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Original Article

Journal of Reinforced Plastics


and Composites

Research and design guidelines for the 32(17) 1302–1309


! The Author(s) 2013
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construction of fiber-reinforced polymer sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav
DOI: 10.1177/0731684413485488
reinforced concrete structures under fire jrp.sagepub.com

exposure: A brief review

MA Faruqi, G Escobedo, D Sun and J Sai

Abstract
This article presents the state-of-the-art literature review for the behavior of fiber-reinforced polymer and performance
of fiber-reinforced polymer reinforced concrete structures exposed to high temperatures. The article is organized into
six parts. They are thermo-mechanical properties of fiber-reinforced polymer composites, bond characteristics of fiber-
reinforced polymers at high temperatures, fire reaction properties of fiber-reinforced polymer composites, fire protec-
tion methods, performance of fiber-reinforced polymer reinforced concrete structures under fire conditions, and design
codes. The design codes presented herein are that of American Concrete Institute and the Canada Standards
Association. Sections pertaining to fiber-reinforced polymer fire design in these codes are discussed, including the
future developments for enhancing the performance of fiber-reinforced polymer reinforced concrete structures under
elevated temperatures.

Keywords
Design recommendations, fiber-reinforced polymer reinforced concrete, fire, thermo-mechanical properties

Introduction reinforcements under elevated temperature conditions


Concrete structures around the world face problems is important to ensure adequate design and durability
regarding deterioration due to the corroding of steel of structure.
reinforcement. In recent years, the implementation of With the increase in use of FRP reinforcement in civil
fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) reinforcement in the infrastructure, there is still little known about the per-
construction industry has increased due to its durabil- formance of FRP reinforcement under fire conditions.
ity, high strength, and ability to resist corrosion. FRP As temperatures rise within the system, the composite
composites have helped enhance the performance of constituents are subjected to changes in its mechanical
structures by providing durable, reinforcement solu- properties. As the surface of the FRP bar reaches the
tions; therefore, this has allowed for the use of FRP transition glass temperature, the resin will no longer be
composites to extend beyond conventional bars. able to transfer stresses from the concrete to the fibers.2
Other applications of FRP composites in structures At this point, the fibers begin to experience failure char-
include wraps for rehabilitation of columns in seismic acteristics leading to the de-bonding of resin with fibers.3
zones, external reinforcement, composite bridge decks, Once total de-bonding of resin and fibers is experienced,
plus hybrid (combination of composite and conven-
tional materials) and composite structural systems.1
An important consideration when incorporating FRP
reinforcement in civil infrastructure is the threat of fire. Texas A & M University-Kingsville, MSC 194, Kingsville, TX, USA
Exposure of FRP composites to high temperatures
Corresponding author:
affects their mechanical and bond properties, causing MA Faruqi, Department of Civil and Architectural Engineering, MSC 194,
rapid deterioration. Therefore, an appreciation by civil Texas A&M University- Kingsville, Kingsville, TX 78363, USA.
engineers and designers for the behavior of FRP Email: m-faruqi@tamuk.edu
Faruqi et al. 1303

