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HANDLING OPERATING SYSTEMS

BCA - 602
HANDLING OPERATING SYSTEMS
BCA - 602

This SIM has been prepared exclusively under the guidance of Punjab Technical
University (PTU) and reviewed by experts and approved by the concerned statutory
Board of Studies (BOS). It conforms to the syllabi and contents as approved by the
BOS of PTU.
Reviewer

Senior Professor, School of Computing Sciences,


Dr. N. Ch. S.N. Iyengar VIT University, Vellore

Author: Sanjay Saxena


Copyright © Author, 2008
Reprint 2010

All rights reserved. No part of this publication which is material protected by this copyright notice
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CAREER OPPORTUNITIES

All application software need a platform to run on - this is provided


by the operating system. There are various operating systems available
in the market, including Microsoft Windows, Windows NT, Windows
XP, Linux, Unix, Mac OS, Mac OSx, Novell Netware. This subject
is helpful in understanding the basic functionality of operating systems
and its various components. As operating system administrators,
students can work in companies to ensure smooth functioning of the
company's computers and computer network.
PTU DEP SYLLABI-BOOK MAPPING TABLE
BCA – 602 Handling Operating Systems

Syllabi Mapping in Book

Section-I
Handling Novel NetWare: Introduction, Installation, Unit 1: An Overview of Operating Systems
Configuration, Managing Resources and Users. Granting Access (Pages 3-36)
Rights to Users. Unit 2: Handling Netware (Pages 37-55)
Handling Windows NT Server: Planning, Comparison of Unit 3: Managing User and Resources
Microsoft OS (Windows 95, 98 NT Workstation), Workgroups (Pages 57-62)
& Domains, Choosing Disk Configuration, Choosing Window Unit 4: Windows NT Server (Pages 63-71)
NT Protocols.

Section-II
Installing & Configuration: Installing Windows NT Server, Unit 5: Installation of Windows NT Server
Windows NT & Registry, Control Panel, Configuration (Pages 73-98)
Protocols & Bindings, Network Adapters, Peripherals & Unit 6: Printing in Windows NT Server
Devices, Hard Disk, Printing & Its Client Computer. (Pages 99-110)

Section-III
Managing Resources: Managing Users & Group Account, Unit 7: Managing Resources In Windows
Policies & Profiles, System Policy with System Policy Editor, NT Server (Pages 111-135)
Disk Resources, Working with Windows NT, The Resources,
UNC.
Connectivity: Interoperating with NetWare, Configuring Remote Unit 8: Connectivity (Pages 137-146)
Access Service.
CONTENTS

INTRODUCTION 1-2

UNIT 1 AN OVERVIEW OF OPERATING SYSTEMS 3-36


1.0 Introduction; 1.1 Unit Objectives;
1.2 Basic Concept of Operating System
1.2.1 Services of Operating System
1.3 Classification of Operating Systems
1.3.1 Single-User Operating System; 1.3.2 Multi-User Operating Systems;
1.3.3 Batch Processing Operating Systems; 1.3.4 Multiprogramming;
1.3.5 Multitasking Operating Systems; 1.3.6 Parallel Operating Systems;
1.3.7 Distributed Operating Systems; 1.3.8 Real-Time Operating Systems
1.4 Architecture and Design of an Operating System
1.4.1 Monolithic and Layered Architecture;
1.4.2 Virtual Machine and Exokernel Architecture; 1.4.3 Client–Server Architecture
1.5 Interface Design and Implementation
1.6 Performance Measurement and Monitoring
1.7 Functions of an Operating System
1.7.1 Process Management; 1.7.2 Memory Management;
1.7.3 Resource Management
1.8 Summary; 1.9 Answers to ‘Check your Progress’;
1.10 Exercises and Questions; 1.11 Further Reading

UNIT 2 HANDLING NETWARE 37-55


2.0 Introduction; 2.1 Unit Objectives; 2.2 Overview of NetWare
2.3 Installing NetWare 6; 2.4 Summary;
2.5 Answers to ‘Check your Progress’; 2.6 Exercises and Questions;
2.7 Further Reading

UNIT 3 MANAGING USER AND RESOURCES 57-62


3.0 Introduction; 3.1 Unit Objectives;
3.2 User Objects: An Overview
3.3 Managing User Object
3.3.1 Creating User Object Using ConsoleOne;
3.3.2 Creating User Object with NetWare Administrator;
3.3.3 Setting User Property Information
3.4 Tools to Manage User and Resources
3.5 Managing Group Objects
3.5.1 Creating Group Object with ConsoleOne;
3.5.2 Adding Members to a Group Object;
3.5.3 Managing Group Object Using NetWare Administrator
3.6 Summary
3.7 Answers to ‘Check your Progress’
3.8 Exercises and Questions
3.9 Further Reading
UNIT 4 WINDOWS NT SERVER 63-71
4.0 Introduction; 4.1 Unit Objectives;
4.2 Introduction to Windows NT Server
4.3 The Windows NT Server Architecture
4.3.1 Hardware Abstraction Layer; 4.3.2 Kernel; 4.3.3 NT Executive;
4.3.4 Protected Environment Subsystems
4.4 Features of the Windows NT Server
4.4.1 Extensibility; 4.4.2 Portability; 4.4.3 Security; 4.4.4 Compatibility;
4.4.5 Scalability; 4.4.6 Reliability; 4.4.7 Fault Tolerance;
4.4.8 High–performance client–server Platform; 4.4.9 Built-in Backup;
4.4.10 GUI Management Tools
4.5 Summary; 4.6 Answers to ‘Check your Progress’;
4.7 Exercises and Questions; 4.8 Further Reading

UNIT 5 INSTALLATION OF WINDOWS NT SERVER 73-98


5.0 Introduction; 5.1 Unit Objectives;
5.2 Prerequisites for Installation
5.2.1 Selection of Hardware for Windows NT Server;
5.2.2 Planning for Windows NT Server Installation
5.3 Installing and Configuring Windows NT Server
5.4 Summary; 5.5 Answers to ‘Check Your Progress’;
5.6 Exercises and Questions; 5.7 Further Reading

UNIT 6 PRINTING IN WINDOWS NT SERVER 99-110


6.0 Introduction; 6.1 Unit Objectives;
6.2 What is a Printer?
6.2.1 The Dot Matrix Printer; 6.2.2 The Laser Printer; 6.2.3 The Inkjet Printer
6.3 Installing a Printer; 6.4 Working with a Printer;
6.5 Working with a Network Printer; 6.6 Summary
6.7 Answers to ‘Check your Progress’; 6.8 Exercises and Questions;
6.9 Further Reading

UNIT 7 MANAGING RESOURCES IN WINDOWS NT SERVER 111-135


7.0 Introduction; 7.1 Unit Objectives;
7.2 User Accounts
7.2.1 Types of User Accounts; 7.2.2 Creating a User Account
7.3 Groups
7.3.1 Types of Groups; 7.3.2 Creating Local Groups
7.4 User Profiles
7.5 Policies
7.5.1 System Policy; 7.5.2 Account Policy; 7.5.3 User Right Policy;
7.5.4 Audit Policy
7.6 System Policy Editor
7.6.1 Customising System Policies; 7.6.2 Setting the Policies of Users;
7.6.3 Setting the Policies of Computer; 7.6.4 Adding Users, Computers and Groups
7.7 Managing Disk Resources
7.7.1 Using Disk Administrator; 7.7.2 Understanding Partitions
7.8 Universal Naming Conventions; 7.9 Working with Windows NT;
7.10 Summary; 7.11 Answers to ‘Check your Progress’
7.12 Exercises and Questions; 7.13 Further Reading
UNIT 8 CONNECTIVITY 137-146
8.0 Introduction; 8.1 Unit Objectives;
8.2 Interoperating with NetWare
8.2.1 Using Windows Interface; 8.2.2 Using Command Line
8.3 Remote Access Service;
8.4 Installing and Configuring Remote Access Services; 8.5 Summary
8.6 Answers to ‘Check your Progress’; 8.7 Exercises and Questions;
8.8 Further Reading

GLOSSARY 147-150
Introduction
INTRODUCTION

When we look at the general scenario of Continuing Education in our country, we see NOTES
that there is a tremendous potential and opportunity for providing flexible forms of
learning, that complement the professional software engineers. For instance, when
the learning has to be implanted by stand-alone resources (such as this text book),
one has to device innovative means of imparting knowledge and skills. We have
attempted to do precisely this: each Section of this textbook is broken up into
convenient modules of Units; and in each Unit, we have attempted to present the
learning materials through a Content Exposition approach. In this approach, we begin
with an Introduction of the topic of the Unit; then, we outline the learning Objectives
of the Unit; and then we present the details of the contents in simple and
easy-to-learn manner. At the end of each Unit, we highlight a Summary for quick
recollection. Finally, we have carefully posed Review Questions to Check Your
Progress as you complete each Unit of learning.
An operating system is the essential part of any computer system. It is the software
that acts as an interface between the user and the computer. The main purpose of
operating system is to provide an environment in which a user can execute programs
in a convenient and efficient manner. You need to install and configure operating
system in your computer to work with the operating system. In this book, working
with Windows NT server and NetWare is discussed. Windows NT Server is a
network operating system based on client-server model. Windows NT Server
operating system is designed to work with either uniprocessor or Symmetrical Multi
Processor (SMP) based computers. NetWare is a network operating system, which
helps implement LAN in a computer.
This book comprises of eight units.
First unit of this book is about fundamentals of operating systems. This unit also
describes architecture of operating system and various types of operating systems
such as single user and multi user.
Second unit of this book explains NetWare operating system. This unit also
describes various software and hardware requirements for NetWare and installation
process of NetWare.
Third unit of this book explains managing resources and users in NetWare. This unit
also describes the process of granting access rights to users in NetWare.
Fourth unit of this book is about Windows NT Server. This unit focuses primarily
on the architecture of Windows NT server and its various features.
Fifth unit of this book is about the installation of Windows NT Server. This unit also
describes prerequisites for installing Windows NT Server in your computer.
Sixth unit of this book is based on working of printer in Windows NT Server. This
unit describes concepts of printer, its types, installation of printer in Windows NT
Server and working with network printer.
Seventh unit of this book is about managing resources in Windows NT Server. This
unit also describes managing users and group account and policies available in
Windows NT Server to manage users.

Self-Instructional Material 1
Introduction Eighth unit of this book is about connectivity between Windows NT Server and
NetWare. This unit explains how you can remotely access services of NetWare from
Windows NT Server.
Handling Operating System is a book that introduces the basic concepts of operating
NOTES system. After completing a unit, go through the exercises to understand the topic in a
better way. The main features of the book are:
• Step by step process for installing and configuring Windows NT Server.
• Step by step process for installing and configuring NetWare.
• Check your progress to increase comprehension while reading.

2 Self-Instructional Material
An Overview of Operating Systems
UNIT 1 AN OVERVIEW OF OPERATING
SYSTEMS
NOTES
Structure
1.0 Introduction
1.1 Unit Objectives
1.2 Basic Concept of Operating System
1.2.1 Services of Operating System
1.3 Classification of Operating Systems
1.3.1 Single-User Operating Systems; 1.3.2 Multi-User Operating Systems;
1.3.3 Batch Processing Operating Systems; 1.3.4 Multiprogramming;
1.3.5 Multitasking Operating Systems; 1.3.6 Parallel Operating Systems;
1.3.7 Distributed Operating Systems; 1.3.8 Real-Time Operating Systems
1.4 Architecture and Design of an Operating System
1.4.1 Monolithic and Layered Architecture;
1.4.2 Virtual Machine and Exokernel Architecture; 1.4.3 Client–Server Architecture
1.5 Interface Design and Implementation
1.6 Performance Measurement and Monitoring
1.7 Functions of an Operating System
1.7.1 Process Management; 1.7.2 Memory Management;
1.7.3 Resource Management
1.8 Summary
1.9 Answers to ‘Check your Progress’
1.10 Exercises and Questions
1.11 Further Reading

1.0 INTRODUCTION
An operating system is a software that acts as an interface between a user and a
computer. It is the first program that gets loaded into the computer memory through a
process called booting. An operating system manages all the operations of a
computer and performs fundamental tasks. It acts as a platform on which various
application programs run.
An operating system performs three main functions: process management, memory
management and resource management. A process is a set of sequential steps for
performing a task. In other words, for an operating system, a process is an instance of
a program. For an operating system, any two instances are separate processes of the
same application. The organization and management of a computer storage system is
important for an operating system. An operating system allocates memory to the
various processes. The processes are loaded into the CPU for execution. Resource
management is a significant part of a computer system. Distributed system is divided
into two main resources, and the resource management helps in managing these
resources.

Self-Instructional Material 3
Handling Operating Systems
1.1 UNIT OBJECTIVES
In this unit, you will learn about:
NOTES • The basic concept of operating system
• Different services provided by an operating system
• The different types of operating systems
• The functions of an operating system

1.2 BASIC CONCEPT OF OPERATING SYSTEM


An operating system is a set of instructions stored on a storage device such as hard
disk, Compact Disk Read Only Memory (CD ROM) or floppy disk. When you switch
on a computer, the power-on routine activates and a set of power-on routine activities
is performed. These power-on routine activities verify the devices attached to the
CPU, such as keyboard, hard disk, floppy disk, CD ROM and printers for their proper
functioning. The instructions for these power-on routine activities are stored in the
Read Only Memory (ROM). ROM is permanent in nature and stores the data even
when the power is switched off. However, ROM stores only a few kilobytes of
instructions due to its finite size. As a result, the power-on routine activities are
stored permanently in the hard disk as operating system, and are transformed from
the hard disk into the Random Access Memory (RAM) on booting the computer.
RAM is also called main memory, which is volatile in nature and as a result, the
programs and instructions are temporarily stored in it and are lost on power failure.
Secondary memory such as hard disk is non-volatile and thus, retains information
even in case of power failure. For example, you are working in MS Word and saving
your content in the main memory. The content will be erased from the main memory
if the computer is switched off.
An operating system is loaded into the computer memory in the two following ways:
• Loaded from BOOT-ROM
• Loaded from the hard disk when the computer is switched on
If an operating system is already present in ROM, the computer is booted up
immediately when the CPU is switched on. These operating systems are best suited
for hand-held devices such as laptop and briefcase computers. However, these
operating systems are difficult to update as ROM is a permanent memory and
contents stored in it cannot be erased.
If the operating system is loaded from the hard disk when the computer is switched
on, then it stores the booting instructions in the RAM. The CPU starts executing your
instructions when the operating system gets loaded into the RAM of your computer.
Figure 1.1 shows the booting process of an operating system from the hard disk.

4 Self-Instructional Material
An Overview of Operating Systems

NOTES

Figure 1.1: Booting Process of an Operating System

When the computer is switched on, ROM starts executing Power On Self Test
(POST). POST checks the hardware devices attached to the computer before the
booting process starts. The primary boot executes the first physical sector from the
disk called the boot sector. The secondary boot verifies the drivers installed in the
computer. A driver is a software that used for communicating with various devices
attached to the computer. There are two kinds of operating systems: Character User
Interface (CUI) and Graphical User Interface (GUI). CUI is not user-friendly and
allows you to type each and every command for interacting with the operating
system. For example, DOS is a CUI operating system. GUI is a user-friendly
interface that eliminates the need of typing commands on the computer. For example,
Windows is a GUI operating system.

1.2.1 Services of an Operating System


An operating system acts as a platform for developing the application programs. The
major services provided by an operating system are:
• It acts as an extended machine.
• It acts as a resource manager.
• It acts as a constant application program interface.
An operating system acts as an extended machine by translating your commands into
machine language instructions. The CPU executes these machine language
instructions and the operating system re-translates the output back into a user
understandable language. Figure 1.2 shows the extended machine view of an
operating system.

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Handling Operating Systems

NOTES

Figure 1.2: The Extended Machine View of an Operating System

The N number of users are busy in developing and compiling their application
programs or are working in the text editor. These users interact with the operating
system through system calls or shell. The operating system interacts with the
computer hardware to execute the users jobs.
An operating system acts as a resource manager by controlling and allocating various
hardware and software resources to different users in an optimal and efficient mode.
The task of resource management becomes essential in multi-user operating systems,
where different users compete for the same resources. An operating system manages
the resources in the two following ways:
• Time multiplexing
• Space multiplexing
Time multiplexing defines the sharing of resources based on fixed-time slices. For
example, the operating system allocates a resource such as CPU to program A for a
fixed-time slice. When the time slice is over, the CPU is allocated to another program
B. If program A needs more CPU attention, then the CPU is again allocated to
program A after the time slice allocated to program B is over.
Space multiplexing defines the concurrent sharing of resources among different
programs. Sharing of a hard disk and main memory are examples of space
multiplexing.
An operating system acts as a constant application program interface that allows you
to develop an application on a computer and execute it on another computer. It does
not produce any dissimilarity if the configuration of the two computers is different, as
the application remains the same. For example, the Windows 98 operating system
provides such kind of flexibility. It can hold different disk drives, printers and
6 Self-Instructional Material
peripherals produced by different vendors. There are some other functions of an An Overview of Operating Systems

operating system, which are as follows:


• It controls the device drivers attached to the computer.
• It acts as a command interpreter.
NOTES
• It decides the priority of various jobs.
• It performs the allocation and reallocation of memory.
• It performs the input/output operations.
• It provides security by ensuring controlled access to resources.
• It controls the local and remote files placed on a computer.
• It monitors various jobs running on a computer for their security.
• It allows different processes to communicate with each other through
message passing techniques.
• It performs system accounting that monitors the use of system resources.
Figure 1.3 shows the functions of an operating system.

Figure 1.3: The Functions of Operating System

1.3 CLASSIFICATION OF OPERATING SYSTEMS


All operating systems consist of similar components and perform almost similar
functions but the methods and procedures for performing these functions are
different. Operating systems are classified into following different categories based
on their distinguishing features:
• Single-user operating systems
• Multi-user operating systems
• Batch processing operating systems
• Multiprogramming operating systems
Self-Instructional Material 7
Handling Operating Systems • Multitasking operating systems
• Parallel operating systems
• Distributed operating systems
NOTES • Real-time operating systems

1.3.1 Single-User Operating Systems


It allows a single-user to access a computer at a time. These computers have single-
processor and execute single program. The resources such as CPU and I/O devices
are constantly available to the user in a single-user operating system for operating the
system. As a result, the CPU sits idle for most of the time and is not utilised to its
maximum. A single-user operating system is divided into two categories:
• Single-user, single-tasking operating system
• Single-user, multi-tasking operating system
The single-user, single-tasking operating system allows a single-user to execute one
program at a time. MS-DOS and Palm OS for Palm hand-held computers are
examples of single-user single-tasking operating system.
Single-user, multi-tasking operating system allows a single-user to operate multiple
programs at the same time. For example, you can perform calculations in Excel sheet,
print a Word document and download a file from the Internet concurrently. Mac OS,
Windows 95, Windows 98, Windows NT Workstation and Windows 2000
Professional operating systems for desktop and laptop computers are the examples of
single-user, multi-tasking operating system. Figure 1.4 shows the working of
single-user operating system.

Figure 1.4: Single-User Operating System

A single-user operating system executes an application program of a user through


hardware interaction and gives the result back to the user.

1.3.2 Multi-User Operating Systems


It allows various users to access the different resources of a computer simultaneously.
The access is provided using a network that consists of various personal computers
attached to a mainframe computer. These computers send and receive information to
a multi-user mainframe computer. Therefore, the mainframe computer acts as a
server and the other personal computers act as clients for that server. Unix, VMS,

8 Self-Instructional Material
MVS, Windows 2000 and Novell Netware are the examples of multi-user operating An Overview of Operating Systems

systems.
The advantage of using multi-user operating system is that it facilitates the sharing of
data and information among different users. Hardware resources such as printers and
modems are also shared using the multi-user operating system. NOTES

The limitation of using a multi-user operating system is the expensive hardware


required for mainframe computer. Another limitation is that it reduces the
performance of the computer as multiple users work on it. Figure 1.5 shows the
working of a multi-user operating system.

Figure 1.5: The Multi-User Operating System

1.3.3 Batch Processing Operating Systems


The batch processing operating system places the users jobs on an input queue and
these jobs are stored as a batch. The batch monitor executes these batches at a
definite interval of time. The batch monitor accepts the commands for initialising,
processing and terminating a batch. These jobs are executed through interaction with
the hardware, and the operating system gives the output back to different users. The
batch processing operating system automatically executes the next job in the batch
and reduces user intervention during the processing of jobs.
It has high turn around time. The turn around time is the time taken between
submitting the job and getting the output, which includes the information related to
the jobs included in a batch. The turn around time is reduced using high-speed
storage access devices such as magnetic disk.
The batch monitor executes the batches based on the process of job scheduling that
sequences different jobs on First-Come-First-Served (FCFS) basis. You can also set
the priorities for different batches and the highest priority job is executed before the
other batches. Figure 1.6 shows the working of a batch processing operating system.

Self-Instructional Material 9
Handling Operating Systems

NOTES

Figure 1.6: The Batch Processing Operating System

1.3.4 Multiprogramming
Multiprogramming allows multiple users to execute multiple programs using a single
CPU. The multiprogramming operating system executes different processes
concurrently using a time-multiplexed CPU, by implementing the concept of CPU
slicing between them. CPU time slicing enables operating systems to execute
multiple jobs concurrently. The CPU switching between the programs is so fast that
the response time for users is fractions of seconds. The operating system uses an
interactive computer system that provides shared access to different resources. The
operating system stores multiple jobs in main memory and CPU immediately
switches to the next job in sequence, when the previous executing process comes in
wait stage. The previous executing process comes in wait stage due to an interrupt or
requirement of I/O operations. Therefore, a multiprogramming operating system
increases the utilisation of CPU by reducing its idle time. Unix, Windows 95,
Windows NT, OS/2 and Amiga are examples of multiprogramming operating
systems. Figure 1.7 shows the working of a multiprogramming operating system.

Figure 1.7: The Multiprogramming Operating System

1.3.5 Multitasking Operating Systems


Multitasking operating systems support the concept of multitasking. Multitasking is
the ability of a system to handle a number of tasks or jobs simultaneously. A

10 Self-Instructional Material
multitasking operating system is also called time-sharing system with the An Overview of Operating Systems

multiprogramming feature. A time-sharing system contains multiple user terminals


that are connected to the same system to work simultaneously. The
multiprogramming feature of the time-sharing system allows multiple programs to
reside in main memory and various scheduling algorithms are used to allocate CPU NOTES
time to the processes. The time interval during which a user process gets the CPU
allocation is known as time slice, time slot or quantum. The CPU executes a process
until the allotted time slice expires. Figure 1.8 shows the working of time-sharing
system.
Process A allocated for
execution

Process A Ready Running Processing Complete

Allotted
time is over Waiting for I/O data
I/O complete

Blocked

Figure 1.8: The Time-sharing System

1.3.6 Parallel Operating Systems


It consists of multiple processors sharing the clock, bus, memory and peripheral
devices. Parallel operating systems are also known as multiprocessor or tightly
coupled operating systems. Multiprocessor systems are divided into following
categories:
• Symmetric multiprocessing
• Asymmetric multiprocessing
In symmetric multiprocessing, each processor runs a shared copy of operating
system. The processors can communicate with each other and execute these copies
concurrently. Thus, in a symmetric system, all the processors share an equal amount
of load. Encore’s version of Unix for the Multimax computer is an example of
symmetric multiprocessing system. In this system, various processors execute copies
of Unix operating system, thereby executing M processes if there are M processors.
In short, the term symmetric multiprocessing depicts the architecture of a
multiprocessor system where two or more similar processors are connected via a
high-bandwidth link or simply a bus. These types of systems are run by one operating
system and each processor of the multiprocessor system has equal access right to all
the I/O devices connected to the system.
Asymmetric multiprocessing is based on the principle of master–slave relationship.
One of the processors runs the operating system and that processor is called the
master processor. The other processors run user processes and are known as slave
processors. In other words, the master processor controls, schedules and allocates the
task to the slave processors. Asymmetric multiprocessing is more common in
extremely large systems, where one of the most time-consuming activities is
processing I/O requests. In asymmetric system, the processors do not share equal

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Handling Operating Systems load. For example, the processor, which supports the math co-processor to handle
floating-point calculations is based on asymmetric multiprocessing system.

