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Fitting Instructions for Gland Packing

General
When fitting packings, it is important to remember the following.

1. Remove all old packing, clean gland space and check shaft for lateral movement; packing will not act as a bearing and shaft movement
will quickly destroy packing. Replace shaft bearings if worn.

2. Measure shaft and housing diameters and make sure new packing is of correct size.

3. Cut rings to correct length, preferably by cutting through packing wrapped round mandrel equal to shaft diameter, or round shaft itself if
sufficiently accessible. For plaited packings rings should be cut square to give a butt join. Vulcanised packing should be square cut
leaving a gap of approximately 3mm to 6.5mm, according to section to allow for expansion.

If rings are not cut round a mandrel, remember that O.D. circumference is greater than I.D. circumference so that a slight angle is
required when cutting to avoid gaping at outer edge of ring.

Extruded and moulded hydraulic packings should be scarf cut at 45°C to the axis of the shaft.

4. Fit rings individually and twist to fit over shaft; never open out rings as this can distort packing.

Carefully tamp each ring into gland before adding further rings and ensure that joins on successive rings are staggered, preferably at 90°.
If a lantern ring is fitted ensure that channel is in line with lubricant feed and allow for movement during take-up of packing.

Packing Problems
Packings may fail for a variety of reasons but invariably if the correct packing has been selected, the failure will be due to improper installation,
unfavourable service conditions or faulty equipment. I.E. - Shaft misalignment, poor condition of shaft, bearing misalignment, uneven take-up on the
gland bolts or other mechanical causes.

The reason for packing failure can often be found by visual observation of the removed packing. The following table lists problems and gives
possibly reasons why these have occurred.

Gland Overheating Excessive load applied to gland follower which allowed no leakage when the pump
was running.

Inside diameter of packing very dry and charred Excessive load on gland follower, no leakage when pump was running.

Glazed or worn appearance on side of removed Packing rings too loose and rotating with shaft.
packing rings.

Rings adjacent to gland follower badly distorted Each turn of packing not located and pressed home individually.
or deformed.

Excessive leakage from gland and packing in Joints not staggered.


good condition.

Removed packing rings shown an axial bulge. Probably excessive gap on the adjacent ring. Rings cut too short.

Rings out of proportion i.e. Very Thing Packing used probably undersize section.

Packing rings heavily worn at one point on Shaft or rod not central in the stuffing box bore.
the inside circumference.

Rings extrude at the gland follower Excessive clearance between the O.D. of shaft and I.D. of follower.

Removed packing is torn or grooved Shaft is worn or presence of abrasive material in media being pumped.

Packing rings excessively deformed on Check for worn bearings.


opposite sides of the shaft.

Evidence of wear on the outside of Rings rotating with shaft or loose in the box, i.e. packing used my be underside.
packing rings.

Inside packing rings attacked or deteriorated. Packing may be incompatible with fluid being handled.

Removed packing rings dry and/or charred. Media being handled is washing out lubricant or temperature is too high for packing
being used.

Irregular widths or removed packing rings. Packing is probably acting as a bearing and supporting the shaft weight.
Fitting Instructions for Gland Packing

Adjustment
PUMPS
After fitting all rings in pump glands, tighten gland nuts finger-tight or with only ery slight bolt load. Start up pump and then tighten gland nuts evenly until leakage is
reduced to an acceptable level. Never try to stop leakage completely, particularly when fitting new packing, otherwise excessive heat will develop hat will reduce packing
life and increase shaft wear.

When following-up a gland in service always tighten all nuts and equal amount and allow 10 to 15 minutes for packing to settle after each adjustment before making a
further adjustment.

VALVES
When packing valves, rings should be compressed by tightening gland nuts evenly until there is heavy resistance to further tightening. During this operation turn valve
steam slightly to ensure that gland is not overtightened so as to prevent valve movement . Gland nuts should be followed-up after 24 hours, even if no leakage occurs to
compensate for the natural settling of the packing.

Synthetic Fibre Packing


When fitting synthetic fibre packings in addition to the normal fitting precautions for regular packings it is necessary to cut the rings slightly overlength and to wrap the
ends with tape to prevent fraying during cutting and handling. It is also very important not to stretch the packing before cutting because with the plaiting construction and
memory of many man-made fibres the cut length will shrink before fitting or in service.

