Anda di halaman 1dari 76

1 ,

':' fi'

Publication
56.4
9PLN-P
c 0 M M l s s l 0ENt t c T R 0 T E c H N tt 0NuTr E R i l A T t 0 N A L E
(affili6e
d l'0rganisation
Internationale - lS0)
deNormalisation
R E C t l M M A N D A T1 I1( E
)[ N
A CE I

II{TR
E N A T I ( } NE
A L E C T R ( } T E C H NGI C
( )AMLM I S S I ( | N
(affiliated
to the International
0rganization - lS0)
for Standardization
IEC REC(lMMENDATItlI{

Publication
56-4
6dition-
Iroisidme Thirdedition
1 9 72

Disjoncteurs
e Gourant
alternatil
e haute
lension
partie:
QualriDme Essais
detypeetessais
individuels

High-uoltage
alternating-cu
rrentcircuit-brea
kers
Parl4: Type
tests
androutine
lesls

Droits
dereproduction
r6serv6s - all rights
- Copyright reserved

Bureau
Central
delaCommission
Electrotechnique
lnternationale
1 ,r u ed eV a r e m b 6
Gendve,
Suisse

r:r.l*.L___
5/.8.001
c. D.u./u.D.c. 621.316.57.025.027. .4

c 0 M M r s s r E0 tNe c T R 0 T E c H Nt N
t 0TuEER N A T t 0 N A L E
(affili6e Internationale
tr l'0rganisation - lS0)
de Normalisation
R E C l l M M A N D A T I I())ENL A C E I

I N T E R N A T I ( l NE AL LE C T B ( ) T E C H NCI C
( )AMLM I S S I ( l N
(affiliated
to the International - lS0)
for Standardization
0rganization
I EC R E C 0 M M E l , t 0 A T l 0 l . l

Publication
56-4
-
T r o i s i d m6ed i t i o n T h i r de d i t i o n
1 9 72

SP;N - (/ ) o ,

e haule
alternatif
e courant
Ilisjoncteurs tension
partie
Quatri0me : Essais individuels
detypeel essais

circuit-breakers
allernaling-current
High-uoltage
tests
Part4: Type tesls
androutine

PERP['STAKAAiT
pusAT.rEty[uF,r r *l8lrttf lfil$Tnttt{

--o, I gr:xll :

fanggal : 2 3 ApR19??

r6serv6s
Droitsde reproduction - all rightsreserved
- Copyright

Aucunepartie de cette publicationne peut €tre reproduite ni utilis6esous No part ol this publicationmay be reproducedor utilizedin any
q u e l q u ef o r m e q u e c e s o i t e t p a r a u c u np r o c d d 6 , 6 l e c t r o n i qouue m d c a - f o r m o r b y a n y m e a n se, l e c t r o n iocr m e c h a n i c ai nl ,c l u d i npgh o t o c o p y i n g
nique,y comprisla photocopie et les microfilms, sansI'accord 6critde l'6diteur. , i t h o u tp e r m i s s i oinn w r i t i n gf r o m t h e p u b l i s h e r .
a n d m i c r o f i l mw

Bureau de la Commission
Central Internationale
Electrotechnique
1 , r u ed e V a r e m b 6

Suisse
0endve,

,?tzo.-
FiiX,'J
- 3 -

CONTENTS
Page
,7
FonnwoRo
Pnr,racB 7

SecrroN ONe - Tvpr, rrsrs


Clause
l. General ll
1.1 Identificationofcircuit-breaker 1l
Mechanicaltest 13
Temperaturerise test 13
3.1 Measurementof the resistanceof the main circuit 15
3.2 Ambient air temperature t7
3.3 Temperaturerise of parts other than coils t7
3.4 Temperaturerise of coils t7
4. Dielectric tests l9
4.1 Ambient air conditionsduring tests 19
4.2 Condition of circuit-breakerduring tests l9
4.3 Application of test voltage for impulse and power frequencytests 2l
4.4 Test voltages 21
4.5 Impulsevoltagetests 2l
4.6 Power frequencyvoltage dry tests ZJ
4.7 Power frequencyvoltage wet tests 23
4.8 Testson auxiliaryand control circuits 23
5. Miscellaneousprovisionsfor making and breaking tests 23
5.1 Arrangement of circuit-breakerfor tests 23
5.2 Circuit-breakerswithover-currentreleases 25
5.3 Unit testing 25
5.4 Synthetictesting 29
5.5 No-load operationsbeforetests 29
5.6 Alternativeclosingmechanisms 31
5.7 Behaviour of circuit-breakerduring tests 31
5.8 Condition of circuit-breakerafter tests 3l
5.9 Circuit-breakerswith short arcing times 35
6. Test circuits for short-circuit making and breaking tests J I

6.I Power factor 37


6.2 Frequency 37
6.3 Earthing of test circuit 39
6.4 Connectionof test circuit to circuit-breaker. 4l
7. Short-circuittest quantities 4l
7.I Applied voltage before short-circuit making tests 4l
7.2 Short-circuit (peak) making current 43
7.3 Short-circuit breaking current . 43
7.4 D.C. component of short-circuit breaking current 43
7.5 Transient recoveryvoltage for terminal faults 45
7.6 Measurementof transient recoveryvoltage 6l
7.7 Power frequencyrecoveryvoltage 6l
8. Short-circuit test procedure . 63
8.1 Time interval betweentests 63
8.2 Application of auxiliary power to the opening release-breaking tests. 63
8.3 Application of auxiliary power to the opening release-make-breaktests 63
8.4 Latching on short-circuit 63
9. Basicshort-circuittest-duties 65
9.1 Test-dutyNo. 1 . 65
9.2 Test-dutyNo.2 . 65
9.3 Test-dutyNo. 3 . 65
9.4 Test-dutyNo. 4 . 65
9.5 Test-dutyNo. 5 . 67
1 0 . Critical current tests 69
10.1 Applicability 69
10.2 Test currents 69
10.3 Critical current test-duties 69
ll. Single-phaseshort-circuit tests 69
11.1 Applicability 69
ll.2 Test current and recoveryvoltage 69
11.3 Test-dutv 7l
) -

12. Short-line fault tests . l l


12.l Applicability . 7l
12.2 Test current . 71,
12.3 Test circuits . 7 1
12.4 Transient recoveryvoltage . 7 3
12.5 Test-duties . 75
12.6 Short-linefault testswith a test supply of limited power . 7 5
13. Out-of-phaseswitchingtests . 75
14. Short-timecurrent test . 7 7
14.I Arrangement of circuit-breaker . 7 7
14.2 Test current and duration . 7 7
14.3 Condition of circuit-breakerafter test . 7 9
15. Line-chargingcurrent breakingtests . 7 9
15.1 Applicability . 7 9
15.2 General . 7 9
15.3 Wave-formof the current . 8l
15.4 Characteristics of supplycircuits ' 8 1
15.5 Earthing of three-phase supply circuit . 8 1
15.6 Characteristics of the capacitivecircuit to be switcheO ' 8 3
15.7 Test voltage. . 8 3
15.8 Test-duties . 8 3
15.9 Measurementof overvoltages . 8 5
16. Cable-charging current breakingtests . 8 5
16.1 Applicability . 8 5
16.2 General . 8 5
16.3 Wave-form of current . 8 7
16.4 Characteristics of supplycircuits ' 8 7
16.5 Earthing of the three-phase test circuit . 8 7
16.6 Characteristicsof the capacitivecircuits to be switched . . 8 9
16.7 Test voltage . 8 9
16.8 Test-duties . 8 9
16.9 Measurementof overvoltages , ; 9 l
17. (Single)capacitorbank breakingtests . 9 1
17.l Applicability . 9 1
17.2 Genera^ . 9 1
17.3 Wave-form and measurementof the current . 9 3
17.4 Characteristics of supplycircuits ' 9 3
17.5 Earthing of the three-phase test circuit . . 9 3
17.6 Dischargetime constantof the capacitor . 9 3
17.7 Test voltage . 9 5
17.8 Test-duties . 9 5
17.9 Measurementof overvoltages ' 9 7
18. Small inductivecurrent breakinetests ' 9 7

AppnNorx A - Records and reports of type-testsfor making, breaking, and short-time current performance 99

ApprNorx B - Determination of short-circuit power factor 105


AppsNorx C - Determination of the equivalent r.m.s. value of a short-time current during a short-circuit of a
given duration . . 109
AppnNorx D - Method of drawing the envelope of the prospective transient recovery voltage of a circuit and
determining the representative parameters . j 111
AppnNorx E - Methods of determining prospective transient recovery voltages waves 115
ApprNorx F - Alternative standard values of prospective TRV for Test-duties Nos. 4 and 5 and for Test-duty
No. 3, representation by 2 parameters . 115
ApprNlrx G - Example of calculation for a short-line fault test rt9
Frcunns 122

SscrroN Two - RourrNe Tesrs

19. General r39


20. Power frequency voltage dry tests on the main circuit r39
21. Voltage tests on control and auxiliary circuits . t39
22. Measurement of the resistancesof the main circuit 139
23. Mechanical operating tests 139
- 7 -

TNTERNATIONAL ELECTROTECHNICALCOMMISSION

HIGH.VOLTAGE ALTERNATING.CURRENT CIRCUIT-BREAKERS

Part 4 z Type tests and routine tests

FOREWORD

r) The formal decisions or agreements of the I E C on technical matters, prepared by Technical Committees on which all the
National Committees having a special interest therein are represented, express, as nearly as possible, an international
consensus of opinion on the subjects dealt with.

z',)They have the form of recommendations for international use and they are accepted by the National Committees in that
sense.

3) In order to promote this international unification, the I E C expressesthe wish that all National Committees having as
yet no national rules, when preparing such rules, should use the I E, C recommendations as the fundamental basis for these
rules in so far as national conditions will permit.

4) The desirability is recognized of extending international agreement on these matters through an endeavour to harmonize
national standardization rules with these recommendations in so far as national conditions will permit. The National
Committees pledge their influence towards that end.

PREFACE

This Recommendation has been prepared by Sub-Committee 17A, High-voltage Switchgear and
Controlgear, of I E C Technical Committee No. 17, Switchgearand Controlgear.

This publication is part of the revision of Publication 56 and includes Section One-Type tests, and
Section Two-Routine tests.

Drafts of Section One were discussedat meetings held in Paris in 1967, in Baden-Badenin 1967, in
Arnhem in 1968and in Stockholm in 1969.As a result of thesemeetingsa final draft was submitted to the
National Committees for approval under the Six Months' Rule in February 1970.

The following countriesvoted explicitly in favour of publication:


Australia Norway
Belgium Poland
Canada South Africa
Czechoslovakia Sweden
Denmark Switzerland
Finland Turkey
France Union of Soviet
Germany SocialistRepublics
Israel United Kingdom
Italy United Statesof America
Netherlands Yugoslavia

A first draft of SectionTwo was discussedat the meetin-sin Baden-Baden1967.As a result of this meeting,
a final draft was submitted to the National Committees for approval under the Six Months' Rule in
April 1968.

l\-
-,? -'r

- 9 -

The following countries voted explicitly favour of publication:


Australia Norway
Belgium Poland
Czechoslovakia South Africa
Denmark Sweden
Finland Switzerland
France Turkey
Germany Union of Soviet Socialist Republics
Israel United Kingdom
Italy United Statesof America
Netherlands Yugoslavia

This Publicationhas beendivided into the foilowing six parts which are publishedas separatebooklets:
Publication56-1: Part 1. General and Definitions.
Publication 56-2: Part 2. Rating.
Publication 56-3: Part 3. Design and Construction.
Publication 56-4: Part 4. Type Testsand Routine Tests.
Publication 56-5: Part 5. Rules for the Selectionof Circuit-breakersfor Service.
Publication 56-6: Part 6. Information to be Given with Enquiries, Tenders and Orders and Rules for
Transport, Erection and Maintenance.
- ll -

HIGH.VOLTAGE ALTERNATING-CURRENT CIRCUIT.BREAKERS

Part 4 z Type tests and routine tests

SECTION ONE TYPE TESTS

General

The type tests set out in this section are for the purpose of proving the characteristicsof circuit-
breakers,their operating devicesand auxiliary equipment.

The type testscomprise:

tests to prove mechanicalperformance, seeClause2;


teststo prove mechanicaloperation,see Sub-clauses 5.5 and 5.8.3;

tests to prove that the temperature rise of any part does not exceed specified limits, see
C l a u s e3 ;
tests to prove that the insulation cornplieswith specifiedlimits, seeClause 4;
tests to prove the short-circuit making and breaking performance, seeClauses 5 to 13;

tests to prove the short-time current performance,seeClause 14;

tests to prove the performance when breaking line-chargingcurrents, seeClause l5;

tests to prove the performance when breaking cable-chargingcurrents, seeClause l6;

tests to prove the performance when breaking single capacitor bank currents, see Clause l7;

teststo prove the performance when breaking small inductive currents, seeClause 18.

The results of all type tests shall be recorded in type-test reports containing sufficientdata to
prove compliance with this specification,,and information shall be included so that the essential
details of the circuit-breaker tested can be identified. Details of these requirements are given in
S ub- c lau s e1 .1 a n d A p p e n d i x A .

In principle the individual type tests shall be made on a circuit-breaker in a new and clean
condition, and the various type tests may be made at different times and at different locations.

Where tests are made on a circuit-breaker whose report of type tests has already been accepted,
the responsibility of the manufacturer is limited by the specified values and not by the results
obtained during the type tests previously made.

l.l Identifi cation of cir cuit-breaker

Sufficient information to identify the circuit-breaker and general information concerning its
supirorting structure or metal-enclosedunit, of which the circuit-breaker forms an integral paft,
shall be included in the type-testreport.

-t-
.-13-

Information regarding the operating devicesemployed during the tests shall, where applicable,
be recorded in the type-testreport, also whether the circuit-breaker is fitted with a making current
release,or equivalent device.

The circuit-breaker for test shall truly conform in all essentialdetails to drawings of its type.

Mechanical test

Unless otherwise specified, the mechanical test shall be made at the ambient air temperature
of the test location. The supply voltage of the operating devicesshall be measuredat the terminals
with full current flowing. Auxiliary equipment forming part of the operating devices shall be
included. However, no intentional addition to the impedance (e.g. for regulation of the voltage)
betweenthe voltage source and the terminals of the devicesis permitted.

The mechanical test shall consist of 1 000 operating cycleswithout voltage on or current in the
main circuit.

Out of the total number of operating cycles, approximately l0/, shall be close-openwith the
opening device energizedby the closing of the main contacts.

The test shall be made on the circuit-breaker equipped with its own operating devices.

On a circuit-breaker having a power-operated closing device, the test shall be made at rated
supply voltage andfor pressure,and carried out in such a way that the temperature rises of the
electrical components do not exceedthe values given in Table IV, Clause 5, of I E C Publication
56-2: High-voltagealternating-currentcircuit-breakers;Part 2: Rating.

During the test, lubrication in accordancewith the manufacturer'sinstructions but no mechanical


adjustmentis permissible.

After the test, all parts, including contacts, shall be in good condition and shall not show undue
wear. Seealso Note 2 of Table IV. Clause5. of I EC Publication 56-2.

Any permanent distortion of the mechanical parts that may occur shall not adversely affect
the operation of the circuit-breakernor prevent the proper fit of any replacementparts.

Note. - See also Note of Sub-clause l7 .7 b) i) .

a
J . Temperature rise tesf

General

The temperaturerise of any part of a circuit-breaker shall not exceedthe limits of temperature
risespecifiedin TableIV, Clause5, o f IEC P ubl i cati on56-2.

If the insulation of a coil is made of several different insulating materials the permissible temp-
erature rise of the coil shall be taken as that for the insulatine material with the lowest limit of
temperaturerise.

I
_ 1 5 _

Circuit-breakers,with the exieption of d.c. coils, shall be testedat rated frequencywith a tolerance
of *21 and -5%, but for convenienceof testing, wider tolerances may be necessary.If these
deviations are appreciable,i.e. when circuit-breakersrated for 50 Hz are tested at 60 Hz and vice
versa,care should be exercisedin the interpretationof the results.

Each test, except a test on an intermittently rated coil, shall be made over a period of time
sufficient for the temperature rise to reach a constant value (for practical purposesthis condition
is usually obtained when the variation does not exceedI deg C per hour).

The time for the whole test may be shortened by pre-heatingthe circuit with a higher value of
current.

For coils, the method of measuringthe temperaturerise by variation of resistanceshall generally


be used. Other methods are permitted only if it is impracticable to use the resistance method.

For conductors other than coils, the temperature of the different parts shall be measured with
thermometers or thermocouples, of any suitable type, placed at the hottest accessiblespot.

The temperature of the oil in oil circuit-breakersshall be measuredin the upper layer of the oil.

For measurement with thermometers or thermocouples, the following precautions shall be


t ak en:

a) The bulbs of the thermometers or thermocouples, shall be protected against cooling from
outside (dry clean wool, etc.). The protected area shall, however. be negligible compared to
the cooling area of the apparatus under test.

b) Good heat conductivity betweenthe thermometer or thermocouple and the surface of the part
under test shall be ensured.

When bulb thermometers are employed in places where there is any varying magnetic field,
alcohol thermometersshould be used in preferenceto mercury thermometers,as the latter are less
reliable under theseconditions.

3.1 Measurementof the resistanceof the main circuit

The resistanceof each pole of the main circuit shall be measuredfor comparison between the
circuit-breaker type-testedfor temperature rise and all circuit-breakersof the same type subjected
to the routine tests.

The measurementshall be made with d.c. by measuring the d.c. voltage drop, or resistance,
acrossthe terminals of eachpole.

The current during the test shall have any convenientvalue between 100 A and the rated normal
current.

The measurementof the d.c. voltage drop or the resistanceshall be made before the temperature
rise test, with the circuit-breaker at the ambient air temperature.

The measuredvalue of the d.c. voltage drop or the resistanceshall be given in the type-testreport,
as well as the general conditions during the test (current, ambient air temperature,etc.).
- t 7 -

3.2 A m bientair te m p e ra tu re ' .

The ambient air temperatureshall be measuredduring the last quarter of the test period by means
of at least three thermometers, equally distributed around the circuit-breakerat about the average
height of its current-carrying parts at a distance of about one metre from the circuit-breaker.The
thermometersshall be protectedagainstair currentsand heat radiation.

ln order to avoid indication errors becauseof rapid temperature changes, the thermometers
may be put into small oil-filled canswith oil contentsof about half a litre.

During the last quarter of the test period, the change of ambient air temperature shall not
exceed I deg C per hour. If this is not possible becauseof unfavourable temperature condi-
tions of the test room, the temperature of an identical circuit-breakerunder the same ambient
conditions, but without current, can be taken as a substitute for the ambient air temperature.
This additional circuit-breakershall not be subjectedto undue heat radiation.