loss of anchorage between rebar and concrete occurs.4


As a result, cracks begin to develop in the concrete,
causing deflections.3 The effects can lead to the collapse
of the structure.5 Design guidelines for the construction
of concrete structures reinforced with composite
reinforcement have been established by various coun-
tries yet recommendations for design under fire condi-
tions are still limited. Therefore, this area needs further
research in order to exploit the full potential of FRP
composites in civil infrastructure.
Figure 1. Glass and carbon fiber reinforced polymer bars.6
The American Concrete Institute (ACI) published its
first design guidelines for FRP-reinforced concrete in
2001. ACI 440.1R-06, Guide for the Design of and (Tg) is a very significant property of polymers. The ACI
Construction of Structural Concrete Reinforced with refers to the Tg as the temperature at which a polymer
FRP Bars was published in 2006 and is currently used will begin to soften.4 The Tg of the matrix can vary and
for practice.4 The Canada Standards Association depends on composition and properties of the compo-
(CSA) published CAN/CSA S806-02, Design and nents. The Tg is normally described to fall between
Construction of Building Components with Fiber 65 C and 120 C, depending on the type of resin utilized
Reinforced Polymers in 2002. CAN/CSA S806-02 is to bond the fibers.4 As temperatures continue to
the current standard for the design of FRP-reinforced increase above the Tg, the elastic modulus (E-modulus)
concrete structures in Canada. Therefore, the aim of of a polymer will be greatly reduced due to change in its
this article is to review research conducted with respect molecular structure.7 At higher temperature values, the
to the behavior of FRP and performance of FRP-rein- resin reaches flow temperature (Tf), causing the resin to
forced concrete structures exposed to elevated tempera- turn to liquid.5 Unlike composite fibers, which main-
tures as well as the design codes mentioned beforehand. tain much of their strength at high temperatures, FRP
Comments will be provided for future improvements of bars can lose their mechanical properties due to deteri-
design codes. oration of resin, leading to failure of structure. Figure 2
shows the variation of E-modulus with increasing
temperature.
Previous studies
Effects of resin degradation can affect the total com-
Fire always poses a potential risk to structures and position of composite rebar since force transfer strength
must be considered in the design process. The lack of between resin and fibers is reduced. Studies performed
fire design guidelines is an important issue when utiliz- by Kumahara et al. found a reduction of tensile
ing FRP composites in civil infrastructure. Tests and strength of around 20% for FRP bars at a temperature
research have been conducted in the past several years of 250 C.8 Tests performed by Blontrok et al. also
to better understand the performance of FRP compos- showed that the ultimate tensile strength properties
ites when subjected to elevated temperatures, yet fur- for aramid (AFRP) and carbon bars decreased impres-
ther research is needed in this area. sively with increasing temperatures.9

Thermo-mechanical properties of FRPs under Bond properties of FRPs under fire


elevated temperatures Bond strength is essential for transferring loads
The most commonly used fibers to make up bars through the polymer matrix or adhesive. Bond strength
include carbon, aramid, and glass fibers with carbon characteristics between concrete and FRP bars are
bars being the top choice for reinforcement due to its dependent on the mechanical properties of the matrix.
favorable mechanical properties. Binding of the fibers is Alteration or degradation of the mechanical properties
achieved by using an organic matrix, usually polyester of the matrix occurring at temperature values higher
epoxy or vinylester, expoxy or vinylester resins. than the Tg have the potential to cause loss of bond
Figure 1 shows common glass and carbon FRP at conservative increased temperatures, leading to loss
(GFRP and CFRP)-reinforcing bars. of bond between concrete and FRP bar. Limited
It is well-established that the mechanical properties research is available regarding bond strength behavior
of FRP composites decline with rising temperatures. of FRP bars and FRP strengthening systems at elevated
At elevated temperatures, the mechanical properties temperatures. Studies performed by Katz et al. on the
of FRP rebars begin to weaken (stress, strain, displace- effects of high temperatures on bond properties were
ment, and strength). The glass transition temperature carried out for four different kinds of FRP bars.10
1304 Journal of Reinforced Plastics and Composites 32(17)

