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Physica D 48 (1991) 273-294

North-Holland

The dynamics of enstrophy transfer in


two-dimensional hydrodynamics*
J o h n Weiss
49 Grandview Road, Arlington, MA 02174, USA

Received 21 September 1990


Accepted 15 October 1990
Communicated by U. Frisch

In this paper the qualitative properties of an inviscid, incompressible, two-dimensional fluid are examined. Starting from
the equations of motion we derive a series of equations that govei'n the behavior of the spatial gradients of the vorticity
scalar. The growth of these gradients is related to the transfer of enstrophy (integral of squared vortieity) to the small scales
of the fluid motion.

I. Introduction Essentially, when the strain rate exceeds the


vorticity, the fluid is in a hyperbolic mode of
In this paper the qualitative properties of an motion that strongly shears the passively advected
inviscid, incompressible two-dimensional fluid are vorticity. Conversely, when the vorticity exceeds
examined. Starting from the equations of motion the strain the fluid is in an elliptical mode of
(Euler's equations) we derive a series of equa- motion that advects the vorticity smoothly. As a
tions that govern the behavior of the spatial gra- consequence the vorticity gradients will tend to
dients of the vorticity scalar. The growth of these concentrate in the regions of hyperbolic motion.
gradients is related to the transfer of enstrophy That is, between the large scale eddies.
(vorticity) to the small scale motion of the fluid. Jack Herring [1, p. 2265] has observed this
We find that the gradients of vorticity will tend to effect in his study of two-dimensional, anisotropic
grow exponentially fast in a region of fluid, if, in turbulence, using a closure-based subgrid scale
that region, the squared magnitude of the rate of model. Our results confirm this study in the con-
strain exceeds the squared magnitude of the rate text of the qualitative properties of the equations
of rotation. The rate of rotation can be identified of motion for the fluid.
with the vorticity scalar. On the other hand, when We remark that the quantity, 0 = (strain) 2 -
the squared vorticity exceeds the squared rate of (vorticity) 2, is found to be, following an observa-
strain, the vorticity gradients will behave in a tion by Brezis and Bourgoiun [2], related to the
periodic manner. second fundamental form of the boundary of the
fluid domain, where the boundary is regarded as
*Note by the editor: This paper has been frequently quoted a smooth manifold, embedded in E2. This, in
in the literature on two-dimensional turbulence; it was written
in 1981 as a La Jolla Institute preprint and never published in turn, implies a global integral constraint on the
the open literature. sign and magnitude of 0. In a sense to be ex-

0167-2789/91/$03.50 © 1991-Elsevier Science Publishers B.V. (North-Holland)


274 J. Weiss / The dynamics of enstrophy transfer in 2D hydrodynamics

plained below, flows exterior to a smooth, convex energy:


boundary are more hyperbolic, while interior flows
are constrained toward elliptical modes. A similar
behavior has been observed in numerical studies (2)
of area-preserving maps of the plane [3, 4]. Par-
ticularly interesting, in light of this result, are the
and the total enstrophy (squared vorticity):
remarks in ref. [3] outlining a possible connection
between the theory of general area-preserving
maps and hydrodynamical systems. This connec-
~2 = fD½(Curl b " curl b ) = fD½(Curl bo " curl F:o).
tion is based on the contrasting regions of ellipti-
cal and hyperbolic motion that appear, in terms (3)
of our results, to be essential to understanding
the long time behavior of fluids. It has been conjectured [6] that the existence of
In section 2 we derive from the equations of these dual invariants implies a transfer of energy
motion the equations that govern the spatial gra- toward the large scales of motion across a k -s/3
dients of the vorticity. The geometrical implica- spectral range; and corresponding transfer of en-
tions of these equations are examined. In section strophy toward the small scales across a k 3
3 the results of the numerical simulation of the energy spectrum. This conjecture is supported by
equations of motion are presented. In section 4 numerous closure [7, 8] and simulation [9, 10]
we present the summary and conclusions of the results. The transfer of energy to the large scales
preceeding sections. is thought to explain the tendency of numerical
simulations to evolve from random velocity fields
toward states consisting of a few large-scale re-
2. Gradients of vorticity gions of like-signed vorticity [10]. On the other
hand, the transfer of vorticity (enstrophy) to the
The time evolution of an inviscid, incompress- small scales of motion is less well understood and
ible fluid is governed by Euler's equations for the the subject of some controversy [11, 12]. Since
velocity field, t): numerical simulations are limited by finite degree
truncations and the use of eddy viscosities that
distort the inviscid behavior at small scales, the
process of enstrophy transfer has remained some-
where what obscure, In this section we present several
observations that may help to shed light on the
,~ = ( u , ~ , ) ( , , t ) , enstrophy transfer process and aid in the inter-
V.b=0, pretation of the numerical simulations.
To begin we note that following a fluid ele-
.~=(x,y) eD~ 2,
ment, the vorticity is conserved. That is, if
•rh=0 for.~e0D,
rh ± aD, C = l~x - u , (4)