The ambient air temperature during tests shall be more than * 10 'C but less than * 40 "C.
No corrections of the temperature rise values shall be made for arnbient air temperatureswithin
the above range.

1 a
J.J Temperaturerise of parts other than coils

For temperature rise tests of parts other than coils, the circuit-breaker including current trans-
formers and its auxiliary devicesshall be mounted approximately as under usual serviceconditions,
including all normal covers of any part of the circuit-breaker,and shall be protected against undue
external heating or cooling. These tests may be made on single poles if the influence of the other
poles is negligible.

Temporary connections to the main circuit shall be such that no abnormal amount of heat is
conducted away from, or conveyed to, the circuit-breaker during the test. In case of doubt the
temperature rise at the terminals of the main circuit, and at the temporary connections at a
distanceof I m from the terminals, shall be measured.The differenceof temperaturerise shall not
exceed5 deg C.
For a circuit-breaker not fitted with seriesconnectedaccessories,the test shall be made with the
rated normal current of the circuit-breaker.
For a circuit-breaker fitted with series connected accessorieshaving a range of rated normal
currents,the following testsshall be made:
a) a test of the circuit-breaker fitted with the seriesconnected accessoryhaving a rated normal
current equal to that of the circuit-breaker, and made at the rated normal current of the
circuit-breaker;
b) a series of tests of the circuit-breaker fitted with the intended accessories,and made with
currents equal to the rated normal current of each accessory.
Note. - lf the accessory can be removed from the circuit-breaker, and if it is evident that the temperature rise
of the circuit-breaker and of the accessories do not appreciably influence each other, Test b) above
may be replaced by a series of tests of the accessories alone.

_7.4 Temperaturerise of coils

The tests for temperature rise of coils shall be made rvith the specifiednature of supply (a.c.
or d.c.). Closing and opening devicesshall be tested at their rated supply voltage, over-current
releasesat their rated current.
- 1 9 -

Continuously rated coils shall be tested over a period of time sufficient for the temperature rise
to reach a constant value (this condition is obtained, for practical purposes,when the variation
does not exceedI deg C per hour).

For closing and opening coils energized only during closing or opening operations,the tests
shall be made under the following conditions:

a) When the circuit-breakerhas an automatic devicefor opening the control circuit at the end of
the operation,the circuit shall be energizedten times, the interval betweenthe instants of each
energizingbeing 2 s.

b) When the circuit-breaker has no automatic devicefor opening the control circuit at the end of
the operation, the circuit shall be energized:
ten times, the interval between the instants of each energizingbeing 2 s and the duration
of each energizingbeing 1 s,
-, after cooling down, once for a duration of 15 s.

At the end of either test the temperaturerise shall not exceedthe specifiedvalues.

4. Dielectric tests
Note. - A revision of dielectric testins is under consideration.

4.1 Ambient air conditions during tests

Reference shall be made to I E C Publication 60: High-voltage test techniques, regarding


standard atmosphericconditions and correction factors for air density and humidity.

Correction factors shall be applied in dielectric testsof circuit-breakerswhen external insulation


in free air is of principal concern, except that humidity correction factors are not applicable to
power frequency voltage wet tests.

For other circuit-breakers having external and internal insulation, the correction factors, for
density and humidity, shall not be applied if the total correction factor is between0.95 and 1.05.
If a circuit-breaker fails a dielectric test due to reduced strength of the atmospheric air during the
test, this test may be repeated in more favourable conditions. If the correction factor is outside the
range of 0.95 to 1.05, details of dielectric tests shall be subject to agreementbetweenmanufacturer
and user. Correction factors are not to be applied to the power frequency voltage tests.

For circuit-breakershaving internal insulation only, the ambient air conditions during test are
of no account and correction factors shall not be applied.

.1 ")
a . - Condition of circuit-breaker during tests

All tests to verify insulation levels shall be made on circuit-breakers completely assembled,
ready for service. They shall be mounted for test with minimum clearancesas specifiedby the
manufacturer.

When the distance betweenthe poles of a circuit-breaker is not inherently fixed by the design,
the distancebetweenthe poles for the test shall be the minimum value stated by the manufacturer.
However, to obviate the necessityof erecting large circuit-breakers for test purposes alone, if
the minimum distance between poles is such that there is no risk of flashover between poles, the
tests may be made on a single pole.
{
;
-21 I
!
I
!

When the manufu.tur., statesthat supplementaryinsulation, such as tape or barriers, is required ;


to be used in service,such supplementaryinsulation shall also be used during the tests.

If arcing horns or rings are required for the purpose of systemprotection, they may be removed
or their spacing increasedfor the purpose of the test. If they are required for stresscontrol, they
shall remain in position for the test.

+.-1 Application of test voltagefor impulse and power frequency tests

The test voltage shall be applied as follows:

a) in the closed position, betweenall parts of the main circuit of each pole in turn and the frame,
all parts of the main circuit of the other poles (if any) being connectedto the frame.

b) In the open position:

i) betweenall parts of the main circuit of all poles connectedtogether and the frame;

ii) betweenthe terminals of each pole in turn and the frame, all parts of the main circuit of the
other poles (if any) being connectedto the frame;
Note.- Testb) if is requiredonly if the insulationbetweenpolesis significantlyreducedin the open
p o s i ti o n .

iii) between the terminals of one side connected together and the terminals of the opposite
side connected together and the frame. The tests shall be repeated with the connections
from the terminals to the source and the frame interchangedunlessthe arrangementof the
terminals of a pole is symmetrical with respectto the frame.

! t
a . l Test voltages

The test voltages to be used for the tests prescribed in Sub-clause4.3, shall be in accordance
with Clause 3 of I E C Publication 56-2.

Impulse voltage tests

All outdoor circuit-breakers,and indoor circuit-breakersfor use in exposedinstallations, shall


be subjected to impulse voltage dry tests with I .2150impulses in accordance with I E C Publi-
cation 60.

During the tests the earthed terminal of the impulse generator shall be connectedto the frame
of the circuit-breaker.

During each test five consecutiveimpulses shall be applied. If a flashover or puncture does not
occur, the circuit-breaker shall be consideredto have passedthe test. If puncture occurs, or if two
or more flashoversoccur, the circuit-breakershall be consideredto have failed the test. If only one
flashover takes piace, ten additional impulsesshall be applied and only if flashoveror puncture does
not occur on any of these additional applications the circuit-breaker shall be consideredto have
passedthe test successfully.

The circuit-breaker shall be capable of passing the specifiedtests with voltages of both positive
and negative polarity, but where it is evident as to which polarity will give the lower breakdown
voltage, it shall sufficeto test with that polarity.
- 2 3 -

4.6 Powerfrequency voltageclry tests

All circuit-breakers shall be subjected to one-minute power frequency voltage dry withstand
tests in accordancewith I E C Publication 60.

The test source (transformer with voltage regulating device) shall have a short-circuit current
of at least 0.2 A. It is permissibleto check the magnitude of the current at about one-tenth of the
specifiedtest voltage.

During the tests one terminal of the testing transformer shall be connectedto earth and to the
frame of the circuit-breaker.

The test voltage shall be raised to the value specifiedand shall be maintained for one minute.
If flashover or puncture occurs, the circuit-breaker shall be considered to have failed the test.

4.7 Powerfrequency voltage wet tests

The outdoor insulation of circuit-breakers shall be subjected to power frequency voltage wet
withstand testsunder the sameconditions as those specifiedin Sub-clause4.6 and the test procedure
given in I E C Publication 60 which also gives the duration of wet withstand tests.

Such tests are not necessaryfor dead tank (bulk oil, etc.) circuit-breakerswhen the bushings
have already been tested.

4.8 Tests on auxiliary and control circuits

Auxiliary and control circuits of all circuit-breakers shall be subjected to one-minute power
frequency voltage withstand tests:

betweenthe auxiliary and control circuits connectedtogether as a whole and the frame of the
circuit-breaker;

if practicable, between each part of the auxiliary and control circuits, which in normal use
may be insulated from the other parts, and the other parts connectedtogether and to the frame.

The test voltage shall be 2 000 V. If puncture or flashover occurs, the auxiliary and control
circuits of the circuit-breaker shall be consideredto have failed the test.

Normally the test voltage of motors and other devicesused in the auxiliary and control circuits
shall be the same as the test voltage of those circuits. If such apparatus has already been tested
in accordancewith the appropriate specification,it may be disconnectedfor this test.

5. Miscellaneousproyisionsfor making and breaking tests

5.1 Arrangement of circuit-breakerfor tests

The circuit-breaker for test shall be mounted complete on its own support or on an equivalent
support. Its operating devicesshall be operated in the manner specified and in particular, if it is
electrically,pneumatically or hydraulically operated, it shall be operated at the minimum voltage
or pressurespecifiedin Clauses 5 to 7, I E C Publication 56-3: High-voltage alternating-current
circuit-breakers,Part 3: Design and construction, unlessotherwise specifiedin the relevant clauses.
It shall be shown that the circuit-breakerwill operatesatisfactorilyunder the above conditions at no-
load as specifiedin Sub-clause5.5. Gas-blastcircuit-breakersshall be testedat the minimumpressure,
specified in Clause 8, I E C Publication 56-3, unless otherwise specifiedin the relevant clauses.

I
-25

For a three-pole circuit-breaker, all short-circuit making and breaking requirements can, i n
principle, be proved with a three-polecircuit-breakerwith all poles operatingtogether.

Note. - Current chopping may be more pronounced at maximum pressure.

The circuit-breakershall be testedaccordingto its type as follows:

,) Single-enclosuretype
A circuit-breaker having all its arcing contacts supported within a common enclosureshall
be tested as a complete unit.

b) Multi-enclosure type
A three-pole circuit-breaker in which each pole is a separateunit shall be tested preferably
as a completethree-polecircuit-breaker,but for convenience,or owing to limitation of available
testing facilities, one single-poleunit of the circuit-breaker may be tested, provided that it is
equivalent to, or not in a more favourable condition than, the complete three-pole circuit-
breaker over the range of tests in respectof:

i) speedof make,
ii) speedof break,
iii) availability of arc-extinguishingmedium,
ir'l power and strength of closing and opening devices,
v) rigidity of structure.

5.2 Circuit-breakers with ot,er-currentreleases

Circuit-breakers fitted with direct over-current releases shall, subject to the provisions of
Sub-clause6.4, be arranged for Test-dutiesNos. I to 5 (Clause9) as specifiedbelow and the over-
current releasecoils shall be connectedto the live side of the test circuit:

With the coil of the maximum rated current set to operate at the maximum current and
maximum time-delayfor Test-dutiesNos. 1,2, 3 and 4 and at the minimum current and minimum
time-delav for Test-dutv No. 5.

Note. - When the time-delay is too great for convenient oscillographic recording, it shall be permissible to use a
smaller time-delay setting or to render the time-delay device inoperative for Test-duties Nos. I and 2 only.

5.3 Unit testing

Certain circuit-breakers are constructed by assemblingidentical breaking or making units in


series,the voltage distribution betweenthe units of each pole being ensuredby the use of parallel
I impedancesor other additional devices.

This type of design enables the breaking or making performance of a circuit-breaker to be


verifiedby carrying out unit testson only one or some of the units, when the testinglaboratory is
not equipped to test a complete circuit-breakeror pole. Such testsmay form part of the test report
of different ratings of circuit-breakersbased on the same units.

In any ease,it is essentialthat the units are identical and that the voltage distribution for the
operation under considerationis known.
!
t

27-

5.3.1 ldentical nature of the units

The units of the circuit-breaker shall be identicai in their shape,in their dimensionsand in their
operating conditions; only the devicesfor controlling the voltage distribution among units may be
different. In particular, the following conditions shall be fulfilled:

a) Simultaneousoperation of contacts
The opening,in breaking tests,or closing,in making tests,of the contactsof one pole shall
be practically simultaneous.

This condition shall be consideredas fulfilled if the opening or closing of the contacts of the
unit which is the last to operate takes place, at the latest, one quarter cycle of rated frequency
after the opening or closing of the contacts of the unit which operatesfirst.

b) Supply of the arc-extinguishingntedium


For a circuit-breaker using a supply of arc-extinguishingmedium from a source external to
the units, the supply to each unit shall for all practical purposesbe independent of the supply
to the other units, and the arrangementof the supply pipes shall be such as to ensure that
all the units are fed practically simultaneously in an identical manner.

c) Condition of the arc-extinguishingmedium


The design of the circuit-breaker and its units shall be such that during the breaking or
making operations, the condition of the medium in which the arc is created (e.g. temperature,
pressure, rate of flow, etc.) in each unit is for all practical purposes not influenced by the
operation of the other units.

In particular, neither the supply of extinguishingmedium to the unit or units under test, nor
the easeof exhaust of products from the arc, shall be increasedowing to the absenceof arcing
in the other units normally in serieswith the unit or units under test.

Any ionized gasesor vapours which might be present in the exhaust shall not escapein such
a manner as to causemalfunction of adjacent units or breakdolvn of the circuit-breaker owing
to partial or complete sparkover.

5.3.2 Voltagedistribution

The voltage distribution between units of a pole as affected by the influence of earth shall be
determined for the relevant test-circuit conditions laid down for tests on one pole, seefor terminal
fault conditions Sub-clauses6.3 c) and d) and Figures 3a,3b, page 124, atd 4a, page l25,for short-
line fault conditions Sub-clause12.3 and for out-of-phaseconditions Clause 13 and Figure 16,
page 135. Where the units are not symmetrically arranged, the voltage distribution shall be
determined also with reverseconnections.

If the circuit-breaker is fitted with parallel resistors,the voltage distribution shall be calculated
or measuredstatically at the equivalent frequency involved in the TRV.
Note I. - The equivalent frequencyis deemed tobeequal toLlttl in the case of four parametersor to'lzts in the
case of two parameters (see Figures 5 and 6).

For short-linefault unit tests,the voltage distribution shall be calculatedor measuredstatically


on the basic of a voltage on the line side at the fundamental frequency of the line oscillation and
a voltage on the sourceside at the equivalentfrequencyof the TRV for terminal faults, the common
point of the two voltagesbeing at earth potential (SeeAppendix G).

i
I
j
I
29-

lf only capacitors are used, the I'oltage distribution rnay be calculated or measured at power
frequency.

The manufacturing tolerances for resistors and capacitors shall be taken into account. The
manufacturer shall state the value of thesetolerances.
Notes 2. -It shall be taken into account that the voltage distribution may be more favourable during the out-of-
phase breaking tests than during the terminal or short-line fault short-circuit tests.

3. - The actual voltage distribution in a short-circuit breaking operation may be more linear than indicated
by static measurements or calculations.
If evidence of this can be produced, the voltage distribution derived from this evidence shall be used
for the selection of the voltage for the unit tests.
4. - The influence of pollution is not considered in determining the voltage distribution. In some cases
pollution may affect this voltage distribution.

for unit tests


5.3.3 Requirements

All unit tests shall be performed on the maximum nllmber of units in seriescompatible with
the capabilities of the testing laboratory, at the specifiedmaking and breaking currents.

When testing a single unit, the test-voltage shall be the voltage of the most highly stressedunit
of the complete pole of the circuit-breaker determined in accordancewith Sub-clause5.3.2. For
short-line fault conditions, the unit referred to is that most highly stressedat the specifiedtime of
the first peak of the side line transient voltage.

When testing a group of units, the voltage appearing at the terminals of the most highly stressed
unit of the group shall be equal to the voltage of the most highly stressedunit of the pole, both
determinedin accordancewith Sub-clause5.3.2.

In unit tests, the insulation to earth is not stressedwith the full voltage occurring during a
breaking operation of the complete circuit-breaker. For certain types of circuit-breakerssuch A S
circuit-breakersin metal enclosures,it may be necessaryto prove that the insulation to earth is
capable of withstanding this full voltage.

5.4 Synthetic testing

I E C Report to be issued.

5.5 I{o-load operationsbefore tests

Before commencing short-circuit tests, no-load operations shall be made and details of the
operating characteristicsof the circuit-breaker such as speed of travel, closing time, and opening
time, shall be recorded.
For a circuit-breaker fitted with a rnaking current release,it shall be shown that this does not
operateon no-load.
For electrically operated circuit-breakers,tests shall be made with the closing solenoid energized
at both 105% and 85 % of the rated supply voltage of the closing device.

For compressedair or hydraulic closing and opening devices, the tests shall be made at the
minimum pressure specifiedin Clauses 5 and 6, I E C Publication 56-3, with the shunt releases
energizedat 85% of the rated supply voltage; and also at the rated pressureand with the shunt
releasesenergizedat the rated supply voltage; and at the maximum pressurespecifiedin Clauses5
and 6, I E C Publication 56-3,with the shunt releasesenergizedat 110% of the rated supply voltage.
-31 -

For spring-closedcircuit-breakers,tests shall be made with the shunt releasesenergizedat ll0l


and at 85\ of the rated supply voltage.
For opening operations,tests shall be made with the shunt releasesenergizedat ll0\ and at
85\ of the rated supply voltage.

5.6 Alternative closins mechanisnts

If the circuit-breaker is designedfor use with alternative closing mechanisms,a separateseries


of short-circuit test-dutiesshall be made for each type of mechanism,unlessit can be shown that
the change of mechanism does not affect the performance of the common portion, particularly
with regard to the opening characteristicsof the circuit-breaker.
,
If this can be satisfactorily shown, only a single complete series of short-circuit test-dutiesis
required using one of the alternative mechanisms,but any short-circuit test-duty which includes
making operations (see Sub-clause9.4) shall be repeated with all other alternative mechanisms.

5.7 Behaviour of circuit-breaker during tests

During making and breaking tests, the circuit-breaker shall neither show signs of excessive
distressnor endangerthe operator. From oil circuit-breakers,there shall be no outward ernission
of flame, and the gasesproduced, together with the oil carried with the gases,shall be conducted
from the circuit-breaker and directed away from all live conductors and locations where persons
may be present.

For other types of circuit-breaker,if there is appreciableemission of flame or rnetallic particles,


it may be required that the short-circuit tests shall be made with metallic screensplaced in the
vicinity of the live parts and separatedfrom them by a safety clearancedistancewhich the manu-
facturer shall specify.
The screensshall be insulated from earth but connectedthereto by a suitable device to indicate
any significant leakagecurrent to earth,
There shall be no indication of significant leakage currents to the circuit-breaker earthed
structure, or screenswhen fitted, during the tests.In case of doubt, the earthed parts, etc., should
be connected to earth through a fuse consisting of a copper wire of 0.1 mm diameter and 5 cm
long. No significant leakageis assumedto have occurred if this fuse wire is intact after the test.

Overvoltages produced during line-charging, cable-charging, capacitor and small inductive


current breaking tests shall not exceed the maximum permissible switching overvoltages (see
Clauses13 to 16, I E C Publication 56-2). External flashover shall not occur.

5.8 Condition of circuit-breaker after tests

5.8.1 General

The circuit-breaker may be inspected after any test-duty. Its mechanical parts and insulators
shall be in practically the same condition as before the test-duty.