time period from which a composite is exposed to a


heat source to the time combustion occurs.13 For
resins used in the construction industry (e.g. polyester,
expoxy, vinylester), the time-to-ignition can occur in a
short amount of time once heat is applied. The time-to-
ignition of resins occurs when the pyrolysis temperature
is reached, which is about 250 C to 400 C for most
organic resins. Ignition time of a composite is affected
by the heat flux (fire temperature) of a fire, available
oxygen content, thermophysical properties of matrix
and fiber reinforcement, and thickness of the compos-
ite. As less resin is present in the composite, less amount
of combustible material is available to produce volatiles
required for ignition. Determination of time-to-ignition
is done by way of fire testing in accordance to tech-
niques described in ASTM E-1354-04a.14
Figure 2. Schematic sketch for variation of elastic modulus
approaching glass transition temperature.
Limiting oxygen index, heat release rate, and flame
spread rate
Loss of bond strength was noted to be 80% to 90% for
increasing temperatures ranging from 20 C to 250 C The LOI is described as the minimum amount of
with severe reduction in bond strength occurring for oxygen required to sustain a fire.15 Different values
temperatures between 180 C and 200 C. Testing con- for the LOI are assigned to resins based on tests that
ducted by Cleary et al.11 on the effects of elevated tem- expose composites to different levels of oxygen. This
peratures on FRP composites used to strengthen characteristic is useful to determine the flammability
concrete columns showed that the strength ability of of polymer composites yet is not valid to use as an
FRP reinforcement used to strengthen concrete cylin- assessable measure of fire resistance. Heat produced
ders declined as temperatures increased.11 It is evident from combustion of a composite can contribute to the
that bond degradation resulting from elevated tempera- expansion of a fire. The HRR is described as the
tures affects the performance of internal and external amount of hydrocarbon volatiles broken down during
FRP strengthening composites and therefore further combustion of a composite. The HRR is described to
research is required in this area. be the most important fire reaction property because it
provides additional thermal energy, contributing to the
spread and growth of a fire. As a fire grows, the HRR
Fire reaction properties of composites value increases, with the maximum value achieved
The behavior of composites under fire conditions is when heat released from a burning material occurs at
affected by the fire reaction properties of the compos- its fastest rate. Flame spread is a major concern when
ite.12 Fire reaction properties of a composite that influ- utilizing composites in infrastructure. When a fire
ence flammability include time-to-ignition, limiting develops, it becomes difficult to contain flames as the
oxygen index (LOI), heat release rate (HRR), and fire continues to grow. The most common method used
flame spread rate. Burning of composites has demon- to determine flame spread rate for composite materials
strated to produce hazardous conditions. Properties is by radiant panel flame spread technique described in
that measure fire hazards include smoke density and ASTM E162.16
toxicity. Understanding of the fire reaction properties
of composites is important since they influence spread
Smoke density and toxicity
and temperature of fire. Furthermore, it allows for
designers to perform adequate design recommendations The amount of smoke produced by burning of polymer
and ensure optimum performance of composite mater- composites is significant since dense smoke can impact
ials under fire scenarios. visibility and cause delays when fighting the fire.
Studies performed by Sorathia found that smoke pro-
duced by highly flammable composites (e.g. polyester,
Time-to-ignition
vinyl esters, epoxies) is more dense than smoke from
In order to determine how fast a product will ignite, it is phenolic laminates.17 Therefore, the application of
important to understand the product’s time-to-ignition phenolic laminates is preferred for areas that are vul-
characteristics. The time-to-ignition is described as the nerable to fire exposure. Fiber content found in the
Faruqi et al. 1305

