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Stoichiometry and Reactions

Unit 2 Page 21

Learning Target 2.8:

I can explain the process of oxidation and reduction in a chemical reaction.

Criteria for Success:

I can determine the oxidation state for any atom in an element, ion, or compound.

I can identify the species being oxidized or reduced in a redox reaction.

I can write the oxidation or reduction half-reaction given the complete balanced redox reaction.

Notes
Scan for Video Tutorial Oxidation Numbers and the Process of Oxidation and Reduction
A. Many chemical reactions involve the transfer of _______________ between atoms
or ions.

1. Reactions where electrons are transferred from one atom to another are
called _______________ reactions. They are also known as _______________
reactions for short.

2. Atoms that Lose Electrons are being Oxidized; atoms that Gain Electrons
are being Reduced.
“LEO says GER”

B. _______________ numbers (oxidation states) are the charges that an atom actually
has when in an _______________ compound. When in a _______________ compound, they
represent the charge that the atom would have if the compound were ionic.

1. These numbers are used to determine what is _______________ and what is

_______________ in _______________ reactions.

2. They are often written above or below each element in a chemical

reaction to keep _______________ of what is losing electrons and what is
gaining electrons.
Stoichiometry and Reactions
Unit 2 Page 22

C. When assigning oxidation numbers use the following rules in order of ____________:
1. Free _______________ have an oxidation state of _______________.
Na = 0 in Na(s) and Cl2 = 0 in Cl2(g)

2. Monatomic _______________ have an oxidation state equal to their charge.

Na+1 = +1 in Na+1(aq) and Cl-1 = −1 in Cl-1(aq)

Na = +1 in NaCl

Mg = +2 in MgCl2

5. In their compounds, NONMETALS have oxidation states according to the

table below. Nonmetals HIGHER on the table take priority.

6. The ________ of the oxidation states of all the atoms in a _________ compound
is _____________.
Na = +1 and Cl = −1 in NaCl(s), (+1) + (−1) = 0

7. The ____________ of the oxidation states of all the atoms in a polyatomic ion
equals the _______________ on the ion.
N = +5 and O = −2 in NO3–(aq), (+5) + 3(−2) = −1
Stoichiometry and Reactions
Unit 2 Page 23

Identifying REDOX Reactions

A. In order to identify a _______________ reaction, write the _______________ number
for each _______________ in the reaction as outlined in the rules above.

1. A substance that has the element that has been _______________ (LOST
electrons) will have an oxidation number that becomes more ______________.

2. A substance that has the element that has been _______________ (GAINED
electrons) will have an oxidation number that becomes more _______________.

B. Often, you will be asked to identify the _______________ to more clearly illustrate the
process of oxidation and reduction. _______________ will be written in the half-
reaction using the symbol e-.

Oxidation Half-Reaction Reduction Half-Reaction

Zn(s) → Zn2+(aq) + 2e- Fe2+(aq)+ 2e- → Fe(s)

C. Oxidation and reduction MUST occur _______________. In order for one atom to
_______________ electrons another atom MUST have _______________ them.
Stoichiometry and Reactions
Unit 2 Page 24

Learning Target 2.9:

I can distinguish between types of solutions.

I can write equations for the dissolution of soluble compounds in water.

I can determine the number of moles of ions formed upon the dissolution of soluble ionic compounds.

I can distinguish between electrolytic and non-electrolytic solutions.

Notes
Scan for Video Tutorial Water and the Solution Process
A. An _______________ solution is water that contains _______________ substances.

B. The solution process depends on the _______________ of attraction between the

_______________, the thing getting dissolved, and the _______________, the thing doing the
dissolving (in many cases the solvent is water).

them together.

2. There are also attractive forces between the _______________ molecules.

3. When we mix the solute with the solvent, there are attractive forces
between the _______________ particles and the _______________ molecules.

4. If the attractions between _______________ and _______________ are strong

enough, the _______________ will dissolve.
Stoichiometry and Reactions
Unit 2 Page 25

Dissolution of Soluble Compounds

A. When an _______________ compound made of _______________ dissolves in water, the
ions _______________ from one another. This is called _______________ and is the result
of the strong attraction between the ions and the polar water molecules.