5.8.2 Condition after a short-circuit test-duty

After each short-circuit test-duty the circuit-breaker shall be capable of making and breaking
its rated normal current at the rated voltage, although its short-circuit making and breaking
performance may be impaired.
- 3 3 -

The main contacts shall be in such a condition, in particular with regard to burning, contact
area,pressureand freedom of movernent,that they are capableof carrying the rated normal current
of the circuit-breaker without their temperature rise exceedingby more than l0 deg C the values
specifiedfor thern in Table IV, Clause 5, I E C Publication 56-2.In case of doubt, it may
be necessaryto perform an additional temperaturerise test. Experience shows that an increaseof
the voltage drop across the circuit-breaker cannot alone be consideredas reliable evidenceof an
increasein temperature rise.

Contacts shall be consideredas " silver-faced" only if there is still a layer of silver at the contact
points after any of the short-circuit test-duties; otherwise they shall be treated as " not silver-
faced " (seeTable IV, Note 2,IE C Publication56-2).

5.8.3 Condition after a short-circuit test series

In order to check the operation of the circuit-breaker after test, no-load closing and opening
tests shall be made at the completion of the seriesof short-circuit tests. These shall be compared
with the correspondingtestsmade in accordancewith Sub-clause5.5 and shall show no significant
change.The circuit-breaker shall close and latch satisfactorily.

After the completion of the entire seriesof short-circuit test-duties,local burning of the lining
of oil circuit-breaker enclosuresmay be expected,and provided this does not render the lining
incapable of performing its function, such damage is permissible.This does not apply to linings,
tubes, barriers, etc. which form part of the main insulation of the circuit-breaker.

Slight distortion of non-metallic interphase barriers and tank linings may be permitted on oil
circuit-breakers,provided such distortion does not interfere with the normal opening and closing
of the circuit-breaker.

If, for reasons other than the behaviour of the tested circuit-breaker, it becomesnecessaryto
perform a greater number of short-circuit test-dutiesthan are required by this specification,and
if the enclosurelining is so damagedthat the manufacturer considersit desirableto changeit before
completing the standard series of test-duties,a statement of changesand necessaryexplanation
shall be included in the test report.

Damage to main insulation (i.e. that which is subject to electrical stressunder normal operating
conditions with the circuit-breaker either open or closed) such that the insulation of the circuit-
breaker is impaired, shall disqualify the circuit-breaker. Damage to shields fitted for bushings
or arc control devicesshall not invalidate the performanceprovided the shields remain substantially
intact and are capable of continuing to perform their function. Damage to surfaces of insulation
along which creepagemay occur under normal voltage, either to earth, betweenpoles or acrossthe
break, invalidatesthe performance.

No criterion of oil deterioration can be given as this will depend upon the particular circuit-
breaker tested.

5.8.4 Condition after a test series other than a short-circuit test series

The circuit-breaker shall, after performing the line-charging,cable-charging,capacitor and small


inductive current breaking test seriesspecifiedin Sub-clauses15.8, 16.8, 17.8 and Clause 18 and

I
't

- 3 5 -

before reconditioning, be capable of operating satisfactorily at any making and breaking current
up to its rated short-circuit making and breaking current.

o'rated
Note, - In English, the terms making cllrrent " and " rated breaking current " are being used where
'o
formerly " rated making capacity " and rated breaking capacity " were used, the intended meaning being
adequately conveyed by the use of " rated ". In French, the terms " pouvoir de fermeture nominal " and
" pouvoir de coupure nominal " continue to be used.

In addition the circuit-breaker shall be capable of carrying its rated normal current with a
temperature rise not in excessof the temperaturerise permitted by Table IV, Clause 5, I E C Publi-
cation 56-2.

There shall be no evidence of internal puncture, flashover or tracking of insulating materials,


except that moderate wear of the parts of arc control devicesexposed to the arc is permissible.

Note. - Verification of compliance with the above requirements is necessary only in case of doubt.

Provisions for the condition of a circuit-breaker after an out-of-phase switching test series are
contained in IEC Publication 267: Guide to the testing of circuit-breakerswith respect to out-
of-phase switching.

5.8.5 Reconditioningafter a short-circuit test-dutyand otlter test series

It is understood that after performing a short-circuit test-duty or other test series it may be
necessaryto carry out maintenancework on the circuit-breakerin order to restoreit to the original
conditions specifiedby the manufacturer. For example,the following may be necessary:

a) repair or replacementof the arcing contacts and any other renewableparts recommendedby
the manufacturer;
b) renewal or filtration of the oil, or of any other extinguishing mediurn, and the addition of
any quantity of the medium necessaryto restore its normal level;
c) removal of deposit caused by the decomposition of the extinguishing medium from internal
ins ulat i o n .

5.9 Circuit-breakers witlt short arcing times

It is recognized that, when breaking tests are made on circuit-breakers having short arcing
times, there may be great variation in actual severity of tests with the same circuit setting due
to the point on the current wave at which contact separation occurs. For this reason the testing
procedure for circuit-breakers with arcing times (to the extinction of the main arc for circuit-
breakerswith switching resistors)not exceedingone cycle for the first pole to clear, is as follows:

a) Three-phasetests
No strict rules can be given how to obtain the most severetest conditions in three-phase
tests so that the point on the current wave at which contact separation occurs is not specified.

b) Single-phasetests
The tests under I) and 2) consist of three valid operationsirrespectiveof the rated operating
sequenceof the circuit-breaker.

After the number of operationsprovided for in accordancewith the rated operating sequence,
the circuit-breakermay be reconditionedin accordanceriith Sub-clause5.8.5.
-37 -

t) Test-duties-l{os. 4 and 4b (Sub-clause9.4)


During the first valid breaking operation, contact separation shall occur sufficiently close
to one current zero to ensure that arc extinction does not occur at this current zero.It may
be necessaryto make more than one test to achievethis.

During the second breaking operation, contact separation control shall be advanced
approximately 60o from that of the first valid breaking operation.

If during the second breaking operation arc extinction occurs at the first currenl zero,
then the third breaking operation shall be made with the same timing of contact separation
as the first valid breaking operation. If during the secondbreaking operation arc extinction
does not occur at the first current zero, then the third breaking operation shall be made with
contact separation control advanced approximately 60' from that of the second breaking
operation.

)l Test-duty I,{o. 5 (Sub-clause9.5)


During the first valid breaking operation, contact separationshall occur during the minor
loop of current sufficiently close to the current zero to ensure that arc extinction does not
occur at this current zero.It may be necessaryto make more than one test to achievethis.

For one of the other two breaking operations, contact separation control shall be
advanced, and for the other retarded, by approximately 60o from that required for the
first valid breaking operation.

For all three breaking operations the specified d.c. component shall be verified by
measurementat the instant corresponding to the contact separation required for the first
valid breaking operation.

6. Test circuits for short-circuit making and breaking tests

6.1 Powerfactor

The power factor in each phase shall be determined in accordance with one of the methods
describedin Appendix B .

The power factor of a polyphase circuit shall be taken as the averageof the power factors in
eachphase.

During the tests,this averagevalue shall not exceed0.15.

The power factor of any phase shall not vary from the average by more than 25ft of the
average.

6.2 Frequency

Circuit-breakersshall be tested at rated frequency with a tolerance of f l0%.

However, for convenienceof testing, some deviations from the above tolerance are allowable;
for example,when circuit-breakersrated at 50 Hz arc tested at 60 Hz and vice versa, care should
be exercisedin the interpretation of the results, taking into account all significant facts such as
the type of the circuit-breaker and the type of test performed.
Note.- In sornecases, may be differentfor useat 60Hz and for use
of a circuit-breaker
the ratedcharacteristics
at 5OHz.
- 3 9 -

6.3 Earthing of test circtit

The connectionsto earth of the test circuit for short-circuit making and breaking tests shall be
in accordancewith the following requirements and shall in all casesbe indicated in the diagram
of the test circuit included in the test report (seeAppendix A, Sub-clause2.4,ItemgJ).

a) For three-phasetestsof a three-polecircuit-breaker,first-pole-to-clearfactor 1.5:


The circuit-breaker (with its structure earthed as in service)shall be connected in a circuit
having the neutral point of the supply isolated and the short-circuit point earthed as shown in
Figure 1a, page 122,or vice versaas shown in Figure lb, page 122,if the test can be made only
in the latter way.
factor of 1.5.
Thesetest circuits give a first-pole-to-clear
In accordancewith Figure la, the neutral of the supply source may be earthed through a
resistor,the resistanceof which is as high as possibleand, expressedin ohms, in no caseless
than Ull\, where t/ is the numerical value in volts of the voltage between lines of the test
circuit.

factor 1.3:
b) For three-phasetestsof a three-polecircuit-breaker,first-pole-to-clear
The circuit-breaker (with its structure earthed as in service)shall be connected in a circuit
having the neutral point of the supply connectedto earth by an appropriate impedanceand the
short-circuit point earthed as shown in Figure 2a, page 123,or vice versaas shown in Figure 2b,
page 123, if the test can be made only in the latter way.

The impedancein the neutral connection shall be selectedappropriate to a first-pole-to-clear


factor of 1.3.

c) For single-phasetests of a single-pole unit of a three-pole circuit-breaker, first-pole-to-clear


f ac t or 1 .5 ,
i) intended for universal use irrespective of the earthing condition of the system neutral.

The circuit and the circuit-breaker structure shall be connectedas in Figure 3a, page 124,
so that the voltage conditions between live parts and the structure after arc extinction are
the same as those which would exist in the first pole to clear of a three-polecircuit-breaker
if testedin the circuit shown in Figure 1a.
For convenienceof the test station, subject to agreementof the user, the test circuit can
be used with an intermediate point of the supply earthed,the voltagedistribution preferably
being as shown in Figure 3b, page 124.
ii) intended for use on an effectivelyearthed systemsubject to unearthed short-circuits:

The circuit and the circuit-breaker structure shall be connected as in Figure 3b so that
the voltage conditions betweenlive parts and the structure after arc extinction are the same
as those which would exist in the first pole to clear of a three-pole circuit-breaker if tested
in the circuit shown in Figure lb.
For convenienceof the test station, subject to agreement of the manufacturer, the test
circuit shown in Figure 3a can be used.

d) For single-phasetests of a single-pole unit of a three-pole circuit-breaker, first-pole-to-clear


f ac t or 1 .3 :
The circuit and the circuit-breaker structure shall be connectedas in Figure 4a, page 125, so
that the voltage conditions between live parts and the structure after extinction are approxi-
mately the sameas those that would exist in the first pole to clear of a three-polecircuit-breaker
if testedin the circuit shown in Fisure 2a.

L
il

- 4 t -

For convenienceof the test station, subject to agreementof the user, the test circuit can be
used with an intermediatepoint of the supply earthed, the voltage distribution preferably being
as shown in Figure 4b, page 125.

e) For single-phasetests of a single-polecircuit-breaker:


The circuit and the circuit-breakerstructure shall be connectedso that the voltage conditions
between live parts and earth within the circuit-breaker after arc extinction reproduce the
servicevoltage conditions. The connectionsused shall be indicated in the test report.

6.4 Connectionof test circuit to circuit-breaker

Where the physical anangement of one side of the circuit-breaker differs from that of the other
side, the live side of the test circuit shall be connectedfor test to that side of the circuit-breaker,
connection with which gives the more onerous conditions with respectto voltage to earth, unless
the circuit-breaker is especiallydesignedfor feeding from one side only.

In caseof doubt, the Test-dutiesNos. I and 2 (Clause9) shall be made with opposite connections,
and likewise Test-dutiesNos. 4 and 5. If Test-duty No. 5 is omitted, Test-duty No. 4 shall be made
with each of the two connections.

7. Short-circuit test quantities

7.1 Applied voltage before short-circuit making tests **

For the short-circuit making tests of Sub-clause9.4, the applied voltage shall be as follows:

a) For three-phasetests on a three-pole circuit-breaker, the averagevalue of the applied voltages


shall not be lessthan the rated voltage U divided by I 3 and shall not exceedthis value by more
than 10\ without the consent of the manufacturer.

The differencesbetween the averagevalue and the applied voltages of each pole shall not
exceed51.

b) For single-phasetests on a three-pole circuit-breaker,the applied voltage shall not be less than
the phase-to-neutralvalue Ul\/3 and shall not exceedthis value by more than 10/" without
the consent of the manufacturer.
Notes 1. - With the manufacturer's consent it is permissible, for convenience of testing, to apply a voltage
equal to the product of the phase-to-neutral voltage and the first-pole-to-clear factor (1.3 or 1.5)
of the circuit-breaker.

2. - Where the circuit-breaker can be arranged for a single-pole reclosing operation and the maximum
time difference between the contacts touching in a subsequent three-pole closing operation exceeds
one half cycle of rated frequency (compare Clause 2, Note 2,IE C Publication 56-3) the applied
voltage shall be the product of the phase-to-neutral voltage and the first-pole-to-clear factor (1.3
or 1.5) of the circuit-breaker.

c) For a single-polecircuit-breaker, the applied voltage shall not be less than the rated voltage
and shall not exceedit by more than 10/. without the consent of the manufacturer.

I * Where a tolerance is not specified, type tests shall be carried out at values not less severethan the specifledvalues;
the upper limits are subject to the consent of the manufacturer.
I ** The applied voltage before short-circuit breaking tests is not specifically laid down in this specification.
_ 4 3 _

7.2 Short-circuit (peak) making current

When the making current does not attain 100% of the rated short-circuitmaking current in both
tests for which this value is specifiedin Sub-clause9.4, these tests are still valid if the making
current attains 100% in one test and 90/, in the other test.

I t is , ho w e v e r,n o t a l w a y sp o s s i b l eto reach theseval uesdue to pre-arci ng;i nthi scaseevi dence
shall be given that the making currents attained are representativeof conditions the circuit-breaker
is required to meet in accordance with its rated short-circuit making current. The maximum
prospectivepeak current of the test circuit shall not be less than rc}% of the rated short-circuit
making current and shall not exceed110% of this value.

Note. - Attention is drawn to the possibility that, for a circuit-breaker with appreciable pre-arcing, a moment of
closing which, because of pre-arcing, results in a symmetrical short-circuit current may cause a severe
stress, and a special close-open test may be necessary to prove satisfactory operation of the circuit-breaker
in this condition.

7.3 Short-circuit breaking current

The short-circuit current broken by a circuit-breaker shall be measuredat the instant of contact
separation in accordancewith Figure l, IEC Publication 56-2, and shall be stated in terms of
two values as specifiedbelow:

a) The averageof the r.m.s. valuesof the a.c. componentsin all phases;

b) The percentagevalue of the maximum d.c. component in any phase.

The r.m.s. value of the a.c. component of the breaking current in any phase shall not vary from
the averageby more than 10% of the average.

Although the breaking current is measuredat the instant corresponding to contact separation,
the breaking performance of the circuit-breaker is determined among other factors by the current
which is finally broken in the last loop of arcing. The decrement of the a.c. component of the
short-circuit current is therefore very important, particularly when testing those circuit-breakers
which are for severalloops of current. To obviate an easementof duty, the decrementof the a.c.
component of the short-circuit current should be such that at a time correspondingto the final
extinction of the main arc in the last pole to clear, the a.c. component of the prospectivecurrent
is not less than 90/" of the appropriate value for the test-duty.

If the characteristicsof the circuit-breaker are such that it reduces the short-circuit current
value below the prospectivebreaking current, or if the oscillogram is such that the current wave
envelope cannot be drawn successfully,the average prospective breaking current in all phases
shall be deemedto be the breaking current and shall be measuredfrom the oscillogram of prospec-
tive current at a time correspondingto the instant of contact separation.

The instant of contact separation can be determined according to the experienceof the testing
station and the type of apparatus under test by various methods, for instance, by recording
the contact travel during the test, by recording the arc voltage or by a test on the circuit-breaker
at no-load.

7.4 D.C. componentoJ'short-circuit breaking current

For circuit-breakerswhich operate in times preventingthe control of the d.c. component, e.g.
circuit-breakersfitted with direct over-current releasesrvhen in a condition for test as set out in
45-

Sub-clause5.2, the d.c. component may be greater than that specifiedfor Test-dutiesNos. I to 4,
Clause9.

Circuit-breakersshall be consideredto have satisfiedTest-duty No. 5, even if the percentaged.c.


component in one opening operation is less than the specifiedvalue, provided that the averageof
the percentaged.c. components of the opening operations of the test-duty exceedsthe specified
percentaged.c. comPonent.

7.5 Transient recover))voltagefor terminal faults

7 .5. 1 G ener al

The prospectivetransient recoveryvoltage of the test circuit shall be determinedby such a method
as will produce and measure the TRV-wave without materially influencing it, and shall be
measured at the terminals to which the circuit-breaker will be connected with all necessarytest
measuring devices, such as voltage dividers, included. Suitable methods are described in
Appendix E (seealso Sub-clause7.6).

For three-phasecircuits, the transient recovery voltage refers to the first pole to clear, i.e. the
voltage across one open pole with the other two poles closed, with the appropriate test circuit
arranged as specifiedin Sub-clause6.3.

The prospectivetransient recovery voltage curve of a test circuit is representedby its envelope
drawn as shown in Appendix D and by its initial portion.

The TRV specifiedfor the tests, is representedby a referenceline and a delay line in the same
manner as the rated TRV in accordancewith Sub-clause7.2 and Figures 3 and of 4IEC Publi-
cation 56-2.

The prospectivetransient recoveryvoltage wave of the test circuit shall comply with the following
two requirements:

Requirementa)
Its envelopeshall at no time be below the specifiedreferenceline.
Note. - It is stressed that the extent by which the envelope may exceed the specified reference line requires the
consent of the manufacturer (see footnote of title of Clause 7); this is of particular importance in the case
of 2-parameter envelopes when 4-parameter reference lines are specified, and in the case of 4-parameter
envelopes when 2-parameter reference lines are specified.

Requirementb)
Its initial portion shall not cross the specifieddelay line.

These requirementsare illustrated in Figures 5, 6, 7 and 8, pages 127 andl29.

Standard values of referenceand delay lines specifiedfor the various test duties are as follows.

7.5.2 Test-dutiesiy'os. 4 and 5

The specified reference lines and delay lines are given by the appropriate standard values
in Tables V A, V B, V C or V D of Sub-clause7.3, IEC Publication 56-2.

Tables V C and V D of IEC Publication 56-2 give values of 4-parameterreferencelines. Alter-


native values of 2-parumeter reference lines for use rvhen applying Figure 6 in place of Figure 8
are contained in Table VII A, Appendix F.
i
-47-

Due to limitations of the test plant, it may not be feasibleto comply fully with Requirement b).
In that event, if the circuit-breaker is also subjectedto short-line fault tests in accordancewith
Clause 12, Requirement b) shall be met as best possible during the performance of Test-duties
Nos. 4 and 5; and provided it is met for the delay line given by the limit values in Tables I A, I B
(under consideration),I C or I D, thesetest circuits are deemedto meet the specifiedrequirement.

