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Jibin Johnson, Abdul Anzar V M, Abith Shani, Harif Rahiman P, Hashmi Hameed T S, Nithin V S

Department of Mechanical Engineering, IES College of Engineering. Kerala ,India

Abstract— Heat exchangers are used in industrial processes to process fluid and the inlet temperature of the utility are

recover heat between two process fluids. All the heat exchangers known for the specific design of the exchanger.

are designed based on the function it fulfills in a process.

Although the necessary equations for heat transfer and the

pressure drop in a double pipe heat exchanger are available,

using these equations the validation of the design is laborious. In

this paper the analytical design of the exchanger has been

validated based on the results obtained from the CFD analysis.

In this paper the CFD analysis is based on the standard k-ε

modeling. The solution of the problem yields the optimum values

of inner pipe diameter, outer pipe diameter and utility flow rate

to be used for a double pipe heat exchanger of a given effective

length, when a specified flow rate of process stream is to be

treated for a given inlet to outlet temperature.

Fig.1. Three double pipe heat exchangers in series

Index Terms—Design, Heat exchanger, Analysis, Pressure drop,

Heat transfer, Double pipe, CFD

II. ANALYTICAL THEORY

I. INTRODUCTION Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is the science of

Heat transfer equipment is defined by the function it fulfills predicting fluid flow, heat and mass transfer, chemical

in a process. The objective of any such equipment is to reactions, and related phenomena by solving numerically the

maximize the heat transferred between the two fluids. set of governing mathematical equations, such as

However, the problem that occurs is that the parameters conservation of mass, conservation of momentum,

which increase the heat transfer also increase the pressure conservation of energy, conservation of species, effects of

drop of the fluid flowing in a pipe. Therefore, a design which body forces, etc. The results of CFD analyses are relevant in,

increases the heat transferred, but simultaneously could keep conceptual studies of new designs, detailed product

the pressure drop of the fluid flowing in the pipes to development, troubleshooting, redesign. CFD analysis

permissible limits, is very necessary. A common problem in complements testing and experimentation by reducing total

industries is to extract maximum heat from a utility stream effort and cost required for experimentation and data

coming out of a particular process, and to heat a process acquisition.

stream. This paper is based on a plant study conducted in a ANSYS CFD solvers are based on the finite volume

chemical processing company of caustic soda (TCCL, method. In this method domain is discretized into a finite set

Kerala). A solution to extract the maximum heat could have of control volumes. After those general conservation

been to increase the heat transfer area or to increase the (transport) equations for mass, momentum, energy, species,

coolant flow rate. But increasing these parameters without etc. are solved on this set of control volumes. [5]

pressure drop considerations is not advisable. Traditional

t V

design method of heat exchangers involves the consideration dV V .dA .dA S dV (1)

of all the design variables with a laborious procedure of trial A

A

V

and error, taking all possible variations into consideration. Unsteady Convection Diffusion Generation

This time consuming procedure can be reduced somewhat by These Partial differential equations are discretized into a

making some reasonable assumptions. Also these procedures system of algebraic equations. All those algebraic equations

are not convenient, will have some errors. are then solved numerically to render the solution field.

In order to validate those designs prepared by trial and Where ρ, is the density, Φ, is the temperature difference, V, is

error procedures some analyzing methods are needed. Among

the volume, V , is the velocity vector and A, is the area.

these the analysis using softwares are more profitable than

experimental analysis. We have considered the design of a

double pipe heat exchanger by considering three main

parameters – the inner and outer diameter of the heat

exchanger and the flow rate of the utility. It is assumed that the

flow rate, the inlet and the required outlet temperature of the

1283

ISSN: 2278 – 7798 All Rights Reserved © 2015 IJSETR

International Journal of Science, Engineering and Technology Research (IJSETR), Volume 4, Issue 5, May 2015

given below,

TABLE 2

NOMINAL PIPE SIZES

Pipe Inner diameter (m) Annulus (m)

Fig.2. Fluid region in a pipe flow, discretized into a finite set Annulus, 3” 0.0603 0.0889

of control volumes

There are mainly nine steps in the CFD analysis under four

stages. The first stage is problem identification, which With help all the data mentioned above the designing of the

includes defining the analysis goals and identifying the double pipe heat exchanger was completed. And finally the

domain that will be analyzed. And in the second stage, number of pipes and the number of hair pins are obtained. In

pre-processing includes creating a solid geometrical model, this example, number of pipes = 8 and number of hairpins = 7.

designing and generating the mesh, setting up the physics and

defining the solver settings. The solution will be computed in

the solving stage. Finally in the post processing stage the IV. ANALYTICAL DATA

results will be examined and the model will be updated if After the design stage has completed we need to analyze

revisions are needed. our design for validating our results. In the case of double

In the CFD there are several types of models related to pipe heat exchanger the flow of fluids through the pipe have to

different situations. Among these in this paper we adopted the be analyzed. For this Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD)

RANS-based turbulence models, specifically standard k-ε analysis is necessary. ANSYS is the one of the important

model for the design example mentioned. Where k, is the software to conduct the CFD analysis. The CFD analysis

turbulent kinetic energy and ε, is the dissipation rate. The mainly based on the geometry modeled as per the design

dissipation rate is related to turbulent kinetic energy by, results. In the case of above design example the double pipe

3 heat exchanger was modeled in the solid works (Fig.3).

