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SCB203 Fall I 2009

Dr. Angela Gee


Study guide (Final exam lectures 20-35)

Be able to define and describe the following terms:

Muscles
3 types of muscle: skeletal, smooth, cardiac
For each, know location and function. Is it striated? Is it voluntary? How is it controlled?
Control of muscles: nervous system (somatic vs. autonomic)
Characteristic of muscles: excitability, contractibility, extensibility, elasticity
Functions: produce body movement, maintain posture, stabilize joints, generate heat
Gross anatomy of muscle
Muscle fiber, fascicles, bundle of fascicles
Connective tissue: enodmysium, perimysium, epimysium
Tendon attachment
Nerves and blood vessels
Microscopic anatomy of muscle fiber
Sarcolemma
Sarcoplasm
Myofibril
Thick filaments: myosin head, ATP binding site
Thin filaments: actin, troponin, tropomyosin
Patterns: A band, I band
Sarcomere
Sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR), T tubules, Triad
Physiology of muscle fiber contraction
Sliding filament theory
- Describe how a signal from the brain causes a contraction in a muscle fiber.
Use the 3 phases and the key terms listed below. (Videos are posted on blackboard)
Phase 1: Excitation
Motor neuron, action potential (AP), axon, ACh, synaptic cleft, ACh receptors,
Na+, membrane potential, sarcolemma
Phase 2: Excitation-Contraction Coupling
AP, T tubules, Ca++, SR, Troponin, Tropomyosin, actin, myosin head
Phase 3: Cross Bridge Cycle
1. cross bridge formation (Ca++)
2. power stroke (slide)
3. detachment (ATP)
4. cocking of head
Rigor mortis and tetanus
Source of energy
ATP
Creatine phosphate
Anaerobic pathway: lactic acid
Aerobic pathway
Exercise and pathway type (ie. sprinting = anaerobic, marathon = aerobic)
Contraction of a muscle
Motor unit
Twitch: All or none, Myogram (3 phases)
Graded response
1. increase stimulation frequency
tetanus (unfused vs. fused)
2. increase stimulus strength
recruitment, size principle
Muscle tone: atrophy, hypertrophy
Isotonic vs. isometric contractions
Abnormal contractions: myopathy, spasms (cramps), fibrillation
Body Movement
Agonist (prime mover), antagonist, synergist

Blood
Whole blood: characteristics and functions
Components
Plasma
Formed elements
Hematocrit
Erythrocytes
Structure
Function
Hemoglobin: globin, heme, iron
Erythropoeisis: hemocytoblast, reticulocyte, erythropoietin, diet
Destruction: macrophage, birulbulin, transferrin
Disorders: anemia, polycythemia
Leukocytes
Characteristics and function (diapedesis)
Granulocytes and agranulocytes
Types: focus on neutrophil, lymphocyte and monocyte as they relate to immune system
White blood cell count
Leukocytosis
Differential white blood cell count
Disorders: leukemia, infectious mononucleosis
Platelets (thrombocytes)
Structure and function
Hemostasis: 3 phases
1. vascular spasm
2. platelet plug formation
3. coagulation: intrinsic and extrinsic pathway, 2 common pathways
Procoagulants: prothrombin, fibrinogen
Anticoagulants: antithrombin III, heparin
Disorders: thrombus, embolus, embolism
Blood type
Antigens (agglutinogens): A, B, AB, O
Plasma antibodies (agglutinins): anti-A, anti-B
Rh+ (D antigens), Rh- and anti-Rh antibodies
Know which blood types are compatible and which cause agglutination.
Disorders: Erythroblastosis fetalis

Cardiology
Size and location
Coverings: pericardium
Walls: 3 layers
Chambers
Circuits: pulmonary, systemic, coronary
Blood circuit: know the pathway of blood through the heart
1. superior vena cava, inferior vena cava or coronary sinus
right atrium  tricuspid valve  right ventricle  pulmonary valve
2. pulmonary trunk  left or right pulmonary artery to lungs
3. pulmonary veins
left atrium  bicuspid (mitral) valve  left ventricle  aortic valve
4. aorta to body
Coronary circuit: right and left coronary artery
Valves: atrioventicular (tricuspid, biscuspid (mitral)) – Lub
semilunar (pulmonary, aortic) – Dup
heart murmer
Intrinsic conduction system
Sinoatrial (SA) node
Atrioventricular (AV) node
AV bundle (bundle of His): interventricular septum, purkinje fibers
Which ventricular wall is thicker and why?
Electrocardiogram
1. P wave
2. QRS complex
3. T wave
Cardiac cycle
Diastole
Systole
Know how pressure and valves determine blood flow in each phase:
1. Mid-late diastole
2. Systole
3. Early diastole
Cardiac output = Heart beat x stroke volume
Factors affecting CO
SV: End diastolic volume – End Systolic Volume
Preload (Starling Law), Contractibility, Afterlaod
HB: autonomic nervous system (baroreceptors, medulla), other factors
Homeostatic imbalance of CO: angina pectoris, myocardial infarction, congestive heart failure
Blood Vessels
Structure: Layers (tunica intima, media, externa)
Arteries: elastic, muscular, arterioles
atherosclerosis
Capillaries: continuous, fenestrated, sinusoids, capillary beds
Veins: features, varicose veins
Hepatic portal circulation: hepatic portal vein, liver
Fetal circulation: foramen ovale  fossa ovalis
ductus arteriosus ligamentum arteriosum