1.3.7 Distributed Operating Systems


NOTES In this type of operating system, user requests are processed independently at more
than one location, but with shared and controlled access to some common facilities.
A system, which consists of multiple parts located at or embedded in geographically
dispersed physical locations is called a distributed system. In other words, in a
distributed system the workload is spread between two or more computers linked
together by a communication network.
Different computers communicate with each other using communication links such
as telephone lines and buses. Heterogeneous computers include computers with
different configurations such as workstations, microcomputers, minicomputers and
mainframe computers. These computers are referred to as nodes. The processors in
distributed operating system do not share clock, memory and peripheral devices.
Each processor has its own resources. Distributed operating systems are also known
as loosely coupled systems. Amoeba is an example of distributed operating system,
which is a collection of workstations in a transparent distributed system. Amoeba is
being widely used in the field of academia, industry and government for the last 5
years. It runs on the SPARC, Sun 3/50 and Sun 3/60 operating systems.
The design of distributed operating systems is based on following two models:
• Client–server model
• Peer-to-peer model
In client–server model, the client sends a resource request to the server and the
server, in turn, provides the requested resource as the response, back to client. Figure
1.9 shows the client–server model.

Figure 1.9: The Client–Server Model

In peer-to-peer model, all the computers behave as peers as well as clients. These
clients communicate with each other for exchange of their resources. Figure 1.10
shows the peer-to-peer model.

12 Self-Instructional Material
An Overview of Operating Systems

NOTES

Figure 1.10: The Peer-to-Peer Model

1.3.8 Real-Time Operating Systems


It defines the completion of job within the rigid time constraints otherwise, the job
loses its meaning. The human brain works on the principle of real-time operating
system. Real-time operating systems are used in medical imaging systems, airline
reservation systems, home appliances controller systems and nuclear weapon
systems. Examples of real-time operating systems are Vx Works and QNX. Real-
time operating systems are divided into two categories:
• Hard real-time systems
• Soft real-time systems
Hard real time systems ensure the completion of critical tasks within the well-defined
constraints. These systems are considered a failure, if the critical tasks are not
completed with in the defined constraints.
An example of a hard real-time system is a flight controller system. If the end-user
fails to respond an action within the allotted time, it could lead to an unstable aircraft,
which could cause a crash.
In soft real-time systems, a single failure of any type does not lead to critical failure.
For example, if a DVD player cannot process a frame, the playback stutters, but you
can continue watching the video.

1.4 ARCHITECTURE AND DESIGN OF AN


OPERATING SYSTEM
Architecture is a fundamental structure of an operating system that defines
interconnection between the system components. An operating system is designed
using different architectures:
• Monolithic architecture
• Layered architecture
• Virtual machine architecture
• Exokernel architecture
CHECK YOUR PROGRESS
• Client–server architecture 1. POST stands for __________
2. How many types of operating
system are there?
3. Define ‘space multiplexing’.

Self-Instructional Material 13
Handling Operating Systems
1.4.1 Monolithic and Layered Architecture
Monolithic architecture consists of a single layer that performs all the functions of the
operating system. The concept of information hiding is absent altogether in the
NOTES monolithic architecture, therefore you are able to observe and call the procedures of
different users. MS-DOS and Novell Netware operating systems are examples of
monolithic architecture.
In monolithic architecture, the operating system provides services to the users in the
form of system calls. These system calls provide functions such as positioning of
procedural parameters on the stack and executing trap instruction. This instruction
transfers the control to the operating system by swapping the control from user mode
to kernel mode. Figure 1.11 shows the monolithic architecture of an operating
system:

Figure 1.11: The Monolithic Architecture

The operating system checks the parameters and calls the service procedure, which in
turn calls the utilities. Utilities return the control back to the user program in user
mode. The flow of arrows shows the transfer of user program from the user mode to
the kernel mode through system calls. Limitations of an operating system, using
monolithic architecture are:
• Difficult to modify as the whole operating system has to be redesigned
• Failure of a single program crashes the entire system
Layered architecture categorises the operating system into different layers, which
communicate using standard function calls. Each new layer is built on the top of an
older layer.

14 Self-Instructional Material
The higher-level layers call the set of functions and data structures of lower layers. An Overview of Operating Systems

The various layers of an operating system are:


• Hardware
• Kernel
NOTES
• Service layer
• Applications/shell
The hardware layer consists of various I/O devices, CPU and memory. The hardware
acts as a platform for an operating system. It provides computing resources for
executing various application programs.
Kernel is the core of all the operating systems. Kernel directly interacts with the
hardware and schedules the execution of various tasks. For example, in a multiple
processor operating system, kernel decides the processor and the program to be
chosen for execution.
Kernel performs low-level functions such as reading the input from keyboard and
displaying the output on the monitor. In addition to these low-level functions, kernel,
which is also called real-time executive, performs other important functions such as
memory management, file management, scheduling and system accounting of various
processes.
The service layer interacts with the kernel and the drivers. Drivers are a set of
specialised programs used by the programs to communicate with the hardware. The
service layer is responsible for maintaining the security and sanity checking of user’s
files and objects. For example, if a program is not currently is use, the service layer
gives the permission and informs the kernel for deleting the file.
Sanity checking is used in decision making for the execution of various jobs. For
example, printing the documents of two programs concurrently will merge the
contents. Sanity checking allows one job to execute and the other job to wait until the
execution of the first is complete.
A user creates different applications and executes these applications through shells.
Shell is a utility that is stored on the hard disk and is loaded into the memory when
the kernel is invoked. It acts as an interface between the user and the operating
system. Shell is also known as command line interpreter. Figure 1.12 shows the
layered architecture of an operating system.

Figure 1.12: The Layered Architecture

Self-Instructional Material 15
Handling Operating Systems An operating system with the layered architecture provides the following advantages:
• Maintains the modular approach of the system by decomposing it into several
layers.
• Simplifies the task of debugging and system verification. The bottom layer
NOTES
consists of basic hardware that is easy to debug. If an error appears in a
particular layer, then only that layer is modified as lower layers are already
debugged.
• Implements the concept of information hiding. The contents of lower-level
layers such as hardware, data structures and implementation of operations are
hidden from the higher-level layers. Only the functioning of lower layer
operations are visible to higher layers.
In addition to several advantages, the layered architecture has the following
disadvantages:
• Less efficient than the other architectures as each layer adds an operating
cost to its higher layer and therefore, takes longer time to complete a simple
task.
• Requires cautious planning for designing the layers, because a higher layer
can use the functionalities of only the lower layers.

1.4.2 Virtual Machine and Exokernel Architecture


Virtual machine and exokernel architecture, both are based on the principle of
creating duplicate copies of operating systems. These copies are concurrently
executed on the same hardware platform.
Virtual machine uses the concept of CPU scheduling and virtual memory for creating
a false impression of multiple processors. These multiple processors are executed
concurrently in their virtual memory on the same hardware platform. Each processor
consists of a set of virtual instructions. The function of virtual machine is to map the
virtual instruction set to the real instruction set of the computer. An instruction set
consists of commands built in an assembly language such as JMP and MOVE. The
function of an instruction set is to call and execute these commands.
Virtual machine works like an actual physical computer. It is used in various
concepts such as partitioning the hardware and sharing it among different programs,
creating portable software and executing older version of software on computers with
the latest configuration.
Virtual machine contains a software layer called Virtual Machine Monitor (VMM)
that creates the exact copies of hardware resources and exports the hardware
interface. VM/370 operating system is an example of virtual machine architecture. It
supports multiple virtual machines that run concurrently on IBM/370 computer.
Figure 1.13 shows the virtual machine architecture.

16 Self-Instructional Material
An Overview of Operating Systems

NOTES

Figure 1.13: The Virtual Machine Architecture

The advantage of using virtual architecture is that it facilitates the sharing of


hardware resources. The limitation of using virtual machine is that virtual-machine
software requires a lot of disk space for providing virtual memory and spooling.
Exokernel architecture facilitates secure sharing of hardware resources by providing
a unique application-specific customisation from traditional operating systems
abstractions, such as file system storage and exception handling. The traditional
operating systems lack the flexibility, performance and functionality of applications.
At application level, exokernel provides software for implementing the traditional
operating systems’ features.
The exokernel architecture contains a program called exokernel that resides in the
bottom layer of the operating system. Exokernel performs the function of resource
allocation to virtual machines and maintains authorized and secure use of their
resources.
The advantage of using exokernel architecture is that it eliminates the requirement of
mapping layer. It not only monitors the resources allocated to virtual machines, but
also separates the system code running in user space from the multiprogramming
concept of exokernel.

1.4.3 Client–Server Architecture


Client–server architecture consists of two different computer programs—client and
server. Client sends a service request to the server for accessing various resources.
The server fulfils the request by providing shared access to resources such as printer,
database and modem. Client–server architecture is mainly used in a network for an
efficient distribution of resources across different clients.
You can use Application Program Interface (API) and Remote Procedure Calls
(RPC) for communicating between client and server processes. API is a set of
software functions implemented as a library, which is used by an application program
Self-Instructional Material 17
Handling Operating Systems as a means for providing access to an operating system’s capabilities. RPC is a
method of calling the procedure, located at remote location, by sending service
request to the server. The components of client–server architecture are:
• Client
NOTES
• Network
• Server
The client contains components such as Graphical User Interface (GUI), Database
Management System (DBMS) communication package and operating system. Clients
having GUI package creates a user-friendly interface with the server. DBMS
communication package is used for communicating with the server database.
Network is used for communication between the clients and the server. A network
can be LAN, WAN, or the Internet. The TCP/IP protocol is the most commonly used
protocol for communication among various users.
The server contains various components such as authentication module, network
communication package, database package and operating system. Authentication
module verifies various clients for their verification using passwords. Database
package contains various protocols for accessing the database that includes protecting
the information from users by revoking permissions for reading and writing records.
Figure 1.14 shows the client–server architecture.

Figure 1.14: The Client–Server Architecture

The advantage of using client–server architecture is that it provides flexibility and


scalability for adding essential resources in the server computer afterwards. Since, all
the computers are connected to the server and incorporating a new resource does not
need to configure the client computers.

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The disadvantage of using client–server architecture is that it has complex An Overview of Operating Systems

configuration that requires greater expertise, which results in higher cost. It is less
reliable because of the availability of large number of clients that makes the system
dependable on different clients.
NOTES
1.5 INTERFACE DESIGN AND
IMPLEMENTATION
An interface is a component of operating system that establishes the method of
interaction between a user and a computer. An interface is categorised into user
interface and system call interface. The user interface is a set of commands or menus
through which a user interacts with the application program. The system call
interface is a set of commands used for interaction between the application program
and the operating system. An operating system provides user interface, using
operating system services such as files and read/write operations performed on them.
An operating system also provides additional interface such as device drivers for
calling different procedures. While designing an interface, following points should be
considered:
• Simplicity: An interface should be simple to understand and implement.
• Efficiency: An interface should be economical and efficient. It should aim to
consume minimum computer resources, such as memory and CPU.
• Completeness: An interface should be complete in itself to provide its
routine functions.
The design of an interface is created using top-down or bottom-up approach. In
top-down approach, user interface is designed earlier than the system call interface.
This approach is used in GUI operating systems, which provide user-friendliness for
interacting with system calls. In bottom-up approach, system call interface is
designed prior to the user interface. This approach is generally used in CUI operating
systems. A good model defines the concept of architectural coherence that maintains
consistency among various design features and produces a well-defined architecture.
Graphical user interface provides architectural coherence using mouse features such
as dragging, point-and-click and point-and-double-click. Other features provided by
user interface are menu bar, windows and icons. These icons support the event-driven
model for GUI that waits for the user to click on any icon and performs the desired
action. System call interface provides architectural coherence using various system
calls. An operating system defines its services to programs using system call
interface. System calls are used for providing operating system services to users. In
general, system call is a function that is executed in the kernel space. Designing the
system call interface is related with various concerns, such as exposing the efficient
features of hardware to users. These features can be moving of bitmaps around the
screen. System calls must be fast enough so that appropriate interfaces are created.
Another design concern is the visibility and scope of system call interface. The
interface should be made private so that users are not able to change the original
system calls for maintaining flexibility with their programs. The operating system is
implemented after designing the layout for interface design. There are various
hypothetical issues, which deal with the implementation of operating system:
• System structure
• Policy and mechanism
• Naming
• Binding time
Self-Instructional Material 19
Handling Operating Systems System structure defines the structure of an operating system. An operating system is
implemented using any architecture such as monolithic, layered, virtual, exokernel or
client–server approach. Policy defines the rules for the usage of resources.
Mechanisms are used for implementing the policies. Mechanisms must be kept
NOTES isolated from policies so that any changes made in are not reflected in the
mechanism.
Naming is the technique of assigning names to different data structures such as files,
devices, and process IDs. Naming is performed at two ranks – internal and external.
An operating system uses internal naming for assigning names to files and other
devices for referring them internally by system and processes. Internal naming uses
unsigned integers and these names act as index for the kernel table. External naming
is used for assigning names to files and other devices for being referred by users.
ASCII or Unicode scheme is used for assigning names in character strings.
Binding time specifies the time taken for associating the name and the objects.
Binding is performed at two levels – early binding and late binding. Early binding
binds and allocates memory to objects at compile time. It is fast but not flexible. Late
binding binds and allocates memory to objects at run-time. It is slow in performance
but is flexible in changing the memory location. Global variables and local variables
are examples of early binding.

1.6 PERFORMANCE MEASUREMENT AND


MONITORING
You need to measure the performance of an operating system in regard to the
growing complexity. The performance is monitored by measuring the speed of inter-
process communication, task switching and handling of timer interrupts. Timer
interrupt is generated after every 10 milliseconds. The timer interrupt also monitors
various resources, processes and logins.
One of the common concern regarding enhancing the performance of an operating
system is to decide whether to adopt a memory space optimisation algorithm or a fast
algorithm. A memory space optimisation algorithm uses very less amount of memory
space but it can be very slow. On the other hand, an algorithm may use huge amount
of memory space but can be fast that means execution time is very less.
The monitoring of an operating system allows checking the workload on the
computer. Monitoring also draws attention to redundant tasks running in operating
system that are consuming system resources. For an efficient use of an operating
system, the performance must be monitored at the user end.
You need to use various tools for monitoring the performance of an operating system.
The tools are the software that measure various features such as memory requirement
for various processes. Tools also evaluate the efficiency of various operating systems
quantitatively. The various tools, which are used for monitoring the performance of
an operating system are:
• System monitor
• Performance logs and alerts
• Task manager
• Benchmarking
• Caching

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System monitor provides information about various operating system components An Overview of Operating Systems

and programs that are using various resources, for collecting the information related
to the performance of the operating system.
Performance logs and alerts display that information using graphs. The information
can also be recorded using logs. Performance alerts are used to send intimation to NOTES
users when a value used as counter increases or decreases the minimum defined
value.
Task manager provides information about various the programs and processes
executing on your computer diagrammatically. It also provides information about
memory and processor usage.
Benchmarking is a tool which is used for measuring and comparing work processes
and performance of a system with other systems. You can use benchmarking for
testing the performance of an operating system and adopting the best practices. The
reason for using benchmarking in an operating system is to generate a statement of
why a performance of a specific operating system is better or worse than another one.
For example, you can use benchmarks to compare the execution time of a program in
different operating systems.
The caching technique can be used for improving the performance of an operating
system. In caching, a result of an operation or task that can be required frequently, is
stored in a part of memory, called cache. When the task is needed to be repeated the
cache is searched first instead of performing the task again. If the required result is
found, it is called a hit. In case of a hit the result is used. If the required result is not
found in the cache, it is called a miss. In case of a miss, the task is performed.
Caching is widely used in operating systems to enhance their performance. For
example, caching is used in managing file systems of an operating system. While
accessing a file for the first time the file system management module of an operating
system stores the necessary information of a file in the cache, such as name and path
of the file, physical address of the file where the file is stored in the disk. When a file
is required by the operating system it first searches the cache for retrieving
information about the file. If the information about that file is present in the cache it
is utilised for locating the file in the disk. If the information is not present in the
cache, file is searched according to the usual method of the operating system.
Another field of operating system, where caching is implemented, is memory
management.

1.7 FUNCTIONS OF AN OPERATING SYSTEM


An operating system manages files, resources and CPU utilisation that a user needs to
perform various tasks. An operating system performs the following functions:
• Process Management: It is a process that helps in managaing processes. A
process is a set of sequential steps for performing a task. In other words, for
an operating system, a process is an instance of a program. Process
management is necessary for proper execution of any program.
• Memory Management: It is a process, which manages storage system of a
computer. The organization and management of a computer storage system is
important for an operating system. An operating system allocates memory to
the various processes.

Self-Instructional Material 21
Handling Operating Systems • Resource Management: The I/O subsystem is required to monitor and
manage wide variety of I/O devices. These I/O devices vary with respect to
their functionality, data rate, speed and software support.

NOTES 1.7.1 Process Management


A process goes through various states for performing several tasks. The transition of
a process from one state to another occurs depending on the flow of the execution of
the process. It is not necessary for a process to undergo all the states. The various
process states are as follows:
• New: It indicates that the process has just been created.
• Ready: It indicates that the process is waiting for a chance to be allocated the
CPU time for execution.
• Running: It indicates that the process has been allocated the CPU time and is
executing the tasks.
• Waiting: It indicates that the process is waiting for the completion of either
another process or an I/O task such as reading a file.
• Terminated: It indicates that the process has finished its execution and all
the tasks in the process are complete.

1.7.1.1 Operating System Services for Process Control


Operating system services are sets of routines, which are required for operating and
administering the applications. In an operating system, the categories of operating
system services available are process control, file management and device
management. Application programmers use operating system services to use
operating system functionality.
Operating system services are invoked by system calls, which provide an interface
between a process and the operating system. You can invoke a system call in UNIX
from a C or C++ program. In the Windows environment, the system calls are a part
of the Windows Application Programming Interface (Win32 API), which is a library
of functions. In a program, you can invoke system calls as functions. When system
calls are invoked at run-time they transfer control to the kernel.
The architecture of various multiprogramming operating systems differs in terms of
functionality and availability of resources. The minimal set of operating system
services for handling the processes is almost similar. The names of the various
system calls vary from one operating system to another, but all of them perform the
same function. The system calls for process management available in various
operating systems are as follows:
• Create system call: It creates a blank process control block or obtains a
process control block from the pool of free process control blocks. The
operating system stores the deleted process control blocks in the pool of free
process control blocks. The operating system generates a process id and
assigns it to the new process. The other attributes are copied to the process
control block of the new process and the process is transferred to the ready
queue. A process can be created only by another process. This means a
process is not self-created rather a process gives birth to another process.The
term attributes, here, indicates the fields in the process control block.
• Fork system call: It facilitates creation of a process by bifurcation of an
existing process. In other words, the fork system call creates a duplicate
process. The new process is called the child of the existing process from
22 Self-Instructional Material
which the fork system call has been invoked. The values in the various fields, An Overview of Operating Systems

except the process id field of the process control block of the existing system,
are copied to the process control block of the new process. In other words,
the child process becomes a copy of the parent process with a different
process id. NOTES
• Execute system call: It executes a process and you need to invoke this
system call after creating a process. The execute system call can modify the
data in the child process and runs it as separate process from its parent
process.
• Delete system call: It terminates a process. A process can be deleted by itself
or from another process. A common practice in almost all the multitasking
operating systems is that a process can only be allowed to delete itself if none
of its child processes is active.
After deletion of a process, the operating system releases and reclaims the
resources such as file or memory space allocated to the deleted process. The
process control block of the deleted process is shifted to the pool of deleted
processes.
• Abort system call: It is similar to the delete system call, except that the abort
call is invoked for forceful termination of a process. While executing the
abort system call, the operating system performs similar tasks as in case of
delete system call, but it saves the information regarding the process. The
operating system displays the information such as reason for aborting the
process and values of the registers at the time of aborting, in a file on the
computer.
• Wait system call: It suspends the execution of a running process and waits
for the completion of an I/O operation or another process. This is known as
blocking of a process. A process can block itself, or any other process,
provided it has access to the process to be blocked. While executing the wait
system call, the operating system stores the values of the registers into the
process control block and inserts the process into the waiting queue.
• Resume system call: It is used for restoring a blocked process and is also
known as wake_up. A process cannot invoke the resume system call itself
because a process must be in running state to invoke a system call. A
suspended process needs another process for its restoration. While executing
the resume system call, the operating system changes the state of the process
from waiting to ready, and shifts the process from the waiting queue to the
ready queue.
• Get_Attributes system call: It retrieves the current status of a process.
Usually a blank attribute set and the concerned process id are passed as
parameters to the get_attributes system call. The operating system copies the
current values of the attributes of the concerned process, its process control
block to the attribute set.
For example, the following code shows how to retrieve the values of the
attributes of the process, 30189 into the variable attrib_set_1.
get_attribute(30189, attrib_set_1);
Following code shows how to access the attributes of a process.
display attrib_set_1.priority;
• Set_Attributes system call: It assigns values to various attributes access
rights, and priority of a process. Usually the new values of the attributes are
Self-Instructional Material 23
Handling Operating Systems passed to the system call as a parameter. The operating system copies the
new values of the attributes to the appropriate fields in the process control
block. Following code represents setting the priority attribute of the process,
30189, to 4:
NOTES attrib_set_1.priority = 4;
...
...
set_attribute(30189, attrib_set_1);
The attribute_set_1 is an abstract data type variable, which stores the new
values of the attributes of the process, 30189.
• Alter_Priority system call: It changes the priority of a process in run-time.
This can also be done using the set_attribute system call.
• Allocate_Free_Memory system call: It allots memory space to a process
from heap. The part of the main memory, from which memory space is
allocated to user processes in run-time, is known as heap. After allotting the
memory space from heap, the operating system updates the memory
management information in the process control block.

1.7.1.2 Scheduling Queues


All the processes, which enter in a system, are first put into the ready queue and then
from the ready queue these processes are picked by the CPU for execution. This
queue is stored as a linked list in the system memory. The ready queue has a header
that contains the pointers for the first and final PCB in the form of a list. Every PCB
includes a pointer that points to the next PCB in the ready queue. Figure 1.15 shows
the concept of scheduling queues for process scheduling.

Figure 1.15: Queuing Representation of Process Scheduling

24 Self-Instructional Material
The ready queues are represented by rectangles. The circles in the queue represent An Overview of Operating Systems

the resources that serve the queue, and the arrows represent the flow of information.
When a process enters in a system, it is put into the ready queue where the process
has to wait, until it is allowed to further enter in CPU for execution. When a process
enters in CPU, it starts executing the process. During the execution of a process, NOTES
following events occur:
1. A process is placed in the ready queue when it generates an I/O request.
2. A process may initiate a new sub-process and it has to wait for execution
until the sub-process completes its execution.
3. If an interruption occurs, then a process might be removed from CPU and is
placed again in the ready queue.

1.7.1.3 Schedulers
Every process moves through all the queues till its execution is complete. A
scheduler is an operating system module that selects the next process to be submitted
in the system for execution. There are two types of schedulers, long-term scheduler
and short-term scheduler, which select a process from the queue for execution. The
main difference between these two types of schedulers is with regard to their
frequency of execution of a process.
• Long-Term Scheduler: A long-term scheduler selects a process from a
number of processes and loads it in the system memory for execution. A
long-term scheduler works with the batch queue, which contains low priority
programs and selects the batch process for execution. It controls the degree
of multiprogramming, which refers to the total number of processes present
for execution in the system memory. If the degree of multiprogramming is
stable, then the average rate of process creation is equal to the average
departure rate of process. This scheduler has more time to decide which
process should be executed first, because there is a long time gap between
the execution of two processes. This scheduler provides the best performance
by selecting the processes from both, the I/O bound process and the CPU
bound process. The I/O bound processes spend most of their time in I/O
operations. CPU bound processes are the processes that spend most of their
time in instruction execution rather than generating I/O requests.
• Short-Term Scheduler: A short-term scheduler is also known as CPU
scheduler. This scheduler selects a process from different processes, which
are ready for execution and allocates CPU to the selected process. This type
of scheduler executes a process once in every 100 milliseconds and hence, it
is very fast and selects a process for CPU frequently. There is another type of
scheduler that is generally used by the time-sharing operating system. This
scheduler is known as medium-term scheduler. The main idea of introducing
a medium-term scheduler is that it improves the mixing of various processes,
which includes both, CPU and I/O bound processes with the help of
swapping. Swapping is a method of moving processes in and out from the
memory.