T,q.nrr I A

Standard limit values of delay lines of prospective transient recovery)voltage for Test-duties Nos. 4
and 5 where short-line fault tests are also made

Rqted voltagesSeries I and 100 kV. First-pole-to-clearfactor 1.5

Rated voltage Time delay Voltageco-ordinate Time co-ordinate


I

U t6 u' t'
kv ps KV ps

52 19.8 29.5 64
7 2 .s 25 41.5 BI
r0 0 32.s 57 104

/ a : 0 ' 1 5t :

Tlnrn I B

Standard limit volues of delay lines of prospective transient recovery voltagefor Test-duties l,{os. 4
and 5 where short-line fault tests are also made

Rated voltagesSeries II. First-pole-to-clearfactor 1.5

Under consideration.
_49_

Tasrn I C

Standardlimit valuesof delay lines of prospectivetransientrecoveryvoltagefor Test-dutiesNos.


and5 whereshort-linefault testsare alsomade

Rated voltagesexceeding100 kV. First-pole-to-clearfactor 1.3

Rated voltage Time delay Time co-ordinate

U t6 u' t'

KV ps KV ps

r23 19.6 65 85
145 23 77 100
t70 27 90 118
24s 39 130 r70
300 48 160 206
362 58 t92 250
420 67 222 290
525 84 280 360
765 122 405 530

r a : 0 . 1 5t r

Tnnrp I D

Standard limit values of delay lines of prospective transient recovery voltagefor Test-duties l{os.
and 5 where short-line fault tests are also made

Rated voltagesexceeding100 kV. First-pole-to-clearfactor 1.5

Rated voltage Time delay vortus"co-ordinate co-ordinate


I I :t-"

U t4 Ll' t'

kv ps kv ps

123 22.6 98
145 26.5 89 tt6
t70 31 t04 136
24s 45 150 196
300 55 184 238
362 67 222 290
420 77 2s5 335
s25 96 320 420
765 140 470 610

/ o : 0 ' 1 5/ t

In case Requirement a) and the full or, where applicable, modified Requirement bJ cannot be
met in a single test circuit due to test plant limitations, two-part tests may be made using two test
circuits successivelv.the following applying to circuit-breakershaving rated voltages exceeding
100kv:
-51 -

il the first test circuit shall meet Requirementb) and a part of Requirementa) with a 2-parameter
referenceline, defined by a voltage co-ordinate equal to the rated value u, and a time co-ordinate
equal to the rated value /r.
ii) in the secondtest circuit, Requirement6) is disregarded.

The TRV-waves of both test circuits combined shall meet Requirement a) fully.

An example illustrating the corresponding prospectivetransient recovery voltage waves of two


singlefrequencytest circuits, is shown in Figurc 9, page 129.

7 .5 . 3 T es t - dut yN o .3

For rated voltages up to and including 145 kY,2-parameter referencelines are used. The
specified standard values are given in Tables II A, Il B (under consideration), II C and II D.

For rated voltages above 145 kV, 4-parameterreferencelines are used. The specifiedstandard
valuesare given in Tables II E and II F; the valuesof lo and t' are the lower limits which should
not be reduced, and the values in brackets are the upper limits which should not be exceeded,
durins tests.

Alternative values of 2-parameterreferencelines for use when applying Figure 6, page 127, in
place of Figure B, page 129, are contained in Table VtrI B, Appendix F.

Note. - A reduction of the TRV for U > 420 kV is under consideration.

Tast-r II A

Standard yqluesof prospectivetrqnsient recorery voltage specifiedfor Test-duty lr{o.3


Rated voltagesSeries I and 100 kV.
Representationby 2 parameters. First-pole-to-clear
factor 1.5

TRV Time Time Voltage Time Rate of


peak value co-ordinate delay co-ordinate co-ordinate rise

U Llc t3 rd ut L u"ltt
KV KV prs ps kv Fs kV/pLs

3.6 6.6 17.2 3.45 2.2 9.1 0.385


7.2 13.2 22.2 4.45 4.4 11.8 0.59
l2 22 25.5 5.1 7.3 13.8 0.86
r7.5 32 31 6.2 10.8 16.4 1.04
1A
44 37.5 7.5 14.6 20.2 1.16
36 66 46,5 9.3 22 24.6 1.42
52 96 57 rI.4 32 30 1.68
72.5 134 72 14.4 44.5 38.5 1.84
100 184 93 18.6 61 49.5 1.98

u- . : 1 . S x l . S l ? U
\i 3

Rate-of-riseu"f t3equals2.5 times the correspondingvalue of Table VA of IEC Publication56-2


tu
ta : O.2 t3; u' : u"

i
.l
- 5 3 -

Test,n II B

for Test-dutyNo. 3
Standardvaluesof prospectivetransientrecoveryvoltagespecified
RatedvoltagesSeriesII.
factor 1.5
by 2 parameters.First-pole-to-clear
Representation

Under consideration.

T.tsrE lI C

Standard yaluesof prospectivetransient recoveryvoltage specifiedfor Test-duty I'{o. 3


Rated voltages123 and 145 kV.
factor 1.3
Representationby 2 parameters. First-pole-to-clear

Rated TRV Time Time Voltage Time Rate of


voltage peak value co-ordinate delay co-ordinate co-ordinate rise

U uc t3 t6 u' t' u"ltt


KV KV ps ps KV l,r.s kV/ps

t23 196 98 19.6 65 52 2.0


145 230 116 23 77 62 2.0

u c: l . 5 x t s ^ fT r u ; t 6 : 0 . 2\ ; u' :
+u.

Tnsrp II D

Standard valuesof prospective transient recoveryvoltage specifiedfor Test-duty I'{o. 3


Rated voltages123 and 145 kV.
Representationby 2-parameters. First-pole'to-clearfactor 1.5

Rated TRV Time Time Voltage Time Rate of


voltage peak value co-ordinate delay co-ordinate co-ordinate rise

U uc . J t6 u' t' u.l tl


KV KV ps ps KV ps kV/prs

t23 226 tt2 22.6 75 60 2.0


t45 265 t34 26.5 89 7l 2.0

uc:L5x1.5 h:0.2tt; u'::uc


l?r,
- 5 5 -

Tenrn II E

Standard yaluesof prospectivetransient recotteryt'oltage specifiedfor Test-duty No. 3


Rated voltagesexceeding145 kV.
factor 1.3
Representationby 4 parameters. First-pole-to-clear

First
Rated Time TRV Time Time Rate of
reference
voltage co-ord. peak value co-ord. co-ord. rise
voltage

U ul t1 uc t2 ,d u' t' u r l tr
KV KV ps KV l-[s ps KV ps kV/prs

170 180 90 270 540 3.6 (22.6) 90 48.5 (6S ; 2.0


245 260 130 390 780 s.2 (32.s) 130 70 (e8) 2.0
300 320 160 480 960 6.4 (40) 160 86 (120) 2.0
362 385 t92 580 11 6 0 7.7 (48) 192 i04 (144) 2.O
420 445 222 670 l 340 8.e (56) 222 r20 (168) 2.0
525 560 280 840 l 680 11 . 1 ( 7 0 ) 280 l s0 (208) 2.0
765 810 405 t220 2440 16.2 (r02) 405 220 (30s) 2.0

u ^r : l . l l ? U ; u-" - 1 . 5u 1 ; t 2 : 6 t 1 ; 1 6: 0 . 0 4 ( 0 . 2 5t)r ; I t ' : ! u '


^/3 2

T.qeI-p II F

Standard Nqluesof prospectiye trqnsient recoveryroltage specifiedfor Test-duty No. 3


Rated voltagesexceeding145 kV.
factor I'5
Representationby 4 parameters.First-pole-to-clear

First
Rated Time TRV Time Time Voltage Time Rate of
reference I
voltage co-ord. peak value co-ord. delay co-ord. co-ord. rise
voltage

U ul , l uc t2 rd u' t' utltt


KV KV pr.s KV ps ps KV l-rs kV/ps

170 208 104 310 660 4.2 (26) 104 5 6 (78) 2.0
245 300 150 450 900 6.0 (37.s 150 8 1 (112) 2.0
300 365 184 550 1100 7.3 (46) 184 99 ( 13 8 ) 2.0
362 445 222 670 t340 8.e (5s) 222 t20 ( 1 6 6 ) 2.0
420 510 255 770 I 540 ro.2 (64) 255 1 3 8(re2) 2.0
525 640 320 960 1920 r2.B (80) 320 t74 (242) 2.0
765 940 470 1400 2800 1 8 . 8( 1 1 8 ) 470 255 (350) 2.0

u ,t : 1 . 5, lv13=u ; u": 1 . 5u r ; t2: 6 t; 1 6: 0 . 0 4( 0 . 2 5 t)t ,' : l,rt


57-

7.5.4 Test-dutyI,{o. 2
2-parameterreference lines are used for all voltages. The specified standard values are given
in Tables III A, III B (under consideration),III C and III D.

Tenrp III A

Standard valuesof prospectivetransient recoveryvoltage specifiedfor Test-duty No. 2


Rated voltagesSeriesI and 100 kV.
factor 1.5
Representationby 2 parameters. First-pole-to-clear

Rated TRV Time Voltage Time Rate of


voltage peak value delay co-ordinate co-ordinate rise

U uc . J t4 u' t'
kv KV ps ps KV ps

3.6 6.6 8.6 1.72 2.2 4.6 0.77


7.2 13.2 11.2 2.22 4.4 5.9 1.18
t2 22 12.8 2.55 7.3 6.9 t.72
17.5 32 15.4 3.1 10.8 8.2 2.08
)4 44 18.8 3 . 75 t4.6 l0 2.34
36 66 23.2 4.6s 22 12.4 2.85
ta
52 96 28.s 5.7 JZ 15 3.40
72. s r34 36 7.2 44.5 19.2 3.70
100 184 46.5 9.3 61 24.6 3.95

1 ^ -

u' ^ : 1 . 5 x 1 . ,5lv !1U

Rate of rise u"ft3 equalsfive times the correspondingvalue of Table VA of IEC Publication 56-2

ta:0.2ts; u':Lu.
J

Note. - In testing stations using generators it may be difficult to meet the small values of time /3. The shortest time u'hich
can be met should be used and the value stated in the test report.

Tasr.E Ill B

Standqrdvalues oJ'prospectivetransient recoveryvoltage specifiedfor Test-duty lt{o.2


Rated voltagesSeries II.
Representationby 2 pa,rameters.First-pole-to-clearfactor L5

Under consideration.
,I
- 5 9 -

Tasls III C

Standard yaluesof prospectiyetronsient recoveryvoltage specif.edfor Test-duty It{o.2


Rated voltagesexceeding100 kV.
Representalionby 2 parameters. F'irst-pole-to-clear
1.3

Time Time Voltage Tirne Rate of


co-ordinate delay co-ordinate co-ordinate rise

U uc . J /4 u' t' turft3


kv KV t-[s ps KV t1s kVirrs

123 196 39 7.8 65 20.8 5.0


r45 230 46 9.2 77 24.6 5.0
170 270 54 10.8 90 29 5.0
24s 390 7B 15.6 130 41.5 5.0
300 480 96 19.2 160 5t 5.0
362 580 lt6 ZJ 192 6l 5.0
420 670 t34 26.5 222 7l 5.0
525 840 168 33 . 5 280 89 5.0
765 | 220 244 48.5 40s 130 5.0

u-, : l . 5 x t . l f ? ^u ; ta:0.2t3; ,,'-t=u.


4 3 3

T.q.sr-EIII D

Standartlvoluesof prospectivetransientrecorery voltage specifiedfor Test-dutyNo. 2


Rated voltagesexceeding100 kV.
Representationb1:2 parameters. First-pole-to-clear-factor1.5

Rated Time Time Voltage Time


voltage co-ordinate delay co-ordinate co-ordinate

U Itc t6 lt' I urf t3


KV KV V,S I ' Q KV tls kV/ps

'rA',
123 226 45 9.0 75 5.0
t45 26s 53 10.6 B9 28.5 5.0
170 310 62 12.4 104 33.5 5,0
245 450 90 l8 1s0 48 5.0
300 550 ll0 22 184 59 5.0
362 670 t34 26.5 222 71 5.0
420 770 154 3l 255 82 5.0
525 960 192 38 . 5 320 t02 5.0
765 I 40C 280 56 470 150 5.0

t -r c : 7 . 5 ^ 1 . 5l ? U ; ta:0.2t; u':!u"
{ 3 3
6l -

7.5.5 Test-duty I'{o. I

Owing to the difficulty of meeting short times l, in testing stations at low currents,no values
are specified.The shortesttime which can be obtained should be used, but not lessthan the values
'fables
given in III A, III B, III C and III D; the value used shall be statedin the test report. The
TRV peak value a" shall correspond to the appropriate value specifiedin these Tables for Test-
duty No. 2. Requirementb) may be disregarded.

7.6 Measurement of transient recor)eryvoltage

During a short-circuit test, the circuit-breaker characteristicssuch as arc voltage, post arc
conductivity, and presenceof switching resistors(if any) will affect the transient recovery voltage.
Thus the test transient recovery voltage will differ from the prospective TRV-wave of the test
circuit upon which the performance requirements are based to a degree depending upon the
characteristicsof the circuit-breaker. Unless the modifying effect of the circuit-breaker is not
significant and the breaking current does not contain a significant d.c. component, records taken
during tests should not be used for assessingthe prospective transient recovery voltage charac-
teristics of the circuit, and this should be done by other means, as described in Appendix E.

It is, however, desirable to record the transient recovery voltage during test for the purpose of
providing a check on the prospectivetest circuit characteristics.

7.7 Powerfrequency recoveryvoltage

The power frequency recovery voltage of the test circuit may be stated as a percentageof the
power frequencyrecoveryvoltage specifiedbelow. It shall not be less than 95\ of the specified
value and shall be maintainedfor at least0.1 s.

In order to obtain the required power frequencyrecoveryvoltage in a generatortesting statiot-t.


the testing generator may have its excitation temporarily increasedduring the short-circr-ritperiod.

For the basic short-circuit tests of Clause 9, the power frequency recovery voltage shall be as
follows subjectto the 95"/,minimum statedabove:

a) for three-phasetests on a three-pole circuit-breaker,the averagevalue of the power frequency


recovery voltages shall be equal to the rated voltage (I of the circuit-breaker divided by {3.

b) for single-phasetests on a three-pole circuit-breaker, the power frequency recovery voltage


shall be equal to the product of the phase-to-neutral value Ul{i and the first-pole-to-clear
factor (1.3 or 1.5); the power frequency recovery voltage may be reduced to Ul{ 3 after an
interval of one cycle of rated frequency.

c) for a single-pole circuit-breaker, the power frequency recovery voltage shall be equal to the
rated voltage U of the circuit-breaker.

The power frequency recovery voltage shall be measured between terminals of a pole in each
phase of the test circuit. Its r.m.s. value shall be determinedon the oscillogramwithin the time
interval of one half cycle and one cycle of test frequency after final arc extinction, as indicated
in Figure 10, page 131.The vertical distance(V,, Vrand V" respectively)betweenthe peak of the
second half-wave and the straight line drawn between the respectivepeaks of the preceding and
succeedinghalf-waves shall be measured,and this, when divided by 2 f2 and multiplied by the
appropriate calibration, gives the r.m.s. value of the power frequency recovery voltage recorded.

L.-
-63-

8. Short-circuit test procedure

8.1 Time interyal betweentests

The basic short-circuit tests consist of the series of test-duties specifiedin Clause 9. The
operations and time intervals of the test-dutiesare derived from the rated operating sequenceof
the circuit-breakerwhich is given in Clause I l, t E C P u b l i c a t i o n 5 6 - 2 .

individual operationsof a test-dutyshall be the time intervalsof the


The time intervalsbetr,veen
rated operatingsequenceof the circuit-breakersubjectto the following provisions.

If, with the time intervals specified,it is difficult to comply with all test requirements,the time
intervalsfor test shall be subjectto agreementof the manufacturerand the user.
Occasionally it may for other reasonsbe necessaryto exceed the specified time interval, e.g.
it may be found necessaryto make minor adjustmentsto control or measuringequipment or to
excite and synchroniselarge test-plantgenerators.In such cases,provided that the time intervai
doesnot exceed5 min when the ratedtime intervalis 3 min, the testsshallnot be disqualified.

It is also possiblethat trouble rnay be experiencedwith the testing station equipment and an
interval longer than flve minutes may be required.Provided that such a delay is not due to faulty
operation of the circuit-breakerand has no effecton its condition and operation,the resultingtime
interval is permissibleif it does not occur more than once in any seriesof test-duties.

On the other hand, the tirne interval betweenindividual tests shall not be shorter than 2 min
when the rated time interval is 3 min. The actual time interval shall be recordedin this caseto the
nearesthalf-minute.

8.2 Application of auxiliary power to the opening release-breaking tests

Auxiliary power shall wheneverpracticablebe applied to the opening releaseafter the initiation
of the short-circuit,but when this is impracticablethe power may be applied before the initiation
of the short-circuit(with the lirnitationthat contactsshall not start to move before the initiation of
the short-circuit).It shall then be demonstrated,or test evidenceprod.uced,that the circuit-breaker
can open satisfactorilyat the specifiedshort-circuitcurrent without beingpre-tripped.This evidence
may be obtained by testsat a reducedvoltage.

8.3 Application of auxiliary)power to the opening release-make-break tests

In a make-break test other than a test to Sub-clause9.5,auxiliary power shall not be applied
to the opening releasebefore the circuit-breaker has reached the closed position. In the closing-
opening operationsof Test-dutyNo. 4, Sub-clause9.4, the power shall not be applied until at least
two half-cycleshave elapsedfrom the instant of contact make. lt is permissibleto delay the circuit-
breakeropening so that the permissibled.c. component is not exceeded.

8.4 Latching on short-circuit

Unless the circuit-breakeris fitted with a making current release,or equivalent device, it shall be
proved that it latches satisfactorilywithout undue hesitation when there is negligible decrementof

\
,I
- 6 5 -

the a.c. component of the current during the closing period. If this cannot be proved by Test-
duty No. 4, or the permissible alternatives,the test shall be repeated at reduced voltage using a
circuit which gives the rated short-circuit making current, with negligible decrement of the a.c.
component.

It is sometimes difficult to establishwhether or not a circuit-breaker has latched and at what


instant of time latching occurred. For this reasonit is not possibleto specifya test procedureto
cover all casesand if necessary,the method employed to prove satisfactory latching shall be
recordedin the test report.

9. Basic short-circuit test-duties

The basic short-circuit test seriesshall consist of the Test-dutiesNos. I to 5 specifledbelow.

The breaking current may depart from the specifiedvalues by not more than _t 20\ of the
specifiedvalues for Test-dutiesNos. I and 2 and by not more than * l0\ for Test-dutyNo. 3.