Circulation Physiology
Blood flow due to
1. blood pressure
2. blood resistance (viscosity, vessel length, vessel diameter)
Understand relationship between blood flow, pressure and resistance (F = ΔP/R)
Arterial blood pressure
Systolic and diastolic pressure
Hypertension
Pulse pressure
Mean arterial pressure
Venous blood pressure
Muscular pump
Blood pressure regulation
Neural: vasomotor center of medulla, baroreceptors, chemoreceptors
What happens when blood pressure is too high? Too low? O2 too low? Too high?
How is blood pressure coordinated with cardiac centers, heart rate, cardiac output?
Hormonal: short term
Adrenal medulla hormones (norephinephrine, ephinephrine)
Angiotension II
Antidiuretic hormone
Atrial natriuretic hormone
Hormonal: long term
Blood volume
Kidney: alter blood volume, renin-angiotension
Capillary exchange
Gases and nutrients
Diffusion: membrane, intracellular cleft, fenestration, vesicles
Bulk fluids:
1. Hydrostatic pressure
2. Colloid osmotic pressure
3. Net filtration pressure

Respiration
Know path of air and the general structure and function of each of the following respiratory organs:
Nose: nasal cavity, respiratory mucosa
Pharynx: nasopharynx, oropharynx and laryngopharynx, tonsils
Larynx: epiglottis, vocal cords, glottis, laryngitis
Trachea: cilia, C shape hyaline cartilage
Bronchi  bronchioles
Aveoli: respiraory zone and membrane, surfactant
Lungs: right vs. left, serous membrane

Pulmonary ventilation
Inspiration and expiration
Boyle’s law
Intrapulmonary vs. intrapleural pressure, lung collapse
Sequence of breathing for inspiration
Sequence of breathing for expiration

Gas Exchange
External respiration
Which way are gases flowing and why?
1. partial pressure gradient and solubility (gas flow from high to low partial pressure)
2. ventilation-perfusion coupling
3. thickness and surface area
Internal respiration
Partial pressure and gradient solubility: which way are gases flowing and why?

Transport of gas by blood


Oxygen
Hemoglobin
Pressure (O2-Hb dissociation curve)
Carbon dioxide
1. Plasma
2. Hemoglobin: affects O2 binding
3. Bicarbonate ion (carbonic anhydrase): affects blood pH

Control of breathing
Neural
DRG
VRG
Pontine respiratory center
Chemical
Chemoreceptors: CO2, O2, H+
Hyperventilation = decreased CO2 (hypocapnia)  need to increase ventilation

Homeostatic imbalances of respiratory system


Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: emphysema, chronic bronchitis
Asthma
Tuberculosis
Lung cancer
Effect of smoking
Lymphatic System
Functions
Lymphatic vessels
Function
Relation to blood capillaries
Lymph capillaries  lymph vessels  lymph trunks  lymph ducts (right
lymphatic thoracic)  blood vessels (internal jugular vein, subclavian)

Lymph
Lymph Organs
Components
Know basic structure and function of the following organs:
Lymph nodes
Spleen
Thymus

Immune System
Innate (non-specific) immune system
1. Surface
2. Internal: know how the following eliminate antigens
1. Phagocytes: events of phagocytosis
2. Natural killers
3. inflammatory response: signs
4. Fever
Adaptive (specific) immune system
Characteristics: specific, systemic, memory
Antigens
1. Humoral immune response: how does this response kill the antigen?
Primary response
Secondary response
B lymphocytes
Plasma cells
Memory cells
Antibodies
Antigen-antibody complexes:
neutralization, agglutination, precipitation, complement fixation
2. Cell-mediated immune response: how does this response kill the antigen?
T cells
cytotoxic T cells (CD8)
helper T cells (CD4)
memory cells
regulatory T cells
APCs
MHCs: class I and class II
Homeostatic imbalances of immunity
Immunodeficiencies (ie. AIDS, HIV)
Autoimmune disease (ie. rheumatoid arthritis, myasthenia gravis)
Hypersensitivities