2

k

(2)

Lt

where Lt, is the turbulence length. [5]

This paper is based on the plant study conducted in the

Caustic Concentration and Flanking (CCF) plant of TCC Ltd,

Kerala, India. Here a plate heat exchanger is under gasket

failure as per the operating conditions given below,

Fig.3. Model of double pipe heat exchanger

TABLE 1

OPERATING CONDITIONS

The analysis was done in ANSYS fluent. The model prepared

Operating conditions Shell side Tube side

in the solid works was simplified in to symmetric fluid

(NaOH) (steam)

sections in the design modeler for the easy computation of

Mass flow rate (kg/hr) 5501 3722.8

analysis.

Temperature (in-out) (oC) 66.7-140 170.4-80.1

Pressure (bar) 5 7

viscosity, µ=3.1 mPa.s, thermal conductivity, k=0.75 W/m2K,

density, ρ=1355kg/m3 and the fluid properties of steam,

specific heat, Cp=4.2 kJ/kgK, viscosity, µ=0.16 mPa.s,

thermal conductivity, k=0.68 W/m2K, density, ρ=935 kg/m3.

We have to design a double pipe heat exchanger as per the

same operating conditions of plate heat exchanger and the

above mentioned fluid properties. The aim of design is to heat

the NaOH using the steam. [2], [3]

Using the above design data the double pipe heat exchanger Fig.4. Simplified model of fluid bodies

is designed as per the design procedure mentioned by [1] and

[4]. Before starting the design we have to assume the inner After the model had simplified, the model was meshed (Fig.5)

pipe and annulus diameters as per the pipe standards. In this to discretize the entire structure into finite volumes. In this

1284

International Journal of Science, Engineering and Technology Research (IJSETR), Volume 4, Issue 5, May 2015

analysis the boundary conditions are applied at nodes of each scale range, which shows the perfect heat transfer rate. From

finite volume. these results we can compare the theoreticaly calculated heat

transfer rate with the results obtained from analysis.

TABLE 3

RESULT VALIDATION

Parameter Theoretical Analytical

Inner Annulus Inner Annulus

pipe pipe

Temperature 170.4 - 66.7 - 177 - 66.7 -

(oC) (in-out) 80.1 140 112 194

Heat transfer 1411.28 2450.97

rate (J/hr)

Fig.5. Meshed structure

After meshing is completed the physical setup for calculations VI. CONCLUSION

including boundary conditions and solver settings were The design and analysis of the double pipe heat exchanger

entered. After all the values had entered the CFD computation has been a great success.

will be started. The iterations are continued till the The design stages mentioned in the literature can

convergence of results had obtained. applicable for all the simple designing of double pipe

heat exchangers.

V. RESULT VALIDATION

The analytical stage in this paper shows the validity of the

The aim of this analysis is to validate the design of double design procedure mentioned above.

pipe heat exchanger mentioned in the design example. The Also we can use this type design for solving the problems in

results obtained from the analysis are given below, industrial processes as mentioned in the design example.

Also the validation will show the existence of the design.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

The authors would like to thank Mr. E.Sreemohan Chief

Engineer, Mechanical Maintenance Department, Travancore

Cochin Chemicals Ltd. Ernakulam, Kerala, India for their

technical support and experimental assistance throughout the

work.

REFERENCES

Fig.6. Velocity contour [1] Donald.Q. Kern, Process Heat Transfer, McGraw Hill Book

Company Inc., New York, NY, 1965.

[2] Robert H. Perry, Don W. Green, Chemical Engineer’s hand book,

McGraw Hill Book Company Inc., New York, NY, 1977.

[3] C.P. Kothandaraman,S. Subramanyam, Heat and Mass Transfer

databook, New Age International (P) Ltd., New Delhi, seventh

edition, 2010.

[4] Prabhata .K Swamee, Nitin Aggarwal, Vijay Aggarwal, Optimum

Design of Double Pipe Heat Exchanger, Int.J. Heat and mass

transfer, 51 (2008) 2260–2266.

[5] ANSYS training manual, Fluent 12, first edition, ANSYS. Inc.

Proprietary, Canonsburg, 2009.

NOMENCLATURE

Fig.7. Temperature pathlines by static temperature T1 & T2 - Inlet and outlet temperatures of annulus

T 1 & t2 - Inlet and outlet temperatures of inner pipe

From the that we had obtained we can analyze that the design w - Mass flow rate of annulus

of double pipe heat exchanger had reached a great sucesss. By m - Mass flow rate of inner pipe

observing the velocity contours we can infer that the velocity Pbns - Pressure based navier-stokes

distribution inside the pipes are in the lower range of colour Ske - Standard k-ϵ

code. That means the velocity ditribution is minimum to RANS - Reynolds Average Navier-Stokes equaiton

enhance the heat transfer rate. Also the temperature pathlines

shows that the temperature distribution is in the maximum

1285

ISSN: 2278 – 7798 All Rights Reserved © 2015 IJSETR

International Journal of Science, Engineering and Technology Research (IJSETR), Volume 4, Issue 5, May 2015

AUTHORS

Mechanical Engineering from Calicut University, Student in

IESCE, Chittilappilly, Thrissur, Kerala, India.

Mechanical Engineering from Calicut University, Student in

IESCE, Chittilappilly, Thrissur, Kerala, India.

Engineering from Calicut University, Student in IESCE,

Chittilappilly, Thrissur, Kerala, India.

Mechanical Engineering from Calicut University, Student in

IESCE, Chittilappilly, Thrissur, Kerala, India.

Mechanical Engineering from Calicut University, Student in

IESCE, Chittilappilly, Thrissur, Kerala, India.

Department of Mechanical Engineering, IESCE,

Chittilappilly, Thrissur, Kerala, India.

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