composite can also influence the amount of smoke pro- Tests performed by Kodur and Bisby compared con-
duced. As more fiber content is found in the composite, crete slabs reinforced with conventional steel to FRP
less organic material is available to produce smoke.18 reinforced slabs under fire conditions.22 Design of slabs
Smoke density can also be influenced by intensity of the reinforced with FRP rebar was completed in accord-
fire. In addition, burning of composites, like phenolic ance to guidelines specified by CAN/CSA-S806-02.23
laminates, produce hazardous gases like carbon mon- Composite reinforcement included carbon and glass
oxide, carbon dioxide, toluene, methane, acetone, pro- bars. Analysis of results showed that FRP reinforced
ponal, propane, benzene, benzaldehde, and volatile concrete slabs have lower fire resistance than those rein-
aromatic compounds.19 The release of these toxic forced with steel bars, where fire resistance is described
gases has the ability to cause health problems, yet it is as the ability of a member to withstand exposure to fire
the amount of carbon monoxide in the smoke that without loss of load bearing function or ability to act as
poses the greatest health risk. It has been noted that barrier to spread a fire. This observation is based on the
carbon dioxide levels must surpass 100,000 ppm in 1 h ability of FRP composite bars to withstand high tem-
to cause human death when compared to carbon mon- peratures before experiencing failure characteristics. It
oxide levels of only 1500 ppm. The carbon monoxide was noted that fire resistance of FRP reinforced con-
content produced by a burning composite is dependent crete slabs is affected by type of reinforcement, concrete
of the composition of the organic matrix, oxygen avail- cover thickness, and type of aggregate in concrete
ability, and temperature. mixture.
Rafi and Nadjai studied the performance of carbon
fiber and hybrid (steel-CFRP) reinforced concrete
Fire protection methods for FRPs
beams at elevated temperatures.24 The design of
Due to high flammability risk of FRP composites, sur- beams was based on ACI 440.1R-06 design guidelines.
face protective coatings can provide additional protec- A benchmark temperature of 400 C was used to study
tion from high temperatures. Notable properties that the performance of the beams beyond this temperature.
surface protective coatings posses include: non-flamm- As temperatures surpassed the 400 C mark, it was
ability, low thermal conductivity, strong adhesion to observed that the material properties of the carbon
the FRP material, environmental resistance, thinness, fiber bars rapidly began deteriorating due to loss of
and low cost. There are three primary classes of coat- resin. It was also noted that bond strength affected by
ings: flame-retardant polymers, thermal barriers, and elevated temperature scenarios yet depend on the
intumescent coatings.20 Flame-retardant polymers are rebar’s surface treatment. In addition, strength and
fire-resistant organic resins that are applied over the stiffness characteristics were observed to be lower for
composite matter. Thermal barriers are ceramic-based CFRP reinforced beams when compared to hybrid
materials with low heat of conductivity. Intumescent beams.
coatings provide protection at high temperatures by Abbasi and Hogg tested concrete beams reinforced
undergoing a chemical reaction that produces a thick with glass fiber rebars.25 Testing specimens consisted of
coating that has low heat of conductivity properties. In 3 beams reinforced with GFRP rebars: a control beam
addition, flame retardant organic coatings help offset tested at room temperature and 2 beams tested under
the pyrolysis of composites, while thermal barriers con- fire conditions. Construction of the beams was per-
tribute great insulating and heat reflecting properties.21 formed following Eurocode 2 and ACI 440 guidelines.
In this section, the characteristics of composite mater- It was noted that 2 beams (control beam and beam 1)
ials under fire utilized in civil infrastructure as well as were reinforced with GFRP rebars bonded with
effects produced by the burning of composites and fire thermoset resin. Beam 2 was reinforced with GFRP
protection methods are discussed. These characteristics rebars bonded with thermoplastic resin. Failure for
can help determine what can be done to prevent degrad- both beams 1 and 2 was observed to be due to fire
ation of FRP composites once fire is present as well as to penetration through cracks, causing of de-bonding of
help or prevent or reduce the spread of fire. In addition, the fibers with resin. De-bonding resulted in shear
a better understanding of fire characteristics of compos- cracks along the beam. It was also observed that
ite can also give the ability to designers to plan safety rebar weight for beam 1 was reduced by 22.3% while
evacuation plans and prevent total structural collapse. rebar weight for beam 2 was reduced by 33.8%. The
author also recommended that a minimum cover of
70 mm be used in future designs of concrete members
Performance of FRP reinforced concrete under fire
reinforced with GFRP bars.
The following literature briefly describes studies per- Some major conclusions with respect to the behavior
formed on FRP reinforced concrete elements under of FRP-reinforced concrete specimens under high tem-
fire scenarios. perature conditions is that concrete cover thickness
1306 Journal of Reinforced Plastics and Composites 32(17)

