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MAKALAH BAHASA INGGRIS

Dosen pengampu : Herry Prasetyo, MN

MAKALAH BAHASA INGGRIS Dosen pengampu : Herry Prasetyo, MN Disusun Oleh : Nama : Siti Wahiroh

Disusun Oleh :

Nama

: Siti Wahiroh

Tingkat

: I B

NIM

: P1337420217063

POLITEKNIK KESEHATAN KEMENTERIAN KESEHATAN SEMARANG PRODI DIII KEPERAWATAN PURWOKERTO

2017

DAFTAR ISI

1

Halaman

depan..............................................................................................

1

Daftar isi...........................................................................................................2

Ability...............................................................................................................3

Present continuous tense.................................................................................5

Permission.......................................................................................................15

Present perfect tense.......................................................................................18 Certainty : may, might, could and must........................................................26 Posibility ....................................................................................................30 State and action verb ......................................................................................34

ABILITY

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Asking if someone can do something:

Can you…?

Are you good at…?

Is he able to…?

Are you able to…?

Are you capable of…?

Do you know how to…?

Do you think you can…?

Do you know anything about…?

Do you have the experience or ability to…?

Saying you are able to do something:

I can…

I am able to…

I know how to…

I feel capable of…

I might be able to…

(Yes), no problem…

I would I am able to…

I know something about…

I have the experience of…

I am pretty good at the job…

I would say I am capable of…

(I think) I have the qualification or experience or ability to…

Saying you can not to do something:

I cannot…

I am hopeless…

I am not good at…

I have no idea how…

I have no experience of…

No, I don’t know how to…

I don’t know anything about…

I am not sure I can/ know how to…

(I am afraid) I cannot cope (with)…

I would not know where to begin or start…

I don’t think I have qualification or experience or ability to…

Example

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Andy

: Can you explain me about the process of extraction in the laboratory?

Dony

: Yes, no problem.

Andy

: Do you have experience to lead the physics seminar?

Dony

: No, I have no experience to lead physics seminar.

Present Continuous Tense

The present continuous of any verb is composed of two parts - the present tense of the verb to be + the present participle of the main verb.

(The form of the present participle is: base+ing, e.g. talking, playing, moving, smiling) Affirmative

Subject

+ to be

+ base + ing

She

Is

talking.

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Negative

Subject

+ to be + not

+ base + ing

She

is not (isn't)

talking

Interrogative

to be

+ subject

+ base + ing

Is

She

talking?

EXAMPLES: TO GO, PRESENT CONTINUOUS

Affirmative

Negative

I am going

I am not going

You are going He, she, it is going We are going You are going

You aren't going. He, she, it isn't going We aren't going You aren't going

Interrogative

Am I going? Are you going? Is he, she, it going? Are we going? Are you going?

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They are going

They aren't going

Are they going?

Note: alternative negative contractions: I'm not going, you're not going, he's not going etc.

FUNCTIONS OF THE PRESENT CONTINUOUS

As with all tenses in English, the speaker's attitude is as important as the time of the action or event. When someone uses the present continuous, they are thinking about something that is unfinished or incomplete

THE PRESENT CONTINUOUS IS USED :

to describe an action that is going on at this moment: You are using the Internet. You are studying English grammar.

to describe an action that is going on during this period of time or a trend: Are you still working for the same company? More and more people are becoming vegetarian.

to describe an action or event in the future, which has already been planned or prepared: We're going on holiday tomorrow. I'm meeting my boyfriend tonight. Are they visiting you next winter?

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to describe a temporary event or situation: He usually plays the drums, but he's playing bass guitar tonight. The weather forecast was good, but it's raining at the moment.

with "always, forever, constantly", to describe and emphasise a continuing series of repeated actions: Harry and Sally are always arguing! You're constantly complaining about your mother-in-law!

BE CAREFUL! Some verbs are not usually used in the continuous form VERBS THAT ARE NOT USUALLY USED IN THE CONTINUOUS FORM

The verbs in the list below are normally used in the simple form because they refer to states, rather than actions or processes.

