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EGT 31302

THERMODYNAMICS

ENERGY AND FIRST LAW


OF THERMODYNAMICS
T. D. I. Udayanga
Lecturer
Department of Engineering Technology
Conservation of Energy

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Forms of Energy

Total Energy (E)


Microscopic
Macroscopic Energy
Energy

Internal Energy
Potential Energy Kinetic Energy
(U)
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Forms of Energy Cont.
• Total Energy
𝐸 𝑘𝐽
𝑒= ( )
𝑚 𝑘𝑔
• Kinetic Energy
𝑉2
𝐾𝐸 = 𝑚 𝑘𝐽
22
𝑉 𝑘𝐽
𝑘𝑒 = ( )
2 𝑘𝑔
• Potential Energy
𝑃𝐸 = 𝑚𝑔𝑧 𝑘𝐽
𝑘𝐽
𝑝𝑒 = 𝑔𝑧 ( )
𝑘𝑔
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Form of Energy Cont.
• Total Energy
𝑉2
𝐸 =𝑈+𝑚 + 𝑚𝑔𝑧 𝑘𝐽
2
𝑉2 𝑘𝐽
𝑒=𝑢+ + 𝑔𝑧 ( )
2 𝑘𝑔
Mass Flow Rate
𝑘𝑔
𝑚 = 𝜌𝐴𝑐 𝑉𝑎𝑣𝑔 ( )
𝑠
Energy Flow Rate
𝑘𝐽
𝐸 = 𝑚𝑒 ( 𝑜𝑟𝑘𝑊)
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Internal Energy of a System
Sensible Latent energy:
Energy: The The internal energy
associated with the phase of
portion of the
a system.
internal energy Chemical energy:
of a system The internal energy
associated with associated with the atomic
the kinetic bonds in a molecule.
energies of the Nuclear energy:
The tremendous amount of
molecules.
energy associated with the
strong bonds within the
nucleus of the atom itself.
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Energy of a System
• Total Energy of a system can be considered as a Static Form of Energy
as it can be contained and stored
• Forms of Energy that can’t be contained or stored is known as
Dynamic Form of Energy or Energy Interactions.
• Only two forms of energy interactions can be identified at the
boundary of a system.
• Heat
• Work
• An energy interaction is heat transfer if its driving force is a
temperature difference. Otherwise it is work
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Mechanical Energy
• Mechanical energy is the form of energy that can be converted to
mechanical work completely and directly by an ideal mechanical
device such as an ideal turbine.
• Kinetic, potential and flow energies are form of mechanical energies
• Mechanical energy of a flowing fluid per unit mass is given by;
𝑃 𝑉2 𝑘𝐽
𝑒𝑚𝑒𝑐ℎ = + + 𝑔𝑧 ( )
𝜌 2 𝑘𝑔
• Mechanical Energy change of a flowing fluid per unit mass is given by;
𝑃2 − 𝑃1 𝑉22 − 𝑉12 𝑘𝐽
∆𝑒𝑚𝑒𝑐ℎ = + + 𝑔 𝑧2 − 𝑧1 ( )
𝜌 2 𝑘𝑔
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Example 1
• A site evaluated for a wind farm is observed to have steady winds at a
speed of 8.5 m/s. Determine the wind energy
• per unit mass
• For a mass of 10 kg
• for a flow rate of 1154 kg/s for air

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Energy Transfer by Heat
• In a closed system energy can cross the
boundary as either Heat or Work.
• Heat is the form of energy that is transferred
between two systems (or a system and its
surroundings) by virtue of a temperature
difference.
• Temperature difference is the driving force for
heat transfer. The larger the temperature
difference, the higher is the rate of heat
transfer.

