc. degree from Technical
switching to the healthy power source. An incorrect switching University of Sofia, Bulgaria in 1990. After graduation, he
time of the disconnected bus with decaying residual voltage, worked for six years as a protection and control engineer for
and motors with connected contactors, can result in motor National Electric Company (NEC) Bulgaria. Mr. Sevov joined
shaft damage, process downtime, and high costs. GE Multilin in 1998 as a test design engineer, and shortly after
he was promoted to an applications engineer. He currently
VII. CONCLUSIONS works as a senior applications engineer in the research and
development of new protection and control devices. Mr.
When combined with a secondary selective or a spot Sevov has been involved in the design and application of GE
network system, reacceleration is a useful technique, enabling universal family (UR) of relays, and in the design of new
process continuous operation through power system voltage industrial relays. Mr. Sevov authored and co-authored more
dips. However, there are several steps that must be than 15 papers, and presented at numerous protective relay
considered to successfully apply a reacceleration system with conferences. He is a member of the association of
modern hardware. These include: professional engineers Ontario, Canada, and an IEEE Senior
 Care must be taken in setting the reacceleration timers, Member.
to avoid grouping too many loads in a single
reacceleration step. Pulling the healthy bus voltage James E. Bowen earned a BSEE degree, from Texas A&M
down to the level requiring lighting restarts, instrument University, in 1976. After working for SIP Engineering, as a
power supplies to shut down, or contactor to dropout; Power Engineer, for three years, he joined Exxon Chemicals
 A system study is required in order to set the in 1979. His duties included maintenance, project design,
reacceleration timers, ensuring sufficient accelerating construction follow-up, and commissioning for the
torque, and must be periodically updated to fix petrochemical and cogeneration processes.
problems created by creep load growth; In 1997, Mr. Bowen joined Powell Electrical Manufacturing
 Coordination is required between the specific Company, as the Technical Director, where he provided
manufacturer’s contactor and the reacceleration relays' leadership in the design development of MV switchgear and
dropout voltages; circuit breakers. In 2009, Jim accepted the position of Vice
 Accurate measurement of the bus voltage, at low President of Advanced Technical Services, at Dashiell
frequencies, is necessary for proper operation of the Corporation, where he advanced the concepts of safety by
reacceleration scheme. design into the high voltage substation. In 2010, Jim accepted
a position with Aramco Services Co. as Power System

7
Technologist. His current role includes investigating global team in Canada, Spain and India. Dave is a registered
technologies that can be applied by Aramco to improve safety, engineer in UK, a professional member of the British
reliability and profitability. Mr. Bowen presented at numerous Computer Society and the IEEE.
technical seminars for the IEEE Houston Section’s Continuing
Education on Demand. He is a Professional Engineer in the Ray Luna (M’08) received a BSEE degree from the Instituto
state of Texas, and a newly elected Fellow Engineer of IEEE. Tecnologico de Saltillo, Mexico, in 1982, and an MS degree in
Electrical Power Systems, from the Tecnologico, of Monterrey,
Dave Allcock holds a degree in Computer Science and MSc Mexico, in 1984.
degree in Information Systems specializing in software He was a Protection Engineer with Comision Federal de
engineering of secure distributed computer systems. In 1991, Electricidad (CFE-Monterrey Mexico) and was the Engineering
he joined Supervisory and Industrial Process Controls, Ltd. to Director of Tech Power Controls, in Houston, providing
develop process control software for industrial systems in the leadership in the design and development of MV and LV
oil and gas, paper and water industries. In 1993 he moved to power systems for the marine and oilfield industries. Mr. Luna
Switchgear and Instrumentation to develop Low Voltage Motor executed coordination and arc flash studies for several
Protection relays, PLC control system for load shedding industrial plants. He joined GE Multilin, in 2008, as an
applications and firmware for Ethernet and serial application engineer, and is a member of the IEEE Industry
communications gateways. During this time he also travelled Applications Society (IAS).
extensively to design and commission LV Motor control and
communications systems.
In 2005, Dave joined GE Multilin, as Program Manager, to
lead the development of the MM300 motor protection relay
and in 2008 was promoted to Technology Manager, leading a