t=0; t9=1)0(~ ).
then
It is known [5] that there exist smooth, global
solutions to (1) where b 0 and D are smooth. dC
Furthermore, these solutions conserve the total C,+~'VC- dt - 0 . (5)
J. Weiss / The dynamics of enstrophy transfer in 2D hydrodynamics 275

Thus Furthermore, since C determines !), and t3 deter-


mines A, we find
C(.f( x o, t ) , t) = Co(.fo). (6)
DA = A ( u + i v ) , (13)
The vorticity is advected by the velocity field as
a passive scalar. However, unlike a passive scalar, DA = iDC. (14)
the vorticity is dynamically related to (de-
We note that
termines) the velocity field, and changes in the
distribution of the vorticity imply changes in the t r A 2 = ½(AA - C 2) (15)
advecting velocity field. This intrinsic feedback
process can be better understood by introducing is precisely the magnitude of the rate of strain
the stress tensor, A: squared minus the rate of rotation squared. We
believe this to be a key quantity in understanding
Oui two-dimensional hydrodynamics.
A = V,), Aij = axe" (7)
In terms of the stream function:
If it is assumed that the fluid is contained in T 2 O=O(x,y,t),
or ~2 then it can be readily shown from (1) that
U=0y, v=-0x. (16)
dA
dt + A 2 = V~TA-I trA2' (8)
We find that

where d / d t = 0, + b • V and tr is the trace. t r A 2 = ½(AA - C 2) = ~O2~y- ~bxx~yy (17)


Since
or t r A 2 is equal to the negative of the Gaussian
trA =V.# =0,
curvature of the stream function.
A 2 = ~l t r A 2 I , (9) When tr A 2 is positive the motion is hyperbolic
the anti-symmetric part of (8) is eq. (5). The in character and when negative, the motion is
symmetric part of A is the rate of strain tensor: elliptical.
While the structure of eqs. (12) is by no means
½(a, + vx) ) transparent, combining the Lagrangian deriva-
B = ½(A + A ' ) = tive, d / d t , with the Eulerian gradient, D, (in a
non-local manner), it does imply that the values
(10) of A following a fluid particle change most rapidly
in the regions where D2(tr A 2) is large, subject to
We have found that the above is most conve-
the smoothing (DD) -1. In a sense the operator
niently described in the following notation:
D 2 ( D ~ ) - 1 introduces a shape factor in the distri-
O = u x - vy, ~ = Vx + u y , bution of t r A 2 that affects the regions where
d A / d t will tend to be large. We shall return to
C=v x-uy, a=O+iO,
this later.
D = a~ + iay. (11) Eq. (14) indicates that, in wave space, A and C
have an identical power spectrum, differing purely
In this notation, eq. (8) becomes
in phase. By Fourier transforming eq. (14) we find
that
dX
dt = D 2 ( D D ) -I ½(AA - C2),
^

dC A~ = i ~-~-C~, (18)
dt - 0. (12)
276 J. Weiss / The dynamics of enstrophy transfer in 2D hydrodynamics

where We remark that for any scalar quantity, w,


satisfying the equation
~_ 1
2vijF
d~e 'k~A(2), d
(22)

~_ 1 f d2e,,..~C(2) the quantity


2-rri _ ~

/~ = k x + iky,
k=(kx,k, ).
-
Dw=
(°.)
Dw

Letting will satisfy the equation

,{,:. = I~.~lei~, d D---~= 8 D---~ (23)