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Energy Transfer By Heat Cont.
• Energy is recognized as heat transfer only as it crosses the system
boundary.
• Heat Transfer per unit mass is given by;
𝑄 𝑘𝐽
𝑞= ( )
𝑚 𝑘𝑔
• Amount of Heat transfer when transfer rate is constant is given by;
𝑄 = 𝑄∆𝑡 (𝑘𝐽)
• Amount of Heat transfer when transfer rate is varying is given by;
𝑡2
𝑄= 𝑄𝑑𝑡 (𝑘𝐽)
𝑡1
• During an adiabatic process, a system exchanges no heat with its
surroundings.
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Heat Transfer Mechanisms
• Conduction
• The transfer of energy from the more energetic particles of a substance
to the adjacent less energetic ones as a result of interaction between
particles.
• Convection
• The transfer of energy between a solid surface and the adjacent fluid
that is in motion, and it involves the combined effects of conduction and
fluid motion.
• Radiation
• The transfer of energy due to the emission of electromagnetic waves (or
photons).
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Example 2
• A candle is burning in a well-insulated room. Taking the room (the air
plus the candle) as the system, determine
• If there is any heat transfer during this burning process
• If there is any change in the internal energy of the system.

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Energy Transfer by Work
• Work is the energy transfer associated with a force acting through a
distance. Such as
• A rising piston, a rotating shaft, an electric wire crossing the system
boundaries
• Work per unit mass of a system is given by,
𝑊 𝑘𝐽
𝑤= ( )
𝑚 𝑘𝑔
• Power is the work done per unit time denoted with 𝑊 with the
units kJ/s or kW.

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Heat and Work
• Formal Sign Convention
• Heat transfer to a system and work done by a system are
positive.
• Heat transfer from a system and work done on a system
are negative
• Similarities between heat and work;
• Both are recognized at boundary of a system
• Systems does not possess heat and work, just energy
• Both are associated with a process.
• Both are path functions.

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Example 3
• A well-insulated electric oven is being heated through its heating
element. If the entire oven, including the heating element, is taken to
be the system, determine whether this is a heat or work interaction.

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Example 4
• Answer the question in Example 3 if the system is taken as only the
air in the oven without the heating element.

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Electrical Work
• Electrical Work can be given by;
𝑊𝑒 = 𝑉𝑁 (𝑘𝐽)
• Where N is the coulombs of electric charge move through a
potential difference of V.
• This can also expressed in rate form as,
𝑊𝑒 = 𝑉𝐼 (𝑘𝑊)
• When potential difference and current change with time electric
work can be expressed as,
2
𝑊𝑒 = 𝑉𝐼 𝑑𝑡 (𝑘𝐽)
1
• When potential difference and current remain constant, electric
work can be expressed as,
𝑊𝑒 = 𝑉𝐼 ∆𝑡 (𝑘𝐽)

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Mechanical Forms of Work
Sign Convention:
• There are two requirements for a work The work done on a system by an
interaction between a system and its external force acting in the same
surroundings to exist: direction of motion is negative.
• There must be a force acting on the boundary. The work done by a system against
an external force acting in the
• The boundary must move
opposite direction of motion is
• Work done by a constant force can be positive.
expressed as;
𝑊 = 𝐹𝑠 (𝑘𝐽)
• If the force is not constant,
2
𝑊= 𝐹 𝑑𝑠 (𝑘𝐽)
1
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Shaft Work
• Energy transmission through rotating shaft is
commonly encountered in practice.
• Shaft work is proportional to the torque (T) applied
and the number of revolutions (n) of the shaft.
• Hence, shaft work is given by,
𝑊𝑠ℎ = 2𝜋𝑛𝑇 (𝑘𝐽)

• The power transmitted through the shaft is the


shaft work done per unit time, given by,
𝑊𝑠ℎ = 2𝜋𝑛𝑇 (𝑘𝑊)

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Example 5
• Determine the power transmitted through the shaft of a car when the
torque applied is 200 N · m and the shaft rotates at a rate of 4000
revolutions per minute (rpm).

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Spring Work
• When a force is applied to a spring, length of the
spring changes
• Hence, total spring work for a linear elastic
spring can be given by,
1
𝑊𝑠𝑝𝑟𝑖𝑛𝑔 = 𝑘 𝑥22 − 𝑥12 (𝑘𝐽)
2
• Where, k is the spring constant and x1 and x2 are the
initial and final displacements of the spring.

