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Assessing Progress toward Child-Friendly School System (CFSS) for Secondary


In assessing “CFSS-ness”, what is being assessed would be the extent to which the four
basic rights of children, i.e., survival, development participation, and safety and
protection have been realized through the seven goals of CFSS.

Context of the Assessment Rubrics

A school can be assessed as either a Beginning, or Developing or Firmly Established

CFSS school. A Beginning school is characterized by compliance with the required
outputs, with little regard to due processes and minimal pro-activeness. A Developing
CFSS school has moved beyond the Beginning stage, puts more efforts in coming up
with quality outputs, and exhibits a more systematic effort in forming collaborations and
partnership with stakeholders to achieve the CFSS goals. The Firmly Established CFSS
school has fully realized the seven goals of CFSS through collaboration and partnership
with both internal and external stakeholders.

In keeping with the idea that CFSS is a progressive journey, the assessment uses the
indicators of a Firmly Established CFSS school as the yardstick. (Refer to the CFSS
Rubrics on page 3-18.) For every indicator a school exhibits, the school earns one point.
As an example, in assessing the process of participation in SIP preparation, a Firmly
Established CFSS school has three elements: (a) the consultative process with all
stakeholders, the approval of the SGC, and the SIP as the material output, A Developing
CFSS school has come up with the SIP and has obtained the approval of the SGC, but
fails to do consultative process. The score a Beginning school gets is 1; the Developing
school gets 2 points: and the Firmly Established school gets 3 points. A school which has
no SIP gets no point.

In the criterion, Inclusion of CFSS goals in the SIP, a CFSS school should have included
at least five CFSS goals to score 1 point. Below that, the score is 0. A school with six
CFSS goals includes scores 2 points and a school with all the seven goals scores 3 points.
For the rest of the criteria, every indicator is scored 1 point.

Based on this scoring system, the matrix of scores for each of the goals is as follows:

Goal Firmly Established CFSS Developing CFSS Beginning CFSS

1-A 13 9 4
1-B 15 11 8
1-C 7 4 2
Total Points for 35 24 14
Goal 1
2 34 22 13
3 12 6 3
4 14 10 6
5 11 6 4
6 13 7 4
7 7 5 3

Process of Assessment

Since the purpose of the rubrics assessment is to help the school improve its ways of
achieving the seven goals of CFSS, it is desirable that the school and its stakeholders
conduct a self-assessment so they have the opportunity to improve on its CFSS
implementation. An external assessor may be called in once the school has conducted the

The Self-Assessment Team will be composed of individuals representing the different

groups of stakeholders. The assessment process will be in the form of two FGDs. The
first FGD will be facilitated by the PTCA president and will be participated in by:

 two class officers chosen to represent a year level or a total of 8 class officers;
 two officers of the Student Body Organization (SBO).

The second FGD will be facilitated by the school head and will be participated in by:

 three teachers – one may be the faculty association president, one by a Head
Teacher or a Master Teacher who has been with the school for at least three years,
and one, by the CFSS school coordinator (if there is one), if there is no CFSS
school coordinator, then one classroom teacher will be selected;
 one non-teaching staff (the person may be one whose salary is paid for by the
PTCA or LGU or by the national government);
 two members of the LSB;
 the Barangay Captain;
 two officers of the PTCA;
 one other community member chosen by the Barangay Captain. The person may
be a member of an NGO, a church or an active community member; and
 the two SBO officers who took part in the FGD facilitated by the PTCA president.
The FGDs should cover both the achievements of the school with regard to every
indicator. If the Team agrees that they fall short of the standards set by the Firmly
Established CFSS School, then the members may discuss their next steps.

The outputs of the self-assessment process are the scored Assessment Rubrics and the
plan of action for the next six months.

