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from July 2004 High Frequency Electronics

Copyright © 2004 Summit Technical Media, LLC

Antenna Terminology Question VSWR or Feedpoint Impedance—The feedpoint

Editor: impedance of an antenna is essential information if we
Our company makes 802.11 WLAN products, and I are to match it to a typical feedline. Because they
have recently been given responsibility for selecting incorporate the requisite matching networks, commer-
the antennas. We try to treat the antennas like any cial antennas are almost always specified by VSWR
other component, and have generally selected them into 50 ohms (75 ohms for some applications). Efficient
with the usual engineer’s criteria—confidence in the radiation requires both an efficient radiating structure
supplier, mainly determined by their technical sup- and an efficient matching network.
port, measured performance of the samples, and of
course, price. Confusion and “Specsmanship”
I would like to know more about what I’m buying. There are several areas where non-expert users
What are the key specs I need to understand? Where and customers can misunderstand specifications. One
is there likely to be over-specification (hype) by the is confusing VSWR bandwidth with radiating band-
manufacturer? And, do these specs mean anything width. Some antennas are truly broadband in both
once we install it in the product? VSWR and radiation pattern (such as log periodic
FYI, our products include hubs, PC Cards, and antennas). Other types almost always have some
USB-connected terminals for both laptops and desktop degree of variation in the directivity, gain and efficien-
machines. cy versus frequency.
VSWR should not be confused with efficiency,
Mike H. either. It is too easy to measure an antenna, observe a
San Diego, CA low VSWR and assume that the antenna is working
well. But, a low VSWR only means that the feedline is
matched—a resistor will provide a low VSWR and not
Some Antenna Basics radiate at all.
It is impossible to cover this subject on one page, It is also easy to confuse gain and directivity. Both
but there are some key issues that can be introduced are important, but they are not the same thing.
for you to explore in further reading. Directivity tells us what kind of discrimination the
The most common antenna performance parame- antenna will exhibit in various directions. Highly
ters are gain, directivity and feedpoint impedance (or directional antennas excel at reducing interference in
VSWR). These do not completely define the antenna’s unnecessary directions, while other applications bene-
behavior, but they must be understood before moving fit from nearly omnidirectional radiation.
on to more complex behavior. A published directional pattern can be misleading
Gain—Gain is the field strength radiated by an if it does not also include the gain. All reduced-size
antenna, in dB relative to either a theoretical isotrop- antennas achieve their compactness with some
ic source or a resonant half-wavelength dipole. An expense in efficiency, which can vary widely from one
isotropic source radiates from a point, spreading ener- design to another. Advertising literature may only
gy equally in all directions, as if illuminating the show a pattern shape, but somewhere in the data
inside surface of a sphere from the center. A dipole is a sheet you will find the additional information on gain.
real antenna, not a theoretical source, so it makes bet- This is needed when calculating the link budget for
ter intuitive sense to many people. A dipole has a peak your system.
gain of 2.14 dBi (dB relative to isotropic), and of There are other characteristics of antennas that
course, 0 dBd (dB relative to a dipole). should be learned. Efficiency, which has been men-
Directivity—This is the shape of the radiation pat- tioned here, is not a simple concept. Variations in
tern from an antenna. For example, a dipole in free impedance and radiation patterns over frequency
space (another theoretical construct) has a pattern must be understood. And there is near-infinite variety
that is roughly doughnut-shaped with the “holes” in antenna physical construction.
aligned with the radiating element. Directivity is Finally, to answer your last question, interactions
defined as dB relative to the peak radiation. This peak with surrounding materials in the product, or its near-
in radiation will also be the peak gain if the antenna by environment, can be complex and often subtle.
is 100% efficient. If the antenna is less than perfect, Experience with a large number of situations is the
the peak gain will be reduced accordingly. best way to gain an understanding of these effects.

64 High Frequency Electronics