SENSES / PERCEPTION

to feel*

to hear

to see*

to smell

OPINION

to assume

to believe

to consider to doubt to feel (= to think) to find (= to consider) to suppose to think*

MENTAL STATES

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to forget

to imagine

to know

to mean

to notice

to recognise

to remember

to understand

EMOTIONS / DESIRES

to envy

to fear

to dislike

to hate

to hope

to like

to love

to mind

to prefer

to regret

to want

to wish

MEASUREMENT

to contain

to cost

to hold

to measure

to weigh

OTHERS

to look (=resemble)

to be (in most cases) to have(when it means "to possess")* EXCEPTIONS

Perception verbs (see, hear, feel, taste, smell) are often used with can: : I can see may be used in the continuous form but with a different meaning

...

These verbs

This coat feels nice and warm. (your perception of the coat's qualities) John's feeling much better now (his health is improving) She has three dogs and a cat. (possession) She's having supper. (She's eating) I can see Anthony in the garden (perception) I'm seeing Anthony later (We are planning to meet)

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Present Continuous

Use We use the present continuous:

To talk about things that are happening now, at the moment we speak.

A: What are you doing? B: I´m writing an e-mail. We´re leaving now. Goodbye. The bus is coming.

To talk about things that are happening now, but not exactly at the moment we speak.

My brother is looking for a job at the moment. You are spending a lot of money these days.

To talk about something we have already arranged or planned to do in the future. We often give the future time (tomorow, in July, on Saturday, this afternoon, next week,

etc…)

A: What are you doing on Saturday morning? B: I´m meeting a friend. We´re visiting our grandparents next weekend. My sister is starting a new job next Monday.

IMPORTANT

Some verbs are not used in the present continuous. They are normally used in the simple forms. Some of the most important ones are:

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like

know

love

hate

understand

believe

mean

remember

want

prefer

I am liking tennis > I like tennis.

Are you knowing Maria? > Do you know Maria?

SPELLING RULES

With most verbs we add -ing.

Go

> going

Play

> playing

Work

> working

If the verb ends in consonant + -e we delete the -e and add -ing.

come

> coming

live

> living

move

> moving

have

> having

*Exception: be > being

If the verb ends in -ie, we change -ie to -ying.

Die

> dying

Lie

> lying

If the verb ends in one vowel + one consonant ,we double the consonant.

Get

> getting

Run

> running

Shop

> shopping

Sit

> sitting

Put

> putting

*Exceptions:

a) When the verb ends in one vowel + -y, -w or -x ,we just add -ing.

Play

> playing

Snow

> snowing

Mix

> mixing

b) When the last syllable verb is not stressed.

listen /´LIsen/ > listening

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visit /´VISit/

> visiting

*Exception: travel /´TRAVel/ > travelling

Example Present Continuous Tense

Hi, my name is Luna Ariesta. School holidays are about to come. I usually spend my holidays with my family. But this time will be different. I am going to join one adventure holiday in Bali with my cousins and other teenagers. Here are the arrangements. It’s a camping holiday for two weeks in Bali. I am leaving on Sunday, July 30. Then, I am going home on Sunday, August 13. On the first day, we are putting on backpacks then hiking to Mount Batur. It is the second highest point of Bali with 1.717 meters above sea level. We’re setting up our tents at 1.500 meters. Then we’re enjoying stunning sunset at peak of the mount.

Next day, we are going down and enjoying beautiful view with amazing sunrise. Finally, we’re visiting Batur Natural Hot Spring to relax and recharge our mind at the natural hot spring. Then, the organizers are providing other adventure activities like paint battles, flying fox, trekking through forest and being close to nature. On other days, we’re meeting a Balinese family. We’re helping them to plant fruit and vegetables. They say the locals are kind and friendly.

After enjoying nature in a week, we are having water activities in Tanjung Benoa Beach. Yay, finally we’re going to the beach. They’re providing many water activities and we’re joining four water activities; they are Parasailing Adventure, Jet Ski, Banana Boat, and Diving. Our experience and knowledge about life under water will be upgraded soon. On the next day, we’re learning about Balinese culture. We’re visiting some temples and interacting with Balinese people. The culture is one of the big reasons why tourists love visiting Bali. I’m very excited and can’t wait to be there soon.

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Present Continuous Tense

  • I am staying with a Balinese family here.

  • I am helping them.

We’re planting fruits and vegetables.

They are telling about their culture.

  • I am having a wonderful experience.

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PERMISSION

In asking and giving permission politely, you can use ‘can’, ‘could’ or ‘may’. Below are some tips on how you can use these modal auxiliaries;

Can

You use ‘can’ to ask for or giving permission. ‘Can’ is less formal than ‘could’ or ‘may’. For example:

Asking for permission

Giving/ refusing permission

Can I go to KLCC tomorrow, dad?