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Work Done on Elastic Solid Bars
• Solids are often modeled as linear springs
• As under the action of a force they either contract or
elongate.
• Hence, work done can be given by,
2
𝑊𝑒𝑙𝑎𝑠𝑡𝑖𝑐 = 𝐹 𝑑𝑥 (𝑘𝐽)
1

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Work Done to Raise or Accelerate a Body
• The work transfer needed to raise a body is
equal to the change in the potential energy of
the body.
• The work transfer needed to accelerate a body is
equal to the change in the kinetic energy of the
body

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Example 6
• Consider a 1200-kg car cruising steadily on a level road at 90 km/h.
Now the car starts climbing a hill that is sloped 30° from the
horizontal. If the velocity of the car is to remain constant during
climbing, determine the additional power that must be delivered by
the engine

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Example 7
• Determine the power required to accelerate a 900-kg car from rest to
a velocity of 80 km/h in 20 s on a level road

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First Law of Thermodynamics
• The first law of thermodynamics (the conservation
of energy principle) provides a sound basis for
studying the relationships among the various
forms of energy and energy interactions.
• The first law states that energy can be neither
created nor destroyed during a process; it can
only change forms
• The First Law: For all adiabatic processes between
two specified states of a closed system, the net
work done is the same regardless of the nature of
the closed system and the details of the process
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First Law of Thermodynamics Cont.

The increase in the In the absence of any The work (electrical)


energy of a potato in work interactions, the done on an adiabatic
an oven is equal to energy change of a system is equal to the
the amount of heat system is equal to the increase in the energy of
transferred to it net heat transfer the system.
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Energy Balance
• The net change (increase or decrease) in
the total energy of the system during a
process is equal to the difference between
the total energy entering and the total
energy leaving the system during that
process.

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Energy Change of a System, ΔEsystem

∆𝐸𝑠𝑦𝑠𝑡𝑒𝑚 = 𝐸𝑓𝑖𝑛𝑎𝑙 − 𝐸𝑖𝑛𝑖𝑡𝑖𝑎𝑙 = 𝐸2 − 𝐸1


• Energy of a system does not change if the state of the system does not
change during the process.
• Energy can exist as internal, kinetic, potential, etc. and their sum
constitutes the total energy (E) of a system.
∆𝐸 = ∆𝑈 + ∆𝐾𝐸 + ∆𝑃𝐸
• For stationary systems, change in kinetic and potential energy are zero.
Hence,
∆𝐸 = ∆𝑈
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Mechanisms of Energy Transfer, Ein and Eout
• Energy can be transferred to or from a system in three forms;
• Heat
• Work
• Mass Flow
• Hence, energy balance can be written as,
𝐸𝑖𝑛 − 𝐸𝑜𝑢𝑡 = 𝑄𝑖𝑛 − 𝑄𝑜𝑢𝑡 + 𝑊𝑖𝑛 − 𝑊𝑜𝑢𝑡 + 𝐸𝑚𝑎𝑠𝑠,𝑖𝑛 − 𝐸𝑚𝑎𝑠𝑠,𝑜𝑢𝑡 = ∆𝐸𝑠𝑦𝑠𝑡𝑒𝑚
• It can be expresses compactly as follows,
𝐸𝑖𝑛 − 𝐸𝑜𝑢𝑡 = ∆𝐸𝑠𝑦𝑠𝑡𝑒𝑚
• In the rate form, as,
𝑑𝐸𝑠𝑦𝑠𝑡𝑒𝑚
𝐸𝑖𝑛 − 𝐸𝑜𝑢𝑡 =
𝑑𝑡
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Energy Transfer of Closed System Undergoing
a Cycle
• The initial and final state are identical if a system is undergoing a cycle
• Hence,
∆𝐸𝑠𝑦𝑠𝑡𝑒𝑚 = 𝐸2 − 𝐸1 = 0
• Then energy balance simplifies to,
𝐸𝑖𝑛 = 𝐸𝑜𝑢𝑡
• Energy balance for a cycle can be expressed in terms of heat and work
interactions,
𝑊𝑛𝑒𝑡,𝑜𝑢𝑡 = 𝑄𝑛𝑒𝑡,𝑖𝑛 𝑜𝑟 𝑊𝑛𝑒𝑡,𝑜𝑢𝑡 = 𝑄𝑛𝑒𝑡,𝑖𝑛

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Example 8
• A rigid tank contains a hot fluid that is cooled while being stirred by a
paddle wheel. Initially, the internal energy of the fluid is 800 kJ.
During the cooling process, the fluid loses 500 kJ of heat, and the
paddle wheel does 100 kJ of work on the fluid. Determine the final
internal energy of the fluid. Neglect the energy stored in the paddle
wheel

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Example 9
• A fan that consumes 20 W of electric power when operating steadily,
is claimed to discharge air from a ventilated room at a rate of 0.25
kg/s at a discharge velocity of 8 m/s. Determine if this claim is
reasonable.