1.7.2 Memory Management


A computer uses two types of storage: main memory and secondary memory. The
main memory stores temporarily the instructions to be executed by the computer. The
CPU of a computer retrieves instructions from main memory for execution. On the
other hand, secondary memory is constituted by various secondary storage devices
Self-Instructional Material 25
Handling Operating Systems such as magnetic disks and magnetic tapes, which store information permanently in
the form of files.
Main memory, RAM, is the temporary read/write memory of a computer but faster
than the secondary storage device. Main memory is a set of locations defined by
NOTES sequentially numbered addresses for storing programs for execution, and each
location contains a binary number. You can access each byte of RAM directly
without reading the previous bytes sequentially.
Each byte in a RAM has an address. The addresses are usually sequential
hexadecimal numbers. Mostly, the addresses of RAM start from 00000.
The memory address that is referred to an instruction can be mentioned in two ways.
When the exact location of a byte in RAM is mentioned, the addressing scheme is
called absolute addressing. The address itself is called an absolute address.
For example, the address 5508 indicates a specific location in the RAM, and 5508 is
the absolute address of the location.
Similarly, a counter can also be used for locating an address. For example, the
starting address of a program in memory is 54EE. This address is the root or base
address. All the addresses in this program are relative to the address 54EE, such as 8
bytes from the address 54EE. The instruction in the program is: add the content of the
address 3 to the content at address 4.
The addresses, 3 and 4 here are relative and refer to the third and fourth location in
the main memory starting from the root address 54EE. This is called relative
addressing and the address itself is called relative address.

1.7.2.1 Address Binding


A program is a set of sequential instructions, which are given to a computer. The
programs are usually stored in a secondary storage device as an executable file.
When you run a program, the computer reads the instructions and loads them as
process in the ready queue.
A ready queue is a collection of processes, which are to be executed by a computer.
The operating system selects a process sequentially from the ready queue and
executes it.
The transformation of a source code to an executable program is done in various
phases. Figure 1.16 shows how a source code is transformed into an executable
program.

26 Self-Instructional Material
An Overview of Operating Systems

NOTES

Figure 1.16: Sequence of Transformation of Source Code into an Executable Program

The source code is converted into a machine-readable form known as object code. A
linker combines various object codes that have been compiled or assembled
separately into a format, known as load module.
The compiler is a program that transforms a source program written in any computer
language such as C, COBOL or Prolog into an object code, which is understandable
to the computer. An assembler is a program that converts an assembly language
program into object code.
A linker is a program that combines multiple number of object codes. A loader is a
program that loads program into memory for execution. There are three types of
loading:

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Handling Operating Systems
• Absolute: It loads a program into a specific or fixed location in the memory.
• Relocatable: It loads a program at any random location in the memory.
Relative addressing is used in relocatable loading.
NOTES • Dynamic: It loads a function, when the function is called for the first time. In
other words, a loader does not bind any external reference of an object code
until the external reference is used.
Address binding is the process of generating memory addresses, where the
instructions and data of a program are to be stored. Address binding can be classified
into two types:
• Static: It resolves the addresses of instruction and data before execution. In
other words, the addresses of instructions and data in the memory are known
before loading them. Static binding can be of two types:
o Compile time: It resolves the addresses of instruction and data at the
time of compilation of a program. The compilers or assemblers
generate absolute addresses for the symbolic addresses of variables
and function names at the time of compilation.
o Load time: It resolves the addresses of instruction and data at the
time of loading the program in memory, but in some cases, the value
of an address is not known at compile time. In the first phase, the
compiler or assembler converts the symbolic addresses into relative
addresses. In the next phase, loader transforms the relative address
into an absolute address.
• Dynamic: It determines the address, where instructions and data are to be
loaded, at the execution time.

1.7.2.2 Logical and Physical Address Space


The location in main memory is uniquely identified by an address. This is called
physical address of main memory, RAM. The addresses generated by the CPU are
known as logical or virtual addresses. While writing a program, the programmer
refers to only logical addresses because referring to physical addresses is not allowed.
The set of all logical addresses in main memory is called logical address space. The
set of all physical addresses is called physical address space. These logical addresses
are converted into physical addresses and the procedure to convert a logical address
into a physical address is called memory mapping.
The hardware unit that converts a logical address into a physical address is called
Memory Management Unit (MMU). There are several methods for memory
mapping, and the simplest one uses a relocation register. The base address of a
program is loaded at the relocation register. A physical address is calculated by
adding the value of the relocation register to the value of logical address.
For example, the base address of a program is 28000. If there is reference of a logical
address 442 in the program, then the logical address 442 is added to the content of the
base register to generate the corresponding physical address, 28442.

1.7.2.3 Memory Partitioning


Main memory is divided into certain fixed size or variable-sized partitions. In fixed
partitioning scheme, each part or slot can be of equal or unequal size. In variable size
partitioning, the memory is partitioned on run-time depending upon the requirement
of the programs running on the computer. In variable size partitioning, which is also
known as dynamic partitioning, no fixed partition of memory exists. The operating
28 Self-Instructional Material
system occupies only a certain part of memory, when it is loaded on a computer and An Overview of Operating Systems

the rest of the memory is used by the user applications.


In equal size partitioning, an application is loaded into one or more slots. The
applications occupy a certain number of memory space slots according to their
requirement. For example, the memory space of capacity, 128 MB is divided into 8 NOTES
equal size slots of size 16 MB, each. Two applications, X and Y require 32 and 50
MB, respectively. In this case, application X requires 2 slots of memory and
application Y requires 4 slots of memory. The 14 MB memory space ((4 * 16) – 50),
which is allocated to an application Y, will remain unused. This unused space is
called fragment and the concept is called fragmentation.
In unequal size partitioning, an application is loaded into a slot whose capacity is
greater than or equal to the memory requirement of the application. For example, a
64 MB memory is divided into 5 slots of the capacity 8 MB, 8 MB, 16 MB and 32
MB. The two applications, X and Y require 8 and 10 MB memory space,
respectively. Application, X is loaded into one of the 8 MB memory space.
Application Y is loaded into the 16 MB slot, and 6 MB memory space will remain
unused. Application Y could also be allocated the 32 MB space but in that case, 22
MB memory space will remain unused. An operating system aims to optimise
memory utilisation. Figure 1.17 shows how memory is divided in fixed size equal
and unequal slots.

Figure 1.17: Fixed Partitioning with Equal and Unequal Size Slots

Self-Instructional Material 29
Handling Operating Systems In equal size partitioning, the 64 MB RAM has been divided into 8 parts of the
memory size 8 MB each where the operating system occupies the first part.
Application 1 needs 24 MB memory space and thus, occupies three slots of 8 MB
each. Application 2 requires 8 MB memory space and occupies a single slot, and the
NOTES rest of the slots remain unused.
In unequal size partitioning, the memory has been divided into five parts or slots of
different sizes. The operating system occupies the first slot. Application 1 requires 24
MB memory space and occupies three slots, and application 2 requires 8 MB
memory space and occupies only a single memory slot.
Another approach used for partitioning the main memory is dynamic partitioning. In
this method, there are no fixed size static partitions in memory. The memory
partitions are created in run-time while allocating memory space to processes. For
example, the size of main memory in a computer is 32 MB. A process needs 2 MB
memory space for execution. So, a memory partition of 2 MB size is created and
allocated to that process.
In certain situations, the application, which needs to be executed, requires more
memory space than the capacity of the memory. The application consists of multiple
modules, and may not require all the modules, simultaneously. The concept of
overlays implement a modular approach in allocating memory spaces to an
application. Here, all the modules are not required at the same time.
For example, an application consists of four modules, A, B, C and D. Modules, A and
B are required throughout the execution of the application. While modules, C and D
are not required at the same time. Module C is required first and module D is
required after the completion of the task of module C. The memory management is in
the following manner:
• Loads the modules, A, B and C initially.
• Releases the module C when it is not required, and the tasks in module C are
completed.
• Loads module D in the memory.
You need to add a small module in your application, known as overlay driver for
overlay management.
An overlay driver releases the modules that are not required and loads other modules
that will be required in the succeeding stages of the execution of the application.
Figure 1.18 shows how overlays are implemented.

30 Self-Instructional Material
An Overview of Operating Systems

NOTES

Figure 1.18: Memory Management Using Overlays

Figure 1.18 elaborates the memory image while executing the application that uses
overlays. The size of the memory is 64 MB and operating system itself requires 8
MB memory space. So, the user applications can use the remaining 56 MB memory
space.
The application to be loaded in the memory has four parts: main module, data and
two functions, A and B. All of these four parts require 58 MB memory space
whereas, the available memory space is only 56 MB.
The use of overlays makes it possible to load and execute the application. The main
module and data are required to be loaded throughout the execution time. Function, A
and B are not required simultaneously. Function A is required first and later, when
function B is executed, function A is not required. Hence, initially the main module,
data and function A are loaded and when function A is not required it is released
from the memory and function B is loaded in place of function A. An overlay driver
manages the releasing of function A from the memory and loading function B. The
overlay driver itself takes 1MB memory space.

1.7.3 Resource Management


In resource management, the resources of distributed system are divided into two
broad categories, I/O devices and files. Files are the central element in a distributed
system as they provide input to an application for execution and the output of the
execution is also recorded in the files.
For each I/O operation, you need to access the files that are stored on disks or on
specialised servers, which are only assigned with the function of managing file
system. In order to achieve a high rate of data transfer and increase performance,
CPU enhances the rate of processing I/O operations of files. As the client has to
access remote files, so it becomes critical to access the files in case of a distributed
system.
Self-Instructional Material 31
Handling Operating Systems 1.7.3.1 Distributed File System
Distributed File System (DFS) is a part of distributed system that provides uniform
interface to all the files and makes files sharable on a network. DFS helps in
managing and controlling the communication between the file system and the
NOTES distributed operating system. Figure 1.19 depicts the architecture of DFS.

Figure 1.19: Architecture of DFS Network

In order to explain DFS you need to understand the resource management concepts
such as file service, file server and client.
File service: It is a part of software that specifies how a file system offers services to
the clients and what all services does it offer.
File server: It is a machine, where files are stored. It also implements file services.
Clients: These are the users of the files and file services. The various operations such
as read, write, create, open and close are performed by these clients on files. The files
should be accessed by clients in such a manner so that the throughput of network
increases and the communication delay decreases. Also, the distributed file system
must hide the hardware-related complexities of files from the client, so that the file
system should be transparent to clients and appear as a centralised file system.
An operating system uses various mechanisms for enhancing the speed of I/O and
CPU performance. Using these mechanisms, a user can overcome the bottleneck of
CHECK YOUR PROGRESS centralised file system that occurs when the file server of centralised system is
4. Give examples of single-user heavily loaded with a large number of requests. Various mechanisms used by
operating system. operating system include naming schemes, remote file access or caching files and file
5. Which job scheduling replication.
algorithm is used by batch
operating system for process
execution?
6. Parallel operating systems are
also known as _________

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An Overview of Operating Systems
1.7.3.2 Remote File Access
In a distributed system, files are located on specialised servers. These servers are
responsible for holding large disks for storing files such as RAID. These disks
provide either the entire file or a part of file that is requested by a host to perform I/O NOTES
operations or data processing. This mechanism is known as remote file access. It
provides transparency to an end-user who can access any file remotely, regardless of
its location.
You can perform remote file access in following ways:
• Uploading: In this method, the queries are sent to the location of files for
processing. This method reduces the bottleneck that occurs in the network
but leads to overloading of server because all the processing is done at the
server side.
• Downloading: In this method, files are sent to host or client side. This
mechanism is considered as a simple and efficient method when a client
requires the entire file for processing. The problem associated with this
method is that when a portion of file is required, the entire file is processed.
In such a case, this method becomes expensive and uses a lot of disk space
and time in downloading a complete file.
• Remote Access: In this method, the client remotely access the files that are
present in the network. The client does not interfere with the application that
is running either at the server side or at the client side. If the application is
running at the server side, then the client sends the query to the server. The
query is processed at the server and the result is forwarded to the client. If the
application is running at the client side, then a portion of the requested file is
transmitted to the client and processing of query is done locally. Moreover,
an operating system stores files in the cache to avoid repeated searching.
Remote file access uses cache for increasing the performance of network by reducing
the network traffic and disk I/O because, in remote file access transferring of the
complete file is not required.

1.7.3.3 Cache Mechanism


Cache is a temporary storage area where blocks of files are stored for fast recovery. If
the desired block is not present in the cache, then a copy of this block is accessed
from the file server where it is stored.
Cache contains data, which is a copy of master file stored on server. This means
when the end-user modifies the copy of data, the master copy also needs to be
modified so that consistency of data can be maintained. The cache always consist of
more data than it requires, in order to satisfy different requests, simultaneously.
Figure 1.20 shows the working of cache in distributed system.

Self-Instructional Material 33
Handling Operating Systems

NOTES

Figure 1.20: Working of Cache in Distributed System

In cache mechanism, the client machine requests a query and searches its local cache
for the required block of data. If the client machine is not able to find the required
data, then it searches the required block in the server cache. Again, if the client
machine does not get the required block the query is transferred to the server. The
server performs the required searches and stores the desired block into its cache from
where the block is transferred to the client’s cache.
If the data in the cache is modified, then the modified data is sent back to the server
for permanent storage, to maintain data consistency.

1.7.3.4 Cache-Update Policy


Blocks of data are transferred from files to server and from server to files, constantly
through cache. This transfer of data affects the consistency of data, which makes the
situation more critical for a distributed system. For maintaining consistency and
reliability of files, an operating system has to adopt some policies for writing the
modified data onto the master copy. Following are the policies adopted by an
operating system:
• Write-Through: It is the most reliable policy that maintains data
consistency, even if the system crashes. In this policy, the master copy is
updated as soon as the data in cache is modified. This policy has a
disadvantage that it provides poor performance because the system has to
perform an update function for master copy after every modification of data
in cache.
• Delayed Write: In this policy, the data is updated in cache and the master
copy is updated after a short interval of time. The drawback of this policy is
the poor reliability because the system crash result in the loss of unwritten
data. Unwritten data is the data that is not updated permanently in the master
copy.
• Write-on-close: This policy is a variation of delayed write policy. This is the
best policy when files are required for a long period of time and are accessed
frequently. Using this policy, the master copy is updated only after the file is
closed. The main disadvantage of this policy is that the user might loose the
data when the system crashes.
• Write periodically policy: In this policy, the master copy is updated after a
definite interval of time. For example, the master copy is updated after every
34 Self-Instructional Material
40 seconds. It is also the variation of the delayed write policy. In this policy, An Overview of Operating Systems

the data can be lost only at the last interval of time.


Different operating systems use different policies to maintain consistency in their
database. Besides disk consistency, you need to maintain cache consistency too.
NOTES
1.7.3.5 Cache Consistency
The block of files, which reside in the cache, become outdated after the request is
satisfied. It may be possible that more than one process access the same block of data
for multiple number of times. It may be possible that the block of data present in
cache does not match with the master file. Thus, the latest copy of the file is required
to be cached. An operating system adopts the following two approaches for verifying
the validity of data blocks:
• Server-initiated Approach: According to this approach, a server maintains
records of every part of file that resides in the client cache. It also detects the
potential conflicts that arise by caching a file by two or more clients, and
solves these conflicts by implementing session semantics. According to
session semantics, writes are visible only after the completion of a session or
a short time interval and after the client closes the file in which the client was
working. The server also notifies the client if it is using the same file for
checking the invalidity of that cache file. Writes are visible immediately to
the clients if a server implements UNIX semantics. Clients have to declare
the mode of operation before opening the file. If two or more clients want to
write on the same cache then the server disables the cache.
• Client-initiated Approach: According to this approach, clients check the
validity of a cache file. Client contacts the server and asks if the copy of file,
which is present in the cache, is consistent with the master copy. Client
initiates the check after every access or after a definite interval of time or at
the time of opening the file.

1.8 SUMMARY
An operating system is a software that acts as an interface between a user and a
computer. An operating system performs various tasks for managing memory,
process input/output devices and files of the system. An operating system can be
classified into different types such as single user, multi-user, batch processing, multi-
programming, multitasking, parallel system and distributed system. An operating
system provides services according to the user’s choice.

1.9 ANSWERS TO ‘CHECK YOUR PROGRESS’


1. Power On Self Test
2. Character User Interface and Graphical User Interface.
3. Space multiplexing defines the concurrent sharing of resources among
different programs. Sharing of a hard disk and main memory are examples of
space multiplexing.
4. MS-DOS and Palm OS for Palm hand-held computers.

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Handling Operating Systems
5. First Come First Serve
6. Multiprocessor

NOTES 1.10 EXERCISES AND QUESTIONS


Short-Answer Questions
1. What do you mean by operating system?
2. Explain the different types of operating systems.
3. Give a description of memory locations used by an operating system for
loading.
4. Explain parallel operating system.
5. What is the need for monitoring the performance of an operating system?
6. Explain the concept of remote file access.

Long-Answer Questions
1. Explain the different services provided by an operating system.
2. Compare the single-user operating system and the multi-user operating
system.
3. What do you mean by real-time operating system?
4. What do you mean by distributed operating system?
5. What are the various tools required for monitoring the performance of
operating system?
6. List out the differences between monolithic and layered architecture?

1.11 FURTHER READING


Tanenbaum, Andrew S., Modern Operating System.

36 Self-Instructional Material
Handling NetWare
UNIT 2 HANDLING NETWARE
Structure
NOTES
2.0 Introduction
2.1 Unit Objectives
2.2 Overview of NetWare
2.3 Installing NetWare 6
2.4 Summary
2.5 Answers to ‘Check your Progress’
2.6 Exercises and Questions
2.7 Further Reading

2.0 INTRODUCTION
NetWare is a network operating system, which helps implement LAN in a computer.
To implement LAN, various requirements such as Pentium II or better processor, 256
MB RAM and 2.2 GB free space in hard disk, are prespecified by the distributor. The
Netware Installation kit contains two CDs, the first CD helps install NetWare
operating system whereas, the second CD helps install tools of NetWare operating
system.

2.1 UNIT OBJECTIVES


In this unit, you will learn about:
• The concept of NetWare
• The hardware and software requirements to install NetWare
• The various steps in installing NetWare

2.2 OVERVIEW OF NETWARE


Novell, Inc. developed NetWare, which is a LAN operating system for implementing
multitasking on a computer. NetWare operating system supports different types of
LANs, from Ethernets to IBM token-ring networks. It provides an interface to users
and programmers, which is independent of the hardware of the computer.

2.3 INSTALLING NETWARE 6


To install NetWare 6, first you need to meet hardware and software requirements of
NetWare operating system. The various hardware and software requirements for
installing NetWare operating system are:
• A Video Graphic Array (VGA) monitor, keyboard, mouse with a PS/2
connector or a USB (Mouse is generally optional, but it is required while
working with NetWare operating system).
• 256 MB of RAM, or in case of WebSphere, Apache Web server or NetWare
Enterprise Web server, then you need 512 MB of RAM.

Self-Instructional Material 37
Handling Operating Systems • A computer compatible with at least Pentium II.
• Hard disk with at least 2.2 GB of free space.
• A CD-ROM drive, which can read ISO 9660 formatted CD-ROMs.
NOTES • A 3.5” disk drive and 200 MB DOS partition.
• A network board.
You need to insert NetWare Installation CD - I in CD drive to start the installation
process of NetWare. The NetWare installation wizard starts. You need to perform
following steps to install NetWare on a computer:
1. The first screen of the NetWare installation wizard appears, as shown in
Figure 2.1.

Figure 2.1: Editing Regional Settings for the Server

Note: By default, regional settings are set for the server.

2. Accept the default settings and click Continue to display the license
agreement for installing NetWare in which you accept an option to continue
the installation process, as shown in Figure 2.2.

38 Self-Instructional Material
Handling NetWare

NOTES

Figure 2.2: The License Agreement for Installing NetWare Screen

3. Press the F10 key to accept the license agreement and display the ‘Welcome
to the NetWare server installation’ screen in which you can select custom
install or express install. Figure 2.3 shows the NetWare server installation
screen.

Figure 2.3: The Welcome to the NetWare Server Installation Screen

Note: Express install option sets up a server using standard settings, whereas,
custom install option allows you to specify settings for the user environment. By
default, Express is entered in ‘Is this an express install or custom install?’ section.

4. Accept the default settings and select the Continue option to display the
‘Prepare boot partition’ screen in which you configure boot partition, as
shown in Figure 2.4.

Self-Instructional Material 39
Handling Operating Systems

NOTES

Figure 2.4: Prepare Boot Partition Screen

Note: By default, 6149.9 MB free space is available in the Partitions on hard disk 0
section.

5. Select the Modify option to display the screen in which you can enter the size
of the boot partition, as shown in Figure 2.5.

Figure 2.5: Entering the Size of the Boot Partition

6. Enter 2039.5 in the ‘Size in MB’ text box in the ‘Enter new DOS Partition
size’ (in MB) section.
7. Select the Continue option to display the size of DOS partitions and available
free space in the disk, as shown in Figure 2.6.

40 Self-Instructional Material
Handling NetWare

NOTES

Figure 2.6: The Size of DOS Partitions and Free Space Screen

8. Select the Continue option to display the ‘Select the Settings for the server’
screen in which you can edit the server settings such as ‘Server ID number’
and ‘Video’, as shown in Figure 2.7.

Figure 2.7: Editing the Server Settings

Note: By default, the server has some predefined settings in Server Settings section.

9. Accept the default settings and select the Continue option to copy the driver
files from STARTUP to NWSERVER that are the folders created in the C
drive to store all the driver files, as shown in Figure 2.8.

Self-Instructional Material 41
Handling Operating Systems

NOTES

Figure 2.8: Copying Driver Files From Startup to NWServer

10. After completion of copying process of driver files from the STARTUP
folder to the NWSERVER folder, a screen appears, which displays Platform
Support Module and HotPlug Support Module and Storage adapters. These
device types and driver names are detected for installing the NetWare server,
as shown in Figure 2.9.

Figure 2.9: Device Types and Driver Names Detected in Server

Note: By default, Platform Support Module, HotPlug Support Module and Storage
adapters and corresponding driver names are listed in Device types and Driver
names list.

11. Accept the default settings and click the Continue option to display
additional drivers detected for NetWare server, as shown in Figure 2.10.

42 Self-Instructional Material
Handling NetWare

NOTES

Figure 2.10: Displaying Additional Drivers

12. Press F10 key to display various storage devices and network boards and
their corresponding drivers in the NetWare server screen, as shown in Figure
2.11.

Figure 2.11: Storage Devices and Network Boards and their Corresponding Drivers

Note: By default, Storage devices, Network boards and Storage adapters and
NetWare Loadable Modules corresponding driver names are listed in the Device
types and Driver names list.

13. Select the Continue option to display the ‘NetWare Installation – NSS
Management Utility’ screen in which the default settings for SYS (system)
Volume are displayed that includes device name, storage space and sys
volume size, as shown in Figure 2.12.

Self-Instructional Material 43
Handling Operating Systems

NOTES

Figure 2.12: The NetWare Installation – NSS Management Utility Screen

Note: In the NetWare Installation – NSS Management Utility screen the options in
Create SYS Volume section are selected by pressing the Enter key.