The Rubrics

Goal 1: Child-Friendly Leadership and Inclusive Child-Friendly Management

A. School Improvement Plan (SIP)
Criteria Firmly Established Developing Beginning Score

1. Process of Participation SGC conducted needs SIP was prepared SIP was
of Stakeholders in SIP assessment, consultative fora, single-handedly and prepared single
Preparation and FGDs. All stakeholders, then presented to handedly
including students, participated. the School (either by
Governing Council school head or
(SGC) for approval. by a school

2. Inclusion of CFSS All CFSS goals are included. Six CFSS goals are Five CFSS
goals included. goals are

3. Comprehensivenes  Expected outputs / outcomes  Expected outputs  Expected

s of Annualized are specified. / outcomes are outputs /
Implementation Plan  There is a timeline of specified. outcomes are
(AIP) implementation activities.  There is a specified.
 Resources (money, materials, timeline of
human) are specified for implementation
activities. activities.
 Responsibilities of all  Resources
stakeholders are clearly money,
specified and differentiated. materials,
human) are
specified for

4. Adequate plan for  Indicators to monitor, review  Indicators to  There is a
monitoring, and review / / assess specified. monitor, review / timeline of
assessment  There is a timeline of assess specified. monitoring
monitoring and review and review
activities.  There is a activities.
 Responsibilities in the timeline of
monitoring and review monitoring and
activities of all stakeholders review activities.
are clearly specified and

Score for SIP

B. School Handbook
Criteria Firmly Established Developing Beginning Score

Preparation of  Each year, school policies,  School policies,  School policies,

School Handbooks rules and regulations for rules and rules and
students are discussed regulations for regulations for
with the student officers students are students and
and PTCA before documented and personnel exist but
finalization, printing and distributed to not printed.
distribution. every student
 Each year, school policies, without
rules and regulations for consultation.
school personnel are  School policies
discussed with the PTCA rules and
and school personnel regulations for
before finalization, school personnel
printing and distribution. are documented
and distributed to
all school staff

Content of School  Both Handbooks are  Both Handbooks  Both Handbooks
Handbooks (student consistent with DepED’s are consistent are consistent with
and staff Service Manual. with DepED’s DepED’s Service
handbooks)  Contain rights ( of Service Manual. Manual.
students and personnel)  Contain rights  Contain rights ( of
and responsibilities ( of students and students and
 Specify standards of personnel) and personnel) and
behavior inside and responsibilities responsibilities
outside of the classrooms.  Specify  Specify
 Specify consequences of standards of standards of
committing offenses (first behavior inside behavior inside
offense and succeeding and outside of and outside of the
offenses). the classrooms. classrooms.
 Specify procedures for  Specify  Specify
settling conflicts. consequences of consequences of
 Specify rewards / committing committing
recognition that school offenses (first offenses (first
provides and conditions offense and offense and
for awarding. succeeding succeeding
offenses). offenses).

Criteria Firmly Established Developing Beginning Score

Implementation of  Responsibilities for  Responsibilities  Responsibilities

School Handbooks implementing Student for implementing for implementing
Handbook are Student Handbook are Student Handbook
appropriately appropriately are appropriately
distributed to student distributed to student distributed to student
officers, advisers, and officers, advisers, and officers, advisers,
school security. school security. and school security.

 Primary implementor  Primary implementor  Primary

of Staff Handbook is of Staff Handbook is implementor of Staff
the faculty association. the faculty association. Handbook is the
faculty association.
 The order of  The order of
submitting staff issues submitting staff issues  The order of
unresolved by faculty unresolved by faculty submitting staff
association is in association is in issues unresolved by
accordance with accordance with faculty association is
DepED’s Rules and DepED’s Rules and in accordance with
Procedures. Procedures. DepED’s Rules and
 Consequences for an  Consequences for an

offense are always offense are always  In cases when
given at the time given at the time offenses are reported
offense was offense was by parents rather by
committed. committed. students and faculty,
school head
 Consequences are  In cases when offenses conducts an
given consistently. are reported by parents investigation.
rather by students and
 In cases when offenses faculty, school head
are reported by parents conducts an
rather by students and investigation.
faculty, school head
conducts an

 Feedback and actions

to take are discussed
during meetings of
student officers,
faculty and SGC
Score for Handbook

C. Entrepreneurial Leadership
Criteria Firmly Established Developing Beginning Scor

Generating interest  School Head makes regular  Significant events  Significant events
in school’s progress reports on school’s and achievements are and achievements
progress in meeting with published in school are published in
PTCA, Local School Board paper. school paper.
(LSB), LGU, SGC, and  School participates in  School participates
Division Office. local community in local community
 Significant events and affairs. affairs.
achievements are fed to  School Head makes
local media. regular reports on
 Significant events and school’s progress in
achievements are published meeting with PTCA,
in school paper. Local School Board
 School participates in local (LSB), LGU, SGC,
community affairs. and Division Office.
 External stakeholders  Updated charts and
(individually or as a group) graphs of school’s
are invited to school events performance are
and toured around. If these posted regularly
stakeholders are donors, along the corridors
they are shown the outputs/ for all stakeholders to
outcomes of their read.
 Individual and group
stakeholders are invited to
organize joint programs
with the school that would
benefit the students and
community directly.
 Updated charts and graphs
and graphs of school’s
performance are posted
along the corridors for all
stakeholders to read.
Score for entrepreneurial leadership