Yes, you can but you need to finish your homework before you go.

Can I use your handphone, Ita?

I’m sorry you can’t because I’ve left it at home.

Can we go now, Miss Nor?

Yes, you can/ No, you can’t.

Could

You use ‘could’ to ask for and give permission. It is more polite than ‘can’. It is also used to show permission given in the past.

For example:

Asking for permission

Giving/ refusing permission

Could I give my opinion?

Yes, you could/ No, you couldn’t.

Could we go back earlier, Miss Akeena?

Yes, you could.

When you were small, could you watch television every night?

No, I couldn’t. I could watch television from 5.00 p.m. till 6.30 p.m. during weekdays.

May

You use ‘may’ in a formal situation when you ask for and give permission.

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For example:

Asking for permission

Giving/ refusing permission

Miss Afsyah, may I ask a question?

Yes, you may.

May I submit the assignment tomorrow?

I’m sorry. Everyone must submit it today.

May I see you at 5.00 p.m. today, Miss Kate? I need to discuss my project paper.

Yes, you may. I’ll be in my office from 2.00 p.m. to 6.00 p.m. today.

Making and responding to apologies

An apology is usually made when you feel regret on something that you have done. The simplest and the most common way of apologising are by saying “sorry”. However, the way you apologise and response to it depends on the degree of formality of the situation that you are in.

In a formal situation

Apologising

Responding to apology

  • I would like to apologise for….

Your apology is accepted

Forgive me. I’m terribly sorry about….

That’s quite alright! / That’s alright.

Please accept my apologies.

Apologies are accepted!

  • I apologise for…

It doesn’t matter/ It’s not your fault.

  • I beg your pardon.

I understand completely.

In an informal situation

Apologising

Responding to apology

Sorry. I didn’t mean to…

That’s / its okay.

I’m sorry about that.

Not to worry.

It was wrong of me. I’m sorry.

Forget it.

  • I can’t tell you how sorry I am for/ about…

Never mind.

Asking for and giving permission:

 

Asking for Permission:

 

Can I go out, please?

May I open the window, please?

Please, can I have a look at your photo album?

Please, may I taste that hot spicy couscous dish?

Do you mind if I smoke?

Would you mind if I asked you something?

Is it okay if I sit here?

Would it be all right if I borrowed your mobile Phone?

 

Giving Permission:

 

Yes, please do.

Sure, go ahead.

Sure.

No problem.

Please feel free.

Refusing to give permission:

 

No, please don’t.

I’m sorry, but that’s not possible.

I'm afraid, but you can't.

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PRESENT PERFECT TENSE

The present perfect verb tense is a little difficult in English – it is used in several different ways, and there are lots of rules to remember. This lesson will teach you everything you ever wanted to know about the present perfect

How to form the Present Perfect Present Perfect Positive SUBJECT HAVE / HAS PAST PARTICIPLE

  • I / you / we / they have written

he / she / it has written

Note: In spoken English, it’s common to use the contraction:

• I’ve written three books. • We’ve already seen that movie • Barbara’s forgotten her cell phone. • He’s just woken up. In this case, he’s, she’s, Barbara’s, etc. mean he has, she has, and Barbara has, not he is, she is, or Barbara is.

Present Perfect Negative

SUBJECT HAVEN’T / HASN’T PAST PARTICIPLE

  • I / you / we / they haven’t seen he / she / it hasn’t seen

Examples:

• I haven’t seen John this week. • Mary hasn’t come to class for the past two days.

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Present Perfect Questions HAVE / HAS SUBJECT PAST PARTICIPLE

Have I / you / we / they finished?

Has he / she / it finished?

Examples:

• Have you finished the project yet? • Has George ever been to New York? How to answer present perfect questions:

• Have you been to London?

Yes, I have. / No, I haven’t.

• Has Alex met Miriam yet? Yes, he has. / No, he hasn’t. • Have the results of the election been announced? Yes, they have. / No, they haven’t.

What is the past participle?

The past participle is a form of the verb that describes a completed action or state. For regular verbs, the past participle is the same as the simple past:

• I worked (simple past) all day yesterday. • I’ve worked (past participle) here since August. This is also the case for many irregular verbs:

• He sold (simple past) his car last week. • He’s sold (past participle) 200 books so far.

However, some irregular verbs’ past participles are different from their simple past form:

• We wrote (simple past) an article for the newspaper. • We’ve written (past participle) for many famous publications.