14. Select the Create option to display the main menu list in which you can select
various options such as ‘Devices’ and ‘Partitions’ to display the information
related to devices and partitions of the NetWare server, as shown in Figure
2.13.

Figure 2.13: The Main Menu

Note: By default the Continue Installation option is selected in the Main Menu
section.

15. Accept the default settings and press the Enter key to display the ‘Choose a
Pattern’ window containing the ‘Please select the desired pattern to install’
list in which you can select a type of NetWare server such as Pre-Migration
Server and Basic NetWare File Server, as shown in Figure 2.14.
44 Self-Instructional Material
Handling NetWare

NOTES

Figure 2.14: The Choose a Pattern Window

Note: By default, the Customized NetWare Server option is selected in the ‘Please
select the desired pattern to install’ list.

16. Accept the default settings and click Next to display the ‘Components’
window in which you can select various components such as iPrint and
MySQL in the ‘Please select the components to install’ list, as shown in
Figure 2.15.

Self-Instructional Material 45
Handling Operating Systems

NOTES

Figure 2.15: The Components Window

Note: After selecting the components in the Please select the components to install,
you will need NetWare Installation CD - II to install the components.

17. Click Next to display the ‘Advanced’ window containing the Config.sys
section in which you can modify the configuration of the Config.sys file, as
shown in Figure 2.16.

Figure 2.16: The Advanced Window


46 Self-Instructional Material
Note: By default, the Config.sys file is already configured in the Config.sys section. Handling NetWare

18. Accept the default settings and click Next to display the ‘Encryption’
window in which you select the location of the license directory using
browse button, as shown in Figure 2.17. NOTES

Figure 2.17: The Encryption Window

19. Click the browse button to display the Browser window in which you can
expand the R node to display various subnodes such as License and Install,
as shown in Figure 2.18.

Self-Instructional Material 47
Handling Operating Systems

NOTES

Figure 2.18: The Browser Window

20. Select the LICENSE subnode and click OK to open the ‘Protocols’ window
containing the Protocols section in which you can enter the values in
different fields such as IP Address and Subnet Mask, as shown in Figure
2.19.

Figure 2.19: Specifying IP Address and Subnet Mask


48 Self-Instructional Material
21. Enter 192.168.0.148 in the ‘IP Address’ text box, 255.255.255.0 in the Handling NetWare

‘Subnet Mask’ and select the IP check box in the Protocols section.

Note: The IP address varies from computer to computer and values of subnet also
varies if the network is divided into more than one subnetwork. You need not specify NOTES
value in the Router(Gateway) text box only if you want to use router in your network.

22. Click Next to display the ‘Domain Name Service’ window in which you can
specify the host name and domain name in the ‘Host name’ and ‘Domain’
text boxes, respectively, as shown in Figure 2.20.

Figure 2.20: The Domain Name Service Window

23. Enter a name such as server1 in the ‘Host name’ text box and
TestingNetWare6.com in the ‘Domain’ text box.
24. Click Next to display the ‘Time Zone’ window in which you can select the
appropriate time zone from the ‘Time Zone’ list, as shown in Figure 2.21.

Self-Instructional Material 49
Handling Operating Systems

NOTES

Figure 2.21: The Time Zone Window

25. Select Indian time zone from the ‘Time Zone’ list and click Next to display
the ‘eDirectory Installation’ window, which helps create a new eDirectory
tree or installing server into an existing eDirectory, as shown in Figure 2.22.

Figure 2.22: The eDirectory Installation Window

50 Self-Instructional Material
Note: Directory tree is a tool, which helps represent various assets such as people, Handling NetWare

positions, servers and workstations in a hierarchical structure. In eDirectory


Installation window, the Install server into an existing eDirectory or NDS option is
selected by default.
NOTES
26. Select the ‘Create a new eDirectory tree’ option in the ‘Select your desired
eDirectory installation type’ section.
27. Click Next to display a window for creating a new tree in which you can add
values in the given text boxes such as ‘Tree name’, ‘Context for server
object’ to create a new eDirectory tree, as shown in Figure 2.23.

Figure 2.23: Creating a New Tree

28. Enter Tree1 in the ‘Tree Name’ text box and O = Lab in the ‘Context for
Server Object’ text box. Enter a password in the ‘Password’ text box and
re-enter the password in the ‘Retype Password’ text box.
29. Click Next to display the eDirectory Summary window, which shows the
values you have entered in the ‘Tree Name’, ‘Context for Server Object’ and
‘Admin name’ text boxes, as shown in Figure 2.24.

Self-Instructional Material 51
Handling Operating Systems

NOTES

Figure 2.24: The eDirectory Summary Window

30. Click Next to display the ‘Licenses’ window in which you can set the path
for license file in the ‘License Location’ text box, as shown in Figure 2.25.

Figure 2.25: The License Window

52 Self-Instructional Material
31. Select the ‘Install without licenses’ check box and Click next to display the Handling NetWare

‘LDAP Configuration’ window, in which you can specify the LDAP ports, as
shown in Figure 2.26.

NOTES

Figure 2.26: The LDAP Configuration Window

Note: By default, the value of Clear Text Port is 389 and the value of SSL/TLS Port is
636.

32. Accept the default settings and Click Next to display the ‘iFolder Server
Options’ window, which displays various server options such as ‘LDAP Host
Name or IP’ and ‘User Database Path’ in the iFolder Server Options section,
as shown in Figure 2.27.

Formatted:
CHECK YOUR Bullets and Numbering
PROGRESS
1. Define ‘NetWare’.
2. Who developed the NetWare
operating system?
3. ____ of RAM or ___of RAM
is required if server is running
WebSphere, Apache Web
server or NetWare Enterprise
Web server.
4. What is NSS?
5. How many CDs are required
to install NetWare?
6. What is LDAP?

Self-Instructional Material 53
Handling Operating Systems

NOTES

Figure 2.27: The iFolder Server Options Window

Note: By default, values are specified for the LDAP Context for Admins, iFolder
Server Host Name or IP, iFolder Admain Name(s) and User Database Path text
boxes.

33. Accept the default settings and click Next to display the ‘Installation
complete’ window, which displays that to complete installation of NetWare,
remove CD and restart the computer, as shown in Figure 2.28.

Figure 2.28: The Installation Complete Window

2.4 SUMMARY
NetWare operating system helps implement various types of LANs such as Ethernet
and IBM token ring networks. The NetWare operating system requires a 200 MB
DOS partition in the hard disk and 512 MB RAM to support various Web servers
such as WebSphere and Apache. The NetWare operating system contains the
Edirectory tree tool, which helps maintain various resources such as people, servers
and workstations in a hierarchical structure in a network.

54 Self-Instructional Material
Handling NetWare
2.5 ANSWERS TO ‘CHECK YOUR PROGRESS’
1. NetWare is a Local Area Network (LAN) operating system for implementing
multitasking on a computer.
NOTES
2. Novell Inc.
3. 256 MB and 512 MB
4. Novell Storage Services (NSS) is a 64-bit file system of NetWare
5. Novel NetWare installation kit contains two CDs. The first CD helps install
Novel NetWare operating system whereas, the second CD helps install tools
of NetWare operating system.
6. Light Weight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) is an Internet protocol that
allows you access various programs such as email and data from a server.

2.6 EXERCISES AND QUESTIONS


Short-Answer Questions
1. State value of IP address for installing NetWare.
2. State value of Subnet Mask for installing NetWare.
3. Explain regional settings.
4. How you can prepare boot partition, while installing NetWare.

Long-Answer Questions
1. State various steps for creating ASP pages.
2. What are the various NetWare standards?
3. List various hardware and software requirements of NetWare?
4. Explain LDAP configuration in detail.

2.7 FURTHER READING


http://docs.rinet.ru/NT4/

Self-Instructional Material 55
Handling Operating Systems

NOTES

56 Self-Instructional Material
Managing User and Resources
UNIT 3 MANAGING USER AND
RESOURCES
NOTES
Structure
3.0 Introduction
3.1 Unit Objectives
3.2 User Objects: An Overview
3.3 Managing User Object
3.3.1 Creating User Object Using ConsoleOne;
3.3.2 Creating User Object with NetWare Administrator;
3.3.3 Setting User Property Information
3.4 Tools to Manage User and Resources
3.5 Managing Group Objects
3.5.1 Creating Group Object with ConsoleOne;
3.5.2 Adding Members to a Group Object;
3.5.3 Managing Group Object Using NetWare Administrator
3.6 Summary
3.7 Answers to ‘Check your Progress’
3.8 Exercises and Questions
3.9 Further Reading

3.0 INTRODUCTION
NetWare provides different methods to manage the users who use various network
resources. It is easier to manage a single user group than to manage individual users.
In NetWare, you can use ConsoleOne or NetWare Administrator to create and
manage groups and users.

3.1 UNIT OBJECTIVES


In this unit, you will learn about:
• The procedure to create and manage user objects
• The different NetWare tools
• The procedure to create and manage group objects

3.2 USER OBJECTS: AN OVERVIEW


All the NetWare users must have a user object in the NetWare. The user object is a
fundamental object in the NDS eDirectory that contains information about a specific
user. To create a user object the NetWare administrator requires the following
information:
• A unique username
• A non-empty last name field
The details of user object in NetWare are as follows:
• Group Membership: The user object if added to any group inherits the
rights associated with that group.
Self-Instructional Material 57
Handling Operating Systems • Home Directories: It acts as the personal disk space of the user of a user
object.
• Security Equivalences: This option is used if the rights assigned to one user
object have to be assigned to some other user object.
NOTES
• User Login Scripts: These are configurable network batch files of the
network that are used as a way to customise the network environment of the
user object.
• User Account Restrictions: This is used to set the access limit of the user.
• User Trustee Rights: These rights allow the user to access other NDS
objects.
• Print Job Configurations: This is used to configure print jobs details for
each user object.
• Account Manager: This is used to grant rights to a user object.

3.3 MANAGING USER OBJECT


NetWare provides ConsoleOne and NetWare Administrator programs to manage user
objects. To manage user object, you need to create the user object and set the
properties of the object.

3.3.1 Creating User Object Using ConsoleOne


ConsoleOne is a Java-based program, which is used to browse and organise network
resources, set up groups and user accounts, and control access to network resources.
It can be run from any computer that has Java Virtual Machine (JVM) installed.
To create a user object in NetWare using ConsoleOne, the following steps are
performed:
1. Start the ConsoleOne application.
2. In the ConsoleOne window expand the Entire Network by clicking the round
icon next to the My World icon and search the tree that you want to access.
3. Click the tree icon, which will then ask you to login.
4. Login as Admin, by entering the username as Admin and the respective
password.
5. To add a new user either click the New User icon on the ConsoleOne toolbar
or select File Æ New Æ User, to open the New User dialog box.
6. Enter the name of the user in the textbox on the side of the label ‘Name’ and
surname in the textbox on the side of the label ‘Surname’ and then click OK
button.
7. In the ‘Set Password’ window, enter the password and click OK button.

3.3.2 Creating User Object with NetWare Administrator


You can also use NetWare Administrator to manage and create a user object. To
access the NetWare Administrator you need to login with the Admin object. The
following steps are to be performed to create a user object using the NetWare
Administrator:

58 Self-Instructional Material
1. Load the NetWare Administrator program to open the NetWare Managing User and Resources

Administrator window.
2. To open the ‘New Object’ list box either press ‘Insert’ key or click the ‘User’
icon on the toolbar.
NOTES
3. From the ‘New Object’ list box select the user object and click OK.
4. Enter the name of the user in the textbox on the side of the label ‘Name’ and
surname in the textbox on the side of the label ‘Surname’ and then click OK
button.
5. In the ‘Set Password’ window, enter the password and click OK button.

3.3.3 Setting User Property Information


To set user information while creating the user object, you can check the ‘Define
Additional Properties’ check box in the ‘New User’ Dialog box. This will allow you
to set the user property information in the ‘Properties’ window of the user, which
groups the properties into the following tabs:
• Security: It includes controls for login sequences and certificates.
• Login Methods: It provides default NDS Password and Simple Password
options.
• General: It is used to set identification, postal address and other environment
related-information of the user.
• Role-based Services: It includes the owned roles that are attached to the user
object and the assigned roles that you want to assign to the user object.
• Restrictions: It includes different restrictions such as password restrictions,
login restrictions and time restrictions.
• Memberships: It includes ‘Group Membership’ and ‘Security Equal to Me’
tabs.
• Security Equal to Me: It is used to set security equivalence grants.
• Login Script: It includes the ‘Login Script Property’ page.
• NDS Rights: It includes different rights such as Trustees of This Object,
Inherited Rights Filter and Effective Rights.
• Other: It includes the Leftover attributes that are not handled by custom
pages in the NetWare.

3.4 TOOLS TO MANAGE USER AND RESOURCES


There are several tools provided by the NetWare to organise and manage users and
network resources. The following are the tools, which are used to organise user and
resources in the NetWare:
• Organization object: It is used to define one or more organizations under
the NDS eDirectory tree. All the objects of one organization will have the
same trustee rights and login scripts. It is the largest grouping object.
• Organization Unit object: It is the sub-unit of the organization object and
there can be more than one organization unit objects. The object under the
same organization unit object can be assigned common trustee rights and
login scripts.

Self-Instructional Material 59
Handling Operating Systems • Group object: It consists of a group of users sharing common directory
access rights.
• Profile object: It is used to place different users requiring similar work
environment in different containers. There is Profile object login script that
NOTES correspond to the Profile object that must be executed before the User object
login script. A user object can have only one Profile login script.
• Organization Role object: It is used to define specific roles such as
operations manager and team leader. There can be only one or two
organizational role object members.
• Role-based Services: It is used to upgrade the organizational role object and
provides specific object rights that a user granted RBS tasks could perform.
• User Template: It is a list of properties that are applied to the newly created
objects. The common information such as login time restrictions, addresses
and password restrictions are placed in the user template.

3.5 MANAGING GROUP OBJECTS


A group object consists of many user objects. It is more efficient to manage one
group object than many user objects. Either ConsoleOne or NetWare Administrator
program is used to create a group object.

3.5.1 Creating Group Object with ConsoleOne


ConsoleOne can be used to create and modify the group object from the NetWare
server console or any of the Windows workstations attached to the NetWare server.
The following steps are to be performed to create a group object using ConsoleOne:
1. Start the ConsoleOne application.
2. In the ‘ConsoleOne’ window expand the ‘Entire Network’ by clicking the
round icon next to the ‘My World’ icon and search the tree that you want to
access.
3. Click the tree, which will then ask you to login.
4. Login as Admin by entering the username as Admin and the respective
password.
5. To add a new group either click the ‘New Group’ icon on the ConsoleOne
toolbar or select File Æ New Æ Group, to open the ‘New Group’ dialog box.
6. Enter the group name in the textbox on the side of the label ‘Name’ and click
OK.
To define the properties of the group object perform the following steps:
CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Open the ConsoleOne, right click the group object that you want to modify
1. ConsoleOne is a __________ and select Properties from the popup menu.
based application.
2. What is organisation unit 2. Enter the information related to Owner, Location, Department, Organization
object? and Description fields.
3. State true or false:
NetWare Administrator
3. Click OK and exit from the property page to save the stored information.
program is used to create user
objects and group objects.

60 Self-Instructional Material
Managing User and Resources
3.5.2 Adding Members to a Group Object
The following steps should be performed to add members to a group object:
1. Open the ConsoleOne application, right click the group object that you want
to modify and select ‘Properties’ from the popup menu. NOTES
2. Select the Member tab from the Properties page of the group object.
3. Click the ‘Add’ button to add objects as members to the group object to open
the ‘Select object’ dialog box.
4. Select the object that you want to add from the ‘Select object’ dialog box and
click OK.
5. The selected object will appear in the ‘Members property’ page and click OK
and close the Property page.

3.5.3 Managing Group Objects Using NetWare Administrator


It is also possible to manage and create Group objects using the NetWare
Administrator program. The following steps are to be performed to create a group
object using the NetWare Administrator:
1. Load the NetWare Administrator program to open the NetWare
Administrator window.
2. Select the Organization or the Organization Unit container under which you
want to place the group object.
3. To open the ‘New Object’ list box press Insert key.
4. From the New Object list box select the group object and click OK.
5. Enter the group name in the textbox on the side of the label ‘Name’ and click
OK.
This will create a new group object.

3.6 SUMMARY
To create a new user in NetWare you need to create a new user object representing a
particular user using the NetWare network and its resources. A group object is used
to group different users to provide some common functionality and permissions.
ConsoleOne is a Java-based application used to create and manage user objects and
group objects. An administrator can easily create and manage different user objects
and group objects using the NetWare Administrator program.

3.7 ANSWERS TO ‘CHECK YOUR PROGRESS’


1. Java
2. Organization unit object is the sub-unit of the organization object. There can
be more than one Organization Unit objects. The object under the same
organization unit object can be assigned common trustee rights and login
scripts.
3. True

Self-Instructional Material 61
Handling Operating Systems
3.8 EXERCISES AND QUESTIONS
Short-Answer Questions
NOTES 1. Specify the two fields that are essential to create a user object in NetWare.
2. What is ConsoleOne?
3. Describe the procedure that is used to add members to a group object.
4. What is a profile object?

Long-Answer Questions
1. Describe the procedure used to create user object using ConsoleOne and
NetWare Administrator.
2. Discuss the different tools used to manage user and resources in NetWare.
3. Describe the procedure used to create group object using ConsoleOne and
NetWare Administrator.
4. Discuss all the tabs that are present on the Property page of the User object.

3.9 FURTHER READING


Gaslin, James E., Mastering NetWare 6, BPB Publications.

62 Self-Instructional Material
Windows NT Server
UNIT 4 WINDOWS NT SERVER
Structure
NOTES
4.0 Introduction
4.1 Unit Objectives
4.2 Introduction to Windows NT Server
4.3 The Windows NT Server Architecture
4.3.1 Hardware Abstraction Layer; 4.3.2 Kernel; 4.3.3 NT Executive;
4.3.4 Protected Environment Subsystems
4.4 Features of the Windows NT Server
4.4.1 Extensibility; 4.4.2 Portability; 4.4.3 Security; 4.4.4 Compatibility;
4.4.5 Scalability; 4.4.6 Reliability; 4.4.7 Fault Tolerance;
4.4.8 High–performance client–server Platform; 4.4.9 Built-in Backup;
4.4.10 GUI Management Tools
4.5 Summary
4.6 Answers to ‘Check your Progress’
4.7 Exercises and Questions
4.8 Further Reading

4.0 INTRODUCTION
Windows NT server is a network operating system based on client–server model. It is
designed to work with either uniprocessor or Symmetrical Multi Processor (SMP)
based computers. A network operating system supports a technique for describing the
methods and protocols used by network clients while communicating with the
Windows NT server. The Windows NT server is divided into small units, which
communicate with each other through messages. A unit that requires a service passes
a message to the other unit that is acting as a service provider.

4.1 UNIT OBJECTIVES


In this unit, you will learn about:
• The advantages of using Windows NT server
• The architecture of Windows NT server
• The features of Windows NT server

4.2 INTRODUCTION TO WINDOWS NT SERVER


Windows NT server is a multipurpose, high-performance, scalable and secure
Network Operating System (NOS) that works in a multi-network environment.
Windows NT server provides a unified way for the users to access the resources that
are available on different operating systems. It also allows organisations to extend a
consistent set of system services and user interfaces across the network. Using
Windows NT Server users can combine and enhance the capabilities of diverse server
operating systems. It supports thousands of line-of-businesses and vertical
applications, ranging from simple accounting applications to the most sophisticated
manufacturing applications. The advantages of using Windows NT server are as
follows:
Self-Instructional Material 63
Handling Operating Systems • It provides cost-effective integrated services for users in an easy-to-use
environment. The easy-to-use interface and management tools of Windows
NT Server significantly decrease server administration time.
• It helps to inter-operate different network infrastructures by using the
NOTES
protocols provided by Windows NT server.
• It supports distributed databases, which can be accessed by multiple users
simultaneously.
• Windows NT Server can be easily integrated with various network
applications including database, messaging, systems management and
System’s Network Architecture (SNA) connectivity.

4.3 WINDOWS NT SERVER ARCHITECTURE


Windows NT Server contains various components among which some of the
components run in user mode and the others run in kernel mode. Kernel mode is a
privileged mode in which running code can access all the hardware and system data
whereas, in user mode, also called non-privileged mode, running code has limited
access to the system data and hardware. The architecture of Windows NT Server
contains the following components:
• Hardware Abstraction Layer (HAL)
• Kernel
• NT Executive
• Protected Environment Subsystems

4.3.1 Hardware Abstraction Layer


HAL, which is the lowest level component of the Windows NT operating system, is a
software interface between the hardware and the operating system. HAL is
platform-specific and contains code to communicate and control the hardware on
which Windows NT is running. HAL provides the interface for Symmetric
MultiProcessing (SMP) and makes Windows NT Server more useful. HAL is
implemented as a Dynamic Link Library (DLL) and is responsible for shielding
Windows NT from hardware specific devices such as interrupt controllers and I/O
interfaces.
Windows NT Server contains two HALs for designing the architecture of a
processor. The first HAL is used for supporting a single processor, while the second
HAL supports up to four processors. For each physical processor of a computer, HAL
presents a virtualised processor. This virtualised processor hides all the special
characteristics of the processor from the operating system. HAL can only be accessed
by the components of the NT executive and not by user-mode programs. The
disadvantage of using Windows NT server based on HAL is that it is not compatible
with the older versions of DOS and Windows programs.

4.3.2 Kernel
A kernel is a discrete piece of code that makes up the core of an operating system.
Kernel is basically responsible for handling system interrupts from physical devices
such as I/O devices, processor clocks or timers. It also handles processor exceptions,
which occur when the processor performs an operation such as writing to a locked
portion of memory or dividing by zero. The kernel of Windows NT Server runs in the
64 Self-Instructional Material
processor’s privileged kernel mode. The main function of a kernel is to dispatch and Windows NT Server

schedule threads, which is a code segment that belongs to a particular process. Each
thread is assigned a priority number in the range from 0 to 31. The kernel dispatches
threads to run on the available processors on the basis of their priority numbers and
then allows the threads to execute for a specified period of time before pre-empting NOTES
them and allowing another process to run. This makes the pre-emptive multitasking
possible. In a multiprocessor system, a copy of the kernel actually runs on each
processor. These copies of the kernel are used to maintain coherency of shared
system resources, which are required to be accessed by the threads, which are
running on all processors.
A kernel in Windows NT server provides support for power failure recovery. If the
computer system is equipped with a UPS, then the kernel is notified whenever a
power failure occurs. The kernel then coordinates an orderly shutdown of the
computer system that includes notifying I/O devices of the power failure and
allowing them to reset accordingly.

4.3.3 NT Executive
The NT Executive provides services such as object management, virtual memory
management, input-output management and process management to the operating
system. The NT Executive runs in the kernel mode and is called by the protected
environment subsystems for services. It communicates with the NT microkernel
through a set of low-level operating system primitives.
The NT Executive consists of five components, which provide an Application
Programming Interface (API) through which they communicate with each other. API
also allows the components of an operating system and applications to communicate
with the executive components. The executive components work like servers, with
the subsystems functioning as clients. They can also function as clients when they are
communicating with the other executive components. Each executive component is
independent from the other executive components. For this reason, an executive
component can be removed and replaced by its new version to add new features to
the operating system without affecting the other executive components. The five NT
Executive components are:
• Object manager
• Process manager
• Virtual Memory Manager (VMM)
• Local Procedure Call (LPC)
• Security Reference Monitor (SRM)
• I/O manager

Object Manager
The object manager is used to create, modify and delete objects that are used by
computer systems and forms NT Executive. The object manager also provides
information on the status of objects to the operating system. Objects can be defined
as abstract data types that are used to represent operating system resources. The
object manager ensures that an object does not consume too many resources by
maintaining quotas for different object types. When an object is created, it is assigned
a name and by using that name other programs can access that object. When other
processes want to access the objects, they make a request to the object manager. The
object manager in turn provides a pointer that is used to locate the actual object and
the access control information required to access the object. This access control
Self-Instructional Material 65
Handling Operating Systems information is provided by the NT security subsystem, which maintains a record of
objects and the resources accessed by these objects.