The peak short-circuit current during the breaking-currenttests of Test-dutiesNos. 4, 4b and 5


shall not exceedll0% of the rated short-circuitmaking current of the circuit-breaker.

For conveniencein testing, it is permissibleto introduce a closing operation before any opening
operation in Test-dutiesNos. l, 2, 3 and 5.

9.1 Test-duty No. I

Test-duty No. I consists of the rated operating sequenceconfined to opening operations only,
at 10% of the rated short-circuit breaking current with a d.c. component of less than 20/, and
a transientand power frequencyrecoveryvoltage as specifledin Sub-clauses 7.5.5 and 7.7 (seealso
Tables III A, III B, III C and III D).

9.2 Test-duty I,'lo. 2

Test-duty No. 2 consistsof the rated operating sequenceconfined to opening operationsonly,


at 30 % of the rated short-circuit breaking current with a d.c. component of less than 20/, and
a transientand power frequencyrecovery voltage as specifiedin Sub-clause7.5.4, Tables III A,
III B, III C, III D, and Sub-clause7.7.

9.3 Test-duty lr{o.3

Test-duty No. 3 consistsof the rated operating sequenceconfined to opening operations only,
at 60 % of the rated short-circuit breaking current with a d.c. component of less than 201 and a
transient and power frequency recovery voltage as specified in Sub-Clause7.5.3, Tables II A,
(seeal so Tabl e V fI B ).
I I B , I I C, II D , Il E, I[ F , a n d Su b -c l a use7.7

9.4 Test-duty No. 4

Test-duty No. 4 consists of the rated operating sequenceat 100% of the rated short-circuit
breakingcurrent taking accountof Sub-clause7.3, and with a transientand power frequencyrecovery
voltage as specifiedin Sub-clause7.5.2, Tables V A, V B, V C, V D of I EC Publication 56-2
r
t

- 6 7 -

and Sub-clause7.7 and rc\% of the rated short-circuitmaking current taking account of Sub-
clause7.2, and an applied voltage as specifiedin Sub-clause7.1 (seealso Tables I A, I B, I C,
I D and V II A).

For this test-duty.the percentaged.c. componentshall not exceed20% of the a.c. component.

When making single-phasetestson one pole of a three-polecircuit-breaker,or when the charac-


teristics of the test plant are such that it is impossibleto carry out Test-duty No. 4 within the
specifiedlimits of applied voltage in Sub-clause7.1, making current in Sub-clause7.2, breaking
current in Sub-clause7.3, and transientand power frequencyrecoveryvoltage in Sub-clauses 7.5.2
and 7.7, taking accountalso of Sub-clauses 8.3 and 8.4, the making and breakingtestsin Test-duty
No. 4 may be made separatelyas follows:

9.4.1 Test-dutyNo. 4a, Making tests

C-t'-C in caseof a rated operatingsequenceC-I-CO-I'-CO;

C-t"-C in case of a rated operating sequenceCO-r"-CO


at 100% of the rated short-circuitmaking current and at an applied voltage as specifiedin Sub-
c l a u s e7 . 1 .

9.4.2 Test-dutyNo. 4b, Breaking tests

O-r-O-r'-O in caseof a rated operatingsequenceO-I-CC-I'-CO;

O-/"-O in case of a rated operating sequenceCO-r"-CO


at 100% of the rated short-circuit breaking current and with a transient and power frequency
recoveryvoltage as specifiedin Sub-clauses7.5.2 and 7.7.

Howev e r,w h e n T e s t-d u tyN o .4 i s ma de as Test-duti esN os. 4aand 4b, ei ther Test-dut1' N o.4a
shall be a full rated operating sequencewith breaking current and transientand porver freqr-renc1
recoveryvoltage as closeas possibleto the valuesspecifiedfor Test-dutyNo. 4, or Test-dutt'No. 'lb
shall be a full rated operating sequencewith making current and applied voltage as close as
possibleto the valuesspecifiedfor Test-duty No. 4.

It is permissibleto restorethe circuit-breakerto its initial condition as indicated in Sub-clause


5.8.5 betweenTest-dutiesNos. 4a and 4b.
If it is possibleto prove 100% of the rated short-circuit making-currentin a test-duty other
than Test-duty No. 4, e.g. Test-duty No. 5, it is permissibleto perform Test-duty No. 4b only in
place of Test-dutyNo. 4.

9.5 Test-duty No. 5

Test-duty No. 5 shall be applied only to circuit-breakers having a time interval z determined
in ac c or da n c ew i th S u b -c l a u s e6 .2 ,I E C P ubl i cati on56-2,of l essthan 80 ms.

Test-duty No. 5 consistsof the rated operating sequenceconfined to opening operationsonly,


at 100% of the rated short-circuit breaking-current,with a percentaged.c. component equal to
the appropriate rated value specifiedin Sub-clause6.2, IEC Publication 56-2, and a transient
and power frequency recovery voltage as specifiedin Sub-clauses7.5.2 and 7.7 (see also Sub-
clause7.6). (For table referencessee Sub-clause9.4, paragraphl).
- 6 9 -

However, for a circuit-breaker which is of such design that it may not reach its closed position
when being closed against a short-circuit current, Test-duty No. 5 shall be made with the rated
operating sequence.

For circuit-breakersintended to be usedwhereit can be expectedthat the percentageof the d.c.


component will be greater than that corresponding to Figure 2, IEC Publication 56-2, as may
occur in the vicinity of centresof generation,testing shall be subject to agreementbetween manu-
facturer and user, seeSub-clause6.2, Note, I E C Publication56-2,and Sub-clause3.1, I E C Publi-
cation 56-5.

t0. Critical current tests

10.1 Applicability

These tests are short-circuit tests additional to the basic tests covered by Clause 9 and are
applicable only to circuit-breakers which have a critical current of less than 10% of the rated
short-circuit breaking current. It shall be assumedthat this is the caseif the averageof the arcing
times in Test-dutyNo. 1, Sub-clause9.1, is significantlygreaterthan that inTest-duty No. 2, Sub-
clause9.2.

10.2 Test currents

Where applicable critical current tests shall be made at currents in the range of 4\-6/, and in
the range of 2\-3% of the rated short-circuitbreaking current.

Note. - Tests for breaking small inductive currents are covered by Clause 18.

10.3 Critical current test-duties

The critical current test-dutiesshall be as for Test-duty No. 1, Sub-clause9.1, with the breaking
currents specifiedin Sub-clause10.2 and with the TRV provisions for test-duty No. I modified by
7 .5 .4 ,Tabl esIIIA , IIIB , IIIC and III D , by the factor r l O X
m ult iply in g ti me 1 ,,i n Su b -c l a u s e
where X is the test breaking current as a percentageof the rated short-circuit breaking current.

Note.- beingthe samefor Test-dutyNo. I and the critical


Our"Uon testcircuitcapacitances
ffi"ilj;1,rlilJ:.

11. Single-phaseshort-circuit tests

1 1 . 1 Applicability

Single-phaseshort-circuit tests to this Clause are additional to the basic short-circuit tests
covered by Clause 9 and are applicable only to three-pole circuit-breakersintended for use on
an effectivelyearthed system,having the three poles in one enclosure,or three separatelyenclosed
poles which are coupled mechanically and fitted with a conrmon opening release.The tests are
intended to show that the operation of the circuit-breaker is not adverselyaffected by the un-
balancedforces produced.

11.2 Test current and recoveryvoltage


It shall be demonstrated, or evidence shall be produced, to show that the circuit-breaker is
capable of breaking its rated short-circuit breaking current with a percentaged.c. component not
-71 -

exceeding 20% of the a.c. component, with the current applied to one pole only, the transient
recovery voltage meeting Requirementsa) and b) of Sub-clause7.5.1 with standard values derived
from Tables V A, V B and V D, Sub-clause7.3,IEC Publication 56-2, by dividing voltagesby
the first-pole-to-clearfactor 1.5, the time co-orciinatesremaining unchanged.
Note. - For rated voltages of 52 kV and above, the values are tabulated in Tables VI A, VI B and VI C, Clause 8,
IEC Publication 56-2.

Where necessary,advantagemay be taken of the provisionsof Sub-clause7.5.2 concerningtest


plant limitations. The specifiedvalue of the power frequency recovery voltage (Sub-clause7.7)
is the phase-to-neutralvalue Ul\/ 3 of the rated voltage of the circuit-breaker.

r 1.3 Test-duty
The test-duty shall consist of a single opening test, the current being applied as follows:

a) for circuit-breakershaving three poles in one enclosure: through one outer pole.

b) for circuit-breakershaving three separatelyenclosed poles which are mechanically coupled:


through tl-repole which will give the maximum stress on the inter-pole coupling mechanism.

12. ShortJine fault tests

12.l Applicability

Short-line fault tests are short-circuit tests additional to the basic tests covered by Clause 9
and are applicable only to three-pole circuit-breakersdesignedfor direct connection to overhead
transmission lines and having a rated voltage of 52 kV and above and a rated short-circuit
breaking current exceeding12.5 kA.

12.2 Test current

The test current shall take into account the source and line side impedances.

The source side impedance shall be that corresponding to approximately 100% rated short-
circuit breaking current and the phase-to-neutralvalue of the rated voltage. Three values of line
side impedanceare specifiedcorrespondingto a reduction of the a.c. component of the short-
circnit breaking current to 90 %,75\ and 60/, respectively.

In a test, the line length representedon the load side of a circuit-breaker may differ from the
length of line correspondingto currents equal to 90%,75/, and 60\ of rated short-circuit
breaking current. Deviations from these theoretical lengths of i 20/, for the tests at 90 /, and
at 75\ and of | 10|. for the test at 60 \ arepermitted; the toleranceof + 5% on the current gives
sufffrcientmargin for these deviations (see Sub-clause12.5). For these tests, the percentaged.c.
component at the instant of contact separation shall be less than 20\.

12.3 Test circuits

The test circuit shall be single-phaseand consist of a supply circuit and a line side circuit. The
supply circuit shall, in terminal fault conditions, meet the following requirements:

a) The prospective transient recovery voltage of the supply circuit shall meet Requirement a)
and in principle Requirementb) of Sub-clause7.5.1 with the standard values given in Tables
VI A, VI B and VI C, Clause 8, IEC Publication 56-2. Owing to limitations of the test
- 7 3 -

plant it may, as stated in Sub-clause7.5.2, not be feasibleto comply with Requirement b).
Any such deficiency of transient recovery voltage of the supply circuit shall in short-line fault
tests be compensatedby an increaseof the voltage exclrrsion to the first peak of the line side
voltage.

b) The specified value of the power frequency recovery voltage (Sub-clause7.7) of the supply
circuit is the phase-to-neutralvalue Ul\/ 3 of the rated voltage.

The line side circuit shall meet the following requirement:

c) The prospectivetransient voltage oscillation of the line side circuit shall have an approximately
triangular wave shape.

The prospectivetransientrecoveryvoltage of the test circuit shall comply with Sub-clause12.4.

Other characteristicsof the supply and line side circr-ritswill be approximately in accordance
with the rated characteristicsfor short-line faults, Clause 8, I E C Publication 56-2, and with
values derived from those and the test current, seeAppendix A, I E C Publication 56-2.

It may be necessaryto make certainadjustments;notably to the distribution of power frequency


impedancebetweensupply and line side circuits in order to cater for any differencebetweenrated
peak factor and the peak factor of the line side circuit on test, apart from any adjr,rstmentsarising
from the compensationprovided for in item a) above, seeAppendix G.

12.4 Transient recovery voltage

The prospectivetransient recovery voltage of the test circuit measuredacrossthe circuit-breaker


is a combination of the sourceand line sidecomponentsas shown in Figure 6, I E C Publication 56-2.

The time t, of the first line side peak of the specifiedprospectivetransient recovery voltage and
the value ur of voltage at that time shall be determined from the rated characteristics for
*
short-line faults given in Clause 8, I E C Publication 56-2, and the actual test current, as shown
in Appendix A, I E C Publication 56-2.

The time at which the prospectivetransient recovery voltage of the test circuit attains the value
a, shall not exceedthe time /r. Subsequentvoltage peaks and times may not correspond to the
specifiedvalues owing to test plant limitations. There may also be deviations from the specified
transient recovery voltage after the line side oscillation has ceased,due to adjusted distribution
of the power frequency impedanceof the test circuit provided for in Sub-clause12.3.

Note. - The amount by which the time at which al is attained precedes tyand the amount by which the first peak
of the prospective TRV of the test circuit exceeds ua a;resubject to the consent of the manufacturer.

The test report should show the specifiedtransient recovery voltage appropriate to the rating
of the circuit-breaker, and for comparative purposes,to the same scale,the prospective transient
recovery voltage of the test circuit used.

If the modifying effect of the circuit-breaker is signiflcant, records taken during test should not
be used for assessingthe prospective transient recovery voltage characteristicsof the circuit, and
this should be done by other means as describedin Appendix E.

* actualas distinctfrom the nominal (907",75'%,60\) value;the use of prospectivebreakingcurrent in accordance


with Sub-clause7.3 is not precluded.

t
L-.
75-

lt is, however,desirableto record the transient recoveryvoltage during test fbr the purpose of
providing a check on the prospectivetest circuit characteristics,particularly with regard to the
time to the first peak.

12.5 Test-duties

The standard tests shall be a seriesof test-dutiesas specifiedbelow, each consisting of the
rated operatingsequenceconfinedto opening operationsonly.

For conveniencein testing,it is permissibleto introduce a closing operation belore an opening


rated operation.

a) Test-duty No. Lno


At (g0 + 5)% of the rated short-circuit breaking current and the appropriate prospective
transientrecoveryvoltage.

b) Test-duty No. L^
At (75 + 5)% of the rated short-circuit breaking current and the appropriate prospective
transientrecoveryvoltage.

c) Test-duty I'{o. Loo


At (60 + 5)% of the rated short-circuit breaking current and the appropriate prospective
transient recoverv voltage.

12.6 Short-linefault tests with a test supply of limited pov)er

When the maximum short-circuit power available at a testing plant is not suff,cientto rnake
the short-linefault tests on a completepole of a circuit-breaker,it may be possibleto make unit
tests,see Sub-clause5.3 and Appendix G.

By agreementbetweenmanufacturerand user,short-linefault testsmay also be made at reduced


power frequencyvoltage, the provisions of items a) and b) of Sub-clause12.3being relaxed.These
provisionsshall be met as well aspossibleand, for the transientrecoveryvoltageto item a), atleast
up to three times the specifiedtime of the first line side peak. This method is used if tlie basic
short-circuitteststo Clauset have been satisfactory,it being assumedthat the dielectricstrength
of the circuit-breakernear the peak value of transientrecoveryvoltage is independentof stresses
applied immediatelyafter current zero. The test method may also be used in combination with
unit tests.One set of testsis sufficient.

13. Out-of-phaseswitchingtests

SeeI E C Publication 267, Guide to the testingof circuit-breakerswith respectto ou1-ef'-phase


switching.
Nore. - The last paragraph of Clause 1l of Publication 267 shall be interpreted as requiring voltage and tirne
c o - o r d i n a t e sd e r i v e d f r o m T a b l e s V A , V B a n d V D , I E C Publication56-2,in the follorvingmanner:
Values of lr" multiplied by the factor
-'-, , !1.5 - 1.l9and?.l t #:1.49 r e s p e c t i v e l yf o r c a s e sa / a n d ,b ) o f C l a u s e l l o f P u b l i c a t i o n 2 6 7 .
1.:

Values of rr1 multiplied by the factor


: I .33 and : 1.67 respectively for cases a) and b) of Clause I I of Publi cation 267-
+l . i #
Times tr, t2, 13 multiplied by the factor 2.
Requirement b) for the time delay line can be disregarded.
-77 -

14. Short-time current test

l4.l Arrangementof circuit-breaker


The short-time current test shall be made with the circuit-breaker, with clean contacts, in the
closed position arranged as specifiedin Sub-clause5.1 except that, if the circuit-breakeris not
fitted with direct over-currentreleases,the test may be made single-phaseor three-phase.In the
caseof single-phase tests,the following shall apply:

On a three-polecircuit-breaker,the test shall be carried out on two adjacent poles.


In the caseof separatepoles, the test may be carried out either on two poles or on one pole
with the return conductor at phase distance.If the distancebetweenpoles is not fixed by the
design,the test shall be made at the minimum distanceindicatedby the manufacturer.

Above a rated voltage of 72.5 kV, the return conductor need not be taken into account.

If the circuit-breaker is fitted with direct over-current releases,these shall be arranged for test
with the coil of the minimum cLlrrentrating set to operate at the maximum current and maximum
time delay; the coil shall be connectedto the live side of the test circuit. If the circuit-breakercan
be used without direct over-currentreleases,it shall also be testedwithout it.

The test may be made at any suitable voltage.

14.2 Test current and duration


The a.c. component of the test current shall in principle be equal to the a.c. component of the
rated short-circuit breaking current 1 of the circuit-breaker. The peak current (for a three-phase
circuit the highestvalue in any phase)shall not be lessthan the rated short-circuitmaking current
of the circuit-breakerand shall not exceedit by more than l0/" without the consentof the manLr-
facturer.
For circuit-breakers,other than those fitted with direct over-current releases,the short-titne
current shall in principle be applied for a time /, equal to the rated duration r of short-circuit: its
r.m.s. value /, shall be determinedfrom an oscillogram,as indicatedin Appendix C. The value of
Iltron test shall not be lessthan the rated value 12t and shall not exceedthis value by nrore than
10||o without the consent of the manufacturer.

When, however,the characteristicsof the test plant are such that the peak and r.m.s. valuesof
current specified above cannot be obtained in a test of the specified duration, the following
deviations are permitted :
a) If the decrement of the short-circuit current of the test plant is such that the specifiedr.m.s.
value, measured in accordancewith Appendix C cannot be obtained for the rated duration
without applying initially an excessivelyhigh current, the r.m.s. value of the current may be
permitted to fall below the specifiedvalue during the test and the duration of the test increased
appropriately, provided that the value of the peak current is not lessthan that specifiedand the
time is not more than 5 s.
b) If, in order to obtain the required peak current, the r.m.s. value of the current is increased
above the specifiedvalue, the duration of the test may be reduced accordingly.
Note. - The peak short-circuit current test and the short-time current test may be separated where limitations of the
test plant require it. In this case, the time during which the short-circuit is applied for the peak short-circuit
current test shall be such that the value Ii /, is not larger than the equivalent value for the short-time current
test, but it shall not be less than 50)( of the rated duration.
79 --

For three-phasetests,the current in any phase shall not vary from the averageof the currents
in the three phasesby more than l0\ of the average.
For circuit-breakersfitted with direct over-currentreleases,the rated operating sequenceconfined
to opening operations only shall be performed. The average of the r.m.s. values of the a.c.
componeritsof the breaking current in all phasesand operationsshall be consideredas the r.m.s.
value of the short-time current except that where the test is made at rated voltage, prospective
current values may be used. The behaviour of the circuit-breakerduring tests shall comply with
S ub- c laus e
5 .7 .