Packing rings must be cut to length using a very sharp knife (hollow ground if possible) and to prevent fraying, the packing can be wrapped with PTFE threadseal tape
(this can be left on with advantage for fitting). Packing rings must be square cut 4-5% longer than the calculated length.
An ideal method is to cut packings round a wooden mandrel which is larger (by the required amount) than the shaft diameter. If this is not possible it is important to
remember that the O.D. circumference is greater than the I.D. circumference, so a slight angel is required when cutting to avoid gaping at the outer edge of the ring.

How to Install Packing Correctly


1 2 Indicator 3 4
Indicator

Remove all of the old packing. Aim the Check to see if the rod grooves or Revolve the rotary shaft. If the indicator To find the right size of packing to install
packing hook at the bore of the box to shoulders are bent. If the neck bushing runs out at over 0.003-in” straighten the measure the stuffing-box bore and
prevent scratching the shaft. clearance in bottom of box is too large shaft. Check the bearings or balance rotor. subtract the rod diameter. Then divide
Clean the box thoroughly so that the use a stiffer bottom ring or replace the The Gyrating shaft will beat out the by 2.
new packing wont hang up. neck bushing. packing. Packing is too critical for guesswork.

5 Pipe
6 7 8
Shaft
Right Wrong

Wind the packing needed for filling the If you cut the packing while it’s stretched Install foil-wrapped packing so that the
stuffing box snugly around the rod (for Cutting off rings while the packing is
wrapped around the shaft will give you out straight, the ends will be at an angle. edges on the inside will face the direction
the same size shaft held in vice) and cut With a gap at angle packing on either
rings with parallel ends. of the shaft rotation.
through each turn while coiled as shown. side this squeezes into the top of the gap If this isn’t carried out the thin edges
If the packing is slightly too large never This is very important if the packing is to
do its job. and the ring can’t close. This brings up will flake off thus reducing the life of the
flatten with a hammer. Place each turn the question about the gap necessary for packing.
onto clean newspaper and then roll out expansion. Most packings need none. But
with a pipe as you would with a rolling Channel-type packing with a lead core may
pin. require room for expansion.
9 Neck Bushing 10 11 Right 12 Wooden Bushings

Wrong

The Neck bushing slides into the stuffing Swabbing the new metallic packings Open the ring joint sideways (especially Use split wooden bushing. Install the first
box. A quick way to make it is to pour with a lubricant supplied by the packing lead-filled and metallic types) turn of the packing, then force it into the
soft bearing metal into a tin can. manufacturer is ok. This prevents distortion of the moulded bottom of the box by tightening the gland
Then turn and bore it for a sliding fit into This includes foil types, leadcore etc. circumference and breaking the ring against the bushing.
place. However if the rod is oily don’t swab it. opposite the gap. Seat each turn this way.

Lantern Ring Gland


13 1 14 15 16
First clean the stuffing
box, examine ram or
4 rod. Next measure the
2 Cross Sectional Diagonal stuffing box depth
Expansion and packing set,
3
Install packing so that the lantern ring Always install cross-expansion packing so find the difference.
Place ⅛” washers
Stagger joints 180° if only two rings are lines up with the cooling-liquid that the plies slope toward the fluid
over gland studs as
in the stuffing box. Space them at 120° opening. Also remember that this rung pressure from housing.
shown. Lubricate ram
for three rings and at 90° if four or more moves back into the box as the packing is Place sectional rings so that the slope and packing set (if for water).
rings are in the set. compressed. Leave space for the gland to between the inside and outside ring is Place male adaptor in bottom then slide
enter as shown. Tighten the gland with a toward the pressure. Diagonal rings must each packing turn home. Stagger joints for
wrench and back off finger-tight. also have slope toward the fluid pressure. cut rings, measure from top of packing to
Allow the packing to leak until it seats Watch these details for best results when top of washers, then compare with gland.
itself. Then allow slight operating leakage. installing new packing in a box. Never tighten down new packing set until
all air has a chance to work out. As packing
wears remove one set of washers, after
more wear remove other washer.