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Example 10
• A room is initially at the outdoor temperature
of 25°C. Now a large fan that consumes 200 W
of electricity when running is turned on. The
heat transfer rate between the room and the
outdoor air is given as 𝑄 = 𝑈𝐴(𝑇𝑖 −

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Energy Conversion Efficiencies
• Efficiency is one of the most frequently used terms in
thermodynamics, and it indicates how well an energy conversion or
transfer process is accomplished.

𝐷𝑒𝑠𝑖𝑟𝑒𝑑 𝑂𝑢𝑡𝑝𝑢𝑡
𝑃𝑒𝑟𝑓𝑜𝑟𝑚𝑎𝑛𝑐𝑒 𝑜𝑟 𝐸𝑓𝑓𝑖𝑐𝑖𝑒𝑛𝑐𝑦 =
𝑅𝑒𝑞𝑢𝑖𝑟𝑒𝑑 𝐼𝑛𝑝𝑢𝑡

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Efficiencies of Mechanical Devices
• Mechanical Efficiency,
𝑀𝑒𝑐ℎ𝑎𝑛𝑖𝑐𝑎𝑙 𝐸𝑛𝑒𝑟𝑔𝑦 𝑂𝑢𝑡𝑝𝑢𝑡 𝐸𝑚𝑒𝑐ℎ,𝑜𝑢𝑡 𝐸𝑚𝑒𝑐ℎ,𝑙𝑜𝑠𝑠
𝜂𝑚𝑒𝑐ℎ = = =1−
𝑀𝑒𝑐ℎ𝑎𝑛𝑖𝑐𝑎𝑙 𝐸𝑛𝑒𝑟𝑔𝑦 𝐼𝑛𝑝𝑢𝑡 𝐸𝑚𝑒𝑐ℎ,𝑖𝑛 𝐸𝑚𝑒𝑐ℎ,𝑖𝑛
• The effectiveness of the conversion process between the mechanical work
supplied or extracted and the mechanical energy of the fluid is expressed by the
Pump Efficiency and Turbine Efficiency
• Pump Efficiency,
𝑀𝑒𝑐ℎ𝑎𝑛𝑖𝑐𝑎𝑙 𝐸𝑛𝑒𝑟𝑔𝑦 𝐼𝑛𝑐𝑟𝑒𝑎𝑠𝑒 𝑜𝑓 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝐹𝑙𝑢𝑖𝑑 Δ𝐸𝑚𝑒𝑐ℎ,𝑓𝑙𝑢𝑖𝑑
𝜂𝑝𝑢𝑚𝑝 = =
𝑀𝑒𝑐ℎ𝑎𝑛𝑖𝑐𝑎𝑙 𝐸𝑛𝑒𝑟𝑔𝑦 𝑂𝑢𝑡𝑝𝑢𝑡 𝑊𝑠ℎ𝑎𝑓𝑡,𝑖𝑛
• Turbine Efficiency,
𝑀𝑒𝑐ℎ𝑎𝑛𝑖𝑐𝑎𝑙 𝐸𝑛𝑒𝑟𝑔𝑦 𝑂𝑢𝑡𝑝𝑢𝑡 𝑊𝑠ℎ𝑎𝑓𝑡,𝑜𝑢𝑡
𝜂𝑡𝑢𝑟𝑏𝑖𝑛𝑒 = =
𝑀𝑒𝑐ℎ𝑎𝑛𝑖𝑐𝑎𝑙 𝐸𝑛𝑒𝑟𝑔𝑦 𝐷𝑒𝑐𝑟𝑒𝑎𝑠𝑒 𝑜𝑓 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝐹𝑙𝑢𝑖𝑑 |∆𝐸𝑚𝑒𝑐ℎ,𝑓𝑙𝑢𝑖𝑑 |