Many of these irregular past participles end in –n:

Infinitive Simple Past Past Participle

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be was / were been break broke broken choose chose chosen do did done drive drove driven eat ate eaten fall fell fallen fly flew flown forget forgot forgotten give gave given go went gone know knew known see saw seen show showed shown speak spoke spoken steal stole stolen take took taken wear wore worn write wrote written

Other irregular past participles have a change in the vowel:

Infinitive Simple Past Past Participle become became become begin began begun come came come drink drank drunk ring rang rung run ran run sing sang sung swim swam swum

Present Perfect with unfinished time

Present Perfect with ever / never The present perfect is used with ever and never to talk about actions done at any time in a person’s life, or at any time in history until now. • Have you ever been to Japan? • Has she ever seen Titanic? • Have they ever ridden a motorcycle? • Has Jason ever failed a test? Use ever in questions only – NOT in statements. “I’ve ever been to Japan.” • “I’ve been to Japan.” www.espressoenglish.net Use never in statements – but only with have/has, not with haven’t/hasn’t:

•“My sister hasn’t never seen Titanic.” • “My sister has never seen Titanic.” • “My sister hasn’t seen Titanic.” Present Perfect with already, yet, recently, lately, and just The words already, yet, recently, lately, and just all refer to a recent and non-specific time. (A specific time would be “yesterday” or “three hours ago” or last Friday,” and in these cases we would use the simple past). Already and yet Already can be used in positive statements and questions. • “I’ve already read today’s newspaper.” • “Have you already paid the electric bill?” • “She’s finished the test already.” Note: Already can go in between “have/has” and the past participle (as in the first two examples) or at the end of the sentence.

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Yet can be used in negative statements and questions. • “We haven’t cleaned the house yet.” • “Has he told you the good news yet?” • “Have they booked their tickets yet?” Note: Yet usually goes at the end of the sentence or phrase. Recently, lately, and just Recently and lately can be used in positive statements, negative statements, or questions:

Recently • “He’s recently lost some weight.” • “I haven’t seen her recently.” • “Have you spoken to Beth recently?” Lately • “I’ve gotten a lot of spam e-mails lately.” • “Adam and Jessica haven’t been to church lately.” • “Have you seen any good movies lately?” Just (usually means very recent) is typically only used in positive statements and questions:

• “Don’t touch the walls – I’ve just painted them and they’re still wet.” • “What book have you just finished reading?” American English In spoken American English, we often use the simple past with already, yet, and just:

• “Did you book the tickets yet?” • “I already replied to the e-mail.” • “We just got back from the gym.” Present Perfect with for/since The present perfect is also used with for and since to talk about actions that began in the past and continue to the present. • “I’ve lived here since 2004.” • “I’ve lived here for 8 years.”

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Since is used with a point in time, and means “from that point in time until the present.” Use since with dates (2011, January, Tuesday, etc.), times (6:15, noon, this morning, etc.), and past events (I was a child, he graduated from college, etc). Since is always used with the present perfect, and not the simple past:

• “I’ve gone to the beach every year since I was a child.” (repeated action that continues until today) • “I went to the beach when I was a child.” (finished action at a specific time in the past; I don’t go to the beach today) For is used with a time period, and means “for that period of time until the present.” Use for with times of any length (five seconds, eight hours, two days, six weeks, nine months, ten years, a decade, centuries, etc.) Be careful with for, because using the present perfect or the simple past can change the meaning:

• “We’ve lived in Berlin for 6 months.” (and we live in Berlin now) • “We lived in Berlin for 6 months.” (and we don’t live in Berlin now) Present Perfect Simple / Present Perfect Continuous How to form the present perfect continuous:

Positive and negative statements:

SUBJECT AUXILIARY VERB BEEN -ING FORM I have been working here since 1992. He hasn’t been sleeping well lately.

Questions:

QUESTION WORD AUXILIARY VERB SUBJECT BEEN -ING FORM How long have you been studying English? How long has she been playing tennis?

In some cases, the present perfect simple and the present perfect continuous are the same:

“I’ve worked here since 1992.” = “I’ve been working here since 1992.”