Process Manager
NOTES The process manager is responsible for creating, removing and modifying the states
of all the processes and threads. It also provides information on the status of
processes and threads to the operating system. A process includes a virtual address
space, one or more threads, a piece of executable program code and a set of system
resources. A thread is an executable object that belongs to a single process and
contains a program counter that points to its current position in the executable code
segment of the process.

Virtual Memory Manager (VMM)


VMM helps manage the virtual memory of a computer system. Virtual memory
follows a scheme that allows disk resources to be used for performing functions of
operating system. The virtual memory accomplishes this task by transferring the data
from disk to buffer when it is not in use and retrieving the data back to the disk when
it is needed. VMM translates the memory addresses of a process into actual system
memory addresses. If the memory address of a process refers to the data that has been
moved to disk, then VMM retrieves that data from the disk.

Local Procedure Call (LPC)


LPC is the interface between all the client and server processes running on a local
Windows NT Server system. The LPC provides a mechanism that enables two
threads in different processes to exchange information.

Security Reference Monitor (SRM)


SRM enforces the security policies on a local computer system by working together
with the logon process and local security authority run-time subsystems. When a user
logs on to the Windows NT system, the credentials of the user are verified. Then, the
logon process subsystem requests for a Security Access Token (SAT) which contains
a list of user privileges and group memberships.
This list is used as a key for authenticating the user during the logon session. Each
time a user tries to access an object, the object manager creates a handle for accessing
the object and calls SRM to determine the access level to be granted. SRM uses
information contained in the SAT and compares this information with the access
control list to check whether or not the user can be granted the requested level of
access to the object.

I/O Manager
The I/O manager is responsible for coordinating and processing all the system input
and output. I/O manager controls the device drivers, installable file systems, network
redirectors and system cache.

4.3.4 Protected Environment Subsystems


The protected environment subsystems act as a link between the user-level
applications and the NT Executive. All protected environment subsystems work in
the user mode. Each environment subsystem keeps track of its own processes and
works independently. In Windows NT, there are two protected environment
subsystems:
66 Self-Instructional Material
• Win32 subsystem Windows NT Server

• OS/2 subsystem

Win32 Subsystem
NOTES
Win32 is the native and primary subsystem for Windows NT Server. The basis of
Win32 subsystem is the Win32 set of APIs that were written during the development
of the Windows NT. In the client–server model, Win32 subsystem acts as a server for
all the other environment subsystems supported on Windows NT Server. The other
environment subsystems act as clients and translate their API calls in appropriate
Win32 APIs. The Win32 subsystem is responsible for performing all the input and
output operations by controlling the display devices, keyboard and mouse. When the
other subsystems such as OS/2 or POSIX want to use these devices, they have to
request the Win32 subsystem.

OS/2 Subsystem
The OS/2 subsystem translates OS/2 API calls into Win32 API calls that are serviced
by the Win32 subsystem. The OS/2 subsystem is a protected environment subsystem
and each OS/2 application runs in its own 32-bit protected memory space.

4.4 FEATURES OF WINDOWS NT SERVER


Windows NT server is a complex operating system that is designed to provide file,
print and application services to diverse clients. Windows NT server uses the NDIS
3.0 standard to support different transport protocols. Windows NT supports two
major files systems, one is called NT File System (NTFS) and the other is called File
Allocation Table (FAT). The various features of Windows NT server are:
• Extensibility
• Portability
• Security
• Compatibility
• Scalability
• Reliability
• Fault tolerance
• High performance client–server platform
• Built-in backup
• GUI management tools

4.4.1 Extensibility
The main feature of Windows NT Server is extensibility. Extensibility is achieved by
adding new subsystems and their features to the existing operating system without CHECK YOUR PROGRESS
affecting the other subsystems. For example, if you want to add a new security 1. What are the types of
feature, then you just need to modify the security operating system. The new security processing modes used by
subsystem continues to interact with the other subsystems as it was doing earlier. In Windows NT Server?
Windows NT Server, loadable drivers are used to support extensibility. Loadable 2. List various components of
drivers can be added dynamically to the operating system at the run-time thereby, Windows NT server.
providing support to the new devices that can be added easily to the operating 3. Define process manager.
system. 4. What is LPC?

Self-Instructional Material 67
Handling Operating Systems 4.4.2 Portability
Windows NT server supports portability. A portable operating system can be easily
moved from one hardware platform to the other platform. To support portability,
Windows NT Server uses C, as the portable language, because the C language is
NOTES
supported by a range of platforms and it is not hardware-dependent. Programs written
in C can be easily ported to new platforms by recompiling the software for the new
platform.

4.4.3 Security
To ensure system security, Windows NT server uses a robust security model that
permeates every level of the operating system. Windows NT server is designed to
meet C2 level security requirements that has the following criteria:
• Secure logon
• Discretionary access control
• Secure memory protection

Secure logon
Windows NT server provides a unique logon username and password to the user in
order to gain access to the system.

Discretionary access control


Windows NT server asks the user who owns a resource to specify the other users who
can access the resources.

Secure memory protection


Through secure memory protection, Windows NT server prevents one process from
reading other’s process data without authorisation.

4.4.4 Compatibility
The compatibility feature of Windows NT server allows it to run applications that are
written for other operating systems. Compatibility can be achieved by creating a
number of separate environment subsystems. These environment subsystems provide
an environment in which various applications could run.

4.4.5 Scalability
This feature of Windows NT server allows it to use multiple processors that operate
in a single system. Scalability in Windows NT server is accomplished by using
Symmetric Multiprocessing (SMP). The SMP design in Windows NT server allows
the server to run on the systems, which have 1 to 32 processors. Windows NT server
dynamically assigns the systems and application threads to different processors for
the purpose of execution.

4.4.6 Reliability
Windows NT server is a reliable and robust operating system. It ensures reliability by
providing a separate memory address space to each subsystem and application.
Reliability can also be provided to Windows NT server by using structured exception
handling processes to detect and handle the errors.

68 Self-Instructional Material
Windows NT Server
4.4.7 Fault Tolerance
The Windows NT server has many characteristics that provide varying levels of fault
tolerance. These characteristics include Windows NT File System (NTFS), disk
mirroring and disk stripping with parity (RAID 1 and RAID 5), disk sector sparing
and support for an Uninterrupted Power Supply (UPS). NOTES

4.4.8 High Performance Client–Server Platform


The Windows NT Server is designed to provide a powerful operating system
platform that is capable of scaling from the simplest file and print services network to
the largest enterprise network providing file and print services to thousands of users.
The Windows NT Server achieves this task by using a microkernel that is capable of
pre-emptively dispatching the threads to up to 32 processors. This provides
scalability for servers and also for high-demand workstations. By providing
pre-emptive multitasking, the Windows NT Server can prevent any single process
from monopolising the processor.

4.4.9 Built-in Backup


The Windows NT server provides a fully featured graphical tape back-up utility
called NT back-up, which helps in avoiding data loss. This utility allows you to
provide single back-up set for multiple tapes. You can also use NT back-up utility to
provide multiple back-up sets for single tape.

4.4.10 GUI Management Tools


The Windows NT server includes a set of GUI tools that are used for administering
all the major parts of the operating system. These tools are as follows:
• User manager
• Performance monitor
• Server manager
• Disk manager
• Event viewer
• DHCP manager
• WINS manager
User Manager: User manager allows you to create and manage user accounts and
groups. It is also used for setting up inter-domain relationships that allow user
accounts of other domains to access the local resources. User manager is installed on
Windows NT standalone servers and it permits you to remotely manage user account
database. This GUI tool can also be used for administering the local user account
database.
Performance Monitor: Performance monitor allows you to graphically view CHECK YOUR PROGRESS
hundreds of performance counters to ensure that your Windows NT server is 5. Write down the name of file
operating well. The performance monitor is installed on the Windows NT server and systems used by the Windows
can be used to view performance counters in real time and log counters for later NT server?
reference. 6. What is the function of GUI
tools?
Server Manager: Server manager is used for checking and controlling server-related 7. What is the function of User
functions of Windows NT Server. Server manager can also be used for sending manager?
broadcast messages to logged-on users and to obtain a list of currently logged-on 8. What is the function of Server
users. This GUI tool creates domain system accounts for Windows NT standalone manager?
servers.
Self-Instructional Material 69
Handling Operating Systems Disk Manager: Disk manager is used to create and format disk partitions. This GUI
tool can also be used to configure local drive systems.
Event Viewer: The event viewer allows you to view the system log, application log
and security log. These logs are used to check the status of various system events.
NOTES This GUI tool can also be used to maximise the size for each event log and to
configure how the system should respond if the log fills up.
DHCP Manager: DHCP manager can be used for administering local and remote
DHCP servers that allow DHCP-enabled clients to dynamically obtain TCP/IP
configuration information.
WINS Manager: The WINS manager helps in managing the WINS Server service
that provides NetBIOS name registration and resolution services on a TCP/IP
network. This GUI tool can be used for mapping static addresses and other WINS-
related features. It also manages local or remote WINS databases.

4.4.11 Comparison between MS-OS


Table 4.1 shows comparison between Microsoft operating system such as Windows
95, Windows 98 and Windows NT.

Table 4.1: Comparison Between Microsoft Operating System

Services Windows 95 Windows 98 Windows NT


Support MS-DOS Supported Supported Not Supported
and WIN16
device drivers
RAM Required 32 MB Min 24MB 64 MB
RISC system Not supported Not supported Supported
Distributed Not supported Supported Supported
Component
Object Model
applications
Automatic Not Provided Not provided Provided
recovery of
system failure
Plug and Play Provided Provided Not provided
technology
Required Disk 55MB 250 MB 120MB
space

4.5 SUMMARY
Windows NT Server is a true 32-bit operating system, with no internal 16-bit code.
This operating system is capable of taking full advantage of all the advanced
microprocessors, including Intel’s new Pentium Pro processor. The Windows NT
Server provides memory protection for all user-level processes and it supports 4GB
of RAM per system and 2GB of virtual memory per application. Additionally, it can
address up to 402 million TB of data storage per system. Windows NT server
provides Microsoft file and print services over TCP/IP, IPX/SPX and NetBEUI.

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Windows NT Server
4.6 ANSWERS TO ‘CHECK YOUR PROGRESS’
1. The two different processing modes used by Windows NT server are the user
mode and the kernel mode.
NOTES
2. The components of Windows NT server are:
A. Hardware Abstraction Layer (HAL)
B. Kernel
C. The NT executive
D. Protected Environment Subsystems
3. Process manager is responsible for creating, removing and modifying the
states of all processes and threads. It also provides information on the status
of processes and threads to the rest of the system.
4. LPC acts as an interface between all client and server processes running on a
local Windows NT Server.
5. The file systems that are used by the Windows NT Server are Network file
system (NTFS) and File Allocation Table (FAT).
6. GUI tools are used for administering all the major parts of the operating
system.
7. User manager allows you to create and manage user accounts and groups.
8. Server manager is used for checking and controlling server-related functions
of Windows NT Server. Server manager can also be used for sending
broadcast messages to logged-on users and to obtain a list of currently
logged-on users.

4.7 EXERCISES AND QUESTIONS


Short-Answer Questions
1. Explain the concept of ‘Hardware Abstraction Layer’.
2. What is the function of the Kernel?
3. Write down the names of various GUI tools.
4. What is the function of WINS manager?

Long-Answer Questions
1. What are the advantages of using the Windows NT server?
2. Explain protected environment subsystems and the NT executive services.
3. Explain any five features of Windows NT server.
4. Explain the concepts of scalability, compatibility, DHCP manager, event
viewer, performance monitor and disk manager.

4.8 FURTHER READING


Heller, Martin, John D. Methvin, Thomas Henderson and John D. Ruley, Networking
Windows NT 4.0: Workstation and Server.
Self-Instructional Material 71
Handling Operating Systems

NOTES

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UNIT 5 INSTALLATION OF WINDOWS Installation of Windows
NT Server

NT SERVER
Structure NOTES
5.0 Introduction
5.1 Unit Objectives
5.2 Prerequisites for Installation
5.2.1 Selection of Hardware for Windows NT Server;
5.2.2 Planning for Windows NT Server Installation
5.3 Installing and Configuring Windows NT Server
5.4 Summary
5.5 Answers to ‘Check Your Progress’
5.6 Exercises and Questions
5.7 Further Reading

5.0 INTRODUCTION
Windows NT is an operating system, which provides a lot of features to enhance
networking environment of computers. The selection of hardware for Windows NT
server is also an important part of the installation of Windows NT server. All the
hardware devices used in Windows NT server must be compatible with the system
environment. Windows NT server plays different roles such as domain controller and
member server in the networked system. Therefore, it is essential to recognise all the
requirements for storing information and sharing information before installation. The
software that is used in Windows NT server must have the license for installing in
Windows NT. You can install Windows NT server using Windows NT server
installation kit.

5.1 UNIT OBJECTIVES


In this unit, you will learn about:
• The prerequisites for installing Windows NT server
• The installation and configuration of Windows NT server

5.2 PREREQUISITES FOR INSTALLATION


The server administrator must have knowledge about the requirements of the system
to install Windows NT server. Windows NT server contains many features, which
help enhance the functionality of the computer networks. Before installing Windows
NT server, following prerequisites must be checked:
• Selection of hardware for Windows NT server
• Planning for Windows NT server installation

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5.2.1 Selection of Hardware for Windows NT server
Handling Operating Systems
Windows NT supports a lot of hardware devices specified in the Hardware
Compatibility List (HCL). So it is essential to select only those hardware devices,
which are more compatible with the Windows NT server.
NOTES
Compatibility of the Hardware
Before using hardware, it is essential to check whether the hardware is compatible
with the Windows NT operating system or not. Checking the compatibility of the
hardware avoids major problems that might appear while installing the Windows NT
operating system. Microsoft has provided HCL with the Windows NT operating
system to check whether a given set of hardware will function correctly under the
Windows NT operating system environment or not.
It is possible that a hardware item is compatible with the Windows NT operating
system, and is not listed in the HCL. In this case, you need to verify the compatibility
status of the hardware with the manufacturer.

Verification of Firmware
Firmware is a software that is installed in a computer's ROM for configuring a
system. So, there is a need to upgrade the firmware of the system.

5.2.2 Planning for Windows NT Server Installation


There are different areas such as file system, licensing mode and activating protocols
and services for which administrator must plan to install Windows NT server.

File System
There are two file systems such as File Allocation Table (FAT) and Windows NT
File System (NTFS) that can be used by the user for storing files in the Windows NT
operating system. This file system helps several operating systems to access data
using same disk, but it never manages separate security for directories and files.
NTFS has different features than FAT and is more compatible with Windows NT and
does not support Window 95 and MS-DOS. It provides security to directory and files
separately. It even allows two operating systems to read information from the same
partition of the disk. The users have to reformat the system every time they want to
change the file system for the operating system.

Licensing Model
License is an agreement, which allows you to operate client software on the server.
Windows NT server can be licensed according to two schemes: per server and per
client. In the per client scheme, the client access license is contained within the client
computer. This scheme is useful for those clients who get services from more than
one Windows NT servers. The users cannot change the licensing model from per
client to per server scheme. In the per server scheme, the client computer gets
licensed from the Windows NT server. This scheme is useful for those Windows NT
servers who provide services to more than one client computers. The user can easily
change this licensing model to per client scheme.

Domain Role
Windows NT server uses two models, the domain model and the workgroup model of
networking that help implement a network of computer. In the domain model,
Windows NT server can serve different roles such as Primary Domain Controller
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(PDC), Backup Domain Controller (BDC), member server and work group model.
Installation of Windows
PDC helps in provide security to the whole network by validating logons and NT Server
retaining user information. PDC helps provide logon name to the server domain for
other computers over the same network. BDC helps the PDC in some activities such
as logon request validation. It provides backup of all information about PDC.
Sometimes, it provides all the services of PDC to the network in the absence of PDC. NOTES
Member server is called stand-alone server because it helps validate the users a
particular application such as database. In the work group model, the server plays the
same role as played by the member server.

Server Message Block (SMB)


Server Message Block (SMB) is a service, which helps to read and write the
information from the remote server files to the client computer by providing a system
of Inter-Process Communication (IPC). IPC is used to know the confirmation of a
client request to the remote server program using named pipes method. Named Pipes
is used to transfer the client request on the basis of First In First Out (FIFO) principle
in SMB. This means, the client, who has firstly request to the server, is served first by
the server. Latest version of SMB is known as Common Internet File system, which
has enhanced features such as large size of files. Some protocols are used for fluent
communication using SMB that are known as SMB protocols. SMB Protocol is used
for accessing files from the remote server and its resources on a computer network.
SMB protocol is the most important protocol among all protocols such as TCP/IP of
the network.

Activating Protocols
Protocols help transfer information from one computer to another computer over a
network. Windows NT Server mostly uses Transfer Control Protocol/Internet
Protocol (TCP/IP), Internetwork Packet Exchange/Sequenced Packet Exchange
(IPX/SPX) and NetBIOS Extended User Interface (NetBEUI) protocols for setting up
network and transferring information from one machine to another machine. These
protocols are also known as Server Message Block (SMB) protocols because these
protocols help transfer SMB over network to control access of client computers. The
activating protocols are as follows:
• TCP/IP: It helps provide Internet connectivity to the network, and controls
the transfer of information. Windows NT provides special facilities to
manage a network using Internet protocols. A protocol for assigning IP
address of the client computer is also used by Windows NT. This protocol is
known as Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP).
• NetBEUI: It helps transfer information over small networks or LAN, which
contains almost 50 nodes.
• IPX/SPX: It is used for transferring information to the network larger than
NetBEUI, and also supports NetBIOS connectivity. This protocol is used to
connect more computers in a Novell NetWare based network.
Windows NT also uses some other protocols for transferring information over a
network such as Data Link Protocol (DLC), Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol
(PPTP) and stream. DLC is used for connecting IBM mainframe and Hewlett
Packard network printers. PPTP helps to provide better LAN connectivity to access
the Internet. Streams help provide connectivity with UNIX machines and include
various porting protocols to the Windows NT network.

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Services
Handling Operating Systems
Services are those programs that help enhance functionality of Windows NT.
Following services are loaded during the installation of Windows NT:
• Computer Browser. It helps the server to maintain a list of users and
NOTES resources, which provide this list to the clients for making connection to
users and resources.
• Network Basic Input/Output System (NetBIOS) Interface. It supports
Microsoft networking products and helps transfer information using the
protocols such as NetBEUI, IPX/SPX and TCP/IP over the network.
• Remote Procedure Call (RPC). It allows you to get resource request from
clients to the server.
• Server service helps provide resources to the client over a network.
• Workstation service provides a way for passing client request to the server.
• DHCP Server helps handle DHCP protocol and control an IP network.
• DHCP Relay Agent helps pass DHCP information to the server using routers,
over network.
• Gateway Services enable the client to access files and resources of Windows
NT Server, which uses Netware operating system. But, this service is used
less because of single connection between Windows NT server and Netware
server.
• The Internet Information Server (IIS) is used to publish information through
a Web server.
• TCP/IP printing service helps Windows NT machines and UNIX machines to
use network or shared printers on the Windows NT network.
• Network monitor agent helps monitor one Windows NT machine by another
machine using the network monitor tool.
• Remote Access Service (RAS) passes incoming and outgoing messages for
communication.
• Remote boot provides a facility to client, to shutdown the Windows NT
server.
• Routing Information Protocol (RIP) for IP service enables communication
between Windows NT and other IP routers on the network. RIP for IPX
service enables communication between Windows NT and other IPX routers
on the network.
• Service Advertising Protocol (SAP) agent service helps Windows NT to
inform Novell machines about the resources that it acquires.
• Services for Macintosh helps Macintosh clients to access files and resources
from Windows NT server.
• Simple TCP/IP services provides a set of simple TCP/IP utilities such as
TELNET.
• Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) service is only applicable on
TCP/IP networks and helps simple network management station to monitor
Windows NT.
• Windows Internet Naming System (WINS) database manages IP addresses
and NetBIOS names.

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5.3 INSTALLING AND CONFIGURING WINDOWS Installation of Windows
NT Server
NT SERVER
You can install Windows NT server either from a CD or from a network. Windows
NT server is installed from a CD to set up either a stand-alone server or a small NOTES
domain of servers. The network method to install Windows NT server is used to set
up a large number of servers and computers, which have a network card. To install
Windows NT server on a computer proceed as follows:
Insert the Windows NT server installation CD in the CD-ROM and reboot the
computer to initiate the Windows NT Server Setup wizard. Figure 5.1 shows the
‘Welcome to Setup’ screen in which you can select an option either to install or
repair the existing installation of Windows NT server.

Figure 5.1: The Welcome Screen


1. Press the Enter key to continue installing the Windows NT server and detect
the storage devices. Figure 5.2 shows how Windows NT server detects the
storage devices.

CHECK YOUR PROGRESS


1. What do you mean by
firmware?
2. ______ is more compatible
with Windows NT, Window
95 and MS-DOS
3. What do you mean by PDC?
4. What is the full form of
TCP/IP, IPX/SPX and
(NetBEUI) protocols?
Figure 5.2: Detecting the Storage Devices
Self-Instructional Material 77
Note: You can also specify the name of additional adapters, CD-Rom drive and disk
Handling Operating Systems controllers by pressing the S key.

2. Accept the default settings and press the Enter key to detect the hard disk
configuration for installing Windows NT Server. Figure 5.3 shows how
NOTES Windows NT server detects the hard disk configuration.

Figure 5.3: Detecting Hard Disk

3. Press the C key to overwrite the installation of an existing operating system


on the hard disk. Figure 5.4 shows the ‘Windows NT Licensing Agreement’
screen.

Figure 5.4: The Windows NT Licensing Agreement Screen

4. Press the F8 key to accept the license agreement. The screen containing a list
of hardware and software components appears, as shown in Figure 5.5.

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Installation of Windows
NT Server

NOTES

Figure 5.5: List of Hardware and Software Components

5. Accept the default list of hardware and software components and press the
Enter key. The ‘Partitions and Space’ screen appears, as shown in Figure 5.6.

Figure 5.6: The Partitions and Space Screen

6. Press the C key to create a partition for the Windows NT Server setup and
enter size such as 3000 MB to allot the space to the Windows NT Server
setup.
7. Press the Enter key to install the Windows NT server on the selected
partition. Figure 5.7 shows the ‘File System’ screen.

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Handling Operating Systems

NOTES

Figure 5.7: The File System Screen

Note: By default, the ‘Format the partition using the FAT file system’ option is
selected. You can also format the partition using NTFS file system.

8. Accept the default settings and press the Enter key to install the Windows NT
Server using the FAT file system. Figure 5.8 shows the ‘disk configuration’
screen.

Figure 5.8: The Disk Configuration Screen

9. Accept the default settings of partition size and press the Enter key to
continue installing Windows NT Server with the selected options and check
the hard disk for corruption. Figure 5.9 shows the ‘Disk Formatting’ screen.

80 Self-Instructional Material
Installation of Windows
NT Server

NOTES

Figure 5.9: The Disk Formatting Screen

10. Press the Enter key to copy the set up files to the hard disk, when the
formatting process completes. Figure 5.10 shows the progress of the copying
process.

Figure 5.10: Display the Progress of Copying Process

11. Press the Enter key when the copying process completes to apply the
settings, and restart the computer to initiate the Windows NT Server Setup
wizard starts. The ‘Windows NT Setup’ screen appears in which you can
initiate Windows NT Server setup, as shown in Figure 5.11.

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Handling Operating Systems

NOTES

Figure 5.11: The Windows NT Setup Screen

Note: By default, the Gathering information about your computer option is selected
in the ‘The next three parts of Setup are’ list.

12. Accept the default settings and click Next to display the ‘Name and
Organization’ screen in which you can specify the user name and the
organization name in the respective text boxes, as shown in Figure 5.12.