1. The result is a solution with free moving charged particles able to conduct
_____________________________.
2. The number of IONS produced in solution depends upon the _________ in the
original _______________.
𝐻2 𝑂
𝑁𝑎𝐶𝑙(𝑠) → 𝑁𝑎1+ (𝑎𝑞) + 𝐶𝑙1− (𝑎𝑞)
𝐻2 𝑂
𝐶𝑎𝐶𝑙2 (𝑠) → 𝐶𝑎2+ (𝑎𝑞) + 2𝐶𝑙1− (𝑎𝑞)

B. Most _______________ compounds (except for acids which we will discuss in a

later unit), dissolve in water as _______________ molecules
Stoichiometry and Reactions
Unit 2 Page 26

Electrolytic/Non-Electrolytic Solutions
A. A solute that dissolves in water to give a solution of _______________ does
conduct electric current and is called an ________________________.
1. Typically, _______________ compounds will conduct electrical current when
dissolved in water.
2. Strong _______________ (which we will discuss in a later unit) also are good
electrolytes.

B. A solute that dissolves in water to give a solution of ___________________________ does

_______________ conduct electric current is called a _____________________.
1. Typically, _______________ compounds will _________ conduct electrical current
when dissolved in water.

C. A solute that dissolves mostly as _______________ but partially as ____________ does

(although not as well) conduct electric current is called a ____________ electrolyte.
1. Typically, weak ______________ (which we will discuss in a later unit) are
generally weak electrolytes.
Stoichiometry and Reactions
Unit 2 Page 27

Learning Target 2.10:

I can describe a precipitation reaction.

Criteria for Success:

I can utilize a list of solubility rules to predict whether a precipitate will form when solutions of soluble
ionic compounds are combined.

Notes
Scan for Video Tutorial Precipitation Reactions
A. A _______________ reaction is a reaction in which _______________ ions in separate
solutions are mixed together to form an _______________ compound that settles out
of solution as a _______________.
1. The insoluble compound that settles out is called a _______________.
2. Use a reference chart of _______________ rules to determine which
compounds will form a _______________. In _______________, you _______________
____________ that compounds containing the following ions are _____________:
NH4+ NO3- Na+ K+
Stoichiometry and Reactions
Unit 2 Page 28

2. Determine formulas of possible products by exchanging ions.

REMEMBER, precipitation reactions ARE _______________ replacement reactions.
i. _______________ ion from one reactant with _______________ ion from other
ii. Balance charges of combined ions to get the formula of each
product. __________________________

rules.

4. If neither product will precipitate, write _________________ after the arrow.

5. If any of the possible products are insoluble, write their formulas as the
products of the reaction using (___) after the formula to indicate
_____________. Write any soluble products with (___) after the formula to
indicate _______________.
6. _______________ the equation. Remember to only change
_______________, not subscripts.
Stoichiometry and Reactions
Unit 2 Page 29

Learning Target 2.11:

I can describe a precipitation reaction in terms of a molecular, complete ionic, or net ionic equation.

Criteria for Success:

I can utilize a list of solubility rules to predict whether a precipitate will form when solutions of soluble
ionic compounds are combined.

I can write a balanced molecular, complete ionic, or net ionic equation for a given chemical reaction.

Notes
Scan for Video Tutorial Net Ionic Equations
A. A __________________________ includes only those compounds and ions that undergo a
_______________ change in a reaction in an aqueous solution.

1. Ions that do _______________ take part in a chemical reaction and are found in
solution both before and after the reaction are _________________________.
Stoichiometry and Reactions
Unit 2 Page 30

B. Use the following _______________ to write net ionic equations.

1. First, write the _______________ equation (this is the type of equation you
are used to writing).

2. Second, convert the chemical equation into an overall, or _______________,

ionic equation. All _______________ ionic compounds are shown as
dissociated ions in solution. The _______________ compounds are shown as
solids.
3. Third, cancel the _______________ ions on both sides of the equation.