CL = ICt:.le its,
with B given by (21).
~ = I/~lei~ , We recall, from eq. (14), that

we find A (oc)
(24)
DC= DC = - DA "
IAk] = ]C~I, (19a)
Thus eq. (20) describes the evolution of com-
a = -rr/2 + 2q, +/3. (19b)
plex gradients of the vorticity, complex gradients
of any passive scalar, and certain gradients of the
Furthermore, eq. (14) indicates that the quan-
strain.
tity D C (essentially the gradient of the vorticity)
It is immediate that
is of a certain interest, being simply related to the
corresponding derivatives of a. tr B = 0, (25a)
By applying the operators, D and D to eq. (12)
it is found, after some algebraic simplification, B 2 =
¼(AX- C 2 ) I = ~tr A 2 I.
I
(25b)
that
The eigenvalues of B, w +, satisfy the equation

~ D-"-C= B D-'-"C, (20) W 2 = ¼ ( . ' ~ -- C 2 ) . (26)

where Thus, when

_ (oc) A A < C 2, we~= + } i C~7~--AX, (27a)


DC= DC
a~ > C 2, w += + ½ ~r~ _ C2 " (27b)

and Since following a particle, C is constant:

C = C0, (28)
B=( ½iC -½a} (21)
- 1-
2A _2i C " AA - C 2 = AA - C,~. (29)
J. Weiss / The dynamics of enstrophy transfer in 2D hydrodynamics 277

Now, if A is slowly changing (with respect to West, Lindenberg and Seshardi [15] have
DC) along a particle path (see eq. (12)) eq. (27) demonstrated that when one assumes that A is a
implies for DC: stationary, Gaussian random function with zero
(i) oscillatory behavior when tr A 2 < 0. mean, then
(ii) exponential growth when tr A 2 > 0.
The assumption that A is slowly varying with
respect to DC appears reasonable, especial_,ly since dt <DC>
(24) indicates that the time scale of DC is the
same as the gradients of A, DA, and since we are = ( i( ½C + Im H ) + Re lI 0 )
interested primarily in the small scales of motion.
0 - i ( ½ C + Im 17) + Re H
However, eq. (12) indicates that variations of A
along a particle path are non-local and condi-
tioned by the distribution of tr A 2. In a sense eq.
(<DC>)
x <bc>
(33)
(12) converts the spatial intermittency determined
by (27) into a temporal intermittency of A. This,
where < > indicates a moment average and
in turn, may modulate the evolution of DC (the
spatial intermittency).
It is known that the source term in eq. (12) will
be largest in those regions where ½(AA - C 2) is
l-I(Co)=¼L~(A(t)X(z)>eiCo(t-')dT.
(34)
most rapidly varying in space. By the above we
expect both A and C to be most rapidly varying Here, the generaly complex quantity H can be
when AA - C 2 > 0. If eq. (23) is differentiated, we interpreted as the strength of the strain A, fluc-
find tuations at the frequency C O. In general, when
Re H > 0, there occurs an oscillatory, exponential
growth of ( D C > and ( D C ) .
1 -- 2
d2 ~(AA - Co) - ½d A / d t 1~'~,
dt2-~= -½dA/dt 1 -- 2

J When the temporal correlations of A are as-


sumed to be rapidly varying with respect to <DC),
(30)
where by eq. (12), then

dA = D2 ( D D ) -'½(AX - Co2).
dt
<;~(t) ~ ( ~ ) > = ~ ( t - ~), (35)
The local growth rate of DC predicted by (30) is where a > 0.
Then, eq. (33) simplifies to
l[dA dAl '/211/2
X = + ¼(AA - C02) + 2 ~ a t -d-7] ] . (31)
o )
From this it would appear that the variations of dt (DC) = 0 l(-iCo+a )
A, as described by d A / d t , along a particle path
are of some importance. We remark that the ((DC)) (36)
operator D 2 in eq. (12) is hyperbolic in its spatial x <be>"
characteristics:
D 2 x_ _a 2 _ a2 + 2i ax By. (32) This predicts an oscillatory, exponential growth
of the moments (DC>,(DC). The above does
This would favor largest values of d A / d t in show that the effect of temporal variations of A is
those regions where A - 1 ½ ( A ~ . - C 2) is dis- to modulate the otherwise pure exponential
tributed along hyperbolic contours. growth of DC.
278 J. Weiss / The dynamics o f enstrophy transfer in 2D hydrodynamics