Figure 5.12: The Name and Organization Screen

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13. Enter Administrator in the ‘Name’ text box and ABC in the ‘Organization’
Installation of Windows
text box. NT Server
14. Click Next to display the Registration screen in which you can enter the 10
digit CD Key in the CD Key text box, as shown in Figure 5.13.
NOTES

Figure 5.13: The Registration Screen

15. Click Next to display the ‘Computer Name’ screen in which you can specify
a name in the ‘Name’ text box for the computer to identify your computer on
network as shown in Figure 5.14.

Figure 5.14: The Computer Name Screen


Self-Instructional Material 83
16. Enter text such as COMP in the ‘Name’ text box and click Next to display
Handling Operating Systems the ‘Server Type’ screen containing the ‘Please select a type for this server’
list, as shown in Figure 5.15.

NOTES

Figure 5.15: The Server Type Screen

Note: By default, the Primary Domain Controller option in the Please select a type
for this server list is selected.

17. Accept the default settings and click Next to display the ‘Administrator
Account’ screen in which you can create administrator account by entering
password in the ‘Password’ text box, as shown in Figure 5.16.

Figure 5.16: The Administrator Account Screen


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18. Enter the password in the ‘Password’ text box and re-enter that password in
Installation of Windows
the ‘Confirm Password’ text box. Click Next to display the ‘Emergency NT Server
Repair Disk’ screen which allows you to create an emergency repair disk that
you can use to repair the damaged Windows NT, as shown in Figure 5.17.

NOTES

Figure 5.17: The Emergency Repair Disk Screen

Note: By default, the ‘Yes, create an emergency repair disk (recommended)’ option
is selected.

19. Select the ‘No, do not create an emergency repair disk’ option and click Next
to display the ‘Select Components’ screen, which contains ‘Components’
section that help you to select various components such as ‘games’ and
‘multimedia’, as shown in Figure 5.18.

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Handling Operating Systems

NOTES

Figure 5.18: The Select Components Screen

Note: By default, the ‘Accessibility Options’, ‘Accessories’, ‘Communications’ and


‘Multimedia’ check boxes are selected.

20. Select the ‘Windows Messaging’ check box and click Next to display the
Windows NT Setup screen, which allows you to install the Windows NT
Networking.

Note: By default, the Installing Windows NT Networking option is selected.

21. Accept the default settings and click Next to display the screen which helps
connect a computer to a network, as shown in Figure 5.19.

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Installation of Windows
NT Server

NOTES

Figure 5.19: Connecting Computer to a Network

Note: By default, the ‘This computer will participate on a network’ option and the
‘Wired to the network’ check box are selected.

22. Accept the default settings and click Next to display the screen, which allows
you to share information on intranet or Internet by installing the Microsoft
Internet Information Server on your computer, as shown in Figure 5.20.

Figure 5.20: Sharing Information on Intranet or Internet

Self-Instructional Material 87
Note: By default, the ‘Install Microsoft Internet Information Server’ check box is
Handling Operating Systems selected.

23. Accept the default settings and click Next to display a screen, which helps
Windows NT setup to start searching for a network adapter by clicking the
NOTES ‘Start Search’ button, as shown in Figure 5.21.

Figure 5.21: Searching for a Network Adapter

Note: When you click the Start Search button, the Next button get enabled

24. Click the ‘Start Search’ button and click Next to display the screen in which
you can select network protocols from the ‘Network Protocols’ list, as shown
in Figure 5.22.

88 Self-Instructional Material
Installation of Windows
NT Server

NOTES

Figure 5.22: Selecting Network Protocols

Note: By default, the ‘TCP/IP Protocol’ and ‘NWLink IPX/SPX Compatible


Transport’ check boxes are selected in the Network Protocols list. You can also
select network protocols from the list by clicking the ‘Select from list’ button.

25. Click the ‘NetBEUI Protocol’ check box and click Next to display the screen
containing Network services list in which you can select various services
such as Workstation and Server from the ‘Network Services’ list, as shown in
Figure 5.23.

Figure 5.23: Selecting the Network Services


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Note: By default, the Microsoft Internet Information Server 2.0, RPC Configuration,
Handling Operating Systems NetBIOS Interface, Workstation and Server check boxes are selected in the Network
Services list.

26. Accept the default settings and click Next to display a screen, which allows
NOTES you to install selected components or make changes to previous selections, as
shown in Figure 5.24.

Figure 5.24: Installing Components

27. Click Next to display the ‘AMD PCNET PCI Ethernet Adapter v3.11’ dialog
box in which you can configure adapters settings, as shown in Figure 5.25.

Figure 5.25: The AMD PCNET PCI Ethernet Adapter v3.11 Dialog Box

Note: By default, the Default text is selected in ‘Full Duplex’ list

28. Select the ‘10Base-T port’ check box and click the Continue button to
display the Microsoft TCP/IP Properties dialog box in which you can specify
the IP Address, Subnet Mask and Default Gateway. Figure 5.26 shows the
‘Microsoft TCP/IP Properties’ dialog box.

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Installation of Windows
NT Server

NOTES

Figure 5.26: The Microsoft TCP/IP Properties Dialog Box

Note: By default, the Adapter in the Adapter list and the Specify an IP address option
is selected. You need not to specify any value in the Default Gateway text box.

29. Accept the default settings, enter 192.168.0.143 in the ‘IP Address’ text box
and enter 255.255.255.0 in the ‘Subnet Mask’ text box. Click Next to display
the disabling the ‘network bindings’ screen in which you can disable the
network bindings, as shown in Figure 5.27.

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Handling Operating Systems

NOTES

Figure 5.27: Disabling the Network Bindings

Note: By default, the all services option is selected in the Show bindings for list.

30. Accept the default settings and click Next to display a screen in which you
can continue the installation of networking in Windows NT Server or you
can stop the network if it is running, as shown in Figure 5.28.

Figure 5.28: Starting the Network

92 Self-Instructional Material
31. Click Next to display a screen with the ‘Make this computer a member of’
Installation of Windows
section in which you can select Workgroup or Domain, as shown in Figure NT Server
5.29.

NOTES

Figure 5.29: Selecting Workgroup or Domain

Note: When you select any option in the ‘Make this computer a member of’ section,
the corresponding text box gets enabled. By default, the ‘Workgroup’ option is
selected and WORKGROUP appears in the Workgroup text box. Comp appears in
‘Computer Name’ text box, by default.

32. Accept the default settings and click Next to display the ‘Windows NT
Setup’ screen, which allows you to finish the setup process.

Note: By default, the ‘Finishing Setup’ option is selected.

33. Accept the default settings and click the Finish button to display the
‘Microsoft Internet Information Server 2.0 Setup’ dialog box in which you
can select ‘Microsoft internet information server windows based
administration tool’ such as ‘Internet Service manager’, as shown in
Figure 5.30.

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Handling Operating Systems

NOTES

Figure 5.30: The Microsoft Internet Information Server 2.0 Setup Dialog Box

Note: By default, the ‘Internet Services Manager’ check box is selected.

34. Accept the default settings and Click OK to display the Windows NT Server
screen containing the Install Drivers dialog box in which you can install
ODBC driver for SQL Server, as shown in Figure 5.31.

Figure 5.31: The Install Drivers Dialog Box

Note: By default, the ‘SQL server’ is selected in the ‘Available ODBC Drivers’
section.

35. Accept the default settings and Click OK to display the ‘Date/Time
Properties’ dialog box containing ‘Time Zone’ and ‘Date & Time’ tabs in

94 Self-Instructional Material
which you can select a time, zone and date and time, respectively, as shown
Installation of Windows
in Figure 5.32. NT Server

NOTES

Figure 5.32: The Date/Time Properties Dialog Box

Note: By default, the ‘Automatically adjust clock for daylight saving changes’ check
box is selected.

36. Accept the default settings and click the Close button to display the
‘Detected display’ dialog box, which contains VGA compatible display
adapter, as shown in Figure 5.33.

Figure 5.33: The Detected Display Dialog Box

37. Click OK to display the ‘Display Properties’ dialog box in which you can set
pixels range, colour palette and refresh frequency, as shown in Figure 5.34.

Self-Instructional Material 95
Handling Operating Systems

NOTES

Figure 5.34: The Display Properties Dialog Box

Note: By default, 16 colors in the Color Palette list, 640 by 480 pixels in the Desktop
Area list and Use hardware default settings in the ‘Refresh Frequency’ list, are
selected.

38. Accept the default settings and click OK to display the ‘Testing Mode’
dialog box, which allows you to test the bitmap, as shown in Figure 5.35.

CHECK YOUR PROGRESS


Figure 5.35: The Testing Mode Dialog Box
4. What is the full form of
TCP/IP, IPX/SPX and
(NetBEUI) protocols? Note: By default, the ‘No’ button is selected in the ‘Testing Mode’ dialog box.
5. ______ service is only
applicable on TCP/IP 39. Click the Yes button to display the ‘Logon Information’ wizard containing
networks and helps Simple ‘User name’ and ‘Password’ text boxes, as shown in Figure 5.36.
Network Management station
to monitor Windows NT.
6. ______ agent service helps
Windows NT to inform Novell
machines about the resources
that it acquires.

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Installation of Windows
NT Server

NOTES

Figure 5.36: The Logon Information Wizard

Note: By default, Administrator appears in the User Name text box.

40. Accept the default settings and enter a password in the ‘Password’ text box
and click OK to logon the system.

5.4 SUMMARY
Windows NT operating system helps implement networking of computers. Selection
of hardware for windows NT server and planning for windows NT installation, are
two prerequisites before installing windows NT server. Windows NT server
operating system uses various services such as Network Basic Input/Output System
Interface, Remote Procedure Call (RPC) Configuration Services and TCP/IP Printing
Service Network Monitor Agent to provide better networking environment.

5.5 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS


1. Firmware is a software that installed in a computer’s ROM for the system
configuration.
2. FAT.
3. Primary Domain Controller (PDC) helps provide security to the whole
network by validating logons and retaining user information.
4. Transfer Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP), Internetwork Packet
Exchange/Sequenced Packet Exchange (IPX/SPX) and NetBIOS Extended
User Interface (NetBEUI) protocols.
5. Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP)
6. Service Advertising Protocol (SAP)

5.6 EXERCISES AND QUESTIONS


Short-Answer Questions
1. What are the different prerequisites for installing Windows NT?
2. What are the necessary factors while selecting the hardware devices for
Windows NT?

Self-Instructional Material 97
3. What are various models of networking used by Window NT server?
Handling Operating Systems
4. Name the different protocols used by Windows NT server.

Long-Answer Questions
NOTES 1. Describe the different services provided Windows NT server.
2. Describe the various file systems used by Window NT server.
3. Explain the different steps for installing Windows NT server.

5.7 FURTHER READING


http://docs.rinet.ru/UNT4/ch07/ch07.htm

98 Self-Instructional Material
Printing in Windows NT Server
UNIT 6 PRINTING IN WINDOWS NT
SERVER
NOTES
Structure
6.0 Introduction
6.1 Unit Objectives
6.2 What is a Printer?
6.2.1 The Dot Matrix Printer; 6.2.2 The Laser Printer; 6.2.3 The Inkjet Printer
6.3 Installing a Printer
6.4 Working with a Printer
6.5 Working with a Network Printer
6.6 Summary
6.7 Answers to ‘Check your Progress’
6.8 Exercises and Questions
6.9 Further Reading

6.0 INTRODUCTION
A printer is an output device that prints the text, which is displayed on the screen, on
the paper sheets. The device driver of printer is first installed in a computer system
and then the printer is connected to it as an external device using cables. Printers are
divided into three categories, Dot matrix, Laser and Inkjet on the basis of technology
that they use to print the text and images.

6.1 UNIT OBJECTIVES


In this unit, you will learn about:
• Printer and its types
• The installation of a printer in Windows NT
• The working of a printer
• The working of a printer remotely

6.2 WHAT IS A PRINTER?


The computer system needs to convert the document to a format, which is
understandable by the printer for printing. The device driver of a printer helps
convert a document to a format, which is understandable by the printer. The
performance of a printer is determined by the parameters, Dots Per Inch (DPI) and
Pages Per Minute (PPM). The DPI parameter represents the number of dots per inch
of the output produced by the printer. The greater the DPI parameter of a printer, the
better is the quality of the output generated. The PPM parameter of a printer
represents the number of pages that are produced per minute. Printers can be
classified on the basis of technology that they use to print the text and images:
• Dot matrix
• Laser
• Inkjet
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Handling Operating Systems 6.2.1 The Dot Matrix Printer
A dot matrix printer uses perforated sheets to print text. Dot matrix printers are
impact printers as they print the text on a sheet, by striking a pin against the ribbon to
produce its impression on the paper. Dot matrix printers are used to produce multiple
NOTES
copies of a print out, as the striking motion of the pins helps in making carbon copies
of a text also. Figure 6.1 shows a dot matrix printer.

Figure 6.1: The Dot Matrix Printer

6.2.2 The Laser Printer


A laser printer consists of a microprocessor, ROM, RAM, cylindrical drum, a toner
and the laser beam, which helps you to print data onto paper sheets. The toner stores
the ink that is used in generating the output. The laser beam is passed over the
cylindrical drum, during the printing process. The laser beam generates the points of
electric charges on the cylindrical drum. The ink in the toner is of the opposite charge
as that of the charges on the cylindrical drum. The paper passes over the cylindrical
drum, under high pressure and heat. The high pressure and heat fuses the ink in the
toner onto the paper on the cylindrical drum at all points of electric charge. The ink in
the toner is fused to the paper, as the ink gets attracted to the points of opposite
electric charge on the cylindrical drum.
The fonts used for printing in a laser printer are stored in ROM or in the cartridges
that are attached to the printer. The fonts stored in the hard disk of a computer system
can be used in the printer, by connecting the hard disk to the printer using cables. The
fonts that are stored in ROM, cartridges and other devices that are connected to the
printer, are called resident fonts. The printer takes lesser time in printing resident
fonts as compared to the fonts downloaded from a document stored in the computer.
Laser printers are available as grey scale, black and white and colour models. Laser
printers use the software, PageMaker, to print quality pages that are graphic
intensive. The printers can also print pages with graphics using the programming
language, Postscript. Postscript is a programming language that is used for creating
graphics. Figure 6.2 shows a laser printer.

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NOTES

Figure 6.2: The Laser Printer

6.2.3 The Inkjet Printers


Inkjet printers are available as black and white, grey scales and colour models. These
printers use standard papers and ink cartridges that an end-user can replace. The
cartridge of a colour model of the inkjet can either be a three-colour cartridge or a
four-colour cartridge. A three-colour cartridge uses the colours, cyan, magenta and
yellow for printing. A four-colour cartridge uses the colours, cyan, magenta, yellow
and black for printing.
Inkjet printers are not impact printers. They contain ink cartridges, which are
attached to the printer head that moves horizontally, from left to right. The ink of the
cartridge is sprayed onto the paper to print. The ink in the inkjet is heated to create a
bubble. The bubble bursts out at high pressure, emitting a jet of the ink on the paper
thus, producing images. Figure 6.3 shows an inkjet printer.

Formatted:
CHECK YOUR Bullets and Numbering
PROGRESS
1. Define a ‘printer’.
Figure 6.3: The Inkjet Printer 2. List various types of printers.
3. What is a laser printer?

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6.3 INSTALLING A PRINTER
You need to install a printer for printing the text displayed on the screen, onto the
paper sheets. To install a printer proceed as follows:
NOTES
1. Select Start Æ Settings Æ Control Panel to display the ‘Control Panel’
window, as shown in Figure 6.4.

Figure 6.4: The Control Panel Window

2. Double-click the ‘Printers’ option to display the ‘Printers’ window, as shown


in Figure 6.5.

Figure 6.5: The Printers Window

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3. Double-click the Add Printer option to start the Add Printer Wizard. The first Printing in Windows NT Server

screen of the Add Printer Wizard appears in which you select ‘My
Computer’ or ‘Network printer server’ radio buttons to install the printer on
your machine or on another machine on the network, as shown in Figure 6.6.
NOTES

Figure 6.6: Selecting ‘My Computer’ or ‘Network Printer Server’ Radio Buttons

Note: By default, ‘My Computer’ radio button is selected

4. Accept the default settings and click Next to display the available ports list in
which you select a port to connect the printer to the computer, as shown in
Figure 6.7.

Figure 6.7: Selecting a Port from the Available Ports List

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Handling Operating Systems 5. Select the COM1: port from the ‘Available Ports’ list.
6. Click the Next button to display the ‘Manufacturers’ and ‘Printers’ lists from
which you can select the manufacturers and printers, as shown in Figure 6.8.
NOTES

Figure 6.8: Selecting the Manufacturers and Printers From


‘Manufacturers’ and ‘Printers Lists’

7. Select the HP option from the ‘Manufacturers list’ and select the HP DeskJet
850C option from the ‘Printers’ list. Click the Next button to display the ‘HP
DeskJet 850C’ screen, as shown in Figure 6.9.

Figure 6.9: The DeskJet 850C Screen

Note: By default, ‘Keep existing driver (recommended)’ radio button is selected in


the ‘HP DeskJet 850C’ screen.
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8. Accept the default settings and click the Next button to display the screen in Printing in Windows NT Server

which you enter the printer name, as shown in Figure 6.10.

NOTES

Figure 6.10: Entering the Printer Name

Note: By default, HP DeskJet 850C is entered in the ‘Printer name’ text box.

9. Accept the default settings and click the Next button to display the screen in
which you select the option to share the printer over the network, as shown in
Figure 6.11.

Figure 6.11: Sharing the Printer

Note: By default, ‘not shared’ radio button is selected.

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Handling Operating Systems 10. Accept the default settings and click the Next button to display the screen
in which you select ‘would you like to print a test page’, as shown in
Figure 6.12.

NOTES

Figure 6.12: Selecting the option to Print the Test Page

Note: By default, ‘Yes (recommended)’ is the selected radio button

11. Select the ‘No’ radio button and click the Finish button to display the
‘Printers’ window in which the ‘HP DeskJet 850C’ printer icon appears
indicating that the printer is added to the computer. Figure 6.13 shows the
Printers window.

Figure 6.13: The Printers Window


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6.4 WORKING WITH A PRINTER
After installing device driver of a printer in your computer, you can use printer for
printing purposes. For printing, using a printer proceed as follows:
NOTES
1. Select Start Æ Program Æ Microsoft Word to display a Document 1 –
Microsoft Word window.
2. Add a statement such as “this is a demo page.”
3. Select File Æ Print to display the ‘Print’ dialog box in which you set the
properties, as shown in Figure 6.14.

Figure 6.14: The Print Dialog Box

4. Click OK to start the printing process.

6.5 WORKING WITH A NETWORK PRINTER


Printer is an expensive resource, therefore, the use of a single printer on a network
can minimise the cost of printing. Using Windows NT, you can work with a network
printer. For working with a network printer:
1. Select Start Æ Settings Æ Control Panel to open the Control Panel window.
2. Double-click the ‘Printers’ option to display the Printers window.
3. Double-click the ‘Add Printer’ option to start the Add Printer Wizard.
4. Select the ‘Network printer server’ option and click the Next button to start
the ‘Connect to Printer’ screen containing the network path where the printer
is installed, as shown in Figure 6.15.

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NOTES

Figure 6.15: The Connect to Printer Dialog Box

5. Expand the ABC node to display various subnodes such as HP DeskJet


850C, as shown in Figure 6.16.

CHECK YOUR PROGRESS


4. You can access remote printer
in Windows NT.
A. True
B. False
5. What is the role of the Print
wizard while printing data
using printer? Figure 6.16: The HP DeskJet 850C node
6. What is the difference
between using a local printer Note: By default, HP DesckJet 850C subnode is selected in ‘Shared Printers’
and a network printer?
section.
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6. Accept the default settings and click OK to display the last screen of the Printing in Windows NT Server

‘Add Printer wizard’ indicating that the network printer is successfully


installed in your computer, as shown in Figure 6.17.

NOTES

Figure 6.17: The Final Screen of the Add Printer Wizard

7. Click the Finish button to display the Printers window again, in which the HP
DeskJet 850C printer icon appears indicating that the printer is added to the
computer.

Note: You can work with the network printer in the similar way as the local
computer. The only difference is that in a network printer, you need to select the
network printer in the Print window.

6.6 SUMMARY
A printer contains a device driver, which allows you to connect the printer with a
computer. The process of storing the device driver of a printer is known as
installation of a printer. You can use both local printers and network printers for
printing using Windows NT. For printing from a network computer, your printer
must be connected to the network.

6.7 ANSWERS TO ‘CHECK YOUR PROGRESS’


1. A printer is an output device that transfers the text displayed on the screen,
onto paper sheets that can be used by an end-user.
2. The various types of printers are:
A. Dot matrix
B. Laser
C. Inkjet

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Handling Operating Systems 3. A laser printer is a printing device that does not need to be connected to a
computer, to generate an output. A laser printer consists of microprocessor,
ROM and RAM. The printer uses a cylindrical drum, a toner and the laser
beam. The toner stores the ink that is used in generating the output.
NOTES 4. True
5. The Print wizard allows you to perform various page settings such as print
range and total number of copies of the print out in the ‘Print range’ and
‘Copies’ section, respectively.
6. You can use network printer in the similar way as the local computer except
that you need to select the network printer in the Print window. Select ‘HP
DeskJet 860C’ in ‘Name’ list in ‘Printer’ section.

6.8 EXERCISES AND QUESTIONS


Short-Answer Questions
1. What is an inkjet printer?
2. What is a dot matrix printer?
3. State the differences between a laser printer and a dot matrix printer.
4. Explain the advantages of a laser printer.

Long-Answer Questions
1. Define the various steps to install a printer in Windows NT.
2. Explain the working of a printer in detail.
3. Explain about printers and their types in detail.
4. Explain how to use a network printer?

6.9 FURTHER READING


http://docs.rinet.ru/NT4
http://docs.rinet.ru/UNT4

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UNIT 7 MANAGING RESOURCES IN Windows NT Server

WINDOWS NT SERVER
NOTES
Structure
7.0 Introduction
7.1 Unit Objectives
7.2 User Accounts
7.2.1 Types of User Accounts; 7.2.2 Creating a User Account
7.3 Groups
7.3.1 Types of Groups; 7.3.2 Creating Local Groups
7.4 User Profiles
7.5 Policies
7.5.1 System Policy; 7.5.2 Account Policy; 7.5.3 User Right Policy;
7.5.4 Audit Policy
7.6 System Policy Editor
7.6.1 Customising System Policies; 7.6.2 Setting the Polices of Users;
7.6.3 Setting the Policies of Computer; 7.6.4 Adding Users, Computers and Groups
7.7 Managing Disk Resources
7.7.1 Using Disk Administrator; 7.7.2 Understanding Partitions
7.8 Universal Naming Conventions
7.9 Working with Windows NT
7.10 Summary
7.11 Answers to ‘Check your Progress’
7.12 Exercises and Questions
7.13 Further Reading

7.0 INTRODUCTION
Administering users and groups is an essential element of system administration in
the Windows NT server environment. A user account is a basic working component
in the Windows NT server operating system. A user always requires a user account to
log on to the computers in the Windows NT environment and to access the resources
available in the network. A user account is responsible for setting all the parameters
of the user’s access on the network and its resources. A user can belong to any
number of groups, which are collection of users. Groups help to specify the rights
and permissions of multiple users simultaneously.

7.1 UNIT OBJECTIVES


In this unit, you will learn about:
• The different types of users and groups available in Windows NT server
• The naming conventions used in Windows NT server
• The system policies and profiles
• How to work with Windows NT server

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7.2 USER ACCOUNTS
A user account is used to represent an individual in the domain. Domain is the
fundamental building block of the Windows NT server. A domain is a logical
NOTES
grouping of network resources including, server, printers, groups and user accounts.
A user account consists of an account name, a password and a unique identifier. This
unique identifier, which is called Security Identifier (SID), is a binary bit of number
of variable length that is generated by the computer or the domain where the account
is created. The SID identifies the user to the computer or domain and is used when a
user attempts to gain access to a resource. A user account may have other attributes
such as group membership, remote access permissions and e-mail addresses.