14.3 Condition of circuit-breaker after test

After the test, a circuit-breaker not fitted with direct over-current releasesshall not show any
deterioration, shall be capable of operating normally and carrying its rated normal current
continuously, and the condition of its contacts shall not be such as to affect performancematerially
at any current up to its rated short-circuit making and breaking currents. Visr-ralinspection and
no-load operation of the circuit-breakerimmediatelyafter the interruption of the current flow are
usually sufficientto check this.

It is recognizedthat, during the test, the temperaturerise of current carrying and adjacent parts
may exceed the limits specifiedin Table lV, Clause 5, I E C Publication 56-2. No temperature
rise limits are specifiedfor short-time current tests, but the maximum temperature reachedshould
not be sufficient to cause damage to adjacent parts, particularly insulation, for the short period
d u r i n gw h i c h i t p e r s i s t s .

The condition of circuit-breakersfitted with series over-current releasesshall comply with


5 .8 .
S ub- c lause

1 5 . Line-charging current breaking tests

15.1 Applicability

Line-chargingcurrent breaking tests are applicable to three-polecircuit-breakershaving rated


voltages of 72.5 kV and above and intended for switching three-phaseoverhead lines, and to
which theref,orea rated line-chargingbreaking current has been assigned.
Line-chargingcurrent breaking tests of circuit-breakersof rated voltagesless than 72.5 kY are
consideredunnecessary.
The testsare also applicableto the caseof an overheadline in serieswith short lengthsof cable.

Note. - Cables are considered to be short if their total charging current does not exceed 20)( of the overhead-line-
charging current andthechargingcurrentof any cable adjacent to the circuit-breaker does not exceed 10[
of the overhead-line-charging current. In any case,the total current should not exceedthe rated line-charging
breakins current.

15.2 General

Tests to prove the ability of a circuit-breaker to switch overhead lines on no-load can be made
either as field or as laboratory tests.
Field tests with an overhead line and laboratory tests with capacitor banks may be made three-
phase or single-phasewith the limitation that single-phasetests may only be used for circuit-
breakerswhich are intended for use on a systemwith effectivelyearthed neutral and are valid only
'l
i

81-

for circuit-breakers which are restrike-free. Also three-phaselaboratory tests with concentrated
capacitor banks are valid only for circuit-breakerswhich are t'estrike-free.

Notest - restrikes
lineswhichmav be usedfor laboratorvtestsif the circuit-breaker
:r:"fri:ir:LTrL:illi::':t
, - 1, " ' ji.i s i l ::,l l l l " ,r" .J l i t,-b re a k e ri s restri ke-freei frestri kesdonotoccurduri ngrest-duti esN os 'l

15.3 Wave-forntof the current

The wave-form of the current to be broken should, as nearly as possible, be sinusoidal. This
condition is consideredto be complied with if the ratio of'the r.m.s. value of the current to the
r.m.s. value of the fundamentalcomponentdoes not exceedL2.

The current to be broken shall not go through zero more than once per half cycle.
The test frequency shall comply with the requirementsof Sub-clause6.2.

15.4 Characteristicso.fsupply circuits

For three-phasetests and for single-phasefield tests, a three-phasesupply circuit shall be used.
A single-phasesupply circuit is used for single-phaselaboratory tests.

The line-charging current breaking tests shall be performed using two different three-phase
supply circuits as specifiedbelow. However, if the circuit-breaker is restrike-free, Supply circuit
No. I only is required.

15.4.1 Supply circuit No. l

A supply circuit having an impedancesuch that its short-circuitcurrent does not exceedI0%
of the rated short-circuit current of the circuit-breaker except that, if necessary,the impedance
shall be reduced below the value given by this requirement so that the voltage variation causedby
switchingthe capacitivecurrent does not exceedl0%.

The capacitanceof the supply circuit shall be as low as possiblesubjectto its prospectivetransient
recovery voltage not exceedingthat specifiedfor Test-duty No. 2 in Sub-clause7.5.4'

Note.- Theimpedance differfrom that for Test-duty


No.2 mayaccordingly
of SupplycircuitNo. I for Test-duty
No. 1 (Sub-clause
15.8).

15.4.2 Supply circuit No. 2

A supply circuit having an impedancewhich is as low as possible,but not so low that its short-
circuit current exceedsthe rated short-circuit current of the circuit-breaker.

The capacitanceof the supply side shall be at least equal to the capacitanceto be switched,
with as little impedance as possible between the capacitances,except as sanctioned by the last
paragraphof Sub-clause15.6.
Note. - Limitations in the operation of power systems and abnormal stresses of insr,rlation which might occur
during the tests may prevent the specified test conditions from being completely met. Such deviations shall,
in all cases, be clearly stated in the test report'

15.5 Earthing of three-phasesupply circuit

a) Circuit-breakersintended to operate in an earthed neutral system:


83-

The circuit-breaker, with its frame earthed as in service, shall be connected in a supply
circuit having its neutral earthed.

b) Circuit-breakers intended to operate in an isolated neutral system or in a resonant earthed


s y s t em :

The circuit-breaker, with its frame earthed as in service, shall be connected in a supply
circuit having its neutral isolated or connectedto earth through an arc-suppressioncoil.

15.6 Characteristicsof the capacitbe circuit to be sv,itched

For three-phaseand single-phasefield tests a three-phaseoverhead line shall be used. In single-


phasefield teststhe conductorsof the other two phasesshall remain connectedto the three-phase
supply.

The use of several lines connected in parallel in order to increasethe charging current is not
allowed.

Subject to the limitations stated in Sub-clause15.2, concentratedcapacitor banks may be used


to represent overhead lines. For three-phaselaboratory tests the positive sequencecapacitance
of the capacitivecircuit shall be approximately twice its zero sequencecapacitance.

The characteristicsof the capacitive circuits shall, with all necessarytest measuring devices
such as voltage dividers included, be such that the voltage decay does not exceedl0\ at the end
of an interval of 10 ms after final arc extinction.

When capacitors are used to simulate overhead lines, a non-inductive resistor of about 250 fJ
may be connected in series with the capacitors to take account of the surge impedance of the
overheadlines.

Note. - Since the voltage decay may be very much influenced by apparatus such as voltage transformers connected
to the capacitive circuit, the measurement shall preferably be made with suitable voltage diriders. Also if
neverthelessvoltage transformers are used, precautions should be taken to avoid these giving rise to ferro-
resonance phenomena during breaking operations.

15.7 Test voltage

a) For three-phasetests and for single-phasefleld tests, the test voltage measured between the
phasesat the circuit-breakerlocation immediately prior to openingsshall, as nearly as possible,
be equal to the rated voltage U of the circuit-breaker.

b) For single-phaselaboratory testsusing concentratedcapacitor banks, the test voltage measured


immediatelyprior to opening shall, as nearly as possible,be equal to 1.2 xUlt/ Z.

Note. - The results of the tests should not be used for estimating the overvoltages which may occur at a voltage
differing from the test voltage.

15.8 Test-duties

The line-charging current breaking test series shall consist of three test-duties,as specifiedin
Table IV.

Test-dutiesNos. I and 2 shall be carried out whether the circuit-breaker is restrike-freeor not.
Test-duty No. 3 shall be carried out only in those caseswhere restrikes have occurred during
Test-dutiesNos. I or 2.
-85-

T.q.srpIV

Test current as
Test-duty Supply circuit percentage of the
No. (Sub-clause15.4) rated line-charging
breaking current

I 20 to 40
I 100to 110
2 1 0 0t o 1 1 0

l . For three-phasetests,each test-duty shall comprise l0 tests.

2 . For single-phasetests there are two possibilities:

a) if point-on-wave control is used, each test-duty shall comprise 12 tests distributed at


intervals of approximately 30 electricaldegrees.

b) if point-on-wave control is not used, the number of tests in each test-duty shall be 30.

Break or make-break tests may be performed provided the last two tests in each of the Test-
duties Nos. 2 and 3 are make-break tests.

When make-break tests are performed, the contacts of the circuit-breaker shall not be separated
until the transient charging currents have subsided.

No appreciablecharge shall remain on the capacitivecircuits before a making operation.

15.9 Measurementof overvoltages

The overvoltageson the supply side and the load side of the circuit-breakershall be measured.

16. Cable-chargingcurrent breaking tests

16.1 Applicability

Cable-chargingcurrent breaking tests are applicable to circuit-breakersintended for switching


cables of appreciable length under normal service conditions, to which a rated cable-charging
breaking current has been assigned,this not being mandatory, but given on request. These tests
are applicable to the caseof a cable in serieswith a short length of overhead line.

Notes1. - An overheadline is consideredas short if its chargingcurrent doesnot exceedI\of the cable-charging
current.
2.- Cable-chargingcurrent breaking tests of circuit-breakersfor rated voltagesequal to or lessthan 24 kV
are in general considered unnecessary.

16.2 General

The tests may be made as field tests or as laboratory tests, employing cables or capacitors.

For three-pole circuit-breakersthe rated voltage of which is lower than or equal to 24 kV, the
tests if required shall be performed with a three-phasesupply.
87-

For three-pole circuit-breakersthe rated voltage of which is greater than 24 kV, the tests may
be performed with a three-phaseor a single-phasesupply.
Note.- 24 kV, cableshavean earthedscreenon eachphase
that, at voltagesexceeding
presumes
H:Jjillt:

16.3 Wave-form of current

The wave-form of the current to be broken should, as nearly as possible, be sinusoidal. This
condition is consicleredto be complied with if the ratio of the r.m.s. value of the current to the
r.m.s. value of the fundamentalcomponentdoes not exceed1.2.

The current to be broken shall not go through zero more than once per halfl cycle.

The test frequency shall comply with the requirementsof Sub-clause6.2.

16.4 Cltaracteristicsof supply circuits

The cable-chargingcurrent breaking tests shall be performed using two different supply circuits
as specifledbelow.

16.4.1 Supply circuit I,{o. I

A supply circuit having an impedance such that its short-circuit current does not exceed l0%
of the rated short-circuit current of the circuit-breaker except that, if necessary,the impedance
shall be reduced below the value given by this requirement so that the voltage variation causedby
switching the capacitivecurrent does not exceedl0%.

The capacitance of the supply circuit shall be as low as possible, subject to its prospective
transient recovery voltage not exceedingthat specifiedfor Test-duty No.2 in Sub-clause7.5.4.

Note. - The impedanceof Supplycircuit No. I for Test-dutyNo. 2 rnayaccordinglydiffer from that for Test-duty
No. 1 (Sub-clause16.8).

16.4.2 Supply circuit I,{o. 2

A supply circuit having an impedancewhich is as low as possible,but not so low that its short-
circuit current exceedsthe rated short-circuit current of the circuit-breaker.

The capacitanceof the supply side shall be the same as the capacitanceswitched.

Note. - Limitations in the operation of power systemsor laboratoriesand abnormal stressesof insulation which
might occur during the tests may prevent the specifiedtest conditions from being completely rnet. Such
deviationsshall,in all cases,be clearlystatedin the test report.

16.5 Earthing of the three-phasetest circuit

The earthing of three-phasetest circuits shall be as follows:

a) for three-phasetests of a circuit-breakerintended for use in earthed neutral systems,the neutral


point of the supply shall be earthed. The zero sequenceimpedance shall be less than three
times the positive sequenceimpedanceon the supply side;

b) for three-phasetests of a circuit-breaker intended for use in isolated neutral and resonant
earthed systems,the neutral point of the supply shall be isolated. The capacitanceto earth
shall be as low as possible;
't
' l
r

89-

c) for three-phasetests of a circuit-breaker for a rated voltage less than or equal to 24 kV, the
sheath of the cable (or the neutral point of one of the parallel connected capacitor banks)
shall be earthed;

d) for three-phasetests of a circuit-breaker having a rated voltage exceeding24 kY, the screens
(or sheaths)o1the coresof the cable (or the neutral point of the capacitor bank) shall be earthed.

16.6 Characteristicsof the capacitivecircuit to be switched

An overhead line shall not be placed betweenthe cable and the circuit-breaker.

When testing a three-pole circuit-breaker having a rated voltage less than or equal to 24 kY,
the cables shall be three-corebelted cables.

For three-phasetests on a three-pole circuit-breaker having a rated voltage exceeding24 ky,


the cablesshall be three-corescreenedor single-corecables.

Capacitors may be used to sin'rulatecables. When testing three-pole circuit-breakers having a


rated voltage less than or equal to 24 kV, the capacitor bank shall consist of two banks having
approximatelyequal chargingcurrentsconnectedin parallel; at least one of thesecapacitorbanks
shall be star connectedso that its neutral can be earthed.

When capacitorsare used to simulate cables,a non-inductiveresistor of about 25 Q may be


connectedin serieswith the capacitorsto simulate the surge impedance of the cables.

The characteristicsof the capacitive circuit shall, with all necessarytest measuring devices
such as voltage dividers included,be such that the voltage decay does not exceedl0\ at the end
of an interval of 10 ms after final arc extinction.

Note. - Since the voltage decay may be very much influenced by apparatus such as voltage transformers connected
to the capacitive circuit, the measurement shall preferably be made with suitable voltage dividers. Also if
neverthelessvoltage transformers are used, precautions should be taken to avoid these giving rise to ferro-
resonance phenomena during breaking operations'

16.7 Test voltage

a) For three-phasetests on a three-pole circuit-breaker or single-phasetests on a single-pole


circuit-breaker, the test voltage, measured in the three-phasecase between the poles of the
circuit-breaker,immediately prior to opening shall, as nearly as possible,be equal to the rated
voltage U of the circuit-breaker.

b) For single-phasetests on a three-pole circuit-breaker, the test voltage measured between the
pole of the circuit-breaker and earth immediately prior to opening shall, as nearly as possible,
be equal to Ul\/ 3.

Note. - The result of the tests should not be used for estimating the overvoltages which may occur at a voltage
differing from the test voltage.

16.8 Test-duties

The cable-chargingcurrent breaking test series shall consist of four test-duties as specified in
Table V.
'
-91 -

TanrB V

I Testcurrent aspercentage
Test-duty Supply circuit I of the rated cable-
No. (Sub-clause16.4) | chargingbreakingcurrent
I
I 1 20 to 40
2 I 1 0 0t o 110
-) 2 20 to 40
2 1 0 0t o 110

l . For three-phasetests, each test-duty shall comprise l0 tests.

2. For single-phasetests there are two possibilities:


a) If point-on-wave control is used, each test-duty shall comprise 12 tests distributed at
intervals of approximately 30 electricaldegrees.

b) If point-on-control is not used, the number of testsin each test-duty shall be 30.

Break or make-break tests may be performed provided that the Test-duties Nos. 2 and 4
contain at least two make-break tests each

When make-breaktestsare performed, the contactsof the circuit-breakershould not be separated


until the transient charging currents have subsided.

No appreciablecharge shall remain on the cable or capacitors before a making operation.

16.9 MeAsurementof overvoltages

The overvoltageson the supply side and on the load side of the circuit-breakershall be measured.

17. (Single) capacitor bank breaking tests

17.1 Applicability

Capacitor breaking testsare applicableto all circuit-breakersto which a rated capacitor breaking
current has been assigned,this not being mandatory but given on request.

Note. - The testing of circuit-breakers intendedto be used for switching units of multiple (parallel) capacitorbanks
should be the subject of agreement between the manufacturer and user, particularly with regard to the peak
value and frequency of the inrush current.

17.2 General

Capacitor breaking tests on three-polecircuit-breakersmay be made three-phaseor single-phase


with the limitation, however, that single-phasetests are valid only for those circuit-breakerswhich
are restrike-free.
Note.- It is assumed
that a circuit-breaker tests,restrikes
if, duringsingle-phase
is restrike-free do not occur.
93-

17.3 Wave-formand nteasurementof the current

The wave-form of the current to be broken should, as nearly as possible, be sinusoidal. This
condition is consideredto be complied witl-rif the ratio of the r.m.s. value of the current to the
r.m.s. value of the fundamentalcomponentdoes not exceed1.2.

The current to be broken shall not go through zero more than once per half cycle.

It is preferableto measurethis current by an oscillograph.However, it is permissibleto measure


it by an r.m.s. indicating instrurnent,or, if so agreedby the manufacturer and the user, to calculate
it from the characteristicsof the capacitor bank and the measuredvoltage.

The test frequency shall comply with the requirementsof Sub-clause6.2.

17.4 Characteristicsqf supply circuits

The capacitor breaking tests shall be performed using two different supply circuits as specified
below:

17.4.1Supply ciruit I,{o. I

A supply circuit having an impedance such that its short-circuit current does not exceeJ l0%
of the rated short-circuit current of the circuit-breaker except that, if necessary,the impedance
shall be reduced below the value given by this requirement so that the voltage variation causedby
switching the capacitivecurrent does not exceedI0%.

Note. - The impedanceof Supply circuit No. 1 for Test-dutyNo. 2 may accordinglydiffer from that for Test-duty
No. 1 (Sub-clause
17.8).

17.4.2 Supply circuit I'{o. 2

A supply circuit having an impedance which is as low as possible but not so low that its short-
circuit current exceedsthe rated short-circuit current of the circuit-breaker.

The capacitanceof both supply circuits shall be as low as possible subject to the prospective
transient recovery voltage for Supply circuit No. 1 not exceedingthat specifiedfor Test-duty No. 2
in Sub-clause7.5.4 and for Supply circuit No. 2 not exceedingthe rated TRV for terminal faults
in Sub-clause7.3, I E C Publication 56-2.

Note. - Limitations in the operation of power systems or laboratories and abnormal stressesof insulation which
might occur during the tests may prevent the specified test conditions from being completely met. Such
deviations shall, in all cases, be clearly stated in the test report.

17.5 Earthing of the three-phasetet't circuit

The supply circuit shall have an earthed neutral. The neutral of the capacitor shall be insulated
except that, for rated voltages exceeding72.5 kY, the earthing conditions of the test capacitor
shall be the same as fbr the capacitor when in serviceif'the circuit-breaker is intended for use in
systemswith effectively earthed neutral.

17.6 Discharge time constant of the capacitor

The value of the dischargetime constantis greatly influencedby the apparatus(such as instrument
transformers)connectedto the capacitor.
95-

The characteristics of the capacitor circuit shall be such that the voltage decay does not
exceedl0\at the end of an interval of l0 ms after final arc extinction.
Note. - Since the voltage decay may be ver5'much influenced by apparatus such as voltage transformers connected
to the capacitive circuit, the measurement shall preferably be made with suitable voltage dividers. Also
if nevertheless voltage transformers are used, precautiorrs should be taken to avoid these giving rise to
ferro-resonance phenomena during breaking operations.