4. Finally, rewrite the final _______________ equation _____________ spectator ions.

Example
Write the net ionic equation for the following reaction:
(NH4)2S(aq) + Cd(NO3)2(aq) → 2NH4NO3(aq) + CdS(s)

1.

2-3.

4.
Stoichiometry and Reactions
Unit 2 Page 31

Learning Target 2.12:

I can perform stoichiometric calculations involving concentrations of solutions.

I can solve the molarity equation for amount in moles

I can use the amount in moles determined from the molarity equation to calculate moles, mass in grams,
volume of gas, or number of particles of any other reactant or product in the reaction.

Notes
Scan for Video Tutorial Solution Stoichiometry
A. The _______________ equation can be rearranged to solve for _______________.

𝑚𝑜𝑙𝑒𝑠
𝑚𝑜𝑙𝑎𝑟𝑖𝑡𝑦 (𝑀) = ⟹ 𝑚𝑜𝑙𝑒𝑠 = 𝑚𝑜𝑙𝑎𝑟𝑖𝑡𝑦(𝑀) × 𝐿
𝐿

B. Once you have determined the number of moles in the solution, you can use
this to perform _______________ calculations to determine amount in moles, mass in
grams, volume of a gas, or number of particles of any other reactant or product in
the reaction using dimensional analysis.

Gravimetric Analysis and Volumetric Analysis (Titrations)

A. _______________ analysis uses the formation of a _______________ and a balanced
chemical equation to allow the quantitative analysis (perform stoichiometry
calculations) of a dissolved _______________.

B. The _______________ technique, also known as _______________, uses a titrant, with a

known concentration, being added to the analyte, with an unknown
concentration, up to the _______________ point.

1. The _______________ point is the point at which the analyte is exactly and
totally consumed, it is in its stoichiometric ratio, by the titrant
Stoichiometry and Reactions
Unit 2 Page 32

Guided Practice
Directions: Answer the following multiple choice questions without the use of a calculator. It’s important that you
practice estimation for the multiple choice section of the AP Chemistry exam.

Scan for Video 1. Consider the reactions of the Ostwald Process for the production of nitric acid below. What
Tutorial
mass of NH3 would be needed to produce 126 g of HNO3? The first two reactions have 50.%
yields and the last reaction has 25% yield.
4NH3(g) + 5O2(g) → 4NO(g) + 6H2O(l)
2NO(g) + O2(g) → 2NO2(g)
2NO2(g) + H2O(l) → HNO3(aq) + HNO2(aq)
A) 4.3g
B) 15g
C) 210g
D) 1100g

Scan for Video 2. Which describes the final laboratory observations when 0.40 moles of NaOH(s) is added to
Tutorial
0.50 liters of 0.60 M CuCl2 solution?
A) A precipitate forms; excess copper ions are found
B) A precipitate forms; excess hydroxide ions are found
C) A nearly colorless solution forms; excess copper ions are found
D) A nearly colorless solution forms; excess hydroxide ions are found

Scan for Video 3. Consider the reaction:

Tutorial
2 Na3PO4 + 3 ZnCl2 → Zn3(PO4)2 + 6 NaCl.
0.40 moles of sodium phosphate solution is mixed with 0.50 moles of zinc chloride solution.
Which lists the ions in solution after the reaction occurs, in order of increasing
concentration?
A) Na+ < Cl- < Zn2+ < PO43-
B) PO43- < Zn2+ < Na+ < Cl-
C) Zn2+ < Cl- < PO43- < Na+
D) Zn2+ < PO43- < Cl- < Na+
Stoichiometry and Reactions
Unit 2 Page 33

Scan for Video 4. What volume of a 0.200M solution of silver nitrate is required to react with 21.3g of
Tutorial
potassium phosphate?
3Ag+(aq) + PO43-(aq) → Ag3PO4(s)