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However, we often use the present perfect progressive to emphasize the action, and the present perfect simple to emphasize the result:

• “I’ve been working on the report for three weeks.” (emphasizes the action of working) • “I’ve finished the project.” (emphasizes that the project is done) • “We’ve been cleaning the house all afternoon.” (emphasizes the action of cleaning) • “We’ve already cleaned the bathroom and the kitchen (emphasizes the fact that the bathroom and kitchen are done) Be careful: Remember that “state” verbs are never used in continuous form. • “I’ve been knowing my best friend since elementary school.” • “I’ve known my best friend since elementary school.” • “She’s been understanding everything in the advanced class so far.” • “She’s understood everything in the advanced class so far.” In spoken English, we often use the present perfect progressive to talk about ways you have spent your time recently:

“Hi, Joanna! What have you been up to lately?” “I’ve been training for a karate competition.” “Wow – good luck! And how is your son?” “He’s good. He’s been studying a lot lately because finals are coming up next week.”

Example present perfect tense :

During my last holiday, I made a lot of handcrafts. At that time, I was crazy about art and creativity. Many ideas had come to my mind three months before. All of the ideas were written on my note book so I could read them again. Also, I searched other ideas from internet. Yap, I googled it. I watched tutorial videos and read many art blogs. My parents helped me to prepare the materials. They also gave me money to buy things I needed. On the first day, I painted on some rocks. People call it rock art. It was so fun. My siblings joined me on the third day. Then, my siblings and I made paper crafts from used newspapers and

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magazines. The papers were rolled, shaped and glued together to create decorative designs. Many beautiful crafts were created.

The last activity was sewing. My mother is a tailor so I learn how to sew from her. My mother helped me too. Sewing used clothes and towels was very fun. We produced many useful things. Finally, I really enjoyed my last holiday.

Answer:

During my last holiday, I made a lot of handcrafts. At that time, I was crazy about art and creativity. Many ideas had come to my mind three months before. All of the ideas were written on my note book so I could read them again. Also, I searched other ideas from internet. Yap, I googled it. I watched tutorial videos and read many art blogs.

My parents helped me to prepare the materials. They also gave me money to buy things I needed. On the first day, I painted on some rocks. People call it rock art. It was so fun. My siblings joined me on the third day. Then, my siblings and I made paper crafts from used newspapers and magazines. The papers were rolled, shaped and glued together to create decorative designs. Many beautiful crafts were created.

The last activity was sewing. My mother is a tailor so I learn how to sew from her. My mother helped me too. Sewing used clothes and towels was very fun. We produced many useful things. Finally, I really enjoyed my last holiday.

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POSSIBILITY

Expressing asking about possibilities:

Would it be possible for (somebody) to …? Do you think it’s possible that … ? What possibility is there that … ? Is there any possibility that … ? What’s the possibility of … ? What are the chances of …? Do you think you can…? Is it possible that … ? Is it possible to … ? Are you capable of…?

Responding:

Yes, it is. That’s possible. Sure. It can be. I think so. Perhaps. It’s possible. Not a chance! That’s not possible.

Example Dialogue expressing Possibilities

Jalal : What do you think we should give Arni as her birthday present?

( Hadiah apa yang kamu fikir, bagus diberikan kepada Arni sebagai hadiah ulang tahunnya ? )

Rusli : A doll, I think

( Saya pikir, Boneka)

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Jalal : Are you sure? (Apakah kamu yakin ?) Rusli : Yes, certainly. As far as I know, she likes doll.

(Ya , tentu saja . Sejauh yang saya tahu , dia suka boneka ) Jalal : Well, it is possible I suppose, but I doubt it. (Yah , mungkin saya kira , tapi aku ragu ). Rusli : So, what do you think?

(Jadi , apa yang Anda pikirkan ?)

Jalal : Why don’t we buy her a wristwatch?

(Mengapa kita tidak membelikannya jam tangan ?)

Rusli : I don’t think so. It’s too expensive.

(Saya tidak berpikir begitu . Itu terlalu mahal ).

Jalal : You are right, but we can collect the money

(Anda benar , tapi kita bisa mengumpulkan uang)

Rusli : Still, I doubt it. I’m broke now. I don’t think I can get enough moneywithin this week.

(Namun, aku ragu . Aku pecah sekarang . Saya tidak berpikir saya bisa mendapatkan cukup uang minggu ini )

Jalal : Well, doubt isn’t going to do anything. I can lend you the money if you want.

(Nah , keraguan tidak akan melakukan apa-apa . Aku bisa meminjamkan uang jika Anda mau )

Rusli : Really?

(Benarkah?)

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Jalal : Certainly.

(Tentu saja)

Rusli : Thank you very much.