Goal 2: Promote health education, healthy behavior, and safe & protective environment
students’ well-being
Criteria Firmly Established Developing Beginning Sco

 Water is available.  Water is  Water is available.

 Portable drinking water is available.  Genderized toilets
available.  Potable are adequate for the
 School policy of hand drinking water is number of boys and
washing before and after  School policy girls.
eating is implemented. of hand  Wearing of shoes
 School policy of hand (or at least slippers)
washing after coming from washing before and is mandatory.
the toilet is practiced. after eating is  Toilets are
 Policy of daily brushing of implemented. genderized.
teeth in school is practiced.  School policy of hand
 Genderized toilets are washing after coming
adequate for the number of from the toilet is
boys and girls. practiced.
 Wearing of shoes (or at  Toilets are
least slippers) is genderized.
mandatory.  Wearing shoes
(or at least slippers)
is mandatory.
 School policy of serving  School policy of
School health only nutritious food in the serving only
program canteen is observed. nutritious food in
 PTCA and school monitor  School policy the canteen is
cleanliness & nutritional of serving only observed.
value of food served by nutritious food in the  School health
vendors immediately canteen is observed. personnel provide
outside the school  PTCA and immunization,
perimeter. school monitor medical and dental
 School PTCA have joint cleanliness & check – up at least
school feeding program for nutritional value of once a year.
the undernourished food served by  Students and school
students. vendors immediately personnel have
 Students and school outside the school health records on
personnel have health .perimeter. file in school.
records on file in school.  Students and
 School mobilizes personnel have health
stakeholders to provide records on file in
immunization, de- school.
worming, medical and  School clinic is
dental services. available with
 School clinic is available assigned school
with assigned school health health personnel.
personnel.  Vegetable and
 Vegetable and herbal / herbal / medicinal
medicinal gardens are gardens are available.
 School mobilizes
stakeholders to clear
school of breeding grounds
of disease-carrying insects.
 School has facilities for
sports and recreation.
Criteria Firmly Established Developing Beginning Sco

Physical safety and  School is fenced and gated.  School is fenced and  School is fenced
protection gated. and gated.
 There is an ordinance
against noise and chemical  There is an ordinance  Community
pollution within school against noise and volunteers provide
zone. chemical pollution traffic security
within school zone. before and after
 Community volunteers classes.
provide traffic security  Community
before and after classes. volunteers provide  Student body
traffic security before government and
 Student body government and after classes. PTCA implement

and PTCA implement and and monitor rules
monitor rules on safety and  Student body on safety and
protection of students. government and protection of
PTCA implement and students.
 School has policy against monitor rules on
physical abuse students as safety and protection
a reiteration of DepED’s of students.
1992 Order prohibiting the
use of corporal, cruel and  School has policy
physically harmful against physical
punishment against any abuse of students as a
student. reiteration of
DepED’s 1992 Order
 School and its SGC prohibiting the use of
implementers and monitors corporal, cruel and
adherence to DepED Order physically harmful
1992. punishment against
any student.
 School and SGC take
action against violators of
DepED Order 1992.

 In cases when a staff

detects child abuse, done
either by a member of the
school staff or by a family
member of the school staff
or by a family member,
incidents should be
reported in accordance
with the Implementing
Rules & Regulations of
section 3 of RA _______.

Criteria Firmly Established Developing Beginning Sco

Prevention of risk  Student body  School has a trained  School has a

behaviors government, PTCA and Guidance Counselor. trained Guidance
LGU monitor  Class officers Counselor.
implementation of implement and  Class officers
prohibition against monitor ban on implement and
operation of bars, markets, smoking, drinking, monitor ban on
movie places, and adult and use of dangerous smoking, drinking,
recreation places within drugs. and dangerous use
school zone.  Teaching about HIV- of dangerous drugs.
 School has a trained AIDS is integrated in
Guidance Counselor. Health and Science
 Selected students are lessons.
trained in peer counseling.  Student body
 Class officers government, PTCA
implement and monitor and LGU monitor
ban on smoking, drinking, implementation of
and use of dangerous prohibition against
drugs. operation of bars,
 Teaching about HIV- markets, movie
AIDS is integrated in places, and adult
Health and Science recreation places
lessons. within school zone.