We conclude this section by examining a con- Eq. (43) indicates a constraint toward elliptical
straint that relates t r A 2 to the shape of the motion for this type of domain.
boundary. If the tangent plane is everywhere contained in
It is a consequence of incompressibility that D, then /3(.~,t3,~) is positive definite and

t r A 2 = d i v ( b . 71)). (37)
m2f f,.f~<fDLe(AA-C2)<M2f b.13. (44)
Bourguignon and Brezis [2] have shown that, if i)l) i~D
the boundary of the fluid domain, aD, is defined
by Exterior domains of this type are constrained
towards hyperbolicity. Conditions (43) and (44)
aD = {)~e ~": b(2~) = 0}
are, in reality, constraints on AA, since

and fi = - V b , the normal at OD, then

fDdiV(~ • V~) = £ D ( ~ " V~) " h fDC = ~)C,~. (45)

a~b(,f)
=£D,~j axiaxj tV',. (38) The influence of the boundary on the qualita-
tive properties of the motion appears to be quite
The quadratic form natural.

a2b
fl(.f,~,~) = y' ~ t , i v j (39)
U
3. Numerical simulation
is the second fundamental form of 8D in N". By
(37), We have studied the evolution of a random
initial realization of the stream function. The
f l ( a X -- C2) = £D/3( a?, I), b) da?. (40)
Euler equations in the stream function-vorticity
formulation were solved by the fully dealiased,
Several consequences of (40) follow immedi-
spectral method of Orszag [13]. The program to
ately. If OD = 4~, i.e. D ~2 o r T 2, then
=

implement this method was developed by Profes-


sor R. Salmon of Scripps Institute of Oceanogra-
fDAA= fDC2. (41) phy. For this particular simulation a cutoff"
wavenumber of 32 and an eddy viscosity term
If the tangent plane to aD is exterior to D at
-~A2C, where ~r = 1 × 10 6, were employed.
every point then /3(o?, 13,13) is negative definite:
Starting from an initial stream function with am-
-M2~3 • # </3(J?, ~),t3) < - r n 2 ~ • ~3, (42) plitude proportional to k2/(1 + k 6) and a ran-
dom phase, the method employs a leap-frog time
where .~ ~ aD and M 2, m 2 depend on the curva- differencing with smoothing every 20 time steps
to eliminate the spurious computational mode.
ture of aD.
Since the energy is normalized to be one and a
As a consequence
time step is 0.01, an eddy turnover time consists
--M2f~}DV'V< fD 2 ( a x - C 2 ) < -m2f ~ • 9. of nearly 100 time steps. Every 10 time steps the
aD stream function was output onto disk. Thus in the
(43) figures a label Record 17 indicates a time of 1.7.
J. Weiss / The dynamics of enstrophy transfer in 2D hydrodynamics 279

6.0
IL.IL-.
i.0 -
fc" 4.."
4,0-

-~.0 lb " =b 1 .......


|0
N

Fig. 1, T o t a l e n s t r o p h y / D c u r l L' - c u r l t'. R e c o r d n u m b e r 1 to 50.

