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Design of Birds Detector and Repellent Using

Frequency Based Arduino Uno with Android System


Jl. Margonda Raya no 100 Depok, Indonesia
bheta@staff.gunadarma.ac.id
Yahot Siahaan
Department Electrical Engineering, Gunadarma University
Jl. Margonda Raya no 100 Depok, Indonesia Yulisdin Mukhlis
yahotsiahaan@student.gunadarma.ac.id Department Electrical Engineering, Gunadarma University
Jl. Margonda Raya no 100 Depok, Indonesia
Bheta Agus W ymukhlis@staff.gunadarma.ac.id
Department Computer Engineering, Gunadarma University

Abstract— In the process of agricultural land, farmers must waves, the animals slowly die. To generate the required
keep the plants from harmful pests or plant-eating animals. One frequency, it needs the LC oscillator circuit. The oscillator
of the animals that eat the plants often is birds. This research has circuit is a series which produces an oscillation of the electric
developed a bird repellent prototype using frequency. This circuit, and the magnitude of the oscillation depends on the
prototype has motion detectors which generates a certain components used. Output oscillation represented in magnitude
frequency when birds are approaching agricultural land so that frequency.
the birds will be expelled. This prototype consists of PIR sensor
as a detector if there is a movement of birds and LC-type The development device in this research has aim to make
oscillator circuit as part of a bird repellent. The results were the tool the use microcontroller with ultrasonic waves, the
obtained that the PIR sensor works with detection range between ultrasonic waves generated by this tool is set automatically to
0 cm - 500 cm, and the birds will be expelled at the frequency repel birds. This device is also connected to android device
signal from 60 kHz above. that serves the information if it detects birds. The
microcontroller used in the study was Arduino Uno. This
Keywords—Frequency, PIR Sensor, Ultrasonic, Colpitts, prototype device is designed as simple and practical that can
Sensor, Oscillator, Capacitive component be used later for public and farmers.
I. INTRODUCTION II. DESIGNING EXPERIMENTAL CIRCUIT OF DETECTOR AND
Indonesia is one of the largest agricultural countries in the REPELLER
world. Largest plant agriculture in Indonesia is rice. Indonesia This tool is designed using four important parts that is
is one of the world's largest rice producers. Many challenges ultrasonic frequency generation, detection of birds unit, and
faced by farmers before the harvest time, which resulted in controlling unit.
failure. One of the causes of harvest failure is pests and
animals.
Bird is one example of nuisance animals for farmers.
Usually birds will eat the plants when rice began growth and
ripen. This bird attack very disturb to farmers because it is
done in colonies or groups in large numbers. Some of the
efforts made by farmers to repel the nuisance birds by making
a scarecrow and so on, but this way are not effective. Another
alternative that can be used to repel birds is to use the wave.
Birds are sensitive animals the ultrasonic waves for hearing
birds around 29kHz. The bird expulsion problem animal in
this study was solved with designing electronic devices and
bird detection by using ultrasonic sensors. Detection devices
and ultrasonic sensor-based expulsion is expected to assist
communities to reduce distractions in agriculture.
Fig 1. Block Diagram of detector and repellent of birds
The average human hearing can reach up to 20 kHz. So we
using an ultrasonic sensor produces a frequency above 20kHz,
which will emit a signal to pests that have hearing above
20kHz. At the time of the ultrasonic waves emitted by these A. Designing of Detector
animals will recognize it as a threat, and when the animals are 1. Pyro-electric (PIR) Sensor
kept vortex humming constantly on the results of ultrasonic
In this study used PIR sensor PIR KC7783R is already in
practical modules sold in the market, this sensor will capture
every movement comes.

Fig 2. Block Diagram PIR KC7783R

2. Android System
In this study the android system used as the information if
it detects bird. The system is connected with a pyro-electric Fig 3. Circuit diagram of LC Oscillator Type Colpitts
sensor (PIR), after the movement of birds received by pyro-
electric sensor (PIR) will automatically be connected to
2. Transmitter (Piezo Ultrasonic Transducer)
Android and will receive if the pest is detected.
Piezo Sensor Ultrasonic Transducer is used as a transmitter
or as a buzzer ultrasonic waves who generated by LC
B. Designing of Repeller oscillator type Colpitts. Sensor Ultrasonic Transducer Piezo
1. Design LC Oscillator Type Colpitts circuit connected to the oscillator circuit collpitts.
This study LC oscillator type Colpitts is used as a C. Automatic Switch Relay Circuit
capacitive sensor that generates a frequency as a repellent. In
1. Driver Relay
making the oscillator circuit first step we must do is determine
Relay is used to disconnect and reconnect switch voltage
the value of the component, and what components are used.
The study looked at changes in the frequency and amplitude source from the transmitter. This drive consists of resistors,
generated as a result of changes in the value of the magnitude diodes, transistors and relays. By the time this series get a
of the oscillator components, namely capacitors. Then look at High signal from the microcontroller, and the relay will close
the effect of the frequency of pest birds. the way it works like a switch that activates the function LCD
and LC oscillator.
In designing the oscillator circuit must first determine the
frequency range that will be used. In this study, the frequency
used by the authors is approximately 20 kHz - 29 kHz. The
selected frequencies for an ultrasonic frequency that can be
heard by the senses of birds only reach 29 kHz.
The resulting frequency of the oscillator type colpitts can
be calculated using the following equation:

Fig 4. Driver Relay Circuit


1
𝑓𝑜 = 2. LCD (Liquid Cristal Display)
𝐶1 𝐶2
2𝜋√𝐿1 LCD circuit serves as a display information if their birds.
𝐶1 + 𝐶2
LCD connected to the SDA and SCL pins arduino Uno. If -
Electric Pyro sensor (PIR) motion receives the relay will
To obtain the specified frequency, the authors used the activate the LCD driver if repellent active LCD is connected
capacitors C1 and C2 of 18 nF - 330 nF with a variety of with I2C module is then forwarded to the Arduino Uno.
combinations.
III. TESTING AND RESULT
Repellent circuit (transmitter) is composed of two main
parts, namely the LC oscillator and sensor piezo ultrasonic A. Analysis of Pyro-electric (PIR) Sensor as Detector
transducers. As for the LC oscillator consists of two parts, the In the sensory test is placed in an open space that is wide
resonator (type Colpitts) and amplifier. we can changes in enough, then closer Birds with a distance of 10 cm up to 6m. if
response to the bird. Bird species are used also affects the it detects motion, the LCD will display the " ALAT
study is to examine the response of the bird. PENGUSIR BURUNG AKTIF" if there is no source of
motion received then the LCD will still display
“PENDETEKSI DAN PENGUSIR BURUNG’’
By connecting a series of three inductors, inductance value
of 30μH obtained, a value is approaching the design of the
capacitance values C1 and C2 are changed. Signals from the
resulting oscillation indicates that the circuit can generate
output signals with a frequency value that we want and set the
frequency value dreaded by birds. Capacitance value used is
from 18 nF to 330 nF.
To generate a frequency signal that can repel birds, the
Fig 5. The Complete Device author uses the ultrasonic signal circuit that serves as a
capacitive sensor, which value can be varied to obtain the
Below are the results of tests performed by the authors to oscillation frequency changing as well. Below is the frequency
determine the PIR sensor response when the distance is generated by the oscillator. The frequency then tested against
changed. birds. Here is a table bird response to changes in a given
frequency.
Table 1. PIR Testing Result
Table 2. Data Observations Birds Response Against Changes to Frequency
No Distance Motion Detectors Variation Value Capacitors
(cm) Birds
1 10 Responding
2 60 Responding
3 100 Responding
4 160 Responding
5 200 Responding
6 260 Responding
7 300 Responding
8 360 Responding
9 400 Responding
10 460 Responding
11 500 Responding
12 560 Not Responding
13 610 Not Responding
14 660 Not Responding

B. The Circuit Analysis of Repeller


Design LC oscillator circuit that previously conducted
found the frequency display on the oscilloscope as shown in Not responding will be shown if the bird is at resting in the
Figure with output arrange 60 kHz. box construction. Responding means the birds fly in a state of
seeking blemish want out of the box construction.
Figure below shows a visual observation. Of the birds that
rest which then agitated and began to fly and look for a way
out. The response given by the bird can be seen after we
change the value of the oscillation frequency is emitted. From
the figure can be seen the changes that occurred in the time of
the early bird and when given the signal frequency.

Fig 6. Display Signals Generated Circuit Repellent

LC oscillator circuit as a producer of frequency will be


compared with the results of theoretical and experimental
results. By changing the capacitance values of capacitors as
shown in the figure below, the importance of the change in the Fig 7. Birds Reaction Before Being Disordered and After Disorder
value of the frequency in accordance with a predetermined
Below shown one of an example frequency graph changes IV. CONCLUSION
to changes in the value of capacitance C2 to C1 = 56nF This research has developed the prototype device for
detecting and repelling birds. The results of this research are:
100 1) With the PIR sensor as detection of birds, the
distance that can be detected pest birds around 5m,
80 Experiment according to the characteristics of the sensor.
Theory 2) The birds will be disturbed / repelled if the ultrasonic
60 waves in the frequency range that is 28 kHz – 60
kHz. In this research the frequency output of the
40
device was set in 60 kHz.
20
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