Psycho-social  The school has monitors  The school has  The school has
health and enforces policies, monitors and monitors and
programs and procedures enforces policies, enforces policies,
for preventing, identifying, programs and programs and
and responding to abuse, procedures for procedures for
and neglect. preventing, preventing,
 The school communicates identifying, and identifying, and
to LGU, student body responding to abuse, responding to
government, appropriate and neglect. abuse, and neglect.
NGOs, teachers, parents,  The school
PTCA, and SGC its communicates to
policies, programs and LGU, student body
procedures for dealing with government,
all forms of child abuse, appropriate NGOs,
with the intent of forging teachers, parents,
alliances against all forms PTCA, and SGC its
of abuse. policies, programs
 Training and/or mentoring and procedures for
is provided to teachers to dealing with all forms
provide them skills in of child abuse, with
modifying their behavior the intent of forging
and in minimizing alliances against all
inappropriate classroom forms of abuse.
 Teachers guilty of
psycho-social abuse are
given interventions such as
counseling by school head
and/or guidance counselor
and given the consequences
specified in Staff Handbook.
 Students guilty of
bullying are given
interventions such as
counseling by school head,
guidance counselor and peer
and given the consequence
in accordance with the
Student Handbook.

Score for Goal 2

Goal 3. Give opportunity for all to enroll and complete schooling.

Criteria Firmly Established Developing Beginning Score
Completion of • School implements a • School implements a • School provides
education by all student tracking system student tracking system appropriate
(computerized or manual) (computerized or interventions for
that helps identify students manual) that helps potential drop-outs
at risk or dropping out or identify students at risk and failures.
failing. of dropping out or
failing. • School meets with
• School meets with parents of potential
parents of potential drop- • School meets with drop-outs and
outs and failures. parents of potential failures.
drop-outs and failures.
•School provides
appropriate interventions • School provides
for potential drop-outs and appropriate
failures. interventions for
potential drop-outs and
• School provides failures.
enhancement programs for
advanced students. • School mobilizes help
of parents, PTCA,
• School provides students and LGU to
Alternative Delivery Mode convince those who
(ADM) for working have dropped out to
students or students who return to school.
need to go on temporary
leave of absence.

• School mobilizes help of

parents, PTCA, students
and LGU to convince those
who have dropped out to
return to school.

• School meets target for

drop-out rate.

• School meets target for

failure rate.

• School meets target for

completion rate.

Opportunity to • School mobilizes parents, • School mobilizes help • School mobilizes
enroll for all PTCA, students and LGU of parents, PTCA, help of parents,
to help convince other students and LGU to PTCA, students and
parents to enroll their convince parents to LGU to convince
children. enroll their children. parents to enroll their
• School adopts ADM if • School staggers
they are unable to enrollment days to give
accommodate all enrollees more opportunities for
for lack of classrooms students to enroll.
and/or teachers.

• School staggers
enrollment days to give
more opportunities for
students to enroll.

Score for Goal 3

Goal 4. Promote child-centered, effective teaching-learning practices and life-skills
Criteria Firmly Established Developing Beginning
Teaching-Learning • Teachers are trained on • Teachers are trained • Teachers are trained
Strategies child-centered teaching- on child-centered on child-centered
learning practices. teaching-learning teaching-learning
practices. practices.
• Teachers apply a variety
of teaching strategies. • Teachers apply a • Teachers apply a
variety of teaching variety of teaching
• Teachers have the strategies. strategies.
knowledge and skills to
know when and how to • Teachers have the
apply a particular teaching knowledge and skill to
strategy. know when and how to
apply a particular
• Teacher teaches to the teaching strategy.
learning styles of students.
• Teachers teach to the
• School Heads or learning styles of
Department Heads coach students.
teachers on how to
improve their teaching

• Teachers are open to peer


Development of life • Teachers have the • Teachers have the • Teachers have the
skills knowledge and skills in knowledge and skills in knowledge and skills
framing higher order framing higher order in framing higher
thinking skills (HOTS) thinking skills (HOTS) order thinking skills
questions. questions. (HOTS) questions.