From the stream function we have produced con- area preserving maps [3]. This process is associ-
tour plots for the vorticity, magnitude of strain, ated with the first peak in the value of the total
the quantity AA- C 2, the magnitude of d A / d t vorticity gradients; the following decrease being
and the magnitude of the gradients of vorticity. In associated with the increased dissipation caused
addition, we have produced graphs of the spectra by the transfer of enstrophy to the higher
for the vorticity (= rate of strain) and the gradi- wavenumbers. The further evolution of the sys-
ents of the vorticity. tem appears to involve the wrapping of vorticity
Since it is necessary to use an eddy-viscosity gradients about the hyperbolic centers, by folding
term to prevent reflection of energy at the cutoff and stretching of the fluid in these regions.
wavenumber, the total enstrophy is decaying with Further numerical studies of the phenomena
time. See fig. 1. Nevertheless, the qualitative fea- discussed in this paper are presented by M.
tures of the solution are quite interesting. Brachet et al. in ref. [16].
The random initial gradients of vorticity have
evolved by frame 11 into a tightly localized pat-
1oo
tern that is related to the central hyperbolic re-
gion. There are two hyperbolic regions. The lm'-
stronger one located at the center of the frame llo i
and a weaker one located in upper left corner, tso ~
tm~
with label on the left. These hyperbolic regions
t4o
may be identified with reference to either the Im '
vorticity or tr A z contours.
fvc.vc ~o~
The strain appears to be confined almost solely ll0 •
to the hyperbolic region. The magnitude of d A / d t 100
is highly intermittent; being confined to several go~
so'
small regions that appear to migrate from left to ~o~
right during the evolution. so~
A curious event occurs in frames 26 through so
37. In these frames the vorticity gradients stream- 4oi
30'
ing from the hyperbolic centers are observed to 60
interact and intensify. This phenomenon is strik- N
ingly similar to the interaction between hyper- Fig. 2. Total magnitudc of vorticity gradients /D V C - ~'C.
bolic (unstable) fixed points observed for general Record number 2 to 54.
280 J. Weiss / The dynamics of enstrophy transfer in 2D hydrodynamics

." ~ •,
o

F
I /
REC= ,.q REC= [5 FEC= IS REC= • ~/

~.
! /o-
" %~
~°~
4 ~F

L FEC-
./
t¢ REC = i [
__m
P2U =
,

~2
/,/

i i . . . . . .
~EC~ ~3

t' l

it'

. ' j
RE~: .% R--_S= 7 REC = '8 REC= 9

jT----~ C"~"'=, ] ;~ ~. 6 . _ -~- *- ~' - . ~


." ' oi~ .I g
°-~ ~-:~-~. " t,'i
!

i;-,,,~¢,d< -- _ , f)~

° ~ ~ ~' t'.' 2~" i ~ ;"0.


~
.e~, ~ . ~ o -~', ~ I ~'" • //~ ~" .o .a,~ ~ I .;L °-
'~,% I,) - ~ " ~-~ '
t " . ' ~ ° o-,""~-~ ,, ~ , ' ~
REC- 2 REC = 3 REC= q REC= 5

Fig. 3. Contour plots of the magnitude of the vorticity gradients, VC • VC. Frames 2 through 53.
J. Weiss / The dynamics of en.strophy transfer in 2D hydrodynamics 281

-o- ~, "-~. i

RE(:= 32~ REC~ 3£ REC- 32 vEC = 33

%-
"7-

,••i
~"" %

/, REC-
X
26 REC= 27 REC= 28 REC= ~3

\/ !,\, .\ /

_N J_
REC= 22 REC- 22 REC= 2~ REC= 25

i
i!
/ J/
REC= t9 REC= 2~ REC= 2t
REC= 18

Fig. 3. C o n t i n u e d
282 J. Weiss ,I The dynamics of enstrophy transfer in 2D hydrodynamics

%" ~0
./' 7 " . ' ,::'~.
°

~o' %,

CC ...... .,,#I
qES= ~Z ~EC= ~7 ZEC- q9 REC- 49

- ' # #,
~, ", ) ""

~" ~ k~ " ," ,~


RET M q2 REC= ',-3 REC= qq REC= q5

. • -.. - ~ , - i. - -°-~,~

C, " ~, "1 i & # ~ ~ ,6

°'{_ .~]I.'~ t
REC- ~7
I ,._ REC= ql
:~_
REC = 23 REC = 33

V_~.. P I->=-.o....eL~

('~ -- V.
L_J I J_ . . . . . . .~:'u REC= REC= 97
REC= 34 REC= -'-~ 3B

Fig. 3. Continued
J. Weiss / The dynamics of enstrophy transfer in 2D hydrodynamics 283

"~:.. } .4."
- oo~_X,, • i1¢

,/,#.:;, o~..
/ ,:_.,..:' o,
,

' I "°0~.
<,i i~ ~°.o...,
REC= S~ REC= 55 REC= 5B REC = 57

-°, ... ~ ".. ~- . .,t.:.~,


II " ..: °°
. . ,..
•~: .~ :;.~"