17.7 Test voltage

a) For three-phasetests on a three-pole circuit-breaker, or single-phasetests on a single-pole


circuit-breaker, the test voltage measured, in the three-phasecase between the poles of the
circuit-breaker,,immediately prior to opening shall, as nearly as possible,be equal to the rated
voltage t/ of the circuit-breaker.

b) For single-phasetests of a three-pole circuit-breaker, the test voltage measured between the
pole of the circuit-breaker and earth immediately prior to opening shall, as nearly as possible,
be equal to the product of the phase-to-neutralvalue Ul\/3 and the following factor:

il 1.4, excepting the case covered under b) iii), provided that the maximum non-simultaneity
of contact separation in the different poles of the circuit-breaker does not exceedI tn of
a cycle of the rated frequency of the circuit-breaker.
Note.-;:il"*:Iment regarding shallbe provedbeforeand afterthe
of contactseparation
non-simultaneity

ii) 2.0, excepting the case covered under b) iii), without regard to simultaneity of contact
separationbetweenthe different poles.

iii) 1.0, for circuit-breakershaving a rated voltage exceeding72.5kV intended for use in systems
with effectivelyearthed neutral and with capacitor banks having a directly earthed neutral.

Note. - The results of the tests should not be used for estimating the overvoltages which may occur at a voltage
differing from the test voltage.

17.8 Test-duties

The capacitor breaking test series shall consist of four test-duties as specified in Table VI.

Tasrn VI

Test-duty Supply circuit


No. (Sub-clause17.4)

1 1 20 to 40
2 I 1 0 0t o 110
a
J z 20 to 40
4 2 1 0 0t o 110

l. For three-phasetests,each test-duty shall comprise 10 tests.

2. For single-phasetests, there are two possibilities:

a) If point-on-wave control is used, each test-duty shall comprise 12 tests distributed at


intervals of approximately 30 electrical degrees.
97-

b) If point-on-wave control is not used, the number of tests in each test-duty shall be 30.

All the tests in Test-duty No. 4 shall be make-break tests. If single-phasetests are made, the
closing in at least two of them shall occur within 15 electrical degreesof the peak value of the
applied voltage.

When make-break tests are performed, the contacts of the circuit-breaker shall not be separated
until the transient charging currents have subsided.

No appreciablecharge shall remain on the capacitor before a making operation.

Note'- between
asreement
aspeciar
operation' manuracturer
iffffil;fii'J HrH:'r1""1ii:"1"iffi#:i::quent

17.9 Measurementof overvoltages

The overvoltageson the supply side and on the capacitor side of the circuit-breaker shall be
measured.

18. Small inductive current breaking tests

{Jnder consideration.
-99 -

APPENDIX A

RECORDS AND REPORTS OF TYPE TESTS FOR MAKING, BREAKING


AND SHORT.TIME CURRENT PERFORMANCE

l. Information and results to be recorded

All relevant information and results of making, breaking and short-time current tests shall be
included in the type-testrePort.

Oscillographic records in accordancewith Clause2 of this Appendix, shall be made of all short-
circuit operationsand included in the type-testreport.

The accuracy of each measurement by oscillograph, including associatedequipment, of the


quantities which determine the ratings (e.g. short-circuit current, applied voltage and recovery
voltage)shall be within + 5%.
photographs should be taken to illustrate the condition of the circuit-breaker before and after
the seriesof tests.

The type-test report shall include a statementof the performance of the circuit-breaker during
each test-duty and of the condition of the circuit-breaker after each test-duty, in so far as an
examinationis made, and at the end of the seriesof test-duties.The statementshall include the
following particulars:

a) condition of circuit-breaker giving details of any replacements or adjustments made and


condition of contacts,arc control devices,oil (including any quantity lost), statementof any
darnageto arc shields,enclosures,insulatorsand bushings;and

D) descriptionof performanceduring test-duty,including observationsregardingemission of oil,


gas or flame.

2. Information to be included in reports

2.1 General

a) date of tests
b) referenceor rePort number
c) test numbers
d) oscillogram numbers

2.2 Apparatus tested

a) type or list number


b) manufacturer's description. including number of poles
c) manufacturer
d) photograph numbers
e) drarving numbers
l0l -

2.3 Rating assignedby manufacturer

a) voltage in kilovolts
b) normal current in amPeres
c) frequency in hertz
d) short-circuit breaking current
il r.m.s. value of the a.c. component of current in kiloamperes
ii) percentaged.c. comPonent
e) minimum opening time in milliseconds
-f) transient recovery voltage, kilovolts per microsecond/kilovoltspeak
g) short-line fault surge impedancein ohms, and peak factor
h) short-circuit (peak) making current in kiloamperes
i) out-of-phasebreaking-currentin kiloamperes
j) duration of short-circuit in seconds
lr) operating sequence
I) line-chargingbreaking current in amperes
m) cable charging breaking current in amperes
n) capacitor breaking current in amperes
o) small inductive breaking current in amperes
p) supply voltagesin volts
i) closing device
ii) opening device
q) operatingair pressurerange in Newton per square centimetre

2.4 Test conditions (for each series of tests)

a) number of poles
b) power factor
c) frequency in hertz
d) generatorneutral (earthed or insulated)
e) transformer neutral (earthed or insulated)
f) short-circuit point or load side neutral (earthed or insulated)
g ) diagram of test circuit including connection(s) to earth

2.5 Short-circuit breaking and making tests

a) operating sequenceand time intervals


b) applied voltage in kilovolts
c) making current (peak value) in kiloamperes
d) breaking current
i) r.m.s. value of a.c. component in kiloamperes
per phase
average
ii) percentaged.c. component
e) power frequency recovery voltage in kilovolts
f) prospectivetransient recovery voltage
i) compliance with Requirement a) of Sub-clause7.5.1; voltage and time co-ordinates may
be quoted
if compliance with Requirement b) of Sub-clause7.5.1
g) arcing time in milliseconds
h) opening time in milliseconds
j) break time in milliseconds
-103-

Where applicablebreak times up to the instant of extinction of the main arc and up to the instant
of the breaking of resistancecurrent shall be given.

k/ physical behaviour
i) emissionof'flame, gas, oil, etc.
ii) behaviour, conditions and remarks

2.6 Short-time current test

a) current
i) r.m.s.valuein kiloamperes
ii) peak value in kiloamperes
b) duration in seconds
c) physical behaviour

2.7 No-load operation

a) before making and breaking tests


b) after making and breaking tests

2.8 Breaking of line, cable, and capacitor charging currents

a) test voltage in kilovolts


b) breaking current in each phase in amperes
c) peak values of the voltage betweeneach phase and earth in kilovolts
i) supply side of circuit-breaker
ii) load side of circuit-breaker
d) number of restrikes (if any)
e) number of test operations
f) details of point-on-wave setting
g) details of test circuit used
h) behaviour of circuit-breaker during test
i) condition of circuit-breaker after test

2.9 Oscillographic and other records

Oscillogramsshall record the whole of the operation. The following quantities shall be recorded.
Certain of these quantities may be recorded separatelylrom the oscillograms,and several oscil-
lographs with different time scalesmay be necessary.

a) applied voltage
b) current in each pole
c) recovery voltage (voltageson supply and load side of circuit-breakerfor charging current tests)

d) current in closing coil


e) current in opening coil
f) suitable timing scale
g) travel of moving contacts (if practicable)

All casesin which the requirementsof this specificationare not strictly complied with and all
deviations shall be explicitly mentioned at the beginning of the test report.
105-

APPENDIX B

DETERMINATION OF SHORT-CIRCUIT POWER FACTOR

There is no method by which the short-circuit power factor can be determined with precision,
but, for the purpose of the present specification,the determination of the power factor in each
phase of the test-circuit may be made with sufficient accuracy by whichever of the three following
methods is the more appropriate.

Method I-Calculation from circuit constants

The power factor may be calculated as the cosine of an angle I where q: arc tan XlR.
X and R being respectivelythe reactance and resistanceof the test-circuit while the short-circuit
exists.

Owing to the transitory nature of the phenomenon, no accurate method can be given for deter-
mining X and R, but for compliancewith theserules the valuesmay be determinedby the following
m et hod:

R is measured in the test-circuit with direct current; if the circuit includes a transformer, the
resistanceR, of the primary circuit and the resistanceR, of the secondary circuit are measured
separatelyand the required value R is then given by the formula:

R:Rz*Rtr'

in which r is the ratio of transformation of the transformer.

X is then obtained from the formula:


, tr^2
x: \,' (;) - R'
E
impedance) being obtained from the oscillogram as indicated in Figure 17,
the ratio 7 (circuit
page 137.

2. Method ll-Determination from d.c. component

The angle q may be determined from the curve of the d.c. component of an asymmetrical
current wave betweenthe incidenceof short-circuit and the instant of contact separationas follows:

2.1 The formula for the d.c. component is:

io:1ooe-RtlL

where

id is the value of the d.c. component at any instant


Ioo is the initial value of the d.c. component
LIR is the time constant of the circuit in seconds
r is the time interval, in seconds,betweeni6 and luo
e is the base of Napierian logarithms.
r07 -

The time constant LIR can be ascertainedfrom the above formula as follows:

a) measllre the value of 1ooat the instant of short-circuit and the value of lo at any other time /
before contact separation,
- RtiL
b) determine the value of e by dividing i6by 16o,

c) from a table of values of e-" determine the value ol' -x corresponding to the ratio iaf 16o,

d) the value x then represents RtlL, from which RIL can be determined by dividing x by t,
and so l,/R is obtained.

2.2 Determinethe angle g from:


tp -- AfC lan @ LiR

where u is 2 z times the actual frequency.

3. Method Ill-Determination with pilot generator

When a pilot generatoris used on the same shaft as the test generator,the voltage of the pilot
generatoron the oscillogrammay be comparedin phasefirst with the voltage of'the test generator
and then with the current of the test generator.

The difference between the phase angles between pilot generator, voltage and main generator
voltage on the one hand, and pilot generator voltage and test generator current on the other hand
gives the phase angle betweenthe voltage and current of'the test generator,from which the power
factor can be determined.

2
r

-109-

APPENDIX C

DETERMINATION OF THE EQUIVALENT R.M.S. VALUE OF A SHORT-TIME CURRENT


DURING A SHORT.CIRCUIT OF A GIVEN DURATION

The method illustrated in Figure 18, page 137, should be used to determine the short-time
current.

The total time BT of the test is divided into 10 equal parts by verticals 0 to 10 and the r.m.s.
value of the a.c. component of the current is measuredat theseverticals.

These values are desisnated

Zo,Zr,...Zro
wher e:
z : xl\/2
and X : peak value of a.c. component of current.

The equivalentr.m.s. current during the time.BZis given by:

V + t d + 4 e ? + 4 + z ? + z i + f 1' t4 + 1 + z |+ l) + zi,l
\
-1-
L
1

The d.c. component of current representedby CC' is not taken into account.
- lll -

APPENDIX D

METHOD OF DRAWING THE ENVELOPE OF THE PROSPECTIVE TRANSIENT


RECOVERY VOLTAGE OF A CIRCUIT AND DETERMINING THE REPRESENTATIVE
PA RA ME TE R S

l. Introduction

A transient recovery voltage wave may assume different forms, both oscillatory and non-
oscillatory.

The wave may be definedby meansof an envelopemade up of three consecutiveline.segments;


when the wave approaches that of a damped oscillation at one single flrequency,the envelope
resolves itself into two consecutive line segments.In all cases, the envelope should reflect as
closely as possible the actual shape of the transient recovery voltage. The method describedhere
enablesthis aim to be achievedin the majority of practical caseswith sufficientapproximation.

Note. - Nevertheless, some cases may arise where the proposed construction would lead to parameters quite
obviously more severe than would be justified by the transient recovery voltage curve. Such cases should
be dealt with as exceptions and should therefore form the subject of, an agreement between the manulacturer
and the user or the test laboratory.

2. Drawing the envelope

The following method is used for constructing the line segmentsforming the envelope of the
prospectivetransient recovery voltage curve:

2.1 Thefirst line segmenlpassesthrough the origin O, is tangential to the curve, and does not cut the
curve.

In the case of curves whose initial portion is concave towards the left, the point of contact is
often in the vicinity of the first peak (seeFigures 12 and 13, page 133,segmentOB).

If the concavity is towards the right, as in the case of an exponential, the point of contact is
near the origin (seeFigure 14,page 134, segmentOB).

2.2 The secondline segmentis a horizontal line tangentialto the curve at its highestpeak (seeFigures 12
t o 15, page s1 3 3 a n d 1 3 4 ,s e g me n AC
t ).

2.3 The third line segmentis tangential to the curve at one or more points situated between the first
two points of contact, and does not cut the curve.

There are three possiblecasesof drawing this latter line segment:

2.3.1 One singleline segmentcan be drawn touching the curve at two points (or possiblyat more than
t wo point s ).

trn this case,it forms part of the envelope(seeFigure 12, segmentBA).

The 4-parameterenvelope O, B, A, C is then obtained.

2.3.2 Severalsegmentscan be drawn which touch the curve at two points (or possibly at more than two
points) without cutting it:
--l

, l

1 1 3-

In this case,the segmentto be used for the envelopeis that which touchesthe curve at one point
only, situated so that the areas on either side of this point betweenthe curve and the envelopeare
approximatelyequal (seeFigure 13, page 133, segmentBA):

The 4-parameterenvelopeO, B, A, C is then obtained.

2.3.3 No segmentcan be drawn touching the curve at more than one point without cutting it:
In this case,the following distinctionshould be made:

a) The point of contact of the first line segmentand the highest peak are comparatively far apatt
from each other. This is typically the casefor an exponential curve or a curve approximating
to an exponential.

In this case, the line segment shall be tangential to the curve at a point such that the areas
on either side of this point between the curve and the envelope are approximately equal, as
in case2.3.2 above (seeFigure 74,page 134, segmentBA).

The4-parameterenvelopeo,B'A,Cisthenobtained.

b) The point of contact of the first line segmentand the highest peak are comparatively close to
each other. This is the case for a curve representinga damped oscillation of single frequency
or a curve of similar shape.

In this case a third line segmentis not drawn, and representationby two parameters,corres-
ponding to the first two line segments,is adopted (seeFigure 15, page 134).

The 2-parameterenvelopeO, A, C is then obtained.

3. Determination of parameters

The representativeparameters are, by definition, the co-ordinates of the points of intersection


of the line segmentsconstituting the envelope.

When the envelope is composed of three line segments,the four parameters 1,t1,t1, tt" and t2,
shownin Figures 12,13 and 14,can be obtainedasco-ordinatesof the points of intersectionB and A.

When the envelopeis composed of two line segmentsonly, the two parametersu" and /3, shown
in Figure 15, can be obtained as co-ordinatesof the point of intersectionA.
- 1 1 5-

APPENDIX E

METHODS OF DETERMINING PROSPECTIVETRANSIENT RECOVERY VOLTAGE WAVES

Underconsideration.

APPENDIX F

ALTERNATIVE STANDARD VALUES OF PROSPECTIVETRV FOR TEST-DUTIES NOS. 4


AND 5 AND FOR TEST-DUTY NO. 3, REPRESENTATION BY 2 PARAMETERS

Tables VII A and VII B contain the parametersof alternative referencelines of specifiedTRV
to be used when applying Figure 6, page 127, in place of Figure 8, page 129.

Note. - A reduction of the TRV for rated voltages U > 420 kV is under consideration.

T.lnlr VII A

Standard t,qlues(alternative) of prospectivetransient recoveryvoltage specifiedfor


Test-dutiesy'{os.4 and 5
Rqted voltagesexceeding100 kV. Representationby 2 parameters

First-pole-to-clear factor 1.3 First-pole-to-clear factor 1.5

Rated voltage

TRV peak value Time co-ordinate TRV peak value Time co-ordinate

U uc uc t3

KV kv ps kv ps

123 182 182 210 2t0


r45 216 216 248 248
170 255 255 290 290
245 365 365 420 420
300 44s 445 510 510
362 540 540 620 620
420 620 620 720 720
525 780 780 900 900
765 l 140 r 140 | 320 | 320

z" from TablesVC and VD, IEC Publication56-2;


4 : usl(l kV/rrs)

For the co-ordinates of delav lines refer to these Tables and to Tables I C and I D.
-It7-

TasrE VII B

Standardvalues(alternative)of prospectivetransientrecoveryvoltagespecffied
for Test-dutyNo. 3
Representationby 2 parameters

First-pole-to-clearfactor 1.3 First-pole-to-clearfactor 1.5

Rated voltage

TRV peak value Time co-ordinate TRV peak value Time co-ordinate

U uc t3 uc t3

kv KV tr.s KV tls

170 270 r36 310 156


245 390 196 450 226
300 480 238 550 275
362 580 290 670 335
420 670 335 770 385
525 840 420 960 480
76s | 220 610 1 400 700

u"from TablesII E and II F;


t3 - u"l(2 kV/prs).

For the co-ordinates of delav lines refer to these Tables.


- ll9 -

APPENDIX G

EXAMPLE OF CALCULATION FOR A SHORT.LINE FAULT TEST

For calculation of specifiedTRV for a short-line fault, see Appendix A IEC Publication 56-2,
which should be used in conjunction with this example.

Circuit-breaker rating :
U :245kV I :31.5kA f: 50Hz
3 breaking units per pole.

Short-line fault current considered:


It5:0.75 I:23.6k4

Specifiedprospectiveline-side transient voltage:


uf :85 kV
tL : 1 6 .8P s

Specifiedprospectivesource-sidetransient voltage: l
Lto: 50 kV u{ .: 5.4 kV U^ :200 kV u^ :260 kV
t - 0 tL:16.8Fs tt :300Fs t2:900prs

First peak of specifiedprospectiveshort-line fault TRV:


ur :90'4 kV
t L : 1 6 .8Ps

It is assumedthat the voltage is distributed betweenthe breaking units by parallel resistorsand


that calculation or measurement under the conditions specified in Sub-clause 5.3.2 gives the
following distribution as a percentageof the voltage at the pole terminals:
I
Line-side Central Source-side
unit unit unit

At fundamentalline-sidefrequency
106 45 30 25
equal to : 30 kHz
2xl(^8

At equivalent source-side frequency


106
equal to : 1.1 kHz
3x300

Unit test based on line-side unit.

Unit test, specffiedvoltagesand times

u{ : 85 x 0 .4 5 : 3 8 .2k V tL : 16.8ps
Lto : 50 X 0.32: 16 kV to.: 0
u! : 5 .4 x 0 .3 2 : 1 .7 k V tL : 16.8ps
U^ : 200 x 0.32 : 64 kV tt : 300 ps
ttm : 260 X 0.32 : 83 kV t2 : 900 ps
u,r : 3 8 . 2+ 1.7:39.9 kV tL : 16.8Prs
-l2r-

The specifiedunit source-sidetransient voltage is shown in Figure |la, page 132, and for this
example it is assumedthat the source side of the test circuit has a prospectivevoltage for an initial
value of uo : 16 kV as shown also on Figure I la, where at a time r, : 16.8 ps the source-side
voltage is 16.9kV, so that the sourceside voltagecontribution u! : 16.9 - 16 :0.9 kV.