(Terima kasih banyak)

Jalal : Don’t mention it.

(Jangan menyebutkan itu )

Expressing Impossibility digunakan untuk mengungkapkan suatu hal yang mungkin tidak terjadi atau bisa juga dikatakan Tidak mungkin terjadi.

Untuk lebih jelasnya, untuk mengungkapkan ketidakmungkinan yang bisa Sahabat SBI gunakan jika ingin mengatakan expressing Impossibility yaitu :

Example Spoof Text :

It is impossible ………. ( itu tidak mungkin ) It is not possible……….( itu tidak mungkin )

It can’t be……………

(

itu tidak mungkin ) ( itu tidak benar-benar terjadi )

... It is not really happened…

.. May be no………………. ( mungkin tidak )

It is not probable ………

( tidak mungkin )

.. I can’t believe it ………… ( saya tidak mempercayainya ) For example : It was impossible to sleep because of the noise.

It is not possible for me to climb the tree.

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Example Dialogue Expressing of Imposibility

Adel

: are you ready for English debate competition Miko ?

Miko : no, I am not ready yet. Adel : why Miko ?

Miko

well.

: I don’t have enough preparation and I’m very nervous. it is impossible for me compete

Adel : why did you say that ? your English is good. You only have to be confidence. Just do your best and don’t be nervous. I believe you can present the debate well.

Miko : thanks Adel, you are my best friend. Adel : my pleasure.

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CERTAINY : MAY, MIGHT, COULD MUST

  • A. In General

Modals of Possibility and Certainty:

MAY, MIGHT, COULD, MUST / CAN'T, etc.

• The usual restrictions on the use of modals remain valid: They cannot be used with

the will-future, they have no infinitive, no to-infinitive, no -ing form, and no past

participle. Neither do the ones dealt with here, in these meanings, have a past form. • There can only be one modal in a verb group. For the purposes of questions and negations, the modal auxiliary is “the” auxiliary. • We may use modals of possibility and certainty to talk about the future, and sometimes May, Might and Could can be used indiscriminately: “It may / might / could rain later.” • We may use a continuous form after all of these: “Jack may/might/could/must/can't be playing squash right now.” • For possibility and certainty in the past (may have done etc.), consult this paper.

Combinations with other modals, Perfect Tenses, All uses of the -ing form, To-infinitive.

  • B. MAY, MIGHT, and COULD

Paraphrases (LIKELY, POSSIBLE, PERHAPS

...

)

MIGHT tends to be a bit more tentative than MAY, but both indicate rather probability than possibility: The speaker wishes to express that something is likely. • COULD often means that something is possible but unlikely. • Consider:

◦ Someone's knocked the door. It may / might be the postman. ( = Perhaps it's the postman.)

◦ We may / might go out tomorrow

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night. ( = Perhaps we'll go out.) ◦ It could be true, I suppose. ( = Possibly it's not a lie.) ◦ You could win a million quid! ( = It is possible for you to win that money.)

  • C. MAY, MIGHT, and COULD in the Negative

MIGHT NOT and COULD NOT may be contracted, but this is never done with MAY NOT -just try it, and you will see why. • MIGHT NOT and MAY NOT mean that it is possible that something is not the case, while COULD NOT means that something is impossible. • Consider:

◦ Dave may not get the job. ( = It is possible that he won't get the job.) ◦ We still might not lose the match. ( = It's unlikely but possible for us to win.)

D.

MUST

and

CAN'T

◦ Jane is afraid of heights – she couldn't climb the roof. ( = It's impossible for her

)

... ◦ I'm totally unfit – I couldn't run a marathon. ( = It's impossible for me

)

... • MUST and CAN'T are opposites. Both indicate certainty, but while MUST means that we

are certain that something is true, CAN'T expresses our conviction that something is impossible.

Consider:

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◦ She isn't answering the phone – she must be out. ( = I'm certain she is out.) ◦ You've had a long journey – you must be tired. ( = I'm certain you're tired.) ◦ Nick can't be in Scotland – I saw him this morning. ( = It's impossible for him to be there.) ◦ Life can't be easy if you have to spend it in a wheelchair. ( = It's impossible for life to be easy ) ...

E.

Exercises

Fill in the gaps with the correct modal of possibility and certainty, using the verb in brackets. Sometimes, you may have to use the continuous, and some gaps permit more than one solution.

  • 1. A: Where's Natasha? I haven't seen her all day.