• All subjects’ teachers • All subject teachers • Students are given

apply HOTS questions. apply HOTS questions. opportunities to work
independently and be
• Students have the skills • Students have the accountable for their
on how to frame HOTS skills on how to frame work, through
questions. HOTS questions. projects,
individualized task,
• Students are trained to • Students are trained to and homework.
formulate and formulate and
communicate their ideas in communicate their ideas • Students are given
a variety of ways. in a variety of ways. opportunities to work
well with others
• Students are given • Students are given through group
opportunities to work opportunities to work projects and
independently and be well with others cooperative learning
accountable for their work, through group projects tasks.
through projects, and cooperative
individualized tasks, and learning tasks. • Students share the
homework. responsibilities in
• Students share the managing classrooms
• Students are given responsibilities in through teacher-
opportunities to work well managing classrooms delegates tasks.
with others through group through teacher-
projects and cooperative delegated tasks.
learning tasks.

• Students share the

responsibilities in
managing classrooms
through teacher-delegated

• Students are encouraged

to volunteer their services
rather than wait to be given
Score for Goal 4.

Goal 5. Build and sustain collaborative partnerships between and among

students, teachers, families, and communities
Criteria Firmly Established Developing Beginning Score
Process of building • Students, parents, and • Students, parents, and • Student
sustainable other community members other community organizations,
collaboration have participation skills, members have including clubs, and
e.g., needs assessment, participation skills, e.g., PTCA brainstorm

project planning, needs assessment, together with the
development, monitoring project planning, school on school
and assessment. development, improvement
monitoring and projects/activities.
• Student organizations, assessment.
including clubs, and PTCA • There are
brainstorm together with • Student organizations, collaborative
the school on school including clubs, and partnerships between
improvement PTCA brainstorm the school and its
projects/activities. together with the school student
on school improvement organizations,
• Student organizations, projects/activities. including clubs, and
including clubs, and PTCA PTCA.
are empowered to decide • There are
on which school collaborative
projects/activities they partnerships between
would like to participate in the school and its
and how. student organizations,
including clubs, and
• School shares in PTCA.
planning, implementing
and assessing outcomes.

• School funds
participation of students.

Enabling structures • A school paper is • A school paper is  A school paper is

and organizations published regularly. published regularly. published regularly.
for collaborative
partnerships • There is a suggestion box • There is a suggestion • There is a
in school and in the box in school and in the suggestion box in
community. community. school and in the
Suggestions submitted community.
 Suggestions are acted upon, whether
submitted are acted upon, favorably or  Suggestions
whether favorably or unfavorably. submitted are
unfavorably. acted upon,
 Regular whether
• Regular meetings are meetings are held. favorably or
held. unfavorably.

• There is a specific place  Regular meetings

for meetings and work area are held.
or for hanging out.

 Regular school assembly

is held where updates and
recognitions are given.

 The school provides
occasions for celebrating
successes, e.g. a
celebratory mass in school,
Family Day, cultural
program for school and
community are provided
Score for Goal 5
Goal 6. Enhance teachers’ professional capacity and improve morale and
Criteria Firmly Established Developing Beginning Score
Transparency in  There is a  There is  There
recruitment, transparency of a transparency of is transparency of
distribution of procedures in: procedures in: procedures in:
assignments, and - recruitment - distribution of -distribution of
performance - distribution of assignments assignments.
assessment assignments - performance
- performance assessment assessment is observed.
- sending teachers for
training is observed.
Opportunities for  Faculty • Faculty meetings are • There is
two-way meetings are held regularly. investigation of
communication held  There is investigation perceived offenses .
regularly. of perceived offenses.
- Post-classroom
observation conference is
- There is investigation of
perceived offenses.
Building human • There is recognition for • There is recognition • There is recognition
relationships achievements or job well for achievements or job for achievements or
done. well done. job well done.