provided does affect the performance of composite FRP rebars is based on limit state design principles.
rebars as well as the load-carrying capacity of the con- The limit state design model requires that strength as
crete. Larger covers delay the effect of high tempera- well as performance criteria (fatigue, creep, and service-
tures reaching FRP reinforcement, allowing for ability) be satisfied. ACI 440 Section 3.4 states that the
strength characteristics to be maintained by bars. use of FRPs is not recommended where the structure’s
stability is dependent on the fire resistance of the struc-
ture. The effects of elevated temperatures on composite
Codes and guidelines rebars can degrade the mechanical properties of the
Design codes and specifications have been published in composite, posing threat to the structural system.
recent years by technical organizations that aid engin- Topics covered in Section 3.4 of ACI 440 describe the
eers in designing concrete structures reinforced with behavior of FRP composite bars under high tempera-
FRP materials. Such guidelines outline the design ture conditions, including Tg and threshold tempera-
methodologies for the design and construction of con- ture of fiber materials (glass, aramid, and carbon
crete members reinforced with FRP bars, yet limited fibers). Section 3.4 also includes related research sup-
content is provided for the safe design of fire resistance. porting design recommendations. As previously
Additional recommendations are needed to insure that described, the Tg is the temperature at which properties
the structural integrity of the system is maintained of a polymer will begin to show sudden change. Table 1
during and after fire exposure. Future developments shows the assigned values for threshold temperature of
will allow the implementation of FRP reinforcement fiber materials found in Section 3.4 of ACI 440.
in civil infrastructure to continue to grow. The effects of fibers experiencing temperatures above
This section will review ACI 440.1R-06 (ACI 440 the threshold temperatures values can lead to anchor-
from here on) and (CAN/CSA S806-02 S806 from age loss between concrete and rebar, causing possible
here on) design guidelines as they relate to topics cov- collapse of structural system. Due to limited data
ered in this review and provide recommendations on regarding the performance of concrete reinforced with
the design and construction of concrete structures rein- FRP rebars under fire, Section 3.4 of ACI 440 notes
forced with FRP bars with regard to fire exposure. that further research is needed in this area.
These guidelines are chosen as they are relatively
more comprehensive and popular in use. Only sections
CAN/CSA S806-02
of ACI 440 and CSA S806 design guidelines that could
be improved will be analyzed. Design guidelines provided by CAN/CSA S806-02 for
Principles established by ACI 440 and CSA S806 the design of concrete structures with FRP reinforce-
guidelines stem from steel reinforced concrete design ment is based on limit state design principles and are
principles with modifications to account for physical- consistent with the National Building Code of Canada
mechanical characteristics of composite bars. ACI 440 (NBCC).26 Table 2 shows sections found in CSA S806
design considerations for construction of concrete rein- providing commentary for design under fire exposure
forced with FRP bars exposed to high temperatures consist of the following:
mainly consists of the discussion of thermal properties With exception of Annex T, each given section pro-
of FRP reinforcement. In Section 3.4 (Effects of High vides limited commentary regarding design procedures
Temperature and Fire) of ACI 440, thermo-mechanical for fire conditions. In addition, designers are noted to
properties of matrix and composites elements are dis- refer to related standards, like NBCC and Underwriters
cussed. CSA S806 design recommendations for the Laboratories of Canada (ULC) for further design cri-
design of FRP reinforced concrete for fire conditions teria pertaining to fire design. Annex T provides add-
include limited commentary found in sections 1.4, 5.3.2, itional information and design aids in respect to
5.3.3, 5.3.4, and Annex T. Annex T provides commen- determining concrete cover values.27 The charts pro-
tary and figures regarding fire resistance and concrete vided are based on studies regarding concrete cover
cover values for various concrete slab thicknesses.
These prescriptive methods have prevented engineers
and designers from exposure to performance-based Table 1. Threshold temperature values for common materials.4
design approaches for fire safety.
Threshold
Fiber material temperature ( C)
ACI 440 section 3.4 – Effects of high temperature
and fire Glass fiber 880
Aramid fiber 180
The design philosophy followed by ACI 440 for the
Carbon fiber 1600
construction of concrete structures reinforced with
Faruqi et al. 1307