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Efficiencies of Electrical Devices
• Motor Efficiency,
𝑀𝑒𝑐ℎ𝑎𝑛𝑖𝑐𝑎𝑙 𝑃𝑜𝑤𝑒𝑟 𝑂𝑢𝑡𝑝𝑢𝑡 𝑊𝑠ℎ𝑎𝑓𝑡,𝑜𝑢𝑡
𝜂𝑚𝑜𝑡𝑜𝑟 = =
𝐸𝑙𝑒𝑐𝑡𝑟𝑖𝑐 𝑃𝑜𝑤𝑒𝑟 𝐼𝑛𝑝𝑢𝑡 𝑊𝑒𝑙𝑒𝑐𝑡,𝑖𝑛
• Generator Efficiency,
𝐸𝑙𝑒𝑐𝑡𝑟𝑖𝑐 𝑃𝑜𝑤𝑒𝑟 𝑂𝑢𝑡𝑝𝑢𝑡 𝑊𝑒𝑙𝑒𝑐𝑡,𝑜𝑢𝑡
𝜂𝑔𝑒𝑛𝑒𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑜𝑟 = =
𝑀𝑒𝑐ℎ𝑎𝑛𝑖𝑐𝑎𝑙 𝑃𝑜𝑤𝑒𝑟 𝐼𝑛𝑝𝑢𝑡 𝑊𝑠ℎ𝑎𝑓𝑡,𝑖𝑛
• Pump-Motor Overall Efficiency,
Δ𝐸𝑚𝑒𝑐ℎ,𝑓𝑙𝑢𝑖𝑑
𝜂𝑝𝑢𝑚𝑝−𝑚𝑜𝑡𝑜𝑟 = 𝜂𝑝𝑢𝑚𝑝 𝜂𝑚𝑜𝑡𝑜𝑟 =
𝑊𝑒𝑙𝑒𝑐𝑡,𝑖𝑛
• Turbine-Generator Overall Efficiency,
𝑊𝑒𝑙𝑒𝑐𝑡,𝑜𝑢𝑡
𝜂𝑡𝑢𝑟𝑏𝑖𝑛𝑒−𝑔𝑒𝑛 = 𝜂𝑡𝑢𝑟𝑏𝑖𝑛𝑒 𝜂𝑔𝑒𝑛𝑒𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑜𝑟 =
|Δ𝐸𝑚𝑒𝑐ℎ,𝑓𝑙𝑢𝑖𝑑 |

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Example 11
• The water in a large lake is to be used to generate electricity by the
installation of a hydraulic turbine–generator at a location where the depth
of the water is 50 m. Water is to be supplied at a rate of 5000 kg/s. If the
electric power generated is measured to be 1862 kW and the generator
efficiency is 95 percent, determine
• The overall efficiency of the turbine–generator
• The mechanical efficiency of the turbine
• The shaft power supplied by the turbine to the generator.

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Example 12
• A 60-hp electric motor (a motor that delivers 60 hp
of shaft power at full load) that has an efficiency of
89.0 percent is worn out and is to be replaced by a
93.2 percent efficient high-efficiency motor. The
motor operates 3500 hours a year at full load. Taking
the unit cost of electricity to be $0.08/kWh,
determine the amount of energy and money saved
as a result of installing the high-efficiency motor
instead of the standard motor. Also, determine the
simple payback period if the purchase prices of the
standard and high-efficiency motors are $4520 and
$5160, respectively. (1 hp = 0.7457 kW)

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Enthalpy
• Enthalpy is a combination property
• Particularly in power generation and refrigeration this combined
property can be frequently encountered.
• Specific enthalpy of a system is given by,
𝑘𝐽
ℎ = 𝑢 + 𝑃𝑣 ( )
𝑘𝑔
• Total enthalpy of a system is given by,
𝐻 = 𝑈 + 𝑃𝑉 (𝑘𝐽)

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References
• Thermodynamics: An Engineering Approach, 5th Ed., Yunus Cengal
and Michael Boles, (McGraw Hill, pub.)
• Fundamentals of Engineering Thermodynamics, 5th Ed., Michael
Mortan and Howard Shapiro, (John Wiley & Sons, pub.) ISBN: 978-
0471274711

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