7.2.1 Types of User Accounts


Every user who logs onto a computer must have a valid user account either for that
computer or for the domain to which the computer belongs. At the time of log on, the
user has to select the type of user account they are logging on. The following are the
types of user accounts:
• Local user accounts
• Domain user accounts
• Built-in accounts

Local User Accounts


Local user accounts are stored in the local database of a computer and are primarily
used to administer a computer or to allow several people to share a single computer,
which is not a member of the domain. All the computers except domain controllers
have a local database for storing local user accounts. When a user attempts to access
a computer with a local user account, the user name and password are validated
against the local database. The problem with local user accounts is that they are not
portable. If a user needs to use more than one computer, then the user must have two
user accounts, one for each computer. Also, if a user attempts to access the resources
of one computer on another computer, such as shared folder, he will have to use log
on credentials for the remote computer to authenticate and use resources.
Each user account is unique to the local computer, therefore, any type of account
maintenance activities such as changing passwords and user names are performed
multiple times. Local user accounts are created and administered using the local users
snap-in tool. The local users snap-in tool can be added to any custom Microsoft
Management Console (MMC). The local users snap-in allows you to create and
manage user accounts and groups for the local machine. It also allows connecting to a
local computer and manages user accounts and groups on a remote computer.

Domain User Accounts


Domain user accounts allow central administration of network resources. A user with
domain user account can log on to any computer in the domain if the users are not
specifically restricted from the computer. The domain user account can be used
throughout the network.
The domain user account is used throughout the network and managed on a domain
controller. The user with a domain user account can log on to any computer in the
domain because domain user accounts are portable.

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Built-in Accounts Windows NT Server
By default, several accounts are created when Windows NT server is installed. The
Windows NT server operating system has two built-in accounts, one is called
administrator account and the other is known as guest account. The administrator
account has complete control over the local computer and can be used to perform any NOTES
function. It is used to install software, configure devices and to perform system tasks.
The administrator account cannot be disabled or deleted. It can only be renamed. The
other built-in account, called the guest account, is created to provide access to users
who do not have domain accounts. By default, a guest account is created in disabled
state. If the Guest account is enabled, any user logged on to a local machine can
access domain resources to which guest account has access. Users do not have to
enter password in the guest account because the guest account includes any one who
does not have a local or domain account.

7.2.2 Creating a User Account


You need to perform the following steps to create a user account:
1. Select Start Æ Programs Æ Administrative Tools (Common) Æ User
Manager for Domains to open the ‘User Manager’ window, as shown in the
Figure 7.1.

Figure 7.1: User Manager Window

2. Select User Æ New User to create a new user account. Figure 7.2 shows the
‘New User’ dialog box.

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NOTES

Figure 7.2: The ‘New User’ Dialog Box

Note: By default, the ‘User Must Change Password at Next Log on’ check box is
selected and the description text box is optional.

3. Enter user name such as Ravi in the ‘Username’ text box and full name of the
user such as Ravi Kumar in the ‘Full Name’ text box.
4. Enter description such as User in the ‘Description’ text box to specify the
type of user account.
5. Enter password such as system in the ‘Password’ text box to specify the
password of the user.
6. Enter system in the ‘Confirm Password’ text box to confirm the password of
the user.
7. Click the ‘Add’ button to apply the settings. Figure 7.3 shows the ‘User
Manager’ window containing the ‘Ravi’ user account .

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NOTES

Figure 7.3: The User Manager Window with Newly Created Users

7.3 GROUPS
Although a user account is required to access network resources, granting access to
individual users would be a difficult task in larger networks. The administration of
resources can be made simple by collecting various user accounts into groups.
Collecting user accounts into groups, helps in granting network access to all the
members of a group at the same time. For example, when access to a specific
network resource such as printer is required, it is simpler to assign access to a group
rather than to assign access to each user account.

7.3.1 Types of Groups


Groups can be classified into two types, local groups and global groups.

7.3.1.1 Local Groups


Local groups are used to administer the computer or to grant access to local user
accounts. Local groups can assign permissions to resources. The local group can
contain users and global groups from any trusted domain. They cannot contain
domain local groups or local machine groups.
When Windows NT server operating system is installed, some built-in groups are
created automatically. User accounts and other global groups can be added to the
built-in local groups to grant specific user rights. The various local groups are as
follows:
• Administrator: Members of the administrator group have almost complete
access and authority over the domain, server or workstation containing the
group. These users can perform almost all administrative functions in the

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Handling Operating Systems domain. All the members of this group have full control on the server and
they are capable of assigning user rights and access permissions to users.
They can create, delete and manage local groups and global groups, install
programs on remote workstations, lock the server, format server disks, and so
NOTES on. However, the members of the administrator group do not have complete
and automatic access to directories and files on NTFS systems. The
administrator account by default is a member of administrator group and it
cannot be removed from the administrator group. When a server is added to a
domain, the domain admin global group is also added automatically to the
local administrator group.
• Account operators: An account operator is a local group that allows its
members to use the User Manager application to create new groups and
accounts. The members of this group can create and administer the domain
user accounts and groups in the domain. They are not capable of managing
user and group accounts created by administrators. They can create accounts
and assign those accounts to groups that have been set up by an
administrator.
• Back-up operators: Back-up operators do not have the capability to change
security settings or perform other administrative tasks. All the members of
this group can back-up and restore files and folders on the server, regardless
of the security settings that are used to protect these files. The members of
this group can access the server from within the network and they can log on
locally on the system. There are no default members of the back-up operators
group.
• Guest group: The members of this group have temporary files, which are
created at the log on time. The temporary files contain profile of the users,
which is deleted automatically when the users are disconnected. The guest
account is a member of the guest group. The guest group does not have any
default user rights associated with it.
• Help services group: This group allows an administrator to set rights
common to all the support applications. The only group that can be a member
of this group is the support_388945a0 account. This account is associated
with the remote assistance application.
• Network configuration operators: All the members of this group are able to
make changes to the TCP/IP settings. They are also capable of releasing and
renewing the existing IP addresses.
• Performance log users: The members of this group can manage the
performance counters, logs and alerts from the server locally or remotely
without being a member of the administrator group.
• Power users: Power users are the users with some administrative rights. The
members of this group are capable of creating, modifying and deleting user
accounts and local groups. They can add or remove users from power users,
guests and user groups. They can also create and manage shared resources.
The members of power users group are not capable of removing members of
the administrator group.
• Print operators: The members of this built-in group can manage printers
and print queues. These members can also log on to a server and shut down
the server.

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• Replicator: This group supports files and directory replication. The members Windows NT Server
of the replicator group are domain user accounts that are used to logon to the
replicator service on a domain controller.
• Users: All the users are the members of this built-in users group. The
members of this group can perform tasks such as running programs and using NOTES
printers. The users can access the computer from within the network and they
are also capable of logging on the local computer.

7.3.1.2 Global Groups


Global groups are much powerful than the local groups. All the members of the
global group must have the domain user account of the domain where the group was
created. The members of a global group can be granted permission to access the
resources of other domain by developing trust relationships between the different
domains. A global group is created only at the time of creating a domain. Global
groups cannot contain local users and local groups. Global groups provide easy
resource access and help in organising the users with similar requirements but
belonging to different locations into single unit. The following are the global built-in
groups:
• DNS update proxy: The members of this group are able to perform updates
in the DNS on behalf of other clients. When secure dynamic updates are
enabled on DNS, the Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) servers
are made members of this group to be able to update the clients.
• Domain admins: Every domain includes a global group named domain
admins that is automatically added to the local administrators group. All the
members of Domain admins are domain administrators. You can assign a
user a domain administrator by adding the user to the Domain. The members
of this group have complete administrative rights in the domain. The Domain
admin group is a member of the Administrators domain local group and all
local administration groups on all workstations and servers in the domain.
• Domain computer: All computers and workstations that have been joined to
the domain are the members of this group.
• Domain guests: It is used to grant access of resource to users who do not
have a valid user account in the domain. By default, the guest account is a
member of the domain guest group.
• Domain users: It is a global group, which is a member of the local users
group. All the users are members of the domain user group. Domain users are
granted normal access to workstations in the domain. When a new share
folder is created, the domain user is granted the read permission.

7.3.2 Creating Local Groups


You can create a local group by using the ‘User Manager’ window. To create a local
group:
1. Open the ‘User Manager’ window.
2. Select User Æ The New Local Group to display the New Local Group dialog
box, as shown in the Figure 7.4.

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NOTES

Figure 7.4: New Local Group Dialog Box

3. Enter a name such as system in the ‘Group Name’ text box, to specify the
name of the local group.
4. Click the Add button to add users to the System group. Figure 7.5 shows the
‘Add Users and Groups’ dialog box.

Figure 7.5: The Add Users and Groups Dialog Box

5. Select the groups and users from the ‘Names’ section to add to the system
group.
6. Click the OK button to create a local group. The ‘New Local Group’ dialog
box appears again.

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7.4 USER PROFILES Windows NT Server

A profile is a group of settings that are stored in a special type of registry file. The
Windows NT user profiles are used to enable the user’s desktop settings and
operating parameters. The user profiles specify the rights of a user to control certain NOTES
types of changes that a user can make to his working environment. Windows NT
profiles can only be used on the Windows NT workstation. The user profiles are
similar to logon scripts that are used by other operating systems to deal with
Microsoft GUI tools such as program groups, screen colours and sound schemes.
Windows NT Server profiles work with a set of folders and shortcuts to create the
user’s working environment. When a user logs on to Windows NT workstation, the
Windows NT Server operating system reads the user’s profile from the registry file
and sets the desktop setting according to the settings that are stored in registry profile.
The following are the four types of user profiles:
• Personal profile: It allows a user to make changes to his profile and save
these changes for future logon sessions. The user can change his personal
profile from one logon session to another.
• Mandatory profile: It allows a user to make changes to his profile and but
does not allow the user to save these changes in his profile for future logon
sessions. The mandatory profile enables the administrator to control the
user’s access to certain network resources and applications. The mandatory
profile can be updated by the administrator.
• Default profile: If there is no defined profile for the user then in that case the
Windows NT Server operating system uses a default profile for the user’s
logon workstation. This default profile is then copied and saved as the user’s
personal profile for future logon sessions.
• Roaming profile: It ensures that the users can use specific settings and
preferences to access all the computers of a particular domain. The roaming
profile is created when a user accesses multiple computers in the domain.
The roaming profile creates the ntuser.dat file and loads the file on the
domain computer, which is accessed by the user. The settings and
preferences in the ntuser.dat file are updated when the user logs off.

7.5 POLICIES
Policies are used to define the permitted actions and settings for users and computers
in the domain. Policy-based management simplifies tasks such as operating system
updates, application installation, user profiles and desktop system lock-down. The
following are the built-in user rights for Windows NT Server operating system:
• System policy
• Account policy
• User-right policy
• Audit policy

7.5.1 System Policy


System policy is a combination of user and computer settings that controls the
working environment of a user. System policies are used to combine a user profile
with a computer profile. The system policy is stored in a file named NTConfig.pol,

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policy provides a means of ensuring a consistent and uniform policy for all users.

7.5.2 Account Policy


NOTES The account policy specifies a method to handle passwords for all user accounts. It
controls the global log on parameters. An account policy can be used in conjunction
with system policy to provide complete control over the login behaviour. The account
policy can be used to allow the administrator to implement a policy for all the user
accounts in the server’s account database. The account policy can be used by the
administrator to enforce password restrictions and can also be used to lockout the
accounts. To administer account policy, you need to perform the following steps:
1. Open the User Manager window.
2. Select Policies Æ Account to display the ‘Account Policy’ dialog box, as
shown in the Figure 7.6.

Figure 7.6: The Account Policy Dialog Box

The account policy dialog box has the following fields:


• Maximum Password Age: It determines how long users can keep a
password before they have to change it. The main aim is to force the users to
change their passwords periodically. By default, this field is set to 42 days. It
has values in the range from 1 to 999.

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• Password Uniqueness: It sets the number of times a user can use a password Managing Resources in
Windows NT Server
before it is expired. Password Uniqueness sets how frequently old passwords
can be reused. The Windows NT Server operating system can store up to 24
passwords for each user in the password history. By default, the Windows
NT Server operating system does not keep a password history. NOTES
• Minimum Password Age: This setting allows the user to set the number of
days that a password must be used before the user can change it. This field
can be used to prevent users from cheating the password system by entering a
new password and then changing it right back to the old one. By default,
Windows NT lets users change their passwords immediately.
• Minimum Password Length: This setting allows the user to set the
minimum password length. By default, the minimum password length is
zero.
• Reset count after: Every time a logon attempt fails, Windows NT raises the
value of a counter tracking the number of bad logon attempts. The field
accepts values from 1 to 99,999.
• No Account Lockout: This option allows the users to continually enter
incorrect passwords without being locked out of the system.
• Account Lockout: This option locks the user out of the system.

7.5.3 User Right Policy


The Windows NT Server operating system is responsible for defining user rights for
the built-in groups. User rights are different from permissions that are used to
represent usage policies for network resources such as a directory or a file. You can
administer the user right policy by selecting Policies Æ User Right in the ‘User
Manager’ window. The following are the built-in user rights for Windows NT Server
operating system:
• Access computer from network: This is a basic user right that allows the
user to connect to the computer through network.
• Act as part of operating system: This is an advanced user right that enables
the user to perform operations as a trusted and secure part of the Windows
NT Server operating system.
• Add workstations to domain: This is a basic user right that enables the user
to add new computers to the domain. This right can be granted to those users
who are not members of the power users groups and administrators.
• Back-up files and directories: This is a basic user right that allows the user
to take the back-up of the files and directories on the computer.
• Bypass directory traverse checking: This right enables the users to change
directories even if they do not have permission to access a particular
directory.
• Create a token object: This right is used to create token for the user at the
time of log in. The Local Security Authority (LSA) is used to perform this
function.
• Create permanent shared objects: This is the advanced right that is used to
create permanent shared resources, such as devices for the Windows NT
Server operating system.
• Replace a process level token: This is an advanced user right that is used to
modify the process’s security access token. This user right can only be used
by the Windows NT Server operating system or by the system account.
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to restore files and directories without accessing the NTFS.
• Take ownership of files: This built-in user right enables the user to take the
ownership of files, regardless of the permissions on the files.
NOTES
7.5.4 Audit Policy
The audit policy allows you to track the activities performed by the users by creating
security log entries. The audit policy can also be used to determine the types of
security events that have been saved in the security log. All domains have the same
audit policy. The audit policy affects the security log of all the Windows NT Server
servers present in the domain. To administer the audit policy, you need to select
Policies Æ Audit in the ‘User Manager’ window.

7.6 SYSTEM POLICY EDITOR


The system policy provides a consistent and uniform policy for all users. In Windows
NT, working environment of the user can be controlled using a utility called System
Policy Editor. The System Policy Editor provides a facility to edit the system policy.
The Windows NT Server operating system checks the Netlogon folder for
NTConfig.pol file every time when a user logs on. It uses the information stored in
that file to add the current user and machine in that database, which is related to the
user. That database is applied to all the users who use the domain to log on. If there is
a need to customise the policies of network then the administrator must adapt the
System Policy for users, computers and groups. You use System Policy Editor to
perform the following tasks:
• Customise system policies
• Set the policies of user
• Set the policies of computer
• Add users, computers and groups

7.6.1 Customising System Policies


System Policy Editor, which is a utility program, is used to set and customise the
policies on Windows NT Server. System Policy Editor is used to add settings for
specific users and computers to define the working environments of the users. The
System Policy Editor is automatically installed in the root directory of Windows NT,
when you install Windows NT Server on a computer. To use this utility program:
1. Click Start Æ Programs Æ Administrative Tool to display the ‘System
Policy Editor’ window, as shown in Figure 7.7.

CHECK YOUR PROGRESS


1. Write down the names of
different types of groups.
2. Write down the name of
different types of user
accounts.
3. Define ‘account policy’.
4. Define ‘profiles’.

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NOTES

Figure 7.7: The System Policy Editor Window

Note: At the starting time, System Policy has no settings for default users and default
computer.

2. Select File Æ New policy to add the default user and computer objects to
‘System Policy Editor’. Figure 7.8 shows the ‘System Policy Editor’ window
with default computer and default user.

Figure 7.8: Displaying Default Computer and Default User

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Handling Operating Systems 7.6.2 Setting the Policies of Users
To set the policies of a user, you need to double-click the Default User icon in the
‘System Policy Editor’ window. Figure 7.9 shows the ‘Default User Properties’
dialog box.
NOTES

Figure 7.9: The Default User Properties Dialog Box

The ‘Default User Properties’ dialog box contains following options to set the
policies of users:
• Control Panel: It helps to deny access to the ‘Display icon’ in ‘Control
Panel’ and specify other settings related to display.
• Desktop: It enables the specifications of wallpaper and colour scheme
settings.
• Shell: It contains all those settings to control desktop of user. User can also
apply some restrictions related to drive icons in ‘My Computer’, ‘Network
Neighbourhood’, ‘Shut down’ the computer and hiding object on the
desktop.
• System: It helps to prevent the user to access the ‘Registry editing tools’ and
restrict to run specific applications.
• Windows NT Shell: It contains two sub-branches that enabled you to specify
custom desktop and application settings.
• Windows NT System: It is used to specify the Autoexec.bat file
existance at logon user.
You need to modify the settings and click the OK button to apply the settings of user
policies.
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7.6.3 Setting the Policies of Computer Windows NT Server
‘Default Computer’ icon is used to show the properties of computer hardware. To see
these properties you need to double-click the ‘Default Computer’ icon in the ‘System
Policy Editor’ window. Figure 7.10 shows the ‘Default Computer Properties’ dialog
box. NOTES

Figure 7.10: Default Computer Properties Dialog Box

The ‘Default Computer Properties’ dialog box contains the following branches:
• Network: It specifies, which way is used for the ‘System Policy’ updation.
• System: It contains two sub-branches to control SNMP settings.
• Windows NT Network: It helps to specify automatic creation of the hidden
administrative shares <drive>$ and Admin$.
• Windows NT System: It helps to control logon options, short file name
options and FTP server settings.
• Windows NT Printers: It helps to control sharing of printer information
with other printer servers and sets print spooler priority.
• Windows NT Remote Access: It is used to control a selection of settings of
connection parameters for RAS.
• Windows NT User Profiles: It controls settings of user profiles.

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7.6.4 Adding Users, Computers and Groups
You can use ‘System Policy’ Editor to add more users, computers and groups to
customize System policy. To add a user, you need to select Edit Æ Add User to
NOTES display the ‘Add User’ dialog box, as shown in Figure 7.11.

Figure 7.11: The Add User Dialog Box

Note: Similarly, you can select Edit Æ Add Computer and Edit Æ Add group to add
computer and groups.

‘System Policy Editor’ displays a dialog box for typing the name of the User or
Computer or Group. After adding that name, an icon for User or Computer or Group
appears in the ‘System Policy Editor’ window with the Default User and Default
Computer icons. For changing the settings of other user or computer or group, you
need to double-click the icon. For applying new settings, you need to save the System
policy by selecting File Æ Save As. To apply the ‘System policy’ settings across a
domain, you need to save these setting in the NTConfig.pol file stored in the
Netlogon folder.

7.7 MANAGING DISK RESOURCES


A user can perform disk related tasks such as creating partitions and formatting disk
using the Disk Administrator utility provided by ‘Window NT Server’. Disk
Administrator helps to manage disk resources by displaying all the drives of the
system with their types and capacity. Disk Administrator can be accessed in two
views, disk configuration view and volume view for determining the disk
configuration and volume of disk. By default, the disk configuration view is
displayed. This view shows unpartitioned space of the disk whereas Volumes view
displays partitioned space. To open the disk configuration view, you need to press the
Ctrl+D key and to open the volume view, you need to press the Ctrl+V key.
Windows NT has a utility named ‘Disk Administrator’ to manage and understand
partitioning the disk resources.

7.7.1 Using Disk Administrator


To use Disk Administrator:
1. Select Start Æ Programs Æ Administrator Tool Æ Disk Administrator to
display the disk configuration view of the Disk Administrator, as shown in
Figure 7.12.

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NOTES

Figure 7.12: The Disk Configuration View

2. Select Options Æ Disk Display to control the size of disk. Figure 7.13 shows
the Disk Display Options dialog box.

Figure 7.13: The Disk Display Option Dialog Box

Note: By default, the Size disks based on actual size option is selected, you can also
select the Size all disks equally to make the size of all disk equal.

3. Accept the default settings and select Options Æ Region Display to show the
relationship among partitions of the disk and control logical drive display.
Figure 7.14 shows the Region Display Options dialog box.

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NOTES

Figure 7.14: The Region Display Option Dialog Box

Note: You can also set the display of a specific region of a disk.

4. Select the Size regions based on equal size option and click the OK button to
apply the changes.
5. Select Options Æ Customize Toolbar to customize the toolbar of ‘Disk
Administrator’. Figure 7.15 shows the Customize Toolbar dialog box.

Figure 7.15: The Customize Toolbar Dialog Box

6. Select a button such as ‘Separator’ from the available buttons list to add a
button to the ‘Disk Administrator’ toolbar.
7. Click the ‘Add’ button to add the ‘Separator’ button to the Toolbar buttons
list.
7.7.2 Understanding Partitions
Disk used in a Window NT provide logical area of storage. This logical area for
storing data is designated by partitioning of the disk. Partitioning of the disk provide
logical Partitions of the disk that comprises a set of sectors with specific beginning
and ending. A disk can contains almost four partitions but most of the disks consist of
only one partition. Either all the partitions can be primary partitions or three primary
partitions and one extended partition. A primary partition can contain a single logical
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drive for storing information and that storing area is recognised by the operating Managing Resources in
Windows NT Server
system. An extended partition contains multiple logical drives and enables the user to
break up the storing area in the extended partition into different logical storage areas.
Window NT provides a facility to create desired size partitions using ‘Create Primary
Partition’ for Primary partition and ‘Create Extended’ for extended partition dialog NOTES
boxes of Setup Program at the time of installation.
User can create partitions of desired size in the extended partition using ‘Create
Logical Drive’ dialog box, which is same as Create Primary Partition and Create
Extended Partition dialog boxes. Windows NT has two special partitions such as the
boot partition and the system partition. The boot partition helps to boot Windows NT
operating system using Windows NT operating system boot loader and hardware
detection files. The system partition is a primary partition that marked as active and
has all hardware-specific files, which are used to load the Window NT Operating
system. Disk Administrator utility is used to make active partition.

7.8 UNIVERSAL NAMING CONVENTIONS


Universal Naming Convention (UNC) are used to access different files over network.
Window NT provides a way to refer server using common name conventions on the
network. The Window NT command prompt is used for these conventions and
double backslash followed by server name is used for reffering server. For example,
for refering a server named NTServer following convention path is used:
\\NTServer

For accessing shared directory of Window NT Server following command is used:


net view \\NTServer

for accesing shared documents of a file following command is used:


net use G: \\NTServer\Document_name

For accessing any text file from a Public subdirectory following syntax is used:
\\NTServer\Documents\PUBLIC\File_Name.txt

for making a connection persistent /PERSISTENT : is used. following statement is


shows how to make a connection persistent:
net use F: \\NTServer\Documents /PERSISTENT:YES

for disconnecting a network drive /DELETE is used. following statement is shows


how to disconnect a drive over network:
net use F: /DELETE

for getting the contents of the shared file of NTServer following convention is used:
dir \\NTServer\Documents

For copying a file from one location to another location you have to type:
copy \\NTServer\Documents\PUBLIC\README.TXT
\\ServerTwo\Archive\

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7.9 WORKING WITH WINDOWS NT
Windows NT provides efficient environment to access and manage files over
network using a graphical user interface, Programs and files stored on the PC are
NOTES
represented as pictures that are called icons. These Icons are stored on the desktop.