Table 2. Sections providing fire design commentary in Canada slabs relied on concrete cover provided, critical tem-
Standards Association (CSA).23 perature of FRP rebars, and type of aggregate in con-
crete mix.29 As previously discussed, tests carried out
CSA S806 - Fire Design Commentary
by Kodur and Bisby determined that concrete cover
Section Topic does affect fire resistance of slabs reinforced with
FRP bars.22 Furthermore, it was noted that slabs con-
1.4 Exposure to Fire and Temperature Effects
taining carbonate aggregate demonstrated better
5.3.2 Fire Resistance behavior than those utilizing siliceous aggregate.
5.3.3 Flame Spread and Smoke Development Aggregates can make up to 60–80% of volume in
5.3.4 Noncombustibility entire concrete mixture, therefore the choice of aggre-
Annex T Procedure for the Determination of Concrete Cover gate directly impacts the performance of concrete under
for a Required Fire Resistance Rating fire conditions.30 Designers must ensure that the right
aggregate is selected to obtain the proper thickness of
concrete elements that would achieve the desired fire
resistance rating. As it can be seen, concrete cover
thickness, critical temperature of the reinforcement, designated for concrete reinforced with FRP bars is
and type of aggregate found in concrete mixture. affected by various elements, namely type of aggregate
Engineers and designers can utilize the charts to deter- used in concrete and critical temperature of FRP bars.
mine a suitable concrete cover thickness of FRP It is therefore necessary to carry out tests to allow for
reinforcement for a required fire resistance rating. valid recommendations to be made in respect to con-
crete cover for concrete elements reinforced with FRP
bars under elevated temperatures. By research being
Future developments conducted, design guidelines can incorporate recom-
Clearly, fire exposure of FRP composite materials to mendations for concrete cover, as well as related data
elevated temperatures poses severe threat to its overall to ensure the safe and efficient design of structures for
performance. Notable topics that deserve attention fire scenarios.
when utilizing FRP composite bars as reinforcement
with regard to fire include concrete cover, loading
Post-fire properties
experienced by rebars at time of fire, post-fire proper-
ties, health monitoring systems, and fire rating. The lack of recommendations on post-fire behavior is a
topic that deserves further attention in order to assess
structural systems that incorporate FRP reinforcement
Concrete cover after fire exposure. Besides service loads experienced
Concrete cover is described by ACI 318-11, Building concrete members, additional loading is experienced
Code Requirements for Structural Concrete, as protec- by members during elevated temperature conditions.
tion against elements and is measured from the concrete Additional fire loads are not considered in design
surface to the outermost surface of the steel.28 Section codes for the design of FRP reinforced concrete
3.4 of ACI 440 does not give recommendations on the under fire scenarios. These supplementary fire loads
value of concrete cover thickness for FRP bars. CSA generate additional loads on the structural system and
S806 provides recommendations for concrete cover yet structural elements, like vertical and horizontal mem-
only for elements presstressed with FRP reinforcement. bers. Integrity of FRP reinforcement must also be eval-
Values for concrete cover thickness given by ACI 318- uated. In structural systems, major parts that are
11 can be used for estimation when designing concrete affected by fire are often not exposed, yet have experi-
systems reinforced with FRP yet show to be conserva- enced severe thermal loading and degradation. Further
tive if considered for the design of concrete structures analysis is needed after fire conditions to evaluate the
reinforced with FRP bars. Tests and commentary structural system’s residual load-bearing capacity and
regarding concrete cover thickness of concrete elements develop future structural repair plans.
reinforced with FRP bars under fire is documented,
where it is shown that concrete cover thickness does
impact the behavior of FRP bars.22,25 In order to pre-
Structural health monitoring systems
serve the mechanical properties of the composite con- Surveillance of FRP-reinforced concrete structures is
stituents, adequate concrete cover thickness must be important to ensure the structure’s service integrity.
provided to allow FRP bars to remain under Tg. As Structural health monitoring (SHM) allows for the
noted in Annex T of CSA S806, tests performed by evaluation of structures when subjected to harsh con-
Kodur and Baingo found that fire resistance of concrete ditions and help formulate precise repair plans for
1308 Journal of Reinforced Plastics and Composites 32(17)

rehabilitation or replacement of structural compo- concrete reinforced with FRP bars. As noted, elevated
nents. SHM systems can also formulate present time temperatures accelerate the deterioration of FRP com-
alerts and predict future accidents in advance. The use posites, therefore recommendation for fire ratings for
of SHM systems, like fiber optic sensors (FOS), can FRP reinforced concrete structures are urgently
provide field readings regarding temperature, corro- needed.
sion, and strain of structural components. Use of
new innovative materials, like FRP reinforcement,
has already led to the implementation of SHM sys-
Conclusions
tems in various kinds of infrastructure. Literature dis- A review of design recommendations for the construc-
cussing SHM systems and field applications include Li tion of FRP-reinforced concrete under fire has been
et al., Corvaglia et al., and Mufti and Neale.31–33 FRP presented. Discussion included previous research con-
reinforced concrete exposed to elevated temperatures ducted regarding thermo-mechanical properties FRP
is susceptible to experience failure conditions. As pre- composites, bond properties of FRP composites
viously discussed in the thermo-mechanical properties under fire conditions, fire reaction properties of com-
of FRPs under elevated temperatures section, fire posites and fire protection methods, and the perform-
exposure of FRP composites can lead to decompos- ance of FRP reinforced concrete under fire scenarios. In
ition of resin, resulting in changes in material and addition, ACI 440.1R-06 and CAN/CSA S806-02
state properties. Therefore, monitoring of temperature design guidelines pertaining to the design of FRP rein-
levels is vital to prevent FRP bars from experiencing forced concrete under elevated temperatures were ana-
failure characteristics. High temperatures can also lyzed and future developments are presented.
pose risk to the concrete, as high temperatures can
cause evaporation of free moisture, leading to early Funding
crack development. Pressure build-up caused by con- This research received no specific grant from any funding
version of moisture can also lead to spalling of con- agency in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors.
crete, resulting in loss of strength. Data gathered from
SHM systems can be analyzed by engineers, allowing References
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