Molar Mass of Ag3PO4 = 418.57g mol-1

Molar Mass of AgNO3 = 169.87g mol-1
Molar Mass of K3PO4 = 212.27g mol-1
Molar Mass of KNO3 = 101.10g mol-1
A) 0.200L
B) 0.300L
C) 0.500L
D) 1.50L

Scan for Video 5. An antacid tablet containing magnesium hydroxide as an active ingredient requires 22.6mL
Tutorial
of 0.597M HCl for complete neutralization. What mass of magnesium hydroxide did the
tablet contain?
1𝐿 𝐻𝐶𝑙 0.597𝑚𝑜𝑙 𝐻𝐶𝑙 1 𝑚𝑜𝑙 𝑀𝑔(𝑂𝐻)2 58.32𝑔 𝑀𝑔(𝑂𝐻)2
A) 22.6𝑚𝐿 𝐻𝐶𝑙 × × × ×
1000𝑚𝐿𝐻𝐶𝑙 1𝐿 𝐻𝐶𝑙 2 𝑚𝑜𝑙 𝐻𝐶𝑙 1 𝑚𝑜𝑙 𝑀𝑔(𝑂𝐻)2

1𝐿 𝐻𝐶𝑙 0.597𝑚𝑜𝑙 𝐻𝐶𝑙 2 𝑚𝑜𝑙 𝑀𝑔(𝑂𝐻)2 58.32𝑔 𝑀𝑔(𝑂𝐻)2

B) 22.6𝑚𝐿 𝐻𝐶𝑙 × × × ×
1000𝑚𝐿𝐻𝐶𝑙 1𝐿 𝐻𝐶𝑙 1 𝑚𝑜𝑙 𝐻𝐶𝑙 1 𝑚𝑜𝑙 𝑀𝑔(𝑂𝐻)2

1𝐿 𝐻𝐶𝑙 0.597𝑚𝑜𝑙 𝐻𝐶𝑙 1 𝑚𝑜𝑙 𝑀𝑔(𝑂𝐻)2 58.32𝑔 𝑀𝑔(𝑂𝐻)2

C) 22.6𝑚𝐿 𝐻𝐶𝑙 × × × ×
1000𝑚𝐿𝐻𝐶𝑙 1𝐿 𝐻𝐶𝑙 1 𝑚𝑜𝑙 𝐻𝐶𝑙 1 𝑚𝑜𝑙 𝑀𝑔(𝑂𝐻)2

1𝐿 𝐻𝐶𝑙 0.597𝑚𝑜𝑙 𝐻𝐶𝑙 2 𝑚𝑜𝑙 𝑀𝑔(𝑂𝐻)2 58.32𝑔 𝑀𝑔(𝑂𝐻)2

D) 22.6𝑚𝐿 𝐻𝐶𝑙 × × × ×
1000𝑚𝐿𝐻𝐶𝑙 1𝐿 𝐻𝐶𝑙 3 𝑚𝑜𝑙 𝐻𝐶𝑙 1 𝑚𝑜𝑙 𝑀𝑔(𝑂𝐻)2
Scan for Video
Tutorial Stoichiometry and Reactions
Unit 2 Page 34

Free Response Review

QUESTION 2 [9 POINTS]
A student adds 150.mL of a 0.030M lead(II) nitrate solution to 125 mL of 0.100 M sodium iodide solution. A
chemical reaction takes place and a precipitate is formed.

(a) Write the balanced equation for the reaction, including states. [2 POINTS]

(i) Write the balanced net-ionic equation for the reaction, including states. [1 POINT]

(b) Calculate the number of moles of each reactant. [2 POINTS]

(c) Identify the limiting reactant. Show calculations to support your identification. [2 POINTS]

(d) Calculate the molar concentration of NO3−(aq) in the mixture after the reaction is complete. [2 POINTS]
Stoichiometry and Reactions
Unit 2 Page 35

(e) Circle the diagram below that best represents the results after the mixture reacts as completely as
possible. [1 POINT]

(i) After the reaction has occurred, is [Pb2+], [NO3-], [Na+], or [I-] the greatest? Explain the
reasoning used in making your choice. [1 POINT]