•. 'i~
/ ,eY'..' '~"'," °.. c.
ii@:
~ _--"~ %,~--o~
"k ~b
I~'. "~.:-. .,~i I -.¢'°.- "t', ,.':. M
, ; " ', X.:. ,--~.;
VI '~ '~ ~¢" I. " " > i~ ' ~, '~ ~ r
0
' '~ JO% " " }~

._ . . . . . '

REC= F~ R.~C= 51 ~EC = .-']? REC= 5:3

Fig. 3. Continued

4. Summary and conclusions highly intermittent in space, and is possibly asso-


ciated with the turning of the vorticity gradients
In section 2 we have presented several equa- about the central hyperbolic region. In regard to
tions and relationships that may be useful in this, the folding of fluid about the central hyper-
understanding the enstrophy transfer process. It bolic region that occurs in frames 26 to 37 can be
is indicated that the transfer of vorticity to small seen, from the spectra for the vorticity gradients,
scales occurs in the regions of hyperbolic motion; to be the cause of the intensification of the vortic-
and that the transfer, subject to certain assump- ity gradients at the lower wavenumbers. The bump
tions on the behavior of the strain fluctuations, in the spectra is subsequently translated to the
proceeds exponentially fast. An identity connect- higher wavenumbers by the stretching process.
ing the shape of the boundary to the qualitative This sequence of events is somewhat reminiscent
properties of the flow is established. of the Smale horseshoe map.
The numerical solution of Euler's equations We recall from eq. (12) that
described in section 3 supports, in general, the
hypothesis that enstrophy transfer is associated dh
dt = D 2 ( D D ) -1½(hA - C2). (46)
with the stretching and folding of fluid in the
hyperbolic regions. The shape operator, D2(DD) -1, relates d h / d t
A major unresolved point is the validity of the to I ( A A - C 2) in the same manner that h is
assumption that the strain is slowly varying along related to C in eq. (14). That is,
a particle path with respect to the vorticity gradi-
ents. Inspection of the numerical solution reveals dA
that the Lagrangian derivative of the strain is
D~i-=DO, 0 = ½ ( A A - C2). (47)
-ID

.d

t° I
.>_

,..2

-i~F--
0

i E

D %~.o i
I

~,/©,,':,. y-.'.,...,
',..t F" ~

i••• i, .. ~ . ,

,.....,-
: 7 '~. "a ~

, <:,.%"........'-..-.'1 ~
11:

- <~
c~
E
3
~"/ "-. ,...':~ I ~ @ ~
k v G,,....x../ZT"'-, I :

w E
t, :,.,, ..... ;:<:,tt...~-,:ti V
1.......; :"it ..... I-,~ ....

1- .', "::'
~.~. "'~:."
,'" (-3,7,Y:.c;r"J
",.,.'> .T'~-"I~
I. . - -.",; . ""I
i ~
,..:.,..:...,..,
,. ,.., "~,~..,~.,~,
.',--..~'.'~.
"-...~,--
4~_ •....
~i, .- .-.-. . -,-_~ ~.
l i ~ ~ .I ~ i / (.~.:

i " ~ ' " - ~ " : .::"-: ..M k (D

~cJ
"," .: ........
f"'\. : G

.... . ~ .... ," .~ '~,, .......... d P-" <0


t:L':,"..'.~.... .( ,,::,',, e,Z;;:'_;~'~ I /
! ,..,-..:., ,., , . . , "i.,.,~3l,,."l /
I..;~, 1", "'"t~ ,, ; % .ilillI" : ~ ' I i
s ":" H~.o ~ :,D ~ :.
)
,:<...:,~..:......, ~ , J
~ ~ ,.. ..~:" /" .-': ,,* . . . . ,~.
~ ° .

".,'"-~"""" '~,g..-~::::::::t ~
,'' ;! ,,,....,.k:',
.:"" , i .~.;,...--.,, .... , ~...'-.,,~-~. :
~--.:.. "' ~ - , .":..>:~>- l
: \~:::.<.-:~k;" L?.!:~ , " ............ ,,.. " "

• .~'. ,~; ~ .-,.'~,~

- - - ~.~, :if ' ; " , . . . ; ..... "~,1

~-:' ..'-",-,-,
'.,Q.,.~ :-.'~:. 1
;. U.~ ~..."-..-:::::-.,J if)

g "'. "-,.../','""',- .... """"',1


i \ k ...... ; ....... ......... ',
,..; . ¢ " : ~ - , . / - ~
. .

t &

1...'", r i ~, "~;
i"..,'-..{':!!:.,: '~. ~) "':::::~!!~::....
"~~"
?
~ -~,i~"
~."'~/..:~"
~ " ~ ! :,,,.~
.,,,s <>-:-.,,. • , .
,=.