• Faculty meetings are used • Faculty meetings are

as occasions for celebrating used as occasions for
birthdays and noting events celebrating birthdays
that are important or and noting events that
significant to teachers are important or
involved. significant t teachers
• Provide few minutes of involved.
“fun time” before starting
Professional • School actively scouts for • School actively scouts • Time is given
support scholarships and training for scholarships and during faculty
for teachers. training for teachers. meetings for sharing
teaching practices
• Time is given during • Time is given during and practical
faculty meetings for faculty meetings for solutions to common
sharing teaching practices sharing teaching teacher problems.
and practical solutions to practices and practical
common teacher problems. solutions to common
teacher problems.
• School does resource
mobilization with DepED
offices, LGU and
community to secure
teacher needs such as
teaching supplies, books,
volunteers to help prepare
instructional aids and
materials, etc.

Score for goal 6:

Goal 7. Create gender-friendly learning environment
Criteria Firmly Established Developing Beginning Score
Respect for gender • Classrooms are structured • Classrooms are • Boys are given
differences due to such that boys are seated structured such that tasks that provide
differences in brain closer to the teacher due to boys are seated closer to more opportunities
development hearing difference. the teacher due to for movement such
hearing differences. as passing and
• Boys are given tasks that distributing papers
provide more opportunities • Boys are given tasks and handouts.
for movement such as that provide more
passing and distributing opportunities for • Classroom tasks are
papers and handouts. movement such as rotated between boys
passing and distributing and girls to promote
• Class activities have papers and handouts. well-rounded
several options to respond development of both
to differences in gender • Classroom tasks are genders.
interests and abilities. rotated between boys
and girls to promote
• Classroom tasks are well-rounded
rotated between boys and development of both
girls to promote well- genders.
rounded development of
both genders.

Equal opportunities • Equal opportunities are • Equal opportunities • Equal opportunities

for development. observed to take on are observed take on are observed take on
leadership roles. leadership roles. leadership roles.

•Teachers and guidance • Teachers and guidance

counselors instill no gender counselors instill no
stereotyping in choice of gender stereotyping in
career or occupation. choice of career or
• Teachers reinforce occupation.
concept that intelligence is
not limited to verbal-
linguistic and mathematical
Score for goal 7:

Analyzing Scores

a. The analysis of scores should focus on the scores per goal rather than on the over-
all score. The objective of the assessment should be to make the school aware of
their particular strengths and weaknesses. It is strong, if its score on a particular
goal is at or close to the Firmly Established CFSS. It is weak if its score is
equivalent to or even less than the Beginning CFSS. A Developing CFSS is
neither strong nor weak, so it should aspire to be strong, that is work on the goals
and indicators exhibited by the Firmly Established CFSS.

b. The intended action would be for the school to maintain its strengths and work on
its weaknesses.

c. As a specific example, suppose a school named, Pilar NHS, is assessed as


Goal 1-A 1-B 1-C 2 3 4 5 6 7

Pilar NHS 10 8 3 15 5 12 4 5 5

• To determine where it stands on the stage of “CFSS-ness”, compare its scores

with the corresponding scores of the Firmly Established and the Developing
CFSS. The Table will then look like the one on the following page:

Goal 1-A 1-B 1-C 2 3 4 5 6 7

F.E 13 15 7 34 12 14 11 13 7
Dev. 9 11 4 22 6 10 6 7 5
Pilar 10 8 3 15 5 12 4 5 5

• Pilar NHS is at the Beginning CFSS for Goal 1-B, Goal 1-C, Goal 2, Goal 5, and Goal 6
• Pilar NHS is at the Developing CFSS for Goal 1-A, Goal 3, Goal 4, and Goal 7.

It will be noted that there were a few times when the scores of Pilar NHS fell in-between
two categories. As a general rule, when this happens, the next higher category will be
selected only if the score fell beyond the mid-point of the two categories. For 1-C, the
score of 3 is exactly at the mid-point, so the lower category was selected. For Goal 3, the
score of 5 is beyond the mid-point so the next higher category (Developing CFSS) was

• The strengths of Pilar NHS would be in Goal 1-A and Goal 4. In these two goals, it has
already surpassed the score of the Developing CFSS. Pilar should aim to score at
Firmly Established for these two goals. For the rest, Pilar NHS should aim for at least a
Developing CFSS score. Graphing Pilar NHS against the scores of a Firmly
Established CFSS will provide an indication of the number of indicators the school has
to work on. The best choice would be to work on those goals where there are fewer
indicators to work on, e.g., Goals 1-A, 4 and 7.