B: She might be (BE) in the music room. She may be practising (PRACTISE) for the concert tomorrow. A: No, she can't be (BE) – we'd hear her, wouldn't we? B: Well, so she must be (BE) at the conservatory already. A: Yeah, I guess.

  • 2. I'm not sure, but it

(RAIN) later on. (BE) serious about that!

__________________

  • 3. What are you saying? You

__________________

  • 4. (BE) wonderful to be gliding down to earth on a parachute.

It

__________________

  • 5. (WORK) as a taxi driver – he can't drive.

Dave

__________________

Dan just

  • 6. (WIN) the match – he's really good at chess.

__________________

  • 7. (BE) in the office – I can't reach her at home.

Jenny

__________________

  • 8. A: What are you doing tonight?

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B: I'm not sure, but I

__________________

(GO) to the cinema with Jim.

9. How can you work with that noise? If I were you, I like this!

__________________

(CONCENTRATE)

  • 10. We'll have to get more glasses for the party – we

__________________

(HAVE) enough.

  • 11. We

__________________

(GO) to Egypt in summer, but we're not sure yet.

  • 12. Don't just drop by tomorrow, but call beforehand – I

  • 13. What did you do that for? You

__________________

(BE) in.

__________________ (BE) out of your mind!

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STATE AND ACTION VERB

Based on the meaning, verbs can be divided into two types: action verb and state verb. Action verb is a verb describing the actions performed by the sentence subject. State verb is a verb that shows no action but shows the subject condition.

Action Verb

State Verb

Jane went to bed. I am buying a new briefcase. I lent Jeremy five pounds.

Jane was tired. I need a new briefcase. Jeremy owes me five pounds.

Example Action Verb

We are having lunch now. (having: makan)

We are thinking about moving. (thinking: memutuskan)

Jeff tasted the soup. (tested: mencoba)

Action verb means that something is happening or changing. The majority of verb actions describe physical activity, but there are some verbs that are reporting (say) or action-related actions (decide). Some examples of action verbs are verbs like

do, go, buy, play,

stop, take, decorate,

say, ask, decide.

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Example State Verb

We have a big kitchen. (have: memiliki)

I think we ought to move. (think: opini)

The soup tasted like water. (tasted: berasa)

State verb has the meaning of something that remains in the same condition. State verb is a verb but does not show any change, especially on the subject line. State verb describes meanings such as being, ownership, opinion, feeling. Here are some examples of state verbs.

adore, depend, doubt, lack, owe, seem

be, deserve, envy, like, own, understand

believe, desire, exist, love, pity, want

belong, to, despise, hate, matter, possess, wish

consist of, detest, intend, mean, prefer

contain, dislike, know, need, resemble

Action verb dapat digunakan dalam kalimat continous sedangkan state verb tidak dapat digunakan dalam bentuk continous.

We are decorating the house. Not We are owning the house.

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Some verbs have a double meaning, can be as action or state. The meaning depends on the context in the sentence.

There are some verbs that are always state verbs so they can not be continuous shapes. The verb is belong to, consist of, contain, depend, deserve, desire, know, matter, own, possess, prefer, seem.

The factory contains some old machinery.

I know the worn quite well now.

Verbs associated with the senses are state verbs, so they can not be changed in a continuous form. •

We saw a magnificent sunset. ~ sawing I smell something burning. ~ smelling

They felt the building shake. ~ felting

I heard someone crying. ~ hearing

Akan tetapi verb smell dan taste dapat dalam bentuk continuous jika tindakan tersebut dilakukan secara sengaja.

Steve picked up the bottle and smelted the milk. • The chef is tasting the steak.

STATIVE VERB

Definisi Stative Verb

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Stative Verb merupakan kata kerja (verb) yang tidak menggambarkan aksi atau kegiatan yang dilakukan oleh subjek. Stative Verb ini biasanya tidak mengalami perubahan bentuk dan sangat jarang ditambahkan imbuhan –ing di akhir kata kerjanya. Stative Verb atau yang dikenal dengan nama non-action verb dapat digolongkan menjadi enam jenis: menyatakan emosi (emotion), mental (mental state), kebutuhan dan kecenderungan (need and preference), indera dan wujud (sense and apperance), ukuran (measurement), dan kepemilikan (possession).