'll

rl.

p !

n~ /
I@
:j
%

<~ .

X ".. :.-." .:.~..,;/ .~


\ ",. t .'.;I -P~\X

.,..,~ ,.. ~
~ ~,,.,,,,
i ~ ' ~ ....
~,
"/-, ..... ~_:-.-..". - . . ~
,o : : ¢ : : ',...... ; ##,'

/ ,,; .~........ ,j:. -..~';~/


L~

, '.....A..?
©)..~:~
", ,..~..-.~:.::;]
.............
LZ
I-.,:'."........
-j",,"'-~...:::.,.,
.,. "- .o .... ~.'$,-
0 .~ .,~ o

~..., :y o,.'.
.......
...._--~,-..,.,:_

~,%.'. .i ,. . /" • ....................


"""
I,, ..... .., ,,..,,.~:~ --..,
~', : " " ." .-"~,'~=:L--,,"-,,
I '. '..I ..... ., .," ..,..~,¢~,.
i I~ i "'. ..... .i !>...~bO~',",

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Fig. 5. Continued

At several points in this paper we have re- where


marked that there appear to be similarities be-
tween two-dimensional hydrodynamics and the
general theory of area-preserving maps. It is use-
ful to remember that hydrodynamics does define and, when t = 0, ~ = -to.
an area-preserving map: The Jacobian J of the map 2 o ~ 32 is

d2 Yx,)]
d--}- = ~ ' (48) (49)
294 J. Weiss / The dynamics of enstrophy transfer in 2D hydrodynamics

If gradients directly reflects the properties of the


underlying area-preserving map.

(50)
Acknowledgements
and
I want to thank J. Greene, V. Seshardri and M.
Tabor of La Jolla Institute, and R. Salmon of
Scripps Institute of Oceanography, for several
helpful discussions during the course of this work.
I also want to thank Nurit Weiss for help in
then preparing the numerical studies for this paper.

dJ
d~=JA and VC=-AVC, (51) References

[ll J. Herring, J. A~mos. Sci. 32 (t975) 2254-2271.


From eqs. (51) it follows immediately that [2] J. Bourguigonon and H. Brezis, J. Funct. Anal. 15 (1974)
341-363.
d [3] M. Berry and M~ Tabor, Ann. Phys. 122 (1979) 26-63.
y/(y vc) =0, (52) [4] J.M. Green, J. Math. Phys. 9 (1968) 760-768.
[5] T. Kato, Arch, Ratl. Mech. Anal. 25 (1967) 188.
[6] R. Kraichnan, Phys. Fluids 10 (1967) 1417.
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(1967) 895.
[8] A. Pouquet, M. Lesieur, LC. Andre and C. Basdevant,
J VC = VC ,; (53) J. Fluid Mech. 72 (1975) 305.
[9] D. Lilly, J. Fluid Mech, 45 (1971) 395.
[10] B. Fornberg, J. Comp. Phys. 25 (1977).
or
[11] P, Saffman, Stud, Appl. Math. 50 (1971) 377.
[12] R. Kraichnan~ J, Fluid Mech. 67 (1975) 155~
[13] S. Orszag and M. Israeli, Ann. Rev. Fluid Mech, 6 (1974)
VC = J- l VC0. (54) 281
[14] R. Fox, J. Math, Phys. 17 (1976) 1148.
[15] B. West, K. Liudenberg and V. Seshardri, Physica A 102
Thus, the inverse of the Jacobian is the evolu-
(1980) 470-488,
tion operator for the gradients of the vorticity. [16] M. Brachet, M. Meneguzzi, H. Politano and P.L. Sulem,
This being the case, the evolution of the vorticity J. Fluid Mech. 194 (1988) 333-349.