The desktop
The first thing that you see when you start Windows NT is the desktop. The desktop
hosts icons for programs, shortcuts to programs and files.

About Icons
Icons are graphical representations of the programs and files stored on the desktop.

Selecting an Icon
In order to give the computer a command, you have to select the particular icon.
Selecting an icon can be done by moving the mouse pointer over it and pressing the
left mouse button once. Each time you select a particular Icon, the color of the Icon
changes, indicating that the Icon is selected. Figure 7.16 shows the various icons
available at the desktop of the Windows NT Server operating system.

Figure 7.16: Icons Available at the Windows NT Server Desktop

Moving an icon
You can move icons around to rearrange your files on the disk or for your own
convenience. Icons can be move on screen by simply holding the left mouse button
down when you click on the icon, dragging the mouse to the desired position on the
screen, and then releasing the mouse button.

The Taskbar
Typically, you would be simultaneously running more than one application or task.
Each application will run in a separate window. Every window, (folder or an
application window) open has a new button that appears on the Taskbar. You can
make any one of these windows ‘active’ at a time. To do so you will need to click on
the respective button in the taskbar. Figure 7.17 shows the task bar available at the
desktop of the Windows NT Server operating system

Figure 7.17: Task Bar

The Scrolling Options


When the contents of the window do not fit in one screen, you will see boxes with
arrows at the top and bottom, these boxes are called scrollbars. You can click on the
arrows in the scrollbars to browse the hidden part of the screen. The blue rectangular
indicators on the scroll bar tell you the position of the screen. Figure 7.18 shows the
scrolling arrow and Figure 7.19 shows scroll Bars of the Windows NT.

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NOTES

Figure 7.18: Scroll Arrow

Figure 7.19: Scroll Bars

Scroll bars can be both – vertical, as well as horizontal. Horizontal scrollbars are the
scroll bars, which move the window on the horizontal while the Vertical scrollbars
move the windows on the vertical axis.

Types of Windows
Windows are of two types — Program Application window, and the Folder window.
As the name suggests, program application windows display the details of an
application program while folder windows display details of the files and folders of
the system within a particular folder. Figure 7.20 shows the folder window of
Windows NT.

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NOTES

Figure 7.20: The Exploring Window

Moving a Window
You can move a window that does not cover the entire screen. To do so simply move
your mouse pointer over the Title bar, click the left mouse button, while keeping it
the button pressed drag the window to the desired position.

Minimizing, Restoring and Closing a Window


The Restore button allows you to restore the window to the last saved window size or
the default small size when your window is in full size. After you have minimized the
window you can once again click on the same button to restore it to a full size
window (also known as maximizing the window). Restore / Maximize is middle
button in the title bar as shown in the Figure 7.21.

Figure 7.21: Maximizing the Window

The last button on the title bar is the close button. Clicking on this button will shut
down your active window. An alternative way to close the window is to right click on
the desired window button in the ‘Taskbar’ and choose the ‘Close’ option as shown
in Figure 7.22.

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NOTES

Figure 7.22: Closing a Window

Resizing a Window
The borders of a window allow you to change the size of a window. You can resize
your window horizontally, vertically or both together.
To resize the window horizontally or vertically move your mouse to the respective
border of the window. You will notice that the cursor will change into a double
headed arrow indicating the directions in which you can resize the window. Now left
click and drag your mouse in the indicated direction to resize window to desired size.
To resize the window both horizontally and vertically at the same time, move the
mouse pointer to any of the corner edges of the window. You will notice that the
arrow becomes a diagonal double-headed arrow. Click and drag the window in the
indicated direction to change the size of the window. The horizontal and the vertical
borders of the windows are resized proportionately.

Start Menu & the Taskbar


Menus are very useful parts of the Windows system. They consist of various
commands and subcommands for default window programs and other applications
and programs stored on your computer.

The Start menu


Windows NT includes a new Start menu to provide quick access to frequently used
programs and common system areas like My Computer, Control Panel and Search.
The Start Menu and Start Button are user interface elements in Microsoft Windows,
which serve as the central launching point for applications. By default, the Start
button is visible at all times in the lower left-hand corner of the screen. It features the
Windows logo and the word "start". Clicking the Start Button activates the Start
Menu.

Quitting Windows
It is always a good idea to shutdown all applications before switching off your
CHECK YOUR PROGRESS
computer. Directly switching off the power can corrupt your data.
5. The Windows NT server
To shutdown your PC, Select Start ÆShut down the Computer. To display the Shut operating system checks the
Down Windows dialog box, as shown in Figure 7.23. ________ for _________ file
every time when a user logs
on.
6. What is the purpose of Disk
Administrator ?
7. How does Windows NT
partition the disk

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NOTES

Figure 7.23: Shut Down Windows Dialog Box

7.10 SUMMARY
A user account is the heart of system management in the Windows NT Server
environment. A user account contains information such as name of the user,
password required to access the computer on the network, resources available for
access on the network. A Group can be defined as a set of large number of users
having similar characteristics. Group allows you to administer resources easily and it
simplifies the process of controlling access to the various resources. If some changes
are made to group permissions then these changes will automatically inherited by all
the users present in the group.

7.11 ANSWERS TO ‘CHECK YOUR PROGRESS’


1. There are two types of groups:
A. Local group
B. Global group
2. There are three types of user accounts:
A. Local user account
B. Global user account
C. Built-in account
3. The account policy specifies a method to handle passwords for all user
accounts.
4. The profiles enable desktop settings and operating parameters.
5. Netlogon folder, NTConfig.pol file.
6. Disk Administrator helps to manage disk resources by displaying all the
drives of the system with their types and capacity.
7. Window NT provide a facility to create desired size partitions using Create
Primary Partition for Primary partition and Create Extended for extended
partition dialog boxes of SetUp Program at the time of installation.

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7.12 EXERCISES AND QUESTIONS Windows NT Server

Short-Answer Questions
1. Define ‘User account’. NOTES
2. What is the function of policy?
3. Describe ‘System Policy Editor’?
4. What do you mean by ‘UNC’?

Long-Answer Questions
1. Explain types of groups.
2. Explain all the four types of profiles.
3. Describe the working of Disk Administrator.
4. Explain working of Windows NT Server.

7.13 FURTHER READING


http://docs.rinet.ru/UNT4

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NOTES

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UNIT 8 CONNECTIVITY
Structure
NOTES
8.0 Introduction
8.1 Unit Objectives
8.2 Interoperating with NetWare
8.2.1 Using Windows Interface; 8.2.2 Using Command Line
8.3 Remote Access Service
8.4 Installing and Configuring Remote Access Services
8.5 Summary
8.6 Answers to ‘Check your Progress’
8.7 Exercises and Questions
8.8 Further Reading

8.0 INTRODUCTION
Windows NT Server allows you to connect and use resources of NetWare. You can
use either the Windows Interface tool, which is a graphical tool or the Command
Line tool. You can also access network computers and Internet from Windows NT
server. To access a network computer and the Internet, you need to install and
configure Remote Access Services (RAS).

8.1 UNIT OBJECTIVES


In this unit, you will learn about:
• Explaining how to use Windows Interface and Command Line tools to access
Netware resources
• Explaining the concept of RAS
• Understanding how to configure RAS on Windows NT Server

8.2 INTEROPERATING WITH NETWARE


Interoperating with NetWare refers to accessing a NetWare resource through
Windows NT Server. You can connect to a NetWare resource either by using the
Windows Interface or by using the Command Line.

8.2.1 Using Windows Interface


Before connecting to a Netware resource, you need to install Client Service for
NetWare and NWLink IPX/SPX/NetBIOS Compatible Transport Protocol. To
connect to a NetWare resource using Windows Interface, you have to perform the
following steps:
1. Click the My Network Places icon to display the My Network Places
window.
2. Double-click the NetWare icon to display the Novel Directory Services
(NDS) tree.
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Handling Operating Systems 3. Double-click the NDS tree to view the other computers and contents of other
computers or drives.
4. Right-click a folder to display a shortcut menu.
NOTES 5. Select the Map Network Drive option to map a local drive to a folder to
initiate the Map Network Drive wizard.
6. Click Next to continue mapping the drive and click Ok at the end of wizard
to apply the changes.

8.2.2 Using Command Line


You can also connect to a NetWare resource by using Command Line. To connect to
a NetWare resource using Command Line you have to perform the following steps:
1. Open the Command Prompt window.
2. Type the following command at the command prompt for connecting to an
individual NetWare volume:
net use drive\\UNCname\NetWareName

3. Type the following command to specify user name and password for
accessing a user account:
: /user: Username Password

4. Type the following command for connecting to the NDS tree:


net use drive: \\TreeName\Volume.Orgname.Orgname
[/u:UserName.OrgName[password]]

8.3 REMOTE ACCESS SERVICE


RAS is a service that helps access a network computer and the Internet. RAS uses the
trusted domain and single-network logon model. According to trusted domain model,
users and groups of one domain can access resources in another trusting domain.
After the users are authenticated, the user credentials are stored on a system and are
provided whenever access to a resource is requested on the network. The
single-network logon model is most commonly used in RAS. After the authentication
of users, they can use resources throughout the domain as well as in any trusted
domain.
RAS contains various components that help establish communication between local
and remote computers. RAS includes the following components:
• RAS server: It helps to control RAS, view users, grant permissions to users
and monitor remote access traffic. RAS severs are required to have multiport
adapter or modem, analog telephone lines and the RAS software.
• Remote access clients: The clients, which can connect to Windows NT
Server are Windows NT RAS servers, Windows 95, MS-DOS and Point to
Point Protocol (PPP) clients.
• LAN protocols: It includes TCP/IP, NetBEUI and IPX protocols. When you
install and configure RAS, LAN protocols are automatically enabled for
inbound and outbound calls.

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• WAN protocols: RAS clients can connect to RAS server using WAN Connectivity

protocols. WAN protocols include a telephone line, a modem ISDN,


RS-232c null modem and Point to Point Tunneling Protocol (PPTP).
• Security options: These options help in controlling the access to system
resources and recording and auditing the information realted to system NOTES
access.

8.4 INSTALLING AND CONFIGURING REMOTE


ACCESS SERVICE
You need to install and configure RAS in Windows NT Server for allowing your
computer to connect to network computers. However, prior to this, you need to
confirm a successful installation of Windows NT Server operating system on your
computer system. You can install RAS during the initial set up of Windows NT
installation or you can start the process after the completion of Windows NT Server
installation. For installing RAS, you need the administrative privileges for logging on
to your computer system. Apart from the administrative privileges, you also need to
check the availability of some specific hardware requirements, which are needed for
installing RAS. The basic hardware requirements are:
• A Network Adapter Car (NAC), which has a certified Network Driver
Interface Specification (NDIS) driver.
• One or more modems having hardware compatibility and one available COM
port.
• A multiport adapter card that helps in working with multiple remote
connections,
• An X.25 start card, in case you are using an X.25 network.
• An ISDN card or modem when you are using an ISDN line.
When your computer system conforms the hardware requirements of RAS, you can
install and configure RAS in your computer system. Though RAS installation is a
part of the Windows NT Server installation, you can start the installation process
using the Network icon available in the Control Panel of Windows NT Server. To
install RAS, you need to perform the following tasks.
1. Select Start Æ Settings Æ Control Panel to display the Control Panel
window. Figure 8.1 shows the Control Panel window.

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NOTES

Figure 8.1: The Control Panel Window

2. Click the Network icon available in the ‘Control Panel’ to open the Network
dialog box. By default, the Identification tab is selected in the Network
dialog box, as shown in Figure 8.2.

Figure 8.2: The Network Dialog Box

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3. Click the Services tab to display the Service tabbed page of the Network Connectivity

dialog box, which specifies various network services such as Gateway


Service for Netware, NetBIOS Interface and Microsoft Internet Information
Server 2.0. Figure 8.3 shows the Services tabbed page.
NOTES

Figure 8.3: The Service Tabbed Page

4. Click the Add button to display the Select Network Service dialog box,
which contains the various network services and also allow you to add new
network services, as shown in Figure 8.4.

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NOTES

Figure 8.4: The Select Network Service Dialog Box

5. Select the Remote Access Service option from the Network Service list and
click OK. This prompts for the path to the distribution files.
6. Type the path and click OK to copy the RAS files onto your computer and to
display the Add RAS Device, which contains a list of all ports available to
Windows NT for RAS. Figure 8.5 shows the Add RAS Device dialog box.

Figure 8.5: The ADD Device Dialog Box

7. Select the port that you need to use for RAS and click OK to display the
Remote Access Setup dialog box, as shown in Figure 8.6.

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NOTES

Figure 8.6: The Remote Access Setup Dialog Box

The various buttons available in the Remote Access Setup dialog box are:
o Add: It allows you to make a port available for RAS.
o Remove: It allows you to make a port unavailable for RAS.
o Configure: It allows you to change the remote access settings for a
selected port.
o Clone: It allows you to copy the modem setup from one port to
another port.
o Continue: It allows you to proceed to the next step of remote access
setup after completion of the tasks within the ‘Remote Access Setup’
dialog box.
o Cancel: It allows you to discard the process of remote access setup.
o Network: It allows you to configure network-wide settings of RAS.
8. Select the port in the ‘Remote Access Setup’ dialog box and click the
Configure button to open the Configure Port Usage dialog box, as shown in
Figure 8.7.

Figure 8.7: The Configure Port Usage Dialog Box

The various options available in the ‘Port Usage’ section of the Configure
Port Usage dialog box are:
o Dial out only: It specifies that your computer system can only be an
RAS client.

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Handling Operating Systems o Receive calls only: It specifies that your computer system can only
be an RAS server.
o Dial out and Receive calls: It specifies that your computer system
can be both client and server.
NOTES
9. Select the option of your choice from the ‘Port Usage’ section and click OK
to display the ‘Remote Access Setup’ dialog box.
10. Click the Network button on the ‘Remote Access Setup’ dialog box to open
the ‘Network Configuration’ dialog box, which allow you to configure
network-wide settings of RAS. Figure 8.8 shows the Network Configuration
dialog box.

Figure 8.8: The Network Configuration Dialog Box

11. Click the Continue button on the Remote Access Setup dialog box after
setting the network configuration to open the RAS Server TCP/IP
Configuration dialog box, as shown in Figure 8.9.

CHECK YOUR PROGRESS


1. Define interoperating with
NetWare.
2. Expand RAS.
3. What is single-network logon
model?

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NOTES

Figure 8.9: The RAS Server TCP/IP Configuration Dialog Box

12. Select the appropriate configuration and click OK to display the Network
dialog box.
13. Click OK to close the Network dialog box and restart your computer system
to apply the changes made to RAS.

8.5 SUMMARY
The Windows NT Server operating system helps in accessing the resources of
NetWare installed on computer. It provides graphical as well as command line tools
to access the NetWare resources. You can also access the Internet from Windows NT
Server to increase its interactivity and usability. To access the Internet, RAS is
installed and configured on Window NT Server.

8.6 ANSWERS TO ‘CHECK YOUR PROGRESS’


1. Interoperating with NetWare refers to accessing a NetWare resource through
Windows NT Server.
2. Remote Access Service
3. The single-network logon model is most commonly used in RAS. After the
authentication of users, they can use resources throughout the domain and in
any trusted domains.

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8.7 EXERCISES AND QUESTIONS
Short-Answer Questions
NOTES 1. How can you use Windows Interface?
2. What is trusted domain model?
3. Write short note on interoperating with NetWare.
4. Why do we use RAS?

Long-Answer Questions
1. Explain the term RAS.
2. How can you configure RAS?
3. What are the two different models supported by Windows NT Server?
4. How can you access resources of NetWare from Windows NT Server?

8.8 FURTHER READING


http://technet2.microsoft.com/WindowsServer/en/library/d2e437db-3ae3-4466-8dd1-
1815da7190841033.mspx?mfr=true
http://www.microsoft.com/technet/archive/winntas/proddocs/network/xns05.mspx
http://www.microsoft.com/technet/archive/winntas/proddocs/network/xns06.mspx

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Glossary
GLOSSARY
• Access Method: This method is used to search and find a file, a record, or
even a set of records for performing operations on the data.
NOTES
• Administrator: Responsible for managing resources of the system.
• Application Programming Interface (API): A standardized library of
programming tools that can be used by software developers to write an
application that is compatible with a specific operating system or a user
interface which may be graphical user interface.
• Asynchronous Operation: An operation that occurs without a regular or
predictable time relationship to a specified event.
• Asynchronous Process: Process, which do not depend on other processes
and execute independently on their own.
• Batch Processing: Pertaining to the technique of executing a set of computer
programs so that each is completed before the next program
• Block: A collection of related records, which are stored as a single unit, these
are separated by inter block spaces and appear as blocks of data.
• Cache Memory: A memory that is smaller and faster than main memory and
that is interposed between the processor and main memory. This memory
acts as a buffer for operations performed by the system.
• Client: A process that requests services from the server for its own
processing.
• Cluster: A group of interconnected, whole computers working together as a
unified computing resource that can create the illusion of being one machine.
The term whole computer is a term used for a system, which can run on its
own, apart from the cluster.
• Concurrent: Pertaining to processes to threads that take place within a
common interval of time during which they may have to alternately share
common resources.
• Database: This is a collection of interrelated data, often with controlled
redundancy, organized according to a schema to serve one or more
application, the data are stored so that they can be used by different program
without concern of the data structure or organization. A common approach is
to modify existing data, deleting existing data, and adding new data.
• Deadlock: A condition that occurs when multiple processes are waiting for
an action to trigger, which in turn is to be triggered by another waiting
process. This causes a dead lock.
• Device Driver: An operating system module (usually in the kernel) that
deals directly with a device or I/O module.
• Direct Access: The compatibility to obtain data from a storage device or to
enter data into a storage device in a sequence independent of their relative
position, by means of addresses that indicate the physical location of data.
• Direct Memory Access: A form of I/O in which a special module, controls
the exchange of data between main memory and an I/O device. The
processor sends a request for the transfer of a block of data to the DMA
module and is interrupted only after the entire block has been transferred.
• Disk Allocation Table: A table that indicates which blocks on secondary
memory are free and available for allocation files.
Self-Instructional Material 147
Handling Operating Systems • Distributed Operating System: A common operating system shared by a
network of computers. The distributed operating system provides support for
interprocess communication process migration, mutual exclusion, and the
prevention or detection of deadlock.
NOTES • Domain Name Server: It is a program for translating websites into domain
name.
• Domain Name System: It is a system used by domain name server to
translate domain name in to a IP address.
• Encryption: The conversion of plain text or data into unintelligible form by
means of a reversible mathematical computation.
• Field: The elementary unit of a record that may contain a data item, a data
aggregate, a pointer, or a link.
• File: a set of related records treated as a unit.
• File Allocation Table (FAT): a table that indicates physical location o
secondary storage of the space allocated to a file. There is one file allocation
table for each file.
• File Management System: a set of system software that provides services to
users and application in the use of files including file access, directory
maintenance, and access control.
• File Organization: The physical order of records in a file as determined by
the access method used to store and retrieve them.
• First in First Out (FIFO): A queuing technique in which the next item to be
retrieved is the item that has been placed in the queue for the longest time.
• Frame: In paged virtual storage, a fixed length block of main memory that is
used to hold one page of virtual memory.
• Indexed Access: pertaining to the organization and accessing of the records
of a storage structure through a separate index to the locations of the stored
records.
• Indexed File: A file in which the records are accessed according to the
values of the key fields. An index is required that indicates the location of
each records on the basis of each key value.
• Indexed Sequential Access: Pertaining to the organization and accessing of
the records of a storage structure through an index of the keys that are stored
in arbitrarily partitioned sequential files.
• Index Sequential File: a file in which records are ordered according to the
values of the key field. The main file is supplemented with an index file that
contains the partial key values.
• Interrupt: A suspension of a process, such as the execution of a computer
program caused by an event external to that process and performed in such a
way that the process can be resumed.
• Kernel: a portion of the OS that includes the most heavily used portions of
software.
• Main Memory: Memory that is internal to the computer system, is program
addressable and can be loaded into registers for subsequent execution of
processing.
• Memory Partitioning: The subdividing of storage into independent
structures.

148 Self-Instructional Material


• Multiprocessing: A mode of operation that provides for parallel processing Glossary

by two or more processors of a multiprocessor.


• Multiprocessor: A computer that has two or more processors that have
common access to main storage.
NOTES
• Multiprogramming: A mode of operation that provides for the interleaved
execution of two or more computer programs by a single processor.
• Multitasking: A mode of operation that provides for the concurrent
performance or interleaved execution of two or more computer tasks.
• NTFS: File system used in Windows NT for storing files.
• Operating System: Software that controls the execution of programs and
that provides services such as resources allocation, scheduling, I/O, control,
and data management.
• Paging: The transfer of pages between main memory and secondary
memory.
• Pipe: a circular buffer allowing two processes to communicate on the
producer consumer model. Thus it is a first in first out queue written by one
process and read by other. In some system the pipe is generalized to allow
any item in the queue to be selected for consumption.
• Real Time System: An operating system that must schedule and manage real
time tasks.
• Remote Access Services (RAS): A service that helps access a network
computer and the Internet. RAS uses the trusted domain and single-network
logon model.
• Remote Procedure Call: A technique by which two programs on different
machines interact using procedure call syntax and semantics. Both the called
and calling program behave as if the partner program were running on the
same machine.
• Secondary Memory: Memory located outside the computer system itself,
including disk and tape.
• Schedule: to select jobs or tasks that are to be dispatched. In some OS, other
units of work, such as I/O operations, may also be scheduled.
• Sequential Access: The capability to enter data into a storage device or a
data medium in the same sequence as the data are ordered or to obtain data in
the same order as they were entered
• Sequential File: A file in e\which the records are ordered according to the
values of one or more key fields and processed in the same sequence from
the beginning of the file.
• Server: A process that responds to requests from clients via messages.
• Single-Network Logon Model: According to this model, after the users are
authenticated, they can use resources throughout the domain as well as in any
trusted domain.
• Stack: A list that is constructed and maintained so that the next data item to
be retrieved is the most recently stored item in the list. This method is
characterized as last-in-first-out.
• Starvation: A condition in which a process is indefinitely delayed because
other processes are always given preference.
• Storage Area: A storage-area network is a high-speed network for
interconnecting different kinds of storage devices such as tape libraries and
Self-Instructional Material 149
Handling Operating Systems disk arrays. These devices can be shared by all users (regardless of location
or operating systems) through network servers.
• Symmetric Multiprocessing (SMP): A form of multi processes that allows
the OS to execute on any available processor or on several available
NOTES processors simultaneously.
• Synchronization: Situation in which two or more processes coordinate their
activities based on a condition.
• Time Sharing: The concurrent use of a device by a number of users.
• Trusted System: A computer and an OS that can be verified to implement a
given security policy.
• Trusted Domain Model: According to this model, users and groups of one
domain can access resources in another trusting domain. After the users are
authenticated, the user credentials are stored on a system and are provided
whenever access to a resource is requested on the network.
• Virtual Address: The address of a storage location in virtual storage.
• Virus: Secret undocumented routine embedded within a useful program.
Execution of the program results in execution of the secret routine.

150 Self-Instructional Material


PUNJAB TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY
LADOWALI ROAD, JALANDHAR

INTERNAL ASSIGNMENT

TOTAL MARKS: 25

NOTE: Attempt any 5 questions


All questions carry 5 Marks.

Q. 1. What are the various tools required for monitoring the performance of operating system?
Q. 2. What are the various NetWare standards? List various hardware and software
requirements of NetWare?
Q. 3. What is a profile object? Discuss all the tabs that are present on the Property page of the
User object.
Q. 4. Explain the concept of ‘Hardware Abstraction Layer’. What is the function of the Kernel?
Q. 5. Define the various steps to install a printer in Windows NT.
Q. 6. Describe the various file systems used by Window NT server.
Q. 7. Describe the working of Disk Administrator.
Q. 8. Why do we use RAS? How can you configure RAS?
Q. 9. How can you access resources of NetWare from Windows NT Server?
Q.10. State various steps for creating ASP pages.