Berikut adalah tipe dan contoh Stative Verb

Tipe Stative Verb

Emotion (emosi)

Mental State (mental) Need and Preference (kebutuhan dan

kecenderungan) Sense and Appearance (indera dan wujud)

Measurement (ukuran) Possession (kepemilikan)

Contoh Stative Verb

like, love, dislike, hate, appreciate, respect

think,

agree,

remember

understand,

memorize,

know,

prefer, need, want, wish, desire see, touch, taste, smell, sound, hear, appear, seem owe, weigh, heigh, cost have, own, belong, possess

Contoh Stative Verb dalam Kalimat Menyatakan emosi (emotions) I really love this novel. (Saya sangat suka novel ini)

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The manager appreciates the work of his employees. (Manajer tersebut menghargai pekerjaan pegawainya)

Menyatakan mental (mental states)

I do not understand what you just said. (Saya tidak mengerti apa yang baru Anda katakan) The students agree not to throw rubbish in the classroom. (Para murid setuju untuk tidak membuang sampah di dalam kelas)

Menyatakan kebutuhan dan kecenderungan (need and preference)

I prefer reading a novel to watching a horror movie. (Saya lebih suka membaca sebuah novel daripada menonton sebuah film horor) She wants to continue her study in a university in Turkey. (Dia mau melanjutkan pendidikannya di sebuah universitas di Turki)

Menyatakan indera dan wujud (sense and appearance)

I hear someone walking behind us. (Saya mendengar seseorang berjalan di belakang kita) Drinking a cup of hot chocolate sounds good in this cold day. (Meminum secangkir coklat panas terdengar baik di hari yang dingin ini)

Menyatakan ukuran (measurement)

The bag in a shop near my house costs $100. (Tas di sebuah toko di dekat rumah saya berharga $100) My best friends owe me a ticket to watch a new movie in cinema. (Teman – teman baik saya berhutang sebuah tiket untuk menonton sebuah film baru di bioskop)

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Menyatakan kepemilikan (possession)

This little red bicycle belongs to my younger brother. (Sepeda merah kecil ini kepunyaan adik kecil saya) My friend in Dubai has a Lamborghini and a Range Rover. (Teman saya di Dubai memiliki sebuah Lamborghini dan sebuah Range Rover)

Definisi Action Verb

Action Verb atau yang disebut juga dengan dynamic word adalah kata kerja (verb) yang menyatakan suatu aksi, kegiatan atau perubahan. Aksi tersebut biasanya mengalami perubahan. Action Verb ini memiliki bentuk continous atau progressive yang artinya kata kerja tersebut dapat ditambahkan akhiran –ing dalam bentuk Present Continous Tense.Action Verb digunakan untuk menyatakan aktivitas (activity), aksi singkat (momentary action) atau proses (process).

Berikut adalah tipe Action Verb beserta contohnya.

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Tipe Action Verb

Activity (aktivitas) Momentary Action (aksi singkat)

Contoh Action Verb

walk, eat, play, kick, listen, cook, work, write, etc.

knock, jump, hit, etc.

 

grow,

widen, lengthen,

melt, shorten, change,

Process (proses)

develop, etc.

Contoh Action Verb dalam Kalimat

Menyatakan aktivitas (activity)

The students play football in the school yard at break time. (Para siswa bermain sepak bola di halaman sekolah saat jam istirahat) The students are playing football in the school yard now. (Para siswa sedang bermain sepak bola di halaman sekolah sekarang) Zarif always cooks a very delicious food for me in his restaurant. (Zarif selalu memasak makanan yang sangat enak untuk saya di restorannya) The chef is cooking a delicious food for guests. (Koki tersebut sedang memasak makanan yang enak untuk para tamu).

Menyatakan aksi singkat (momentary action)

I always knock on the door before I enter someone’s house. (Saya selalu mengetuk pintu sebelum saya masuk ke rumah seseorang) Someone is knocking on the door of my house. (Seseorang sedang mengetuk pintu rumah saya)

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The little boy jumps on the trampoline. (Anak kecil tersebut melompat di trampolin) The naughty boy is jumping over the fence of his house. (Anak nakal tersebut sedang melompati pagar rumahnya)

Menyatakan proses (process)

My mango tree grows so fast. (Pohon mangga saya tumbuh dengan sangat cepat) The new company is growing (Perusahaan baru tersebut tumbuh dengan cepat) The ice melts when the temperature increases. (Es meleleh ketika suhu udara meningkat) The ice in my glass is melting because the weather is very hot today. (Es di gelas saya sedang mencair karena cuaca hari ini sangat panas)

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