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Stacey M. Rigney, Anne Simmons, and Lauren Kark, Member, IEEE

1.

Energy Storage and Return (ESAR) prostheses during high existing amputee running research that relies upon classical

impact activities such as running. The advantage provided to rigid-body mechanics models [5].

amputee athletes due to the energy-storing properties of ESAR

prostheses is as yet uncertain. Conventional energy analysis As an alternative to rigid-body mechanics, continuum-

methods for prostheses rely upon multibody models with mechanics describes not only the rotation and translation of

articulating joints. Alternatively, Finite Element (FE) analysis solids, but also their deformation [6]; continuum-mechanics

treats bodies as a deforming continuum and can therefore is much more suitable for the dynamic analysis of ESAR

calculate the energy stored without using these rigid-body prostheses. Finite Element (FE) analysis is a form of

mechanics assumptions. This paper presents a concurrent computational modeling based on continuum-mechanics

multibody and FE model of the femur, tibia, socket and ESAR which can be driven by prescribed displacements to calculate

prosthesis of a transtibial amputee athlete during sprinting. resulting forces and moments. We propose a subject-specific

Gait analysis spatial data was used to conduct an offline multibody model that combines a rigid-body model of the

simulation of the affected leg’s stance phase in COMSOL skeletal elements of the amputated limb with a FE model of

Multiphysics. The calculated peak elastic strain energy of the the prosthetic component. Ultimately, the model proposed

prosthesis was 80J, with an overall RMSE of simulated marker here will be expanded into a full dynamic (time-dependent)

displacement of 4.19mm. This concurrent model presents a simulation with seamless integration between FE and motion

novel method for analyzing in vivo ESAR prosthesis behavior. capture software, the results of which can be compared to

conventional rigid-body mechanics methods to determine the

I. INTRODUCTION accuracy improvement. The aim of this study is to conduct a

The proportion of athletes and highly active people within preliminary quasi-static investigation of concurrent

the amputee population is increasing [1], which has resulted multibody and FE analysis to determine the energy storage

in the development of carbon-fiber Energy Storage and capacity of an ESAR prosthesis during amputee running. We

Return (ESAR) prostheses for high impact activities. These hypothesize that this new model of the lower-limb will

prostheses are designed to behave as springs, storing and provide information that would otherwise be unavailable

returning energy during the stance phase of gait. Recently it using rigid-body mechanics, and will therefore be a useful

has been asked whether lower-limb amputees sprinting with tool for future gait analysis of amputee running.

ESAR prostheses have an unfair advantage over their able-

bodied counterparts [2]. In order to ascertain whether II. METHODS

amputee athletes are indeed super-abled versus disabled, first Model development and validation encompassed two

we must develop accurate mechanical models for simulated stages: experimental and numerical analysis. Anthropometric

and experimental data acquisition. and gait analysis data was first measured in order to develop

The methods commonly used to analyze amputee gait are a subject-specific lower-limb computational model, and the

based on anatomical models of the lower-limb despite material properties of the subject’s prosthesis were calculated

inherent inaccuracies [3], namely the violation of the rigid- according to a previously described procedure [7]. The

®

body mechanics assumptions of conventional inverse numerical analysis utilized COMSOL Multiphysics 4.4

dynamics calculations [4]. Conversely, the material and (Stockholm, Sweden) Multi-body Dynamics (MBD) module

geometric construction of ESAR prostheses are purposely to simulate the skeletal and prosthesis components during

designed to emulate a leaf spring; the function of the stance phase of one of the experimental trials.

traditional articulating ‘ankle’ joint is replaced by the A. Experimental data collection

inherent compression of the prosthesis. This incongruence

Gait analysis was performed on a healthy 16-year-old

female right-sided transtibial amputee of mass 53.18kg and

*Research supported provided by the Commonwealth Scientific and height 171.0cm. The subject was accustomed to sprinting on

Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO) and Australian Institute of Sport her Category 2 1E90 Sprinter by Ottobock® (Duderstadt,

(AIS) in memory of Dr Tony Collings.

S. M. Rigney is with the Graduate School of Biomedical Engineering, Germany), and volunteered for the study in accordance with

UNSW Australia, Sydney, NSW 2052 AUS (email: UNSW Australia Human Research Ethics Committee

stacey.rigney@unsw.edu.au). approval HC13054. For five trials, the subject sprinted at

A. Simmons is with the School of Mechanical and Manufacturing maximum speed along an indoor 100m straight running track

Engineering, UNSW Australia, Sydney, NSW 2052 AUS (email: instrumented with eight 9287B 1000Hz Kistler®

anne.simmons@unsw.edu.au).

L. Kark is with the Graduate School of Biomedical Engineering, UNSW

(Winterthur, Switzerland) force plates and a MX T40-S

Australia, Sydney, NSW 2052 AUS (phone: +61 2 9385 0560, email: 250Hz Vicon® (Denver, Colorado, USA) motion capture

lauren.kark@unsw.edu.au). system composed of 20 cameras. The residual limb length,

978-1-4244-9270-1/15/$31.00 ©2015 Crown 2434

procedure described previously [7,9,10]. Briefly, the ESAR

RPB1 RPL1 prosthesis was held at angles α = 12°, 22° and the free distal

RPB2 RPL2 end was compressed with constant strain-rate loading and

unloading of ż = ±0.001ms-1 up to a maximum load of 1000N

RPB3 RPL3 using a uniaxial displacement-controlled crosshead fitted

RTIB with a 5000N load cell. Vertical reaction force was sampled

at 1000Hz.

RPL4

RPL5

B. Numerical model

The anthropometric measurements of the right femur and

RPL6 tibia were obtained from the marker locations during the in

RPL7 vivo static trial using the subject-specific scaling function

RANK

within OpenSim 3.2 (Stanford, California, USA)

RHEE RTOE musculoskeletal modeling software [11-15]. Scaled 3D

geometry files of the femur and tibia were then exported from

Figure 1. Markers placed on the prosthesis during gait analysis.

OpenSim as a *.VTP file, converted into a *.STL file using

the open-source software ParaView 4.2 (Clifton Park, New

York, USA), converted into a CAD file (*.SLDPRT) using

SOLIDWORKS® 2014 (Waltham, Massachusetts, USA)

z’ then imported into COMSOL Multiphysics. Prosthetic

componentry was drawn in SOLIDWORKS using the

x’ y’ measurements taken of the prosthesis and socket. The socket

was approximated as a cylinder and the shoe of the prosthesis

was simplified for modeling purposes. The geometry file of

the right tibia was amputated according to the level of the

z subject’s amputation, measured during experimental gait

analysis.

z’ The skeletal structures and prosthetic socket were

α modeled as rigid-bodies using the COMSOL Mutiphysics

y MBD module; a rigid-body is treated as a homogenous

continuum with zero internal stress [6]. The prosthesis was

modeled as a linearly elastic isotropic homogenous solid with

y’ Poisson’s ratio of 0.3 and Young’s Modulus of 3.5×104 MPa

z for the carbon fiber component, and Poisson’s ratio of 0.3

and Young’s Modulus of 1.0×103 MPa for the rubber shoe.

y Young’s Modulus of the carbon fiber was estimated from the

x

experimental in vitro mechanical testing data using inverse

Figure 2. Translation between coordinate systems and the resulant FE analysis according to the procedure described previously

angle α made by the prosthesis longitudinal axis z’ with the laboratory [7], the result of which was consistent with values provided

vertical axis z. in literature for a carbon fiber ESAR prosthesis [16]. All

inertial effects were ignored due to the quasi-static nature of

socket dimensions and prosthesis measurements were

the simulation.

recorded using Mitutoyo® (Kawasaki-shi, Kanagawa, Japan)

digital vernier calipers. Passive-reflective markers were The residual limb skeletal model was connected to the

placed on both sides of the body according to the full-body socket and prosthetic foot models via fixed attachments with

Plug-in-gait marker set [8], where locations on the prosthetic zero degrees of freedom, whilst the femur and tibia were

limb were approximated from the height of the anatomical connected via a one-degree of freedom (1DOF) hinge joint

locations. Ten additional markers were placed on the about the global x-axis to simulate the knee joint. A 1DOF

prosthesis – three along its longitudinal axis in the sagittal rigid-body prescribed angular displacement θx (in the sagittal

plane (right prosthesis lateral 1-3, RPL1-3), and three along plane only) was applied to the femur at the location

its longitudinal axis in the frontal plane (right prosthesis back corresponding to the RTHI marker, calculated using the

1-3, RPB1-3), and four markers along its lateral profile experimental translational displacement of markers RTHI and

(RPL4-7) (Figure 1). RKNE. A 3DOF translational (x,y,z) prescribed displacement

was applied at the location of the RPL1 marker via a rigid

Three-dimensional marker position data was exported

connector at the boundary on the prosthesis domain

from Vicon Nexus® 1.8 in order to determine the

corresponding to the socket attachment site. Similarly, a

translational and rotational displacement of the lower-limb

rigid connector was also applied at the distal boundary of the

anatomical landmarks as well as the range of angles α that the

prosthetic shoe to prescribe a 3DOF translational

longitudinal axis of the prosthesis z’ makes with the

displacement at the RTOE marker. The domains were free to

laboratory vertical axis z during stance (Figure 2). These

move in all other degrees of freedom.

angles were used as boundary conditions for mechanical

testing of the prosthesis, conducted in an Instron® (Norwood, A tetrahedral discretization scheme was utilized for all

Massachusetts, USA) testing machine according to the domains, with a minimum element size of 0.0055m for the

2435

prosthesis geometry as determined via a mesh convergence

study, and 0.143m for the remaining rigid bodies; a minimum 1800 90

of one element is required for accurate simulation of rigid

1500

bodies within COMSOL Multiphysics MBD. A quasi-static 1200 60

parametric solver with intervals of Δt = 0.004s was used to

solve the stance phase of the amputated leg, with initial 900

contact at t = 0.000s and toe-off at t = 0.150s. 600 30

through two methods: ground reaction force and marker data. 0 0

The simulated ground reaction force was calculated via a -300

surface integration of the stress along the distal boundary of

-600 -30

the prosthetic shoe, and then compared to the experimental 0 20 40 60 80 100

ground reaction force data. Likewise the displacement of

Stance Phase (%)

points corresponding to markers RPL4, RPL5, RPL6, RPL7,

RANK and RHEE was calculated and compared to the Exp RFx Exp RFy Exp RFz FEA RFx

experimental results. As the experimental markers had a FEA RFy FEA RFz FEA Energy

diameter of 10mm yet were modeled numerically as a single Figure 3. Experimental and simulated ground reaction force

point, the validation acceptance criterion was a RMSE of less

than 10mm. Once validated, the total elastic strain energy MPa

was calculated for each parametric quasi-static time step,

which is the total work done to produce the elastic strain in

the material.

III. RESULTS

The simulated ground reaction force followed the same

pattern as the experimental ground reaction force data,

reaching a peak vertical reaction force of approximately

1700N at t = 0.077s or at 52% of stance phase (Figure 3). The

experimental ground reaction force presented an oscillating

response during initial contact to mid-stance; the quasi-static

simulation was not able to mimic these results. From mi-

stance onwards, the simulated vertical reaction force showed

good agreement with the experimental results. The

longitudinal reaction force, which presents primarily as Figure 4. Von mises stress during mid-stance at t = 0.02s.

friction between the ground and the shoe, changed from

TABLE I. RMSE OF SIMULATED MARKER DISPLACEMENTS

posterior to anterior 0.018s or 12% later in the simulation in

comparison to the experiment. During late stance, the RMSE (mm) x-axis y-axis z-axis Mean

simulated longitudinal reaction force reached a peak that was RPL1 0.00 0.12 0.08 0.07

110N lower than the experimental value. The lateral ground RPL4 2.47 6.51 2.81 3.93

reaction force was over-predicted by approximately 60N RPL5 5.57 6.32 3.60 5.16

RPL6 5.27 8.58 4.59 6.15

during the simulation. The elastic strain energy peaked at 80J RPL7 5.13 8.51 3.29 5.64

at mid-stance, and followed a similar trajectory to the vertical RANK 3.96 6.49 3.25 4.57

reaction force (Figure 3). The peak stress occurred in the RHEE 5.13 4.33 4.93 4.80

prosthesis at the sharpest radii (Figure 4), and reached a RTOE 0.12 7.33 2.09 3.18

maximum of 3.83×102 MPa at t = 0.077s. The femur, tibia Mean 3.46 6.02 3.08 4.19

and socket showed zero stress due to their rigid nature. The

simulated marker displacements showed good agreement which is a reasonable value in comparison to previously

with the experimental data (Figure 5), with a RMSE less than calculated values for walking self-selected and fast paces

the validation criteria of 10mm for all markers and an overall where the peak strain energy were 15J and 18J respectively

RMSE of 4.19mm (Table I). [16]. Stored strain energy is an important characteristic as

prosthesis overall efficiency is defined by the ratio of this

IV. DISCUSSION stored strain energy to dissipated energy. The model

therefore presents an improvement on the current practice of

A concurrent multibody and FE model of the femur, tibia, calculating energy storage from in vitro mechanical testing

socket and prosthetic foot of a transtibial amputee sprinter only, as this type of testing has been shown to be in variance

was simulated using experimental spatial data. This to the true in vivo behavior [9]. Additionally, combining FE

preliminary study is the first to conduct FE analysis of an with a multibody model of the skeletal elements provided a

ESAR prosthesis during the stance phase of running. The simulation more indicative of the true experimental behavior

numerical analysis allowed calculation of variables not in comparison to traditional direct dynamics FE methods,

available using conventional gait analysis alone, such as the during which the experimental ground reaction forces is

strain energy stored in the prosthesis. In this study, the stored applied as a boundary condition to the FE model [17]. This

strain energy peaked during mid-stance with a value of 80J,

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500

(a) 400 (b) (c)

500 300 500 500

Marker Displacement (mm)

200

400 400 400

100

300 0 300 300

Axis Title

-100 0 0.04 0.08 0.12

200 200 200

Time (s)

100 100 100

0 0 0

0 20 40 60 80 100 0 20 40 60 80 100 0 20 40 60 80 100

-100 -100 -100

Stance Phase (%) Stance Phase (%) Stance Phase (%)

FEA RPL1 FEA RPL4 FEA RANK FEA RHEE FEA RTOE

Exp RPL1 Exp RPL4 Exp RANK Exp RHEE Exp RTOE

Figure 5. Experimental and simulated marker displacement in the laboratory (a) lateral or x-axis, (b) longitudinal or y-axis, and (c) vertical or z-axis.

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direction (x-axis). The reaction force and moment in this

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longitudinal (y-axis) reaction force was offset from the lower extremity kinematics during level walking,” J. Orthop. Res.,

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