The specifiedvoltage across the circuit-breaker at time /. is r.r1: 39.9 kV and therefore the
test line voltage must be not less than ur - u{ - 39.9 - 0.9 : 39 kV, compared with the
specifiedvalue of 38.2 kV, to compensatefor the reduction of 0.8 kV in the source-sidecontribution.

The peak factor of the test line is assumed,for this example, to be 1.9, so that the voltage drop
along the line

uo : 3 911.9: 20.5 kV .

The increasein voltage drop on the line from the specifiedvalue of 16 kV to 20.5 kV will result
in a reduction of the source-sidevoltage, but the differenceis too small to be measurablewhen
setting up the test circuit and may therefore be ignored.

The increasein the value of uo will also reduce the value of u^, but this deviation is permitted
(see Sub-clauses12.3 and 12.4) and therefore no additional compensationis required.

The capacitancein parallel with the reactancesof the test-line must be chosen to give a wave as
nearly triangular as possiblewith the voltage specifiedfor the first peak occurringin 16.8 ps or less.

Note. - In practice, with artificial test-lines consisting of a number of inductancelcapacitance sections some
rounding of the peak of the transient may occur. This is acceptable provided the specified voltage is
attained before the specified time for the first peak.

Details of the individual components and the resultant TRV for the specified conditions and
for the test circuit are shown on Figure I16.

The power frequency reactanceof the test-line is:

20.s
: 0 . 6 1 5Q
t/ z xzz.a
The total (source1 line) test circuit powerfrequencyreactance
IS:

64
: l'92 Q
6$^6

Thepowerfrequency
reactance
of the sourcesideis therefore:
1 . 9 2- 0 . 6 1 5: 1 . 3Q .
-122-

1a 1b
C i r c u i tp r 6 f 6 r 6 C i r c u i tu t i l i s 6e n v a r i a n t e
P r e f e r r e dc i r c u i t A l t e r n a t i v ec i r c u i t

1) Lesc a rr6 sre p r6 s e n tednet sc o mb i n a i sons


de capaci t6s
et de r6si stances.
1) T hes q u a rere
s p re s e nc to mb i n a ti o no sf capaci tances
andresi stances.

Ftc. l. - Mise d la terre des circuits d'essaipour des essaistriphas6sen court-circuit, facteur de premier
p 6 l e1 , 5 .

Earthing of test circuits for three-phaseshort-circuit tests,first-pole-to-clearfactor 1.5.


-r23-

2a 2b
C i r c u i tp r 6 f 6 1 6 C i r c u i tu t i l i s 6e n v a r i a n t e
P r e f e r r e dc i r c u i i A l t e r n a t i v ec i r c u i t

r) s e c a p a c i t 6 se t d e r 6 s i s t a n c e s .
L e s c a r r 6 sr e p r 6 s e n t e ndte s c o m b i n a i s o n d
I
1 ) T h e s q u a r e sr e p r e s e nct o m b i n a t i o n so f c a p a c i t a n c easn d r e s i s t a n c e s .

Frc. 2. - Mise d la terredescircuitsd'essaipour desessaistriphas6sen court-circuit,facteurde premier


p 6 1 e1 , 3 .
factor 1.3.
Earthing of test circuits for three-phaseshort-circuittests, first-pole-to-clear
-124-

3a 3b
C i r c u i tp r 6 f 6 1 6p o u r u n d i s j o n c t e u dr e s t i n 6d u n e u t i - C i r c u i tp r 6 f 6 1 6p o u r u n d i s j o n c t e udr e s t i n 6d 6 t r eu t i l i s 6
l i s a t i o ng 6 n 6 r a l eq, u e l l e sq u e s o i e n tl e s c o n d i t i o n sd e s u r d e s r 6 s e a u xd n e u t r ee f f e c t i v e m e nmt i s d l a t e r r e ;
m i s e d l a t e r r e d u n e u t r ed u r 6 s e a u ;c i r c u i td ' e s s a i c i r c u i t u t i l i s 6e n v a r i a n t ep o u r u n d i s j o n c t e u rd e s t i n 6
u t i l i s 6e n v a r i a n t ep o u r u n d i s j o n c t e u rd e s t i n 6i r 6 t r e d u n e u t i l i s a t i o gn 6 n 6 r a l eq,u e l l e sq u e s o i e n tl e s c o n d i -
u t i l i s 6 s u r d e s r 6 s e a u xd n e u t r e e f f e c t i v e m e nm t is ir t i o n s d e m i s e d l a t e r r e d u n e u t r ed u r 6 s e a u ( d 6 p e n d
l a t e r r e ( d 6 p e n dd e I ' a c c o r dd u c o n s t r u c t e u r ) . d e I ' a c c o r dd e I ' u t i l i s a t e u r ) .

P r e f e r r e dc i r c u i t f o r c i r c u i t - b r e a k ei n
r t e n d e df o r u n i - P r e f e r r e dc i r c u i t f o r c i r c u i t - b r e a k ei n
r t e n d e df o r u s e
v e r s a l u s e i r r e s p e c t i v eo f t h e e a r t h i n g c o n d i t i o n o f i n e f f e c t i v e l ye a r t h e ds y s t e m s ; a l t e r n a t i v ec i r c u i t f o r
t h e s y s t e mn e u t r a;l a l t e r n a t i v e t e s t c i r c u i tf o r c i r c u i t - c i r c u i t - b r e a k ei nr t e n d e df o r u n i v e r s a u l se irrespective
b r e a k e irn t e n d e df o r u s e i n e f f e c t i v e leya r t h e ds y s t e m s o f t h e e a r t h i n gc o n d i t i o no f t h e s y s t e mn e u t r a l( s u b j e c t
( s u b j e c t o a g r e e m e not f t h e m a n u f a c t u r e r ) . t o a g r e e m e not f t h e u s e r ) .

Flc. 3. - Mise ir la terre des circuits d'essai pour des essais monophas6s en court-circuit, facteur de
premierp61e1,5.
Earthing of test circuits for single-phase
short-circuittests, first-pole-to-clear
factor 1.5.

'
:.l
-r25-

1.0UIVT UlVT

4a 4b
C i r c u i tp r 6 f 6 r 6 C i r c u i tu t i l i s 6e n v a r i a n t e
( d 6 p e n dd e I ' a c c o r dd e I ' u t i l i s a t e u r )
Preferredcircuit
A l t e r n a t i v ec i r c u i t
( s u b j e c t o a g r e e m e not f t h e u s e r )

Frc. 4. - Mise ir la terre des circuits d'essai pour des essaismonophas6s en court-circuit, facteur de
premier pdle 1,3.

Earthing of test circuits for single-phase short-circuit tests, first-pole-to-clear factor 1.3.
-r27-

u
(kv)

E n v e l o p eo f p r o s p e c t i v e
test TRV
uc

R e f e r e n c el i n e test TRV
Prospective
u1 o f s p e c i f i e dT R V

IJ,

y l i n e o f s p e c i f i e dT R V

r (ps)

Frc. 5. - Example of prospective test TRV with 4-parameter envelope which satisfiesthe conditions
to be met during type test: caseof specifiedTRV with 4-parameterreferenceline.

Envelopeof prospective
u test TRV
(kv)
Us

R e f e r e n c el i n e o l
s p e c i f i e dT R V

P r o s p e c t i v tee s t T R V

D e l a yl i n e o f s p e c i f i e dT B V

r (ps)

Frc. 6. - Example of prospectivetest TRV with 2-parameterenvelope which satisfiesthe conditions to


be met during type test: caseof specifiedTRV with 2-par ameter referenceline.
-129-

Envelopeof prospective
test TRV

P r o s p e c t i v tee s t T R V

R e f e r e n c el i n e o f
s p e c i f i e dT R V

o r o r (ps)

Ftc. 7. - Example of prospective test TRV with 4-parameter envelope which satisfiesthe conditions
to be met during type test: caseof specifiedTRV with 2-parameter referenceline.

u Envelopeof prospective
(kv) test TRV

uc Ftc. 8. - Example of
prospective test TRV
with 2-parameter enve-
u1 lope which satisfies the
R e f e r e n c el i n e conditions to be met
of specified TRV P r o s p e c t i v tee s t T R V during type test: caseof
u' specified TRV with 4-
D e l a y l i n e o f s p e c i f i e dT R V parameterreferenceline.

t2 f (trs)

-)(...
/ \
FIc. 9. - Example of two prospectivetest TRV-
waves and their combined envelope
in two-part tests.

r (ps)
- l 3 l -

Pole | : first pole to clear

1.5E// g OO : instant of final arc-extinction


on all phases

Pole I G 1 G 1: fr trot o o
instant

G2G2 : f trot o o
instant

+ - t e s tf r e q u e n c y

^ - u l . : v a l u e o f p o w e rf r e q u e n c y
2 \/ 2 recoveryvoltageof Pole I

^J7--: uulu" of power frequency


2\/ 2 r e c o v e r yv o l t a g eo f P o l e l l

-r=-: value of power frequency


Pole ll
2 \/ 2 r e c o v e r yv o l t a g eo f P o l e l l l

I n P o l e l l l a v o l t a g ep e a k o c c u r s
e x a c t l ya t i n s t a n tG r G r . l n s u c he v e n t
m e a s u r e m e ni st m a d ea t l a t e r i n s t a n t
GrGr.

II
Vs- Pole lll

( ,r : '
---->
V
_____> t1I-P_
i

A v e r a g ev a l u eo f t h e p o w e rf r e q u e n c yr e c o v e rvyo l t a g e so f P o l e sl , l l a n d l l l
V 1 , Y 2 , v 3
2./2 2{2 2\/2
3

T h e e x a m p l ei l l u s t r a t e st h r e e v o l t a g e so b t a i n e dd u r i n g a t e s t u p o n a t h r e e - p o l ec i r c u i t - b r e a k ei nr a t h r e e - p h a s e
' l a o r 1 b , t h u s p r o d u c i n gm o m e n t a r i l yi n t h e f i r s t
t e s t c i r c u i t h a v i n g o n e o f i t s n e u t r a lp o i n t s i n s u l a t e d s, e e F i g u r e
p o f et o c l e a ra S 0 o l i n c r e a s e i n t h e r e c o v e r yv o l t a g e ,a s s h o w n i n P o l e l .

Flc. 10. - Determination of power frequency recovery voltage.


-r32-

o
o
L
a
\c)
o Lr
.It a

if iE
r o o

:ggnu 6 3
L J
U)
a
cl
U)A ujF
EP E : c.)
E
Il t 5 5 ; F a
= .()
t
l
l g-6 Eo tr

E = E 3
( E E
. H ; .F
o
6l J J
T ? EF > * -
a
(r't
F b a - o a)
(-
E .oq
l-o ()
(O

-1 a

' o R
()*:

C ) ! v
a c
(o
o o o o = a
c\l N ^ l I
{o r l
o .0()=
l_
I o
E
3 e
ci:

I o

t =i .r.

\ C)
c g 7 )
.oo o = a

=o =o 3 6 () ,:/
o q )
.oo c ;
: ( s
a- o_ #
M *
aa
,|... I
| . t -
/ \ O
d6
. ( D
'Rb
# (h
( g P
-'6 6 9 ?
O O
o Q )
.u O a
J C .
l-rJ F
! ( s -
.-

'gu
\v
L
o * !
a\

8
c \ r ' a
s if ) c, *i

C ( D
( s ( )
*- . (c.))
L L
P

C O
=
F da''
o
o
. o a
a I
-
\... E oq
(o
F

o o
c\I

- I
-r33-

U
A / '
uc

Frc. 12. - Repr6sentation par quatre pardmAlresd'une tension transitoire de r6tablissementpr6sum6e


d'un circuit. Cas 2.3.1 de I'annexeD.

Representationby four parameters of a prospective transient recovery voltage of a circuit.


Case2.3.1 of Appendix D.

U
uc

Frc. 13. - pr6sum6e


Reprdsentation par qucttreparamdtres d'une tension transitoire de rdtablissement
d'un circuit. Cas 2.3.2 de l'annexeD.

Representation by four parameters of a prospective transient recovery voltage of a circuit.


Case2.3.2 of Appendix D.
-r34-

Frc. 14. - Repr6sentation par qudtre paramdtres d'une tension transitoire de r6tablissementpr6sum6e
d'un circuit. Cas 2.3.3 a) de I'annexeD.

Representationby four parameters of a prospective transient recovery voltage of a circuit.


Case2.3.3 a) of Appendix D.

FIc. 15. - Reprdsentation par deux paramdtres d'une tension transitoire de r6tablissement
pr6sum6e
d'un circuit. Cas 2.3.3 b) de I'annexeD.

Representationby tro parameters of a prospective transient recovery voltage of a circuit.


Case2.3.3 b) of Appendix D.
-135-

s e c a p a c i t 6 se t d e r 6 s i s t a n c e s .
1 ) L e s c a r r 6 sr e p r 6 s e n t e ndte s c o m b i n a i s o n d

s f c a p a c i t a n c easn d r e s i s t a n c e s .
1 ) T h e s q u a r e sr e p r e s e nct o m b i n a t i o n o

Frc. 16. - Circuit d'essai monophas6 pour la mise en et hors circuit lors d'une discordance de phases.
Single-phase test circuit for out-of-phase switching.
137 -

Short-circuit Finalarc
applied e x t in c t i o n
I
I

u
Applied Recovery
voltage voltage
ir /
ji ll I
_)v---
Envelopo ef circuit
E .M . F .w a v e

Envelopeof short-circuit
current wave

E B A F
Circuit-impedance: - Y -

t D - - C " G
where:
t,
E : c i r c u i tE . M . Fa. t c o n t a c ts e'p a r a t i o :n - -.
2 f 2

/ : b r e a k i -n qc u r r e n t:
2\/ 2
, 4 : t w i c et h e p e a kv a l u eo f t h e a p p l i e dv o l t a g e '
C : t w i c e t h e p e a k v a l u e o f t h e a . c . c o m p o n et nh teocf u r r e n t w a v e a t t h e b e g i n n it nh ge os fh o r t - c i r c u i t .
F : d u r a t i o ni n s e c o n d so f o n e h a l f - c y c l eo f t h e a p p l i e dv o l t a g ew a v e .
G : d u r a t i o ni n s e c o n d so f o n e h a l f - c y c l eo f t h e c u r r e n tw a v ea t t h e i n s t a n to f c o n t a c ts e p a r a t i o n .

Frc. 17. - Determination of circuit impedance for calculation of power factor in accordance with
Method I of APPendix B'

A'
Zto
Normal
zeto
B'

10

AA'I
g A ' I f n v e l o P eo f c u r r e n tw a v e '
CC, D i s p l a c e m e notf c u r r e n w t a v ez e r ol i n ef r o m n o r m a zl e r ol i n ea t a n y i n s t a n t .
ZrZro R.M.S. v a l u eo f a . c .c o m p n o r m a l z e r o , d . c . c o m p o n e nntei sg l e c t e d '
o n e not f c u r r e n t a t a n yi n s t a n tm e a s u r e d f r o m

X0 P e a kv a l u eo f a . c .c o m p o n e n o t f c u r r e n ta t i n s t a n to f i n i t i a t i n gs h o r t - c i r c u i t .
XL P e a kv a l u oo f a . c .c o m p o n e not { c u r r e n a t t t i m e d i v i s i o n1 '
BT D u r a t i o no f s h o r t - c i r c u i t '

Frc. 18. - Determination of short-time current.


_ 1 3 9-

SECTION TWO-ROUTINE TESTS

19. General

The tests describedbelow are for the purpose of revealing faults in material or construction.
They do not impair the properties and reliability of a proper test object. Thesetests are acceptance
tests and should be carried out on a number of samplesto be agreedupon between manufacturer
and user. By agreementany routine test may be made on site. They comprise:

a) power frequency voltage dry tests on the main circuit in accordancewith Clause 20,

b) voltagetestson control and auxiliary circuits in accordancewith Clause21,

c) measurementof the resistancesof the main circuit in accordancewith Clause22,

d) mechanicaloperating testsin accordancewith Clause23'

Test reports of these tests are normally not necessaryunless otherwise agreed upon between
manufacturer and user.

20. Power frequencyvoltage dry tests on the main circuit


power frequency voltage dry tests on the main circuit shall be carried out under the relevant
conditions specifiedin Clause 4, Section I.

The tests should be made on complete circuit-breakersor separatepoles of circuit-breakers in


new and clean condition. However, when circuit-breakers are not completely assembledbefore
shipment, separatetests shall be made on all the major insulation components such as bushings,
insulators and operating rods.

21. Voltage tests on control and auxiliary circuits

Voltage tests on control and auxiliary circuits shall be carried out under the conditions specified
in Sub-clause4.8.

)) Measurement of the resistancesof the main circuit

The resistancesof each pole of the main circuit shall be measuredunder conditions as nearly as
possible similar to those under which the correspondingtype test (see Sub-clause3.1) was made.

The resistancemeasuredin the closedposition shall not exceed1.2 R" where Ru is the resistance
measuredduring the correspondingtype test.

23. Mechanical operating tests

Mechanicaloperatingtestsshall include:

a) At specifiedmaximum supply voltage and/or pressure:


l) Five closingoperations
2) Five opening operations

b) At specifiedminimum supply voltage and/or pressure:


l) Five closing operations
2) Five opening operations
_t4t_

c) At rated supply voltage and/or pressure:

1) Five close-openoperating cycles with the tripping mechanism energizedby the closing of
the main contacts.

2) Moreover, for circuit-breakersintendedfor rapid auto-reclosing(seeClause11, IEC Publi-


cation 56-2), five opening-closingsequences0- to-C, where /0 representsa time interval
of not more than the dead time (break-maketime) /, specifiedfor the rated operating
sequence.

Tests a) and b) shall be made without current passingthrough the main circuit.

For circuit-breakers fitted with over-current releases,the releasesshall be set at the minimum
calibration mark on the scaleof current settings.

It shall be shown that the over-currentreleasescorrectly initiate the opening of the circuit-breaker
with the current through the main circuit not exceedingI I0\ of the value set on the scale of
current settings.

The current through over-current releasesmay for these tests be supplied from a suitable low-
voltage source.

For circuit-breakersfitted with under-voltage opening releases,it shall also be shown that the
circuit-breaker opens and can be closed when voltageswithin the specifiedlimits are applied to
the releases(seeSub-clause7.5 of IEC Publication 56-3).

During the mechanicaloperating tests,no adjustmentsshall be permissibleand the operation


shall be faultless.

Circuirbreakers for rated voltages above 72.5 kY consisting of separateunits (a pole or a part
of a pole) having separatecontrol elements mechanically independent from each other may be
tested as separateunits.

After the tests, the circuit-breaker shall be examined to determine that no parts have sustained
damage and that all parts are